Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 55

!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 2 14"!

5"13 12:21
|
L
K
N
Q
R
Q
S
t
`
^g
+v pqlrlf
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 3 14"!5"13 12:21
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 4 14"!5"13 12:21
_<RBORE cu gV?VE, SDT<D? RE s><?DEDGV
^?VS;TTME _VES?V SRH gDHMED
|
L
K
N
Q
R
Q
S
t
`
^g
+v pqlrlf
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 5 14"!5"13 12:21
oSMTME B;UHMTVSV GRSMVE<R VT;R?SD TDE [MHHR6 c;UHM>OMEP kETu
uuunD? p;GGMR> 6 HD> HDPD> SR [MHR6 c;UHM>OMEP, kETu _DE GV?TV> ?RPM><?VSV> ;<MHM5VSV>
UVLD HMTRETMV R7TH;>M9V SR [MHR6 c;UHM>OMEP, kETu
^<;HD D?MPMEVHa s><?DEDG6 nD? p;GGMR>, *?S RSM<MDE
SR HV <?VS;TTME, _VES?V SRH gDHMED, =C(*
SR HV QD<DP?VQV SR T;UMR?<Va _O;<<R?><DTJ
qRE<?D SR hMU?D> cscn, _u hu ]u, =C(*
m?;BD cHVER<V
s9SVu pMVPDEVH, &&=4&&%
CxC*% 4 rV?TRHDEV
eD >R BR?GM<R HV ?RB?DS;TTME <D<VH D BV?TMVH SR R><R HMU?D, EM >; METD?BD?VTME V ;E >M><RGV
MEQD?G<MTD EM >; <?VE>GM>ME RE T;VH@;MR? QD?GV D BD? T;VH@;MR? GRSMD, >RV ><R RHRT<?EMTD,
GRTEMTD, BD? QD<DTDBMV, BD? P?VUVTME ; D<?D> G<DSD>, >ME RH BR?GM>D B?R9MD 6 BD? R>T?M<D SRH RSM<D?u
hV MEQ?VTTME SR HD> SR?RTOD> GRETMDEVSD> B;RSR >R? TDE><M<;<M9V SR SRHM<D TDE<?V
HV B?DBMRSVS ME<RHRT<;VH -s?<u =#C 6 >MP;MRE<R> SRH qSMPD cREVH3u
$7/96*.' * &"$,0 +&'4-/3 ".2*835 (' $'/')!3. ,'2/3#/;<)3.1 .7 4')'.7-* %3-3)327*/
D R>TVERV? VHPE Q?VPGRE<D SR R><V DU?Vu c;RSR TDE<VT<V? TDE qop`d V <?V9>
SR HV 8RU 888uTDEHMTRETMVuTDG D BD? <RHQDED RE RH )( #C= () #C W )* =#= C% %#u
k_rea )#x4x%4*=)4C(%)4=
pRB>M<D HRPVHa ru ((uC)=4=C(*
c?MGR?V RSMTMEa L;EMD SR =C(*
c?RMGB?R>MEa \T<D? kP;VH, _u hu
kGB?R>MEa ^u mu _DHR?
kGB?R>D RE o>BVV 4 c?ME<RS ME _BVME
888uBV?VS;GGMR>uR>
888uBHVER<VSRHMU?D>uTDG
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 6 16"!5"13 12:34
iE? INV@E? TS IW UEISUUNF dW@W
q<HHNS? S?=F TN@NQNTE? W IE? ISU=E@S?
TS =ETW? IW? STWTS? 7 FN:SIS? TSI
UEFEUNHNSF=E NF=S@S?WTE? SF SFUEF=@W@
<FW HWFS@W C@ERS?NEFWI- TN@SU=W 7 W IW
:S6 SF=@S=SFNTW TS WC@E8NHW@?S W IW
NFRE@HWUNF A<S FSUS?N=WFv
hNIIEFS? TS ISU=E@S? ?W=N?RSUPE? SF
!&$& #* ),'$& %&+'%+$#' #' (-")("
A<S IW UEISUUNF dW@W q<HHNS? PW
@S:EI<UNEFWTE IW RE@HW TS WC@E8NHW@?S WI
UEFEUNHNSF=E HSTNWF=S INV@E? A<S ER@SUSF
UEF=SFNTE ?S@NE 7 C@ER<FTE UEF <F =EA<S
TS NFRE@HWINTWT 7 SF ISFQ<WMS ?SFUNIIEv
iW R@H<IW TSI 8N=E/
_
EHWHE? <F =SHW TS WU=<WINTWT 7 TS
NF=S@"? QSFS@WI- WWTNHE? SI FEHV@S TS
<F W<=E@ @SUEFEUNTE- HEF=EFS? TS UEF=SFNTE
'=NI 7 <F RE@HW=E RUNI CW@W SI ISU=E@ 7 W IW
:S6 TN:S@=NTE- 7 WP =SFSHE? <F INV@E UI?NUE
TS IW UEISUUNF dW@W q<HHNS?v
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 7 14"!5"13 12:21

Entra a formar parte de la comunidad Dummies!


El sitio web de la coleccin Para Dummiesest pensado para que tengas a mano
toda la informacin que puedas necesitar sobre los libros publicados. Adems, te
permite conocer las ltimas novedades antes de que se publiquen y acceder a muchos
contenidos extra, por ejemplo, los audios de los libros de idiomas.
Desde nuestra pgina web, tambin puedes ponerte en contacto con nosotros para
comentarnos todo lo que te apetezca, as como resolver tus dudas o consultas.
Tambin puedes seguirnos en Facebook (www.facebook.com/paradummies), un espacio donde
intercambiar impresiones con otros lectores de la coleccin, y en Twitter @ParaDummies,
para conocer en todo momento las ltimas noticias del mundo Para Dummies.
10 cosas divertidas que puedes hacer en www.paradummies.es,
en nuestra pgina en Facebook y en Twitter @ParaDummies
1. Consultar la lista completa de libros Para Dummies.
2. Descubrir las novedades que vayan publicndose.
3. Ponerte en contacto con la editorial.
4. Suscribirte a la Newsletter de novedades editoriales.
5. Trabajar con los contenidos extra, como los audios de los libros de idiomas.
6. Ponerte en contacto con otros lectores para intercambiar opiniones.
7. Comprar otros libros de la coleccin.
8. Publicar tus propias fotos en la pgina de Facebook.
9. Conocer otros libros publicados por el Grupo Planeta.
10. Informarte sobre promociones, descuentos, presentaciones de libros, etc.
www.paradummies.es
www.facebook.com/paradummies
@ParaDummies
Descubre nuestros interesantes y divertidos vdeos
en nuestro canal de YouTube:
www.youtube.com/paradummies
Los libros Para Dummies tambin estn disponibles
en e-book y en aplicacin para iPad!
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 8 14"!5"13 12:21
pI W<=E@
oH SDT<D? RE s><?DEDGV _<RBORE cu gV?VE, @;R S;?VE<R <?RME<V 6 >RM>
VD> QD?G BV?<R SRH B?DP?VGV R>BVTMVH, OV >MSD TDESRTD?VSD TDE HV gR4
SVHHV SR HV es_s VH HDP?D R7TRBTMDEVHu `RTMUM RH c?RGMD iH;GBJR4`DUR?<>
+* ". 6Q,&*+.+ HLKMQR_!&,. +*" 9.,^[,Q OQM LJ Z*GKM.QM+&R.M&. ,QRKM&-J4
TME V HV TDGB?RE>ME 6 VB?RTMVTME BUHMTV> SR HV V><?DEDGV, RH c?RGMD
mRD?PR \VE rMR>U?DRTJ SR HV _DTMRSVS s><?DEGMTV SR o><VSD> ]EMSD>
OQM LJ Z*GK*RLQ0 *GKM.QM+&R.M&Q E ."KMJ&LK. L*MI&,&Q . ". .LKMQRQ!^.W0 E *"
c?RGMD sES?R8 [u mRGVE< SRH kE><M<;<D eD?<RVGR?MTVED SR n>MTV BD? >;
Z&!OQMK.RK* ,QRKM&-J,&_R . ". +&!*RL&_R ,J"KJM."0 .MK^LK&,. Q 'J!.R^LK&,.
