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A short review on Aphrodisiac

Rawat Swati *1 and Motwani Sapna 2.

SND College of Pharmacy, Yeola, Nashik, ( aharashtra! " #ndia$ % odern College of Pharmacy, #ndore ( $P$!, &'%((1

)*or Correspondence swatimonalisa +rediffmail$com

ABSTRACT Aphrodisiacs can ,e categori-ed according to their mode of action into three gro.ps/ s.,stances that increase li,ido (i$e$, se0.al desire, aro.sal!, s.,stances that increase se0.al potency (i$e$, effectiveness of erection! and s.,stances that increase se0.al pleas.re$ An aphrodisiac is a type of food or drink that has the effect of making those who eat or drink it more aro.sed in a se0.al way$ Some well"known aphrodisiacs are ginko, ashwaganda, oysters and chocolate$ 1thno,otanical s.rveys have indicated a large n.m,er of plants as a aphrodisiac$ 2his review s.mmari-es the her,al plants with their e0perimental st.dy, constit.ents and their potent aphrodisiac activity$ 3ey words" Aphrodisiacs, 4er,al plants, and 1rectile dysf.nction$ INTRODUCTION An aphrodisiac is defined as any food or dr.g that aro.ses the se0.al instinct, ind.ces veneral desire and increases pleas.re and performance$ 2his word is derived from 5Aphrodiate6 the 7reek goddess of love and these s.,stances are derived from plants, animals or minerals and since time immemorial they have ,een the passion of man$ 2here are two main types of aphrodisiacs, psychophysiological stim.li (vis.al, tactile, olfactory and a.ral! preparations and internal preparations (food, alcoholic drinks and love portion!$ Erectile dysfunction' (1D! or (male! impotence is a se0.al dysf.nction characteri-ed ,y the ina,ility to develop or maintain an erection of the penis$ 2here are vario.s .nderlying ca.ses, s.ch as cardiovasc.lar leakage and dia,etes, many of which are medically treata,le$ 2he ca.ses of erectile dysf.nction may ,e physiological or psychological$ *olk remedies have long ,een advocated, with some ,eing advertised widely since the 189(s$ 2he introd.ction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, sildenafil (trade name :iagra!, in the 188(s ca.sed a wave of p.,lic attention, propelled in part ,y heavy advertising$

ost potent her,al aphrodisiacs are availa,le and has less or very less side effects$ Some of the her,s are listed ,elow ;N#;N (Alli.m cepa!, <iliaceae (Active parts",.l,!$ 7A=<#C (Alli.m sativ.m!, <iliaceae (Active parts" ,.l,s! S4A2A:A=# (Asparag.s racemos.s!, <iliaceae (Active part" roots!$ C4#NA =;S1 (4i,isc.s rosasinensis!, alvaceae (Active parts" *lowers!

N>? :; #CA (Strychnos n.0vomica!, <oganiaceae (Active parts" seeds!$ ;ther her,al plants with aphrodisiac activity are Dat.ra metel, Atropa ,elladonna, 4yoscyam.s niger, Canna,is sativa, 1.rycoma longifolia, Avena sativa, 7inko ,ilo,a, Psoralea coryifolia$ 4ere is the list of plants with their Description, 10perimental st.dy, Chemical constit.ents and conc.lsion a,o.t the aphrodisiac activity of plants 1$ Phoenix dactylifera
2he date palm pollen (DPP! is .sed in the traditional medicine for male infertility$2he 1ffect of

Phoenix Dactylifera Pollen on Sperm Parameters and =eprod.ctive system of Ad.lt =ats was st.died and the res.lts indicated that the cons.mption of DPP s.spensions


improved the sperm co.nt, motility, morphology, and DNA @.ality with a concomitant increase in the weights of testis and epididymis$2he date palm contains estradiol and flavonoid

components that have positive effects on the sperm @.ality$Date palm pollen s.spension seems to improve sperm @.ality, enhance fertility in the male ad.lt rat$ 2herefore, it may ,e .sef.l to solve infertility pro,lems %$ Fadogia agrestis 2he phytochemical constit.ents and the aphrodisiac potential of the a@.eo.s e0tract of Fadogia agrestis (=.,iaceae! stem in male al,ino rats were eval.ated$ All the doses res.lted in significant increase in mo.nt fre@.ency, intromission fre@.ency and 9