SR HV Q>MTVu
oE RH VD =CCC, HV ]EME s><?DEGMTV kE<R?EVTMDEVH UV;<M5 TDE RH EDGU?R
SR _<RBOREGV?VE V ;E V><R?DMSR -cHVER<V GRED? )#&x3 RE >; ODED?u
oH SDT<D? _<RBORE cu gV?VE RGBR5 >; VESVS;?V V><?DEGMTV RE HV> V5D4
<RV> SR r?DDJH6E 6 RE ;E TVGBD SR PDHQ VUVESDEVSD RE HD> HGM<R> SRH
r?DE7u qDGD @;R?V ?RVHM5V? ME9R><MPVTMDER> B?DQR>MDEVHR> TDE <RHR>TD4
BMD>, >R P?VS; RE RH iM<< cRVJ eV<MDEVH dU>R?9V<D?6 SR s?M5DEV, RE RH
dU>R?9V<D?MD SR `VSMDV><?DEDGV eVTMDEVH SR HV ]EM9R?>MSVS SR \M?PMEMV
dTTMSRE<VH, RE RH dU>R?9V<D?MD SRH gDE<R cVHDGV? SR qVHMQD?EMV 6 RE RH dU4
>R?9V<D?MD kE<R?VGR?MTVED SR qR??D ^DHDHD SR qOMHRu ^VGUME HHR9 V TVUD
B?D6RT<D> SR ME9R><MPVTME RE RH R>BVTMD TDE ME><?;GRE<D> TDGD RH <RHR>4
TDBMD R>BVTMVH l;UUHR 6 RH kE<R?EV<MDEVH ]H<?V9MDHR< o7BHD?R?u sSRG>,
V6;S V SM>RV? 6 SR>V??DHHV? SD> ME><?;GRE<D> @;R R><;9MR?DE RE RH R>BV4
TMD V UD?SD SRH l;UUHRu
lV RE>RVSD s><?DEDGV RE HV ]EM9R?>MSVS SR qVHMQD?EMV, RE hD> EPRHR>,
6 RE RH qDHHRPR cV?J SR HV ]EM9R?>MSVS SR gV?6HVESu qDGD SRHRPVSD SR
B?RE>V SR HV _DTMRSVS s><?DEGMTV SR o><VSD> ]EMSD> S;?VE<R G;TOD>
VD>, B?R>MSM HV> >R>MDER> MEQD?GV<M9V> VE<R HD> GRSMD> SR TDG;EMTVTME
@;R OVTVE HHRPV? HV> ED<MTMV> SR HD> SR>T;U?MGMRE<D> V><?DEGMTD> V <DSD
RH G;ESDu
_<RBORE cu gV?VE OV DU>R?9VSD RTHMB>R> <D<VHR> SRH _DH SR>SR HV BREE>;HV
SR mV>B 6 D<?D> B;E<D> SR b;RURT} SR>SR rVLV qVHMQD?EMV, RE g7MTD} SR>4
SR RH SR>MR?<D SRH _VOV?V, RE hMUMV} SR>SR RH GV?, RE e;R9V qVHRSDEMV 6
6&R(.OJM0 *R *" 9.,^[,Q QM&*RK."0 E +*L+* ".L QM&"".L +* ALK.+QL 2R&+QL$
lV <?VE>GM<MSD >;> TDEDTMGMRE<D> V><?DEGMTD> SR G;TOV> QD?GV>u lV
SVSD TOV?HV> >DU?R VP;LR?D> ERP?D> RE ;E UV? SR ^VOM<, BR?D <VGUME OV
R7BHMTVSD ;E RTHMB>R SR _DH RE ;E B?DP?VGV SR HV erqu lV OVUHVSD >DU?R
RTHMB>R> 6 TDGR<V> V UD?SD SR T?;TR?D> BV?V HV DU>R?9VTME V><?DEGMTV
SR HV> TDGBVV> q;EV?S 6 _M<GV? 6 SRH _MEQDEV SR g_q q?;M>R>u lV SVSD
TOV?HV> VE<R SM9R?>D> <MBD> SR BUHMTD, SR>SR EMD> SR TDHRPMD> SR _RV<<HR
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 9 14"!5"13 12:21
6 HV> mM?H _TD;<> SR s<OR?<DE -qVHMQD?EMV3 V HV sTVSRGMV eVTMDEVH SR
kEPREMR?V SR [V>OMEP<DE, pq, 6 V >;UTDGM<> SR HV qGV?V SR `RB?R4
L*RK.RK*L +* ALK.+QL 2R&+QL E +*" DQ!&KT O.M. 2LQL 9.,^[,QL +*"
o>BVTMD o7<?V s<GD>Q?MTD SR HV> eVTMDER> ]EMSV>u
gV?VE R> <VGUME RSM<D? 6 OV B;UHMTVSD >DHD D RE TDV;<D?V SMR5
HMU?D> >DU?R HV GV<R?MV, RE<?R HD> @;R >R METH;6RE SD> <?VUVLD> ?RTMRE4
<R> R>T?M<D> L;E<D V hV;?RETR su gV?>TOVHHu lV R>T?M<D E;GR?D>D>
V?<T;HD> BV?V ?R9M><V> 6 OV <?VUVLVSD TDGD R>T?M<D? 6 TDE>;H<D? BV?V
HV eV<MDEVH mRDP?VBOMT _DTMR<6 6 ^MGR4hMQR rDDJ>u
oH SDT<D? gV?VE >R P?VS; RE HV _<;69R>VE< lMPO _TODDH SR HV TM;SVS
SR e;R9V YD?J -SDESR <?VUVL ;EV <RGBD?VSV RE RH R@;MBD SR gV<R4
G<MTV> >ME >;Q?M? SVD>3 6 RE RH r?DDJH6E qDHHRPRu dU<;9D >; G><R?
6 >; SDT<D?VSD RE s><?DEDGV RE HV ]EM9R?>MSVS SR gMTOMPVEu o><
TV>VSD TDE HV BR?MDSM><V _VHH6 _TD<< gV?VE 6 <MRERE <?R> OMLD>u
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 1! 14"!5"13 12:21
qSTNUW=E@NW
cV?V _VHH6, gMTOVRH, oEMS 6 oHM>>V, TDE <DSD GM TV?MD
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 11 14"!5"13 12:21
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 12 14"!5"13 12:21
tQ@WTSUNHNSF=E? TSI W<=E@
oE B?MGR? H;PV?, @;MR?D SV? HV> P?VTMV> V GM QVGMHMV 6 VGMPD>, @;MRER>
GR >DBD?<V?DE GMRE<?V> R>T?MUV R><R HMU?Du m?VTMV> <VGUME V GM
VPRE<R, _JMB rV?JR?, @;R GR VEMG V R>T?MUM? R><V DU?V 6 GR P;M V HD
HV?PD SR R><R B?D6RT<D, 6 V _<VT6 qDHHME> BD? HV QR @;R <;9D RE RH B?D4
6RT<D D?MPMEVH 6 V hMES>V6 hRQR9?R, BD? VBD6V? R><V RSMTME >;><VE4
TMVHGRE<R ?R9M>VSVu
sP?VSR5TD V `DE qD8RE 6 VH SDT<D? _R<O _OD><VJ HV> VBD?<VTMDER>
@;R OMTMR?DE V R><R HMU?D} V iV<O6 qD7, mRD?PR<<R rRV<<6, jD>O pMVH> 6
jREEMQR? gDD?R, @;R HD D?PVEM5V?VE 6 ?R9M>V?VE} 6 V >;> OUMHR> TDG4
BVR?D> SR HD> R@;MBD> SR RSMTME 6 B?DS;TTME SR [MHR6 c;UHM>OMEP,
@;R OMTMR?DE @;R RH HMU?D Q;R?V GRLD? 6 G> U?MHHVE<Ru b;MR?D SV? HV>
P?VTMV> R>BRTMVHGRE<R V hV;?RETR gV?>TOVHH, @;MRE, TDE >;> >;PR?RE4
TMV>, GRLD? HV B?RTM>ME 6 HV ?MP;?D>MSVS SRH HMU?Du
m?VTMV> <VGUME V HV> D?PVEM5VTMDER> @;R B?DBD?TMDEV?DE HV> QD<DP?V4
QV> SR R><R HMU?D 6 VH T?RVSD? SR HD> GVBV> TRHR><R>, `DUR?< gMHHR?u
s>MGM>GD, VP?VSR5TD HD> <MHR> TDE>RLD> @;R OR ?RTMUMSD SR G;TOD>
R7BR?<D> BV?V R><V E;R9V RSMTME -HV <R?TR?V RE o><VSD> ]EMSD>3,
B?METMBVHGRE<R, VH B?DQR>D? `MTOV?S g;>OD<5J6 >DU?R HD> VP;LR?D>
ERP?D>, V HD> SDT<D?R> gV?T i;TOER? 6 `D?6 rV?ER> >DU?R HD> R7DBHV4
ER<V> 6 VH SDT<D? _OD><VJ >DU?R HV U>@;RSV SR ME<RHMPRETMV R7<?V<R4
??R><?Ru
sHP;ED> SMU;LD> SR R><V DU?V Q;R?DE ME>BM?VSD> BD? HV SDT<D?V pMEVO
hu gDTOR 6 >; R7TRHRE<R HMU?D, B;UHMTVSD <VGUME BD? [MHR6u hV SDT4
<D?V gDTOR GR?RTR ;E B?DQ;ESD VP?VSRTMGMRE<D BD? RH VBD6D @;R OV
U?MESVSD V R><R HMU?D 6 BD? >; SRSMTVTME BV?V OVTR? @;R HV TMRETMV
SR HV V><?DEDGV >RV VTTR>MUHR BV?V <DSD RH G;ESDu
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 13 14"!5"13 12:21
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 14 14"!5"13 12:21
`<HW@NE
lF=@ET<UUNF vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv (
sTR?TV SR R><R HMU?D uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =
qDE9RETMDER> ;<MHM5VSV> RE R><R HMU?Duuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =
hD @;R ED R> DUHMPV<D?MD HRR? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *
sHP;EV> >;BD>MTMDER> B?R9MV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *
kTDED> ;<MHM5VSD> RE R><R HMU?Duuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *
cD? SESR RGBR5V?N uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu %
dW@=S lv eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE? vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv "
rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW vvvvvvvvvv #
s><?DEDGVa HV TMRETMV SR HV DU>R?9VTME uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu x
hD @;R 9R>a RH HREP;VLR SR HV H;5uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu )
c?RP;E<V> BHVE<RVSV> GMRE<?V> 9MVLVUVEa SMQR?RETMV> RE<?R
BHVER<V> 6 R><?RHHV>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (C
_M 9R> ;EV d>V gV6D?, B?RDTBV<Ra TGD BDER? EDGU?R
V R><?RHHV> 6 TDE><RHVTMDER> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ((
]8JT *L "Q NJ* I*Q3 D_!Q &+*RK&[,.M *" ,.Ka"Q(Q +* <*LL&*M
6 D<?D> DULR<D> TRHR><R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ()
q;VE<D G> BR@;RD, G> U?MHHVE<Ra TGD HHRPV? V HV ?V5
SR HV> GVPEM<;SR>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =C
dU>R?9V RH BV>VSD P?VTMV> V HD> VD> H;5uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ==
eD SRLR> SR GD9R?<Ra V9R?MP;V HV BD>MTME SR HV> R><?RHHV>uuuuuuuuuu =*
hV P?V9RSVSa ;EV Q;R?5V @;R OV6 @;R <RER? RE T;RE<V uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =#
oH R>BVTMDa ;EV TDEGDTME SR GD9MGMRE<Duuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =)
rWC=<IE >b FS=S W IW H<I=N=<Tb WU=N:NTWTS? 7 @SU<@?E?
CW@W EV?S@:W@ SI UNSIE vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +(
eD R><> >DHDa TH;UR> SR V><?DEDGV, 8RU>, VBHMTVTMDER>
BV?V >GV?<BODER> 6 G>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *=
sBE<V<R V ;E TH;U SR V><?DEDGV 6 <R VTDGBVV?E
;E GDE<E SR R><?RHHV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *=
[RU>, ?R9M><V>, B?DP?VGV> 6 VBHMTVTMDER>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%
\MVLV V <?V9> SRH TMUR?R>BVTMDuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%
\M>M<V DU>R?9V<D?MD> 6 BHVER<V?MD>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *x
sHP;ED> SR HD> GRLD?R> DU>R?9V<D?MD> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *)
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 15 14"!5"13 12:21
[]l
t?=@EFEHW CW@W q<HHNS? 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222
cV>V<R BD? HD> BHVER<V?MD>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu %=
:,&Q ,QR ".L *LKM*"".LF [*LK.L *LK*".M*L0 *G,JML&QR*L O.M. I*M
RTHMB>R>, BV?@;R> SR TMRHD D>T;?D 6 G>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu %*
\8J* L&(. ". [*LK.# 1* . [*LK.L +* *LKM*"".L uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu %*
pM>Q?;<V SR HD> QR><M9VHR> s><?DnR><uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu %%
lVTMV HV <D<VHMSVSa 9MVLR> 6 T?;TR?D> BV?V 9R? RTHMB>R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu %"
pM>Q?;<V SR HD> GD<RHR> TDE <RHR>TDBMD uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu %x
gDE<V RH TVGBVGRE<D RE BV?@;R> SR TMRHD D>T;?Duuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu %)
2(.6*)3/ '- 5) #/,1( %$ 14,(, $+*( 0/&!$- 1("067&(+ !$,,(14$0*(+
CW@W EV?S@:W@ SI UNSIE vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv "+
qGD 9R? R><?RHHV>a GVE;VH U>MTD SR PRDP?VQV TRHR><R uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu "%
gMRE<?V> HV ^MR??V SV 9;RH<V>uuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu "%
uuu ED BMR?SV> SR 9M><V HV o><?RHHV cDHV? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu "#
cV?V RGBR5V?, ;EV DU>R?9VTME V >MGBHR 9M><Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ")
]>V B?M>G<MTD> D ;E <RHR>TDBMD BV?V GRLD?V? <; DU>R?9VTMEuuuuuuuuuuuuu &=
c?M>G<MTD>a UV??R RH TMRHD EDT<;?ED uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu &=
^RHR>TDBMD>a T;VESD HV B?D7MGMSVS MGBD?<Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu &#
9".R&[,. KJL OM&!*MQL O.LQL *R *" ,.!OQ +* ". .LKMQRQ!^.uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu #%
rWC=<IE %b ]N?N=W? V@S:S?b HS=SE@E?- UEHS=W? 7 ?W=IN=S?
(,*47&4(3$+vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv ##
gR<RD?D>a >M 9R> ;EV R><?RHHV Q;PV5, BMSR ;E SR>RD uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ##
qGD 9R? GR<RD?D>, UDHV> SR Q;RPD 6 UHMSD> R>BD?SMTD>uuuuuuuuu xC
]EV 9M>ME ?VSMVE<Ra HV> HH;9MV> SR GR<RD?D>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu x=
qDGR<V>a <DSV HV 9R?SVS >DU?R HV> UDHV> SR OMRHD >;TMDuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu xx
hV R><?;T<;?V SR ;E TDGR<V uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu x)
ALO*M. . "QL Z,Q!*K.L +*" L&("QWuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu )*
s HV TV5V SRH P?VE TDGR<Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu )"
6.KT"&K*L .MK&[,&."*LF JR. M*".,&_R .!QM=Q+&Q O*M!.R*RK* uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu )x
:-L*MI. *" ,&*"Q O.M. I*M L.KT"&K*L .MK&[,&."*Luuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ))
qGD RETDE<?V? B?RSMTTMDER> BV?V DU>R?9V? >V<HM<R>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (CC
dW@=S llv qW=S <FW :<SI=W CE@ SI `N?=SHW `EIW@ vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv (D+
rWC=<IE "b ^FW CW@SMW NF?SCW@WVISb IW _NS@@W 7 ?< i<FWvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv (D"
hV ^MR??V UVLD RH GMT?D>TDBMD V><?DEGMTD uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (C&
EMTV RE >; R>BRTMRa HV> TV?VT<R?><MTV> >MEP;HV?R> SR HV ^MR??V u (C&
AL)*M.L +* &RYJ*R,&.F ".L +&LK&RK.L M*(&QR*L +* ". 5&*MM.uuuuuuuuuuuu (C#
o><;SMD SRH <MRGBD, HV> R><VTMDER> 6 HV RSVS SR HV ^MR??Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ((=
hV ?UM<V V <?V9> SRH <MRGBDuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ((=
kSRV> U>MTV> >DU?R HV> R><VTMDER> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ((%
o><MGVTME SR HV RSVS SR HV ^MR??Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ((&
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 16 14"!5"13 12:21
[]ll
222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 `<HW@NE
kSRV> U>MTV> >DU?R HV h;EVuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ((#
9M*OaM.K* O.M. .J"".MF ,_!Q &+*RK&[,.M ".L ).L*L "JR.M*L uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ((x
oE<?R HV> >DGU?V>a DU>R?9VTME SR RTHMB>R> H;EV?R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (=C
`DTV S;?Va R><;SMD SR HV PRDHDPV H;EV?uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (==
]E P?VE MGBVT<Da ;EV <RD?V >DU?R RH D?MPRE SR HV h;EV uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (=#
rWC=<IE &b iE? :SUNFE? TS IW _NS@@Wb hS@U<@NE- ]SF<? 7 hW@=Svvvvvvvvvvvv (>*
gR?T;?MDa ?V?D, TVHMRE<R 6 TV>M <DSD SR GR<VH uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (*C
_RTD, TMSD 6 GDE<VD>Da GVE<RE<R VHRLVSD SR \RE;>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (*(
`DLD, Q?D 6 ?MSDa SR>T;U?R HD> GM><R?MD> SR gV?<R uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (**
pESR OV MSD V BV?V? <DSV RH VP;VNuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (*%
lV6 9MSV RE gV?<RN uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (*&
pMQR?RETMVTME SR HV ^MR??V V <?V9> SR BHVER<DHDPV TDGBV?VSVuuuuuuuu (*x
dU>R?9V HD> BHVER<V> QTMHGRE<Ruuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (%C
b; >DE HV RHDEPVTME, HV DBD>MTME 6 HV TDEL;ETMEN uuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (%(
dU>R?9VTME SR \RE;> 6 SR >;> QV>R>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (%*
dU>R?9V gV?<R GMRE<?V> SV HV 9;RH<Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (%&
_;BR?V V qDB?EMTD DU>R?9VESD V gR?T;?MDuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (%)
rWC=<IE #b pI UNF=<@F TS W?=S@ENTS? 7 IE? fpevvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv ("+
r?R9R 9M>M<V VH TME<;?E SR V><R?DMSR>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ("*
qDGB?RESR HV VGREV5V @;R >;BDERE HD> eod uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ("#
q;VESD HV TD>V >R BDER QRVa TGD SR>9MV? ;E V><R?DMSR uuuuuuuuuuuu (")
lDGU?R B?RTV9MSD 9VHR BD? SD>a ME>BRTTME SR HD> eod BV?V
B?D<RPR? HV ^MR??Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (&C
oE U;>TV SR BR@;RD> B;E<D> SR H;5uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (&(
qGD OVTR? RH >RP;MGMRE<D SR ;EV DT;H<VTME uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (&=
qGD TDE<?DHV? RH <MRGBD SR ;EV DT;H<VTME V><R?DMSVHuuuuuuuuuuuuu (&*
rWC=<IE yb n@WFTS? VEIW? TS QW?b kCN=S@ 7 `W=<@FE vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv (&"
\DJaRK. OM*L&_R# 1&.%. OQM *" &RK*M&QM +* ?`O&K*M E 6.KJMRQ uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (&"
qV>M ;EV R><?RHHVa DU>R?9V jBM<R?uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (&&
r;>TV HV m?VE gVETOV `DLV SR jBM<R? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (&x
s HV TV5V SR HV> H;EV> SR mVHMHRDuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (#C
e;R><?V V<?VTTME BHVER<V?MV B?METMBVHa TE<?V<R RE _V<;?EDuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (#%
pM>Q?;<V SR HD> VEMHHD> SR _V<;?ED uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (#"