significantly prolonged the eAac.latory latency (P B ($('! and red.ced mo.nt and intromission latency (P B ($('!$ 2here was also a significant increase in ser.m testosterone concentrations in all the gro.ps in a manner s.ggestive of dose"dependence (P B ($('!$Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while Antra@.inones and flavonoids are weakly present$2he a@.eo.s e0tract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the ,lood testosterone concentrations and this may ,e the mechanism responsi,le for its aphrodisiac effects and vario.s masc.line ,ehaviors$ #t may ,e .sed to modify impaired se0.al f.nctions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia 9$ Chione venosa var. venosa 2he Cari,,ean island of 7renada f.rnishes the pop.lar aphrodisiac dr.g Cois CandeD, which consists of the stem ,ark and the roots of Chione venosa (SE$! >=CAN var$ venosa (=.,iaceae!, a native tree growing in the islands rain forest$2he phytochemical investigation of dichloromethane and methanolic"a@.eo.s e0tracts of the ,ark and the roots yielded three acetophenone derivatives descri,ed for the first time in plants F ortho" hydro0y"acetophenone"a-ine,acetophenone"%";"GH"D"piof.ranosyl"(1IJI!";"H"D" gl.copyranosideK and acetophenone"%";"H"D"gl.copyranoside F along with five known compo.nds, L"morroniside, sweroside, diderroside, da.costerol and H"sitosterol$ 2heir str.ct.res were el.cidated ,y 1D and %D N = analysis, >:F:is and 1S#F S$2hey concl.ded that the st.dy of the chemical composition of Chione venosa (SE$! >=CAN var$ venosa has revealed the presence of three acetophenones hitherto .nknown in plants, three iridoids and two well"known triterpenes$ 2hese res.lts not only enhance the


knowledge of a traditionally .sed medicinal plant ,.t also contri,.te to the Aphrodisiac potential of the plant &$ Montanoa tomentosa Cih.apatli, the e0ican -oapatle ( ontanoa tomentosa! has an e0tensive ethnomedical

history of .se as a traditional remedy for reprod.ctive impairments$ Cop.latory ,ehavior of se0.ally active male rats receiving doses of 9M, N' and 1'( mgIkg of the a@.eo.s cr.de e0tract of M. tomentosa, was assessed$ #n addition, they eval.ated the effect of the N'"mgIkg dose of the e0tract on males with anestheti-ation of the genital area and on se0.al ,ehavior of se0.ally inactive male rats (noncop.lators!$2he e0act constit.ents are yet to ,e discovered ,.t the st.dy provides evidence that the a@.eo.s cr.de e0tract of M. tomentosa is a potent stim.lator of se0.al ,ehavior, partic.larly of se0.al aro.sal in male rats, and that it promotes the e0pression of masc.line se0.al ,ehavior in previo.sly se0.ally inactive animals$ ;n these ,ases, this e0tract can ,e considered to possess aphrodisiac properties '$ Butea frondosa
3oen$ 10 =o0, (Papillionaceae!, B. frondosa is traditionally claimed to possess aphrodisiac,

e0pectorant, emmenagog.e, di.retic and astringent properties$2he st.dy done ,y S$ =amachandran, confirmed the claims of B. frondosa as an aphrodisiac agent$ Se0.ally active and inactive animals showed increased and improved se0.al performance, when B. frondosa e0tract (&(( mgIkg ,ody wt$! was administered for a period of %1 to %M days$ o.nt latency ( <!, intromission latency (#<!, eAac.lation latency (1<!, mo.nting fre@.ency ( *!, intromission fre@.ency (#*!, eAac.lation fre@.ency (1*! and post" eAac.latory interval (P1#! were the parameters o,served ,efore and d.ring the se0.al


,ehavior st.dy$

onoamines were present as an active constit.ent and the e0tract <, #<, 1< and P1# (p B ($('!$ 2he e0tract also increased

red.ced significantly significantly

*, #* and 1* (p B ($('!$ 2hese effects were o,served in se0.ally active

and inactive male rats J$ Myristica fragrans N.tmeg is the dried kernel of ,roadly ovoid seed of Myristica fragrans 4o.tt$ ( yristicaceae!$ #t has ,een mentioned in >nani medicine to ,e of val.e in the management of male se0.al disorders$2he st.dy was .ndertaken to eval.ate the aphrodisiac effect of '(O ethanolic e0tract of n.tmeg along with its likely adverse effects and ac.te to0icity .sing vario.s animal models$ 2he s.spension of the e0tract was administered (1((, %'( and '(( mgIkg, p$o$! to different gro.ps of male rats daily for seven days$ 2he female rats involved in mating were made receptive ,y hormonal treatment$ 2he general mating ,ehavio.r, li,ido and potency were st.died and compared with the standard reference dr.g sildenafil citrate$ 2he n.tmeg contains a volatile oil, a fi0ed oil, proteins, fats, starch and m.cilage$ 2he fi0ed oil contains myristin and myristic acid$ N.tmeg yields 'F1'O of volatile oil, which contains pinene, sa,inene, camphene, myristicin, elemicin, isoelemicin, e.genol, isoe.genol, metho0ye.genol, safrole, dimeric phenylpropanoids, lignas and neolignas$2he '(O ethanolic e0tract of n.tmeg possesses aphrodisiac activity, increasing ,oth li,ido and potency, which might ,e attri,.ted to its nervo.s stim.lating property$ 2he st.dy th.s provides a scientific rationale for the traditional .se of n.tmeg in the management of male se0.al disorders N$