qV5V <D?GRE<V> RE _V<;?EDuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (#&
qGD TDE<?DHV? ;EV H;EV SR P?VESR> B?DBD?TMDER> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (#&
oE @; TDE>M><R ;EV H;EV T?B<MTVN uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (##
rWC=<IE *b iSME?- H<7 ISME?vvv ^@WFE- fSC=<FE- dI<=F 7 H? WIIvvvvvvv (#*
`DGBVGD> RH OMRHD TDE ]?VED 6 eRB<;ED uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (#)
\B&.R.# >. &R,"&R.,&_R E "QL M.L(QL +* 2M.RQuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (xC
s TDE<?VTD??MRE<Ra eRB<;ED 6 >; GV6D? H;EV uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (x(
qDED5TVGD> V cH;<E, >RV D ED BHVER<Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (x=
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 17 14"!5"13 12:21
[]lll
t?=@EFEHW CW@W q<HHNS? 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222
A" )M.(!*RKQ +* JR. "JR. RQ YQK. "*%QL +*" O".R*K.uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (x%
oH BR@;RD cH;<E TDGBV?VSD TDE VHP;EV> P?VESR> H;EV> uuuuuuu (x"
sU?TOV<R RH qME<;?E SR i;MBR? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (x"
qGD 9R? HD> BHVER<V> R7<R?MD?R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (x#
dU>R?9VTME SR ]?VEDuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (x#
qGD SM><MEP;M? eRB<;ED SR ;EV R><?RHHV uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (xx
o>Q;?5V<R BV?V 9R? cH;<Euuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu (x)
dW@=S lllv rEFEUS SI `EI 7 E=@W? S?=@SIIW?vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv (*(
rWC=<IE (Db pI `EIb IW S?=@SIIW TS IW _NS@@W vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv (*+
qVHT;HV RH BVM>VLR >DHV? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ()%
oH <VGVD 6 HV QD?GV SRH _DHa ;E P?VE OV5 SR PV>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ()"
hV> ?RPMDER> SRH _DHa RE<?R RH ETHRD 6 HV TD?DEV uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ()&
hV VT<M9MSVS >DHV?a @; DT;??R VON uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ()x
q;V<?D GMH GMHHDER>, 6 >RP;MGD> TDE<VESDa HV R>BR?VE5V
SR 9MSV SRH _DH uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =C%
b;R ED <R TMRP;R <; R??D?a <TEMTV> >RP;?V> BV?V HV DU>R?9VTME
>DHV?uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =C"
dU>R?9V RH _DH GRSMVE<R ;EV B?D6RTTMEuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =C&
>. Q-L*MI.,&_R +*" 6Q" . KM.ITL +* ["KMQL )MQRK."*Luuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =C)
pM9M?<R<R TDE RH _DHa HV DU>R?9VTME >DHV? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =((
lV5 ;E >RP;MGMRE<D SR HV> GVETOV> >DHV?R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =((
o7BR?MGRE<V RTHMB>R> >DHV?R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =(*
pESR RETDE<?V? MGPRER> >DHV?R> BD? ME<R?ER< uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =()
rWC=<IE ((b ]NWMS W IW? S?=@SIIW? vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv >>(
qMTHD SR 9MSV SR HV> R><?RHHV> TVHMRE<R> 6 GV>M9V> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ===
dULR<D> R><RHV?R> L9RER>a >;> B?MGR?D> BV>D> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ==*
o><?RHHV> SR HV >RT;RETMV B?METMBVHa TGD SM>Q?;<V?
SR ;EV HDEPR9V RSVS VS;H<Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ==%
mMPVE<R> ?DLV>a HV @;RGV SR HD> VD> SD?VSD> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =="
lD?V SR TR??V?a HV H<MGV BV?<R SR HV R9DH;TME R><RHV?uuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ==&
qDHD?, U?MHHD 6 GV>V SR HV> R><?RHHV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =**
^MBD> R>BRT<?VHR>a SR @; TDHD? R> GM R><?RHHVN uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =*%
ALKM*"". K*RJ*0 *LKM*"". -M&"".RK*F ,".L&[,.,&_R +* ".
H;GMED>MSVS uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =*"
q;VE<D G> U?MHHVE VH @;RGV?, G> T?RTREa HV GV>V
SR<R?GMEV >; THV>R uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =*&
oH SMVP?VGV l4`uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =*#
qDGBVR?V> R<R?EV>a R><?RHHV> UMEV?MV> 6 GH<MBHR> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =*)
o><?RHHV> UMEV?MV> 6 RQRT<D pDBBHR? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =*)
pD> R><?RHHV> >DE UMEV?MV>, BR?D <?R> >DE G;H<M<;Sa R><?RHHV>
GH<MBHR> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =%=
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 18 14"!5"13 12:21
[l[
222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 `<HW@NE
oH TVGUMD R> U;REDa R><?RHHV> 9V?MVUHR> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =%%
`RTD??R? HV SM><VETMVa R><?RHHV> B;H>VE<R>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =%"
\RTMED> R7BHD>M9D>a R><?RHHV> Q;HP;?VE<R>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =%#
eD9V>a R><?RHHV> RE R7BHD>ME uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =%x
oH L;RPD SRH R>TDESM<R R><RHV?a R><?RHHV> UMEV?MV> RTHMB>VE<R> uuuu ="C
qGD ?R<RER? HV H;5 SR HV> R><?RHHV>a QREGRED> SR
gMT?DHRE<Ruuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ="(
^;> 9RTMED> R><RHV?R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ="=
D_!Q .EJ+.M . "QL ,&*RK^[,QL !*+&.RK* ". Q-L*MI.,&_R
SR HV> R><?RHHV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ="%
dQ?RTR <; GRE<R 6 <; D?SREVSD? BV?V GRLD?V? HD> R><;SMD>
R><RHV?R>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =""
rWC=<IE (>b nWIW8NW?b IW ]W iU=SW 7 H? WIIvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv >"#
pR>T;U?R TGD R> HV \V hT<RVuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ="x
qGD 6 T;ESD >R QD?G HV \V hT<RVNuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =")
b; QD?GV <MRER HV \V hT<RVNuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =")
pESR B;RSR> RETDE<?V? HV \V hT<RVN uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =&(
qG;HD> SR R><?RHHV>a TDEDTR HV> V>DTMVTMDER> PVHT<MTV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =&=
>. .+.OK.,&_R Y*G&-"*F ,`!J"QL .-&*MKQL uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =&*
hV P?VE DB?R>MEa HD> TG;HD> PHDU;HV?R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =&%
n;R SM9R?<MSD GMRE<?V> S;?a V>DTMVTMDER> dr uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =&&
lV5 U;REV> GMPV> TDE HV> ERU;HD>V> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =&&
D_!Q &+*RK&[,.M R*-J"QL.L O".R*K.M&.L uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =&x
hV 9MSV SR HD> ?RGVERE<R> SR >;BR?ED9V uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =#C
pM>Q?;<V SR HV> GRLD?R> 9M><V> SR ERU;HD>V> SR HV ^MR??V uuuuuuuuuuu =#C
qDE<?DHV HV> PVHV7MV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =#*
qDEDTR HV> PVHV7MV> R>BM?VHR>, R>BM?VHR> UV??VSV>
6 HRE<MT;HV?R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =#%
o><;SMD SR HV> PVHV7MV> RHB<MTV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =#%
mVHV7MV> M??RP;HV?R>, REVEV> 6 PVHV7MV> SR UVLD U?MHHD
LJO*M[,&." uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =#&
b;SV<R SR BMRS?V TDE HV> P?VESR> PVHV7MV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =##
pR>T;U?R RH m?;BD hDTVH SR mVHV7MV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =xC
dU>R?9V HD> TG;HD> SR PVHV7MV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =x(
_;BR?TG;HD>, 9VTD> T>GMTD> 6 P?VESR> G;?VHHV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =x(
ER<R VH mVHV76 XDDa SM9R?>ME 6 TMRETMV PV?VE<M5VSD> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =x=
rWC=<IE (+b rEFEUS SF C@ER<FTNTWT IE? WQ<MS@E? FSQ@E?
7 IE? A<W?W@S? vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv >y"
gVE<RE<R V SM><VETMV SR HD> VP;LR?D> ERP?D> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =x"
oHRGRE<D> SR ;E VP;LR?D ERP?Duuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =x&
qGD R> ;E VP;LR?D ERP?D BD? SRE<?DN uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =x#
qGD R> HV ?RPME @;R ?DSRV V ;E VP;LR?D ERP?DN uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =x)
hV SRQD?GVTME SRH R>BVTMD 6 RH <MRGBD uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =)C
dU>R?9V V HD> VP;LR?D> ERP?D> <?VPESD>R R><?RHHV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =)=
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 19 14"!5"13 12:21
[[
t?=@EFEHW CW@W q<HHNS? 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222
A" M*KQ +* +*[R&M JR NJ.L.M uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =)%
qGD >R GMSR RH <VGVD SR ;E @;V>V?N uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =)"
o7BHD?V HD> R>BRT<?D> SR HD> @;V>V?R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =)&
eTHRD> VT<M9D> SR PVHV7MVa UMRE9REMSD> V HV QVGMHMV SRH @;V>V? uuuuuuuuu =)&
^MBD> SR smeuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =)&
b; BD<RETMV <MRERE HD> smeN uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =)x
9MQOJ*LK. +* !Q+*"Q JR&[,.+Q +* R`,"*QL .,K&IQL
SR PVHV7MV uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu =))
$).+# -2" !#4#%3/0#, ,/'.# #,+# 30&.#5'1# *03(#.,/vvvvvvvvvvv +D(
rWC=<IE (%b mW7 WIQ<NSF WPO pI C@E7SU=E `p_l 7 CIWFS=W?
TS E=@E? ?EIS?vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +D+
oH ;>D SR HV RT;VTME SR p?VJR BV?V SRUV<M? RH B?D6RT<D _o^k uuuuuuuuuuu *C%
c?D6RT<D> _o^ka R>T;TOV V ou ^u uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *C#
oH 9;RHD SRH B?D6RT<D cODREM7uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *Cx
oH R><;SMD SRH R>BVTMD TDE D<?D> B?D6RT<D> _o^k uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *C)
dULR<M9D> ME<R?R>VE<R> BV?V HV U>@;RSV SR ME<RHMPRETMV
R7<?V<R??R><?R uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *(=
\>QL OMQE*,KQL 6A5@ K* NJ&*M*R# uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *(=
pR>T;U?R G;ESD> VHMREPREV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *(*
pM9R?>V> MSRV> >DU?R HD> R7DBHVER<V> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *(*
qGD RETDE<?V? R7DBHVER<V> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *(%
qDEDTR HD> -R7D3BHVER<V> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *(#
dU>R?9V BHVER<V> BD? SM9R?>ME 6 TMRETMV uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *=C
s><?DUMDHDPVa TGD R> HV 9MSV RE D<?D> G;ESD>N uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *=C
o7<?R!_["QLF \NJT I&+. !aL +JM.# uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *=(
oE U;>TV SR 9MSV RE RH _M><RGV _DHV? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *==
rWC=<IE ("b rEFEUS IE? SF=@S?NME? TS IW HW=S@NW E?U<@W
7 IW WF=NHW=S@NWvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +>"
hV GV<R?MV D>T;?Va B;E<D> U>MTD> SRH BRPVGRE<D ;EM9R?>VH uuuuuuuuuuuuu *="
c?;RUV> SR HV R7M><RETMV SR HV GV<R?MV D>T;?V uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *=&
oH SRUV<R >DU?R HV TDGBD>MTME SR HV GV<R?MV D>T;?Vuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *=)
oE HV D>T;?MSVSa RE U;>TV SR HV GV<R?MV D>T;?V uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu **(
oE U;>TV SR BV?<T;HV> [kgc 6 D<?V GV<R?MV D>T;?V
GMT?D>TBMTV uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu **(
gsqlda ;EV MGVPRE G> U?MHHVE<R uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ***
gVBV SR HV GV<R?MV D>T;?V TDE HV HRE<R P?V9M<VTMDEVH uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu ***
oH S;RHD SR HV VE<MGV<R?MVa HV SRGD><?VTME SR @;R HD> DB;R><D>
>R V<?VRE uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu **%
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 2! 14"!5"13 12:21
[[l
222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 `<HW@NE
rWC=<IE (&b pI sNQ sWFQ 7 IW S:EI<UNF TSI <FN:S@?Evvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv ++#
c?;RUV> SRH rMP rVEP uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu **x
@RY.,&_RF ,J.R+Q *" JR&I*MLQ ,M*,&_ uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%C
H"(Q . O.MK&M +* R.+.F ". &RY.,&_R E *" I.,^Quuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%(
>. &RY.,&_R E ". )QM!. +*" JR&I*MLQ uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%=
hV RER?PV D>T;?Va RH VTRHR?VSD? ;EM9R?>VH uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%*
kEQD?GVTME ;EM9R?>VH R7<?VSV SR HV ?VSMVTME SRH QDESD T>GMTD
SR GMT?DDESV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%%
oET;RE<?V HD> P?;GD> SR HV ?VSMVTME SRH QDESD T>GMTD
SR GMT?DDESV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%%
gVBV SRH ;EM9R?>D TDE HV ?VSMVTME SRH QDESD T>GMTD
SR GMT?DDESV> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%"
oE ;EV PVHV7MV HRLVEVa TVESRHV> R><ESV?R> 6 HV TDE><VE<R
SR l;UUHR uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%&
D.R+*".L *LKaR+.M*LF ],_!Q !&+*R "QL ,&*RK^[,QL ". +&LK.R,&.
@;R OV6 RE<?R HV> PVHV7MV>N uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%&
hV TDE><VE<R SR l;UUHRa V @; 9RHDTMSVS >R G;R9RE
HV> PVHV7MV>N uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%#
oH SR><MED SRH ;EM9R?>D uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *%x
dW@=S ]v iE? TSUIEQE? vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +"(
rWC=<IE (#b qNS6 PSUPE? S8=@WE? ?EV@S IW W?=@EFEHW 7 SI S?CWUNEv +"+
^MRER> SMGME;<D> GR<RD?M<D> RE RH BRHD uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *"*
hV TDHV SR ;E TDGR<V >;RHR >RVHV? RH TVGMED uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *"%
hV ^MR??V R>< ORTOV SR GV<R?MV ?V?V 6 BDTD TDGE uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *"%
hV GV?RV VH<V HHRPV V VGUD> HVSD> SR HV ^MR??V VH GM>GD <MRGBD uuuuuuu *"%
oE \RE;>, HV HH;9MV E;ETV TVR RE HV HHVE;?V uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *""
hV> ?DTV> SR gV?<R >VHBMTVE HV ^MR??V uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *""
cH;<E Q;R SR>T;UMR?<D BD? HV> B?RSMTTMDER> SR ;EV <RD?V QVH>V uuuuuuu *""
hV> GVETOV> >DHV?R> ED >DE D>T;?V> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *""
]EV R><?RHHV @;R >R 9R V >MGBHR 9M><V B;RSR OVUR? R7BHD<VSD,
BR?D EVSMR HD >VUR uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *"&
b;M5 OV6V> B?R>RETMVSD RH rMP rVEP RE ;E 9MRLD <RHR9M>D? uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *"&
rWC=<IE (yb qNS6 S@@E@S? UEH<FS? ?EV@S IW W?=@EFEHW
7 SI S?CWUNE vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +"#
Z>. "JC +* *L. *LKM*"". K.M+_ /$PPP .SQL "JC *R ""*(.M . ". 5&*MM.W uuuuuuu *"#
]E GR<RD?M<D @;R VTVUV SR TVR? VE R>< TVHMRE<Ruuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *"#
oH 9R?VED >MRGB?R HHRPV T;VESD HV ^MR??V R>< G> TR?TV SRH _DH uuuuuuu *"x
hV BV?<R BD><R?MD? SR HV h;EV R> D>T;?V uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *"x
A" Z"J,*MQ +*" ."-.W *L JR. *LKM*"". uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *"x
_M 9V> SR 9VTVTMDER> VH TME<;?E SR V><R?DMSR>, 9R?> V><R?DMSR>
BD? <DSV> BV?<R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *")
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 21 14"!5"13 12:21
[[ll
t?=@EFEHW CW@W q<HHNS? 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222
B*LKMJ&M ,QR .M!.L RJ,"*.M*L JR Z.LK*MQ&+* .L*L&RQW NJ* I.