Ruta chalepensis Ruta chalepensis has ,een .sed medicinally in many ancient c.lt.res$ #n ancient 2.rkish and Chinese literat.re, its .se as an a,ortifacient and .terine stim.lant was reported$2he plant had a spermotrophic action demonstrated ,y Aly A,d.llah Al Parawi, ,y e0perimental st.dy ,y the increase in sperm co.nt, motility, living percent, and decrease in enco.ntered sperm a,normalities$ 2he hormonal profile was also infl.enced ,y the R. chalepensis e0tract$ 2he testosterone and *S4 levels were significantly increased with no change in the <4 and prolactin levels$2he nat.rally occ.rring co.marins, only the 9" phenylco.marins have ,een present in Ruta chalepensis to possess potent estrogenic activity$2he stim.latory effects of Ruta chalepensis mediated thro.gh a pit.itary"testicle a0is participating in the physiological events of spermatogenesisM$ Satureja khu estanica ature!a "hu#estanica Qam-ad is an endemic plant that is widely distri,.ted in the So.thern part of #ran$ #t is famo.s for its medical .ses as analgesic and antiseptic in folk medicine$ 2he gen.s Sat.reAa ,elongs to the family <amiaceae, s.,family Nepetoideae and the tri,e entheae$2he st.dy was .ndertaken to st.dy the effect of ature!a

"hu#estanica essential oil (S31;! in male rat fertility$ S31; was administered orally at doses of N', 1'(, and %%' mgIkgIday for &' days thro.gh drinking water$ 2reated and control rats were allowed to mate with female on day &' of treatment$ S31; significantly improved all the parameters eval.ated s.ch as potency, fec.ndity, fertility inde0, and litter si-e$#t contains more than ($'O of essential oil$2he concentrations of *S4 and testosterone were significantly increased in S31;"treated gro.ps$ Also the weights of testes, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate weights were increased ,y S31;

(%%' mgIkg!$ 4istopathological analysis showed that in male rats treated with S31; (1'(, %%' mgIkg! the n.m,er of spermatogoni.m, spermatid cords, <eydig cells, and spermato-oids was increased 8$ Lepidium meyenii $epidium meyenii ( aca! is a Per.vian hypocotyl that grows e0cl.sively ,etween &((( and &'(( m in the central Andes$ aca is traditionally employed in the Andean region

for its s.pposed fertility"enhancing properties$Ad.lt male rats were e0posed for %1 days to an altit.de of &9&( m and treated with vehicle or a@.eo.s e0tract of aca (JJJRJ

mgIday!$ 2he lengths of the stages of the seminifero.s epitheli.m and epididymal sperm co.nts were o,tained at (, N, 1& and %1 days of e0pos.re$ 2he stages of the seminifero.s t.,.les were assessed ,y transill.mination$ A doseFresponse st.dy was also performed at sea level to determine the effect of aca given to male rats at doses of (, JRJ, JJRJ and

JJJRJ mgIday for N days on ,ody weight, seminifero.s t.,.le stages and epididymal sperm co.nt$Dry aca hypocotyls have '8O car,ohydrates, 1(R%O proteins, MR'O fi,er,

%R%O lipids and a n.m,er of other compo.nds, incl.ding most of the essential amino acids$ Arginine, a constit.ent of fertility$ aca, has ,een clinically proven to play a role in male

aca also contains sterols, s.ch as campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol that aca at high

enhances fertility $7 * 7on-ales concl.ded that treatment of rats with altit.de prevented high altit.de"ind.ced spermatogenic disr.ption 1($
!urycoma longifolia

Eurycoma longifolia Qack commonly known as 2ongkat Ali, is well known among vario.s ethnic gro.ps in alaysia for treating disease and enhancing health and as s.ch,

it is sometimes referred to as 5 alaysian ginseng6$2he effects of Eurycoma longifolia Qack were st.died on the se0.al @.alities of middle aged male rats after dosing them with M

($' gIkg of vario.s fractions of E. longifolia whilst the control gro.p received 9 mlIkg of normal saline daily for 1% weeks$ Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, lactones and phenolics$ 2he st.dy shows that E. longifolia Qack enhanced the se0.al @.alities of the middle aged male rats, and as s.ch, f.rther st.dies sho.ld ,e cond.cted to determine if this plant has the a,ove property in middle aged men 11$ CONCULSION: All the her,al plants in this review have e0hi,ited significant pharmacological activity$ 2he potency of the her,al plant dr.g is significant and they have no side effect$ 2he her,s can ,e an effective treatment of erectile dysf.nction (1D!S moreover isolation and identification of active from these plants can ,ring a dynamic change in the modern world$ REFERENCES: 1! N$4$ #nd.rwade, P$S$ 3awtikar, S$C$ 3osalge and N$:$ Qan,andh., 4er,al plants with Aphrodisiac activity, %ndian. Drugs. 42(2 / JN"N% (%(('!$ %! S$ Cahmanpo.r, 2$ 2alaei, T$ :oAdani, Tareei, $=$ PanAehshahin, A$ Poostpasand, S$

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