V TODTV? TDE<?V HV ^MR??V ED> >VH9V?uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *")
oH _DH R> ;EV R><?RHHV G>uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *")
oH <RHR>TDBMD l;UUHR TDE>MP;R VTD?<V? VH G7MGD HV> SM><VETMV> uuuuuuu *&C
oH rMP rVEP OV G;R?<D uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *&C
dW@=S ]lv tC"FTNUS?vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +&(
tCFTNUS tb hWCW? TS S?=@SIIW? vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +&+
tCFTNUS sb nIE?W@NE vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +#(
gRSMSV> TRHR><R> uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu *#"
FTNUS vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv +##
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES PRELIM#ndd 22 14"!5"13 12:21
lF=@ET<UUNF
i
V V><?DEDGV R> RH R><;SMD SRH TMRHD, HV TMRETMV SR HD> DULR<D> T>GM4
TD> 6 QREGRED> TRHR><R>u o> EVSV GRED> @;R HV ME9R><MPVTME SR HV
EV<;?VHR5V SRH ;EM9R?>D RE RH @;R 9M9MGD>u cV?V @;R V9VETR HV V><?DEDGV,
HD> V><?EDGD> DU>R?9VE 6 R>T;TOVE -RE RH TV>D SR HD> ?VSMDV><?EDGD>3,
;<MHM5VE <RHR>TDBMD> SR LV?SE, RED?GR> ME><?;GRE<D> RE DU>R?9V<D?MD> 6
>V<HM<R> @;R D?UM<VE VH?RSRSD? SR HV ^MR??V D @;R R><E RE RH R>BVTMD TR?4
TV SR HV ^MR??V D SR D<?D T;R?BD TRHR><R, TDGD HV h;EV D VHPE BHVER<Vu hD>
cientihcos envinn teescopios en cohetes sondn y en gobos no tripundos,
VHP;ED> ME><?;GRE<D> >R VSRE<?VE RE RH _M><RGV _DHV? V UD?SD SR >DESV>
R>BVTMVHR> 6 VHP;EV> >DESV> ?RTDPRE G;R><?V> BV?V <?VR?HV> V HV ^MR??Vu
Ln nstronomin puede ser unn nctividnd profesionn o de nhcionndos. Ln
<DSD RH G;ESD R7M><RE ;ED> 9RME<R GMH V><?EDGD> B?DQR>MDEVHR> @;R >R
SRSMTVE V HV TMRETMV R>BVTMVH 6 >R R><MGV @;R OV6 VH?RSRSD? SR @;MEMRE<D>
mi nhcionndos. Muchos de estos utimos pertenecen n cubes de nstrono4
GV SR GUM<D HDTVH D EVTMDEVH SR >;> BV>R>u
hD> V><?EDGD> B?DQR>MDEVHR> ?RVHM5VE ME9R><MPVTMDER> >DU?R RH _DH 6 RH
_M><RGV _DHV?, HV PVHV7MV SR HV \V hT<RV 6 RH ;EM9R?>D @;R OV6 G> VHHu
oE>RVE RE ;EM9R?>MSVSR>, SM>RVE >V<HM<R> RE HVUD?V<D?MD> SRH PDUMR?ED
6 <?VUVLVE RE BHVER<V?MD>u ^VGUME R>T?MURE HMU?D>, TDGD ><R -BR?D @;M5
ED <VE U;RED>3u hV GV6D?V SR RHHD> R><E SDT<D?VSD> 6 OD6 RE SV, TDGD
<VE<D> R><;SMVE Q>MTV VU><?;>V D <?VUVLVE TDE <RHR>TDBMD> V;<DGV<M5VSD>
6 @;R Q;ETMDEVE BD? TDE<?DH ?RGD<D, B;RSR @;R EM >M@;MR?V TDED5TVE HV>
TDE><RHVTMDER>u
Los nhcionndos n n nstronomin conocen ns constenciones. Compnrten
unn nhcin emocionnnte. Agunos observnn ns estrens por su cuentn, y
GMHR> SR RHHD> >R VB;E<VE V TH;UR> SR V><?DEDGV 6 V D?PVEM5VTMDER> SR
<DSD <MBDu oE RH TH;U, HD> 9R<R?VED> <?VE>GM<RE >; TDEDTMGMRE<D V HD> E;R4
9D>, >R TDGBV?<RE <RHR>TDBMD> 6 R@;MBD>, 6 >R TRHRU?VE ?R;EMDER> RE HV>
@;R HD> GMRGU?D> TDGRE<VE >;> DU>R?9VTMDER> D V>M><RE V TDEQR?RETMV>
impnrtidns por cientihcos visitnntes.
Los nhcionndos n n nstronomin tnmbien se reunen pnrn hncer observncio4
nes. Cndn uno evn un teescopio, o utiizn e de otro observndor. Los
nhcionndos reniznn sesiones n intervnos regunres (por ejempo, e pri4
GR? >UVSD SR TVSV GR>3 D RE DTV>MDER> R>BRTMVHR> -BD? RLRGBHD, RE
VPD><D, BD?@;R >R 9V V B?DS;TM? ;EV HH;9MV SR GR<RD?D> D BD?@;R VBV?RTR4
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 1 14"!5"13 12:19
>
t?=@EFEHW CW@W q<HHNS? 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222
? ;E TDGR<V U?MHHVE<R, TDGD RH lVHR4rDBB3u Y VOD??VE BV?V B?R>RETMV?
QREGRED> ?RVHGRE<R P?VESMD>D>, TDGD ;E RTHMB>R <D<VH SR _DH, T;VESD
mies de nhcionndos y decenns de profesionnes vinjnn por n Tierrn pnrn
TDHDTV?>R RE RH TVGMED SR HV <D<VHMSVS 6 >R? <R><MPD> SR ;ED SR HD> GV6D4
?R> R>BRT<T;HD> SR HV EV<;?VHR5Vu
tUS@UW TS S?=S INV@E
oE R><R HMU?D RETDE<?V?> <DSD HD @;R ERTR>M<V> >VUR? BV?V HVE5V?<R V HV
grnn nhcin de n nstronomin y n nyudn pnrn comprender n ciencin bsi4
TV SRH ;EM9R?>Du hV> H<MGV> GM>MDER> R>BVTMVHR> <RES?E G> >RE<MSD BV?V
ti: entenders por que n NASA y otrns orgnniznciones envinn sondns es4
BVTMVHR> V BHVER<V> TDGD _V<;?ED, BD? @; HD> 9ROT;HD> ?DU<MTD> SR
exporncin nterriznn en Mnrte y por que os cientihcos nnniznn muestrns
SR BDH9D RE HV TDHV SR HD> TDGR<V>u _VU?> BD? @; RH <RHR>TDBMD R>BVTMVH
l;UUHR DU>R?9V RH R>BVTMD 6 TGD R><V? VH SV SR D<?V> GM>MDER> R>BVTMV4
HR>u Y T;VESD >VHPVE HD> V><?EDGD> RE RH BR?MSMTD D RE HV <RHR9M>ME BV?V
B?R>RE<V? >;> H<MGD> SR>T;U?MGMRE<D> -SR>SR RH R>BVTMD, SR>SR HD> P?VE4
des teescopios de Arizonn, Hnwi, Chie y Cnifornin, o desde rndiotees-
copios de Nuevo Mexico, Puerto Rico, Austrnin u otros observntorios de
G;ESD3, TDGB?RESR?> RH TDE<R7<D 6 9VHD?V?> HV> ED<MTMV>u kETH;>D >R HV>
BDS?> R7BHMTV? V <;> VGMPD>u
Lee ns pnrtes que quierns y en e orden que preherns. Te expicnre o que
ERTR>M<V> >DU?R HV GV?TOVu hV V><?DEDGV R> QV>TMEVE<R 6 SM9R?<MSV, V>
que sigue eyendo. Antes de dnrte cuentn, estnrs sennndo hncin 1upiter,
9MRESD R><?RHHV> 6 TDE><RHVTMDER> QVGD>V> 6 >MP;MRESD HV o><VTME o>BVTMVH
kE<R?EVTMDEVH T;VESD BV>R BD? RH TMRHD TDGD ;E ?V6Du b;M5 HD> 9RTMED>
RGBMRTRE V HHVGV?<R DU>R?9VSD? SR R><?RHHV>u hD> BDHMTV> @;M5 <R B?R4
P;E<RE @; OVTR> RE RH BV?@;R SR EDTOR, BD? @; <R OV> >;UMSD V HV V5D4
<RV D BD? @; HHR9V> ;ED> B?M>G<MTD> RE HV GVEDu pMHR> @;R R?R> V><?ED4
GDu _RP;?D @;R E;ETV HD OVE DSD -6 R>BR?D @;R <R T?RVE.3u
rEF:SFUNEFS? <=NIN6WTW? SF S?=S INV@E
cV?V V6;SV?<R V EV9RPV? BD? R><R HMU?D GMRE<?V> EV9RPV> BD? RH R>BVTMD, <R
R7BHMTV? T;HR> >DE HV> TDE9RETMDER> @;R OR ;<MHM5VSD RE Ha
! q;?>M9V BV?V SR><VTV? BVHVU?V> E;R9V> D BDTD TDG;ER>, @;R 9VE
ncompnndns por su dehnicin.
! eRP?M<V BV?V MESMTV? BVHVU?V> THV9R RE HM><V> TDE B;E<D> 6 HV VTTME
SR HD> BV>D> E;GR?VSD>u
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 2 14"!5"13 12:19
+
22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 lF=@ET<UUNF
! qD;?MR? gDED<6BR, pnrn que identihques n simpe vistn ns direc4
ciones web.
iE A<S FE S? EVINQW=E@NE ISS@
Puedes sntnrte os recundros grises que npnrecen n o nrgo de ibro,
R><V> TVLV> TDE<MRERE MEQD?GVTME ME<R?R>VE<R BR?D @;R ED R> R>RETMVH
BV?V @;R TDGB?RESV> HV V><?DEDGVu hD GM>GD DT;??R TDE T;VH@;MR? <R7<D
@;R GV?TD TDE RH MTDED SR kEQD?GVTME <TEMTVu
tIQ<FW? ?<CE?NUNEFS? C@S:NW?
b;M5 HRV> R><R HMU?D BD?@;R @;MR?R> >VUR? @; BV>V RE RH TMRHD D @; OV4
cen os cientihcos de progrnmn espncin. Puede que hnyns oido que n
nstronomin es unn nhcin fnntsticn y quierns descubrir si o que dicen es
verdnd. A o mejor quieres snber que equipo necesitns.
No eres cientihco. Simpemente, te hn hechizndo e cieo de noche, disfru4
<V> DU>R?9ESDHD 6 @;MR?R> 9R? 6 TDGB?RESR? HV 9R?SVSR?V URHHR5V SRH
;EM9R?>Du
b;MR?R> DU>R?9V? HV> R><?RHHV>, BR?D <VGUME >VUR? @; R><> 9MRESDu b;M4
5 METH;>D @;MR?V> OVTR? VHPE SR>T;U?MGMRE<Du eD <MRER> @;R >R? V><?ED4
GD BV?V SR>T;U?M? ;E E;R9D TDGR<V, METH;>D B;RSR> V6;SV? V R>T;TOV? V
ou ^u _RV T;VH >RV <; DULR<M9D, R><R HMU?D <R V6;SV? V TDE>RP;M?HDu
lUEFE? <=NIN6WTE? SF S?=S INV@E
A o nrgo de ibro, encontrnrs iconos que destncnn unn informncin en
BV?<MT;HV?, V;E@;R >HD <R MESM@;RE @;R ED R> ERTR>V?MD @;R HRV> HV> BV?4
tes compicndns. Aqui tienes e signihcndo de cndn simboo.
hV DU>R?9VTME R> HV THV9R SR HV V><?DEDGV, 6 R><D> TDE>RLD> <R V6;SV?E
V >R? ;E B?DQR>MDEVH SR HV DU>R?9VTMEu ^R V6;SV? V SR>T;U?M? <TEMTV> 6
TM?T;E><VETMV> BV?V BR?QRTTMDEV? <; <TEMTV SR DU>R?9VTMEu
o><R TR?RU?M<D VBV?RTR VH HVSD SR <R7<D> @;R <R B;RSR> >VH<V? >M >HD @;MR4
?R> TDEDTR? HD U>MTD 6 RGBR5V? V DU>R?9V? RH TMRHDu c;RSR R><V? UMRE
tener un contexto cientihco, pero muchns personns son feices disfrutnn4
SD SR DU>R?9V? HV> R><?RHHV> >ME TDEDTR? HV Q>MTV SR HV> >;BR?ED9V>, HV>
C
O
N
L
A
V
I
S
T
A
E
NE
L
C
I
E
L
O
C
U
E
S
T
I
O
N
E
S T

C
N
I
C
A
S
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 3 14"!5"13 12:19
%
t?=@EFEHW CW@W q<HHNS? 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222
GV<RG<MTV> ;<MHM5VSV> BV?V HV TV5V SR PVHV7MV> EM HD> BD?GRED?R> SR HV
RER?PV D>T;?Vu
o><R MTDED TDE QD?GV SR SMVEV <R MESMTV @;R VB?D9RTOR> MEQD?GVTME B?M9M4
egindn cunndo empieces n observnr e cieo o cunndo nvnnces en tu nh4
TMEu
Cuntos probemns te puedes encontrnr n observnr estrens No mu4
TOD>, >M <MRER> T;MSVSDu cR?D OV6 TD>V> RE HV> @;R E;ETV >R R> SRGV>MVSD
B?;SRE<Ru o><V UDGUV <R MESMTV @;R B?R><R> V<RETME BV?V ED @;RGV?<Ru
dE@ TFTS SHCS6W@O
Puedes empeznr donde quierns. Te preocupn e destino de universo
oGBMR5V BD? RH rMP rVEP -TDE>;H<V RH TVB<;HD (& >M ?RVHGRE<R <R ME<R?R>V3u
d @;M5 @;MR?V> TDGRE5V? BD? >VUR? @; B;RSR> R>BR?V? T;VESD >R SR>4
BMR?<V R>V BV>ME BD? HV> R><?RHHV>u
pV MP;VH BD? SESR RGBMRTR>, R>BR?D @;R TDE<MER> <; R7BHD?VTME T>GM4
TV 6 R7BR?MGRE<R> HV VHRP?V, HV RGDTME 6 HV QV>TMEVTME @;R >MRGB?R OV
RETDE<?VSD RH >R? O;GVED RE RH TMRHDu
C
O
N
S
E
JO

A
D
V
E
R
TEN
C
I
A
!
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 4 14"!5"13 12:19
Parte I
Observemos el Cosmos
The 5
th
Wave Rich Tennant
GEORGE NUNCA DESCART LA POSIBILIDAD
DE QUE HUBIERA VIDA EXTRATERRESTRE.
Parte I
Observemos el cosmos
The 5
th
Wave Rich Tennant
032-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES 01.indd 5 17/05/13 11:27
pF S?=W CW@=Svvv
i
D> DULR<D> 6 HD> QREGRED> SRH TMRHD >MRGB?R OVE QV>TMEVSD V HD>
seres humnnos. A o nrgo de n historin, nuestro interes por n
V><?DEDGV OV >MSD Q?;<D SR HV T;?MD>MSVS 6 SR DULR<M9D> B?T<MTD>u
hV> BR?>DEV> EV9RPVUVE >MP;MRESD V HV> R><?RHHV> 6 T;H<M9VUVE HD>
TVGBD> >RPE HV> QV>R> SR HV h;EV -6 >MP;RE OVTMESDHD3u _R
TDE><?;VE H;PV?R> RE HD> @;R HV> DU>R?9VTMDER> SRH TMRHD B;SMR?DE
OVUR? VTDGBVVSD V ?M<;VHR> -TDGD RE _<DEROREPR, kEPHV<R??V3 6 >R
GRSV RH <MRGBD >RPE HD> GD9MGMRE<D> SRH _DH 6 HV> R><?RHHV>u hD>
>R?R> O;GVED> >MP;RE BHVE<RESD>R B?RP;E<V> >DU?R HV EV<;?VHR5V
SR HD> DULR<D> SRH TMRHDu
ER<R V R><V P?VE <?VSMTME O;GVEVu oE R><R VBV?<VSD, <R ME<?DS;TM?
RE HV TMRETMV SR HV V><?DEDGV 6 <R DQ?RTR? <TEMTV> 6 TDE>RLD> BV?V
DU>R?9V? BHVER<V>, TDGR<V>, GR<RD?D> 6 D<?D> RHRGRE<D> @;R >R
B;RSRE 9R? RE RH TMRHD EDT<;?EDu
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 6 14"!5"13 12:19
rWC=<IE (
rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S
7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
pF S?=S UWC=<IE
t Comprenders n nnturnezn observncionn de n nstronomin
t ^R TDETRE<?V?> RE RH HREP;VLR SR HV H;5 SR HV V><?DEDGV
t Aprenders en que consiste n grnvednd
t Reconocers os movimientos de os objetos en e espncio
`
VH Q;R?V RE ;EV EDTOR THV?V 6 GM?V RH TMRHDu _M 9M9R> RE ;EV TM;SVS D
RE ;E UV??MD G;6 BDUHVSD, 9R?> SDTREV>, @;M5 TMRE<D>, SR R><?RHHV>
U?MHHVE<R>u oE Q;ETME SRH SV SRH GR> @;R >RV, B;RSR @;R 9RV> HV H;EV HHREV
6 OV><V TMETD SR HD> DTOD BHVER<V> @;R PM?VE VH?RSRSD? SRH _DHu
b;M5 VBV?R5TV ;EV R><?RHHV Q;PV5 D GR<RD?D RE RH TMRHDu oE ?RVHMSVS, HD
@;R 9R> R> RH SR><RHHD SR H;5 SR ;EV BMR5V SMGME;<V SR BDH9D SR TDGR<V
@;R BV>V V <DSV 9RHDTMSVS BD? HV V<G>QR?Vu
d<?D B;E<M<D SR H;5 >R G;R9R SR QD?GV HRE<V 6 TDE><VE<R BD? RH TMRHDu o>
;E >V<HM<R R>BVTMVH, TDGD RH <RHR>TDBMD R>BVTMVH l;UUHR, D ;E V9ME SR
pnsnjeros que vuen n unn grnn ntitud Si tienes unos prismticos, quiz
B;RSV> SMQR?RETMV?HD>a HV GV6D?V SR HD> V9MDER> SR BV>VLR?D> <MRERE H;TR>
SR SM?RTTME 6 >;> QD?GV> B;RSRE BR?TMUM?>Ru
_M 9M9R> RE RH TVGBD, D RE HV TD><V, HRLD> SR TRE<?D> <;?><MTD> 6 ;?UVEM5V4
TMDER>, RE ;EV 5DEV SR HHVE;?V> D RE HV GDE<VV, HRLD> SR BM><V> SR R>@;
MH;GMEVSV>, B;RSR> 9R? GMHR> SR R><?RHHV>u hV \V hT<RV BV?RTR ;EV B?RTMD4
>V Q?VELV EVTV?VSV @;R >;?TV RH TMRHDu hD @;R 9R> R> RH U?MHHD VT;G;HVSD SR
GMHHDER> SR R><?RHHV> @;R ED >R B;RSRE SM><MEP;M? BD? >RBV?VSD V >MGBHR
9M><Vu oE ;E H;PV? SR DU>R?9VTME, TDGD RH dU>R?9V<D?MD kE<R?VGR?MTVED SR
Cerro Tooo, en os Andes chienos, puedes ver ms estrens. Pnrecen
mpnrns brinntes que cuegnn de un cieo negro cnrbn. A menudo ni
>M@;MR?V BV?BVSRVE, TDGD RE RH T;VS?D SR \VE mDPO hV EDTOR R><?RHHVSVu
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 7 14"!5"13 12:19
y
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
Cunndo mirns hncin e cieo, ests prncticnndo n nstronomin, yn que ob4
>R?9V> RH ;EM9R?>D @;R <R ?DSRV R ME<RE<V> TDGB?RESR? HD @;R 9R>u p;?VE4
<R GMHR> SR VD>, <DSD HD @;R >VUVE HV> BR?>DEV> >DU?R RH TMRHD HD OVUVE
deducido n pnrtir de n observncin. Cnsi todo o que estudin n nstrono4
GV <MRER HV> >MP;MRE<R> TV?VT<R?><MTV>a
! _R 9R V SM><VETMVu
! _R SR>T;U?R R><;SMVESD HV H;5 @;R HHRPV V ED>D<?D> SR>SR HD> DULR<D>
@;R OV6 RE RH R>BVTMDu
! Se mueve n trnves de espncio bnjo n inuencin de n grnvednd.
oE R><R TVB<;HD >R METH;6R ;EV ME<?DS;TTME V R>D> -6 V D<?D>3 TDETRB<D>u
t?=@EFEHWb IW UNSFUNW TS IW EV?S@:WUNF
hV V><?DEDGV R> RH R><;SMD SRH TMRHD, HV TMRETMV SR HD> DULR<D> T>GMTD> 6
HD> QREGRED> TRHR><R>, 6 HV ME9R><MPVTME >DU?R HV EV<;?VHR5V SRH ;EM9R?>D
RE RH @;R 9M9R>u hD> V><?EDGD> B?DQR>MDEVHR> SR>V??DHHVE HV V><?DEDGV
GRSMVE<R HV DU>R?9VTME TDE <RHR>TDBMD> @;R TVB<;?VE H;5 9M>MUHR SR HV>
R><?RHHV> D V <?V9> SR HV TVB<;?V SR DESV> SR ?VSMD @;R B?DTRSRE SRH
R>BVTMDu ]<MHM5VE <RHR>TDBMD> SR LV?SE, RED?GR> ME><?;GRE<D> SR DU>R?9V4
torio y snteites que orbitnn nrededor de n Tierrn. Recogen formns de uz
-TDGD ?VSMVTME ;H<?V9MDHR<V3 @;R HV V<G>QR?V UHD@;RV VE<R> SR @;R HHR4
P;RE VH >;RHDu oE9VE <RHR>TDBMD> RE TDOR<R> >DESV -R@;MBVSD> TDE ME><?;4
mentos pnrn hncer observnciones cientihcns n ntitud eevndn) y en go4
UD> ED <?MB;HVSD>u Y RE9VE ME><?;GRE<D> BD? <DSD RH _M><RGV _DHV? V
UD?SD SR >DESV> R>BVTMVHR>u
hD> V><?EDGD> B?DQR>MDEVHR> R><;SMVE RH _DH 6 RH _M><RGV _DHV?, HV \V
hT<RV 6 RH ;EM9R?>D @;R OV6 G> VHHu oE>RVE RE ;EM9R?>MSVSR>, SM>RVE
>V<HM<R> RE HVUD?V<D?MD> P;UR?EVGRE<VHR> 6 <?VUVLVE RE BHVER<V?MD>u ^VG4
UME R>T?MURE HMU?D> -TDGD 6D, <; O?DR cV?V p;GGMR>3u hV GV6D?V OV
dedicndo nos n estudinr y hnn hecho doctorndos. Muchos de eos estu4
SMVE Q>MTV TDGBHRLV D <?VUVLVE TDE <RHR>TDBMD> ?DU<MTD> V;<DGV<M5VSD>
@;R HHRPVE G> VHH SRH TMRHD EDT<;?ED ?RTDEDTMUHR V E;R><?D> DLD>u b;M5
E;ETV OV6VE R><;SMVSD HV> TDE><RHVTMDER> -P?;BD> SR R><?RHHV>, TDGD HV
Ursn Mnjor, n Osn Mnyor, bnutizndn nsi por nntiguos observndores de
estrens) que es o primero que expornn os nhcionndos n n nstronomin.
Puede que yn estes fnmiinrizndo con e Cnrro, un nsterismo de n Ursn Mn4
LD?u ]E V><R?M>GD R> ;E P?;BD SR R><?RHHV> VH @;R >R OV SVSD ;E EDGU?R 6
@;R ED TDMETMSR TDE EMEP;EV SR HV> xx TDE><RHVTMDER> ?RTDEDTMSV>u ]E
V><R?M>GD B;RSR R><V? SRE<?D SR ;EV EMTV TDE><RHVTME D METH;M? R><?RHHV>
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 8 14"!5"13 12:19
*
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
SR G> SR ;EV TDE><RHVTMEu cD? RLRGBHD, HV> T;V<?D R>@;MEV> SRH m?VE
Cundrndo de Pegnso, un grnn nsterismo, estn mnrcndns por tres estrens
de n constencin Pegnso y por unn cunrtn de Andrmedn. Ln n hgurn 1-1
se muestrn e Cnrro en e cieo nocturno (en os pnises nngosnjones e
nsterismo de Cnrro se conoce como rMP pMBBR?, Grnn Cuchnrn, o n veces
como Arndo).
Adems de os nproximndnmente treintn mi nstrnomos profesionnes
que existen en todo e mundo, hny vnrios cientos de mies de nhcionndos
n n nstronomin que disfrutnn observnndo e cieo. Los nhcionndos n n
V><?DEDGV >;RHRE TDEDTR? HV> TDE><RHVTMDER> 6 HV> ;<MHM5VE TDGD ?RQR?RE4
TMV T;VESD R7BHD?VE RH TMRHD V >MGBHR 9M><V D UMRE TDE HV V6;SV SR B?M>G4
ticos o teescopios. Muchos nhcionndos tnmbien hncen uties nportncio4
nes cientihcns. Contronn os cnmbios de brio de ns estrens vnrinbes,
descubren nsteroides, cometns y estrens en exposin, y cruznn n Tierrn
BV?V TVB<V? HV> >DGU?V> @;R SRLVE HD> V><R?DMSR> VH BV>V? BD? SRHVE<R SR
R><?RHHV> U?MHHVE<R> -V>, V6;SVE V HD> V><?EDGD> V SMU;LV? HV QD?GV SR HD>
V><R?DMSR>3u kETH;>D >R ;ERE V B?D6RT<D> SR ME9R><MPVTME B?DQR>MDEVH TDE
>;> D?SREVSD?R> BR?>DEVHR> 6 >GV?<BODER> V <?V9> SR B?D6RT<D> SR TMRE4
TMV TM;SVSVEV, @;R SR>T?MUD RE RH TVB<;HD = 6 RE D<?D> B;E<D> SRH HMU?Du
oE RH ?R><D SR HV BV?<R k, <R DQ?R5TD MEQD?GVTME >DU?R TGD DU>R?9V? RH
TMRHD SR QD?GV RQRT<M9V 6 SM9R?<MSVu
iE A<S :S?b SI ISFQ<WMS TS IW I<6
hV H;5 ED> VBD?<V MEQD?GVTME >DU?R HD> BHVER<V>, H;EV> 6 TDGR<V> SR
nuestro Sistemn Sonr, ns estrens, cumuos de estrens y nebuosns de
nuestrn gnnxin, y de os objetos que hny ms n.
oNQ<@W (5(b
El Carro,
que se
encuentra
en ursa
Major, es
un
asterisuo
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 9 14"!5"13 12:19
(D
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
Ln n Antigednd, n gente no pensnbn en n fisicn y n quimicn de ns estre4
HHV>, >MED @;R VU>D?UVE 6 <?VE>GM<VE GM<D> R OM><D?MV> BDB;HV?R>a HV d>V
Mnyor, n estren endemonindn, n Cnrn de n Lunn, e drngn que se come
VH _DH S;?VE<R ;E RTHMB>R >DHV? 6 D<?V> G>u hV> OM><D?MV> 9V?VE SR ;EV
cuturn n otrn. Sin embnrgo, muchns personns descubrieron ns hgurns
@;R QD?GVUVE HV> R><?RHHV>u oE HV cDHMER>MV, HD> R7BR?<D> EV9RPVE<R> ?RGV4
UVE V <?V9> SR TMRE<D> SR JMHGR<?D> SR DTVED VUMR?<D >ME B;E<D> SR
?RQR?RETMV V HV 9M><V 6 >ME U?L;HVu eV9RPVUVE >MP;MRESD HV> R><?RHHV> 6 RH
_DH, P?VTMV> V >; TDEDTMGMRE<D SR HD> 9MRE<D> 6 TD??MRE<R>u
Ln n Antigednd, mirnbnn hjnmente n uz de unn estren y observnbnn su
U?MHHD, TDHD? 6 BD>MTME RE RH TMRHDu o><V MEQD?GVTME HR> V6;SVUV V SM><ME4
P;M? ;E DULR<D TRHR><R SR D<?D, 6 <VE<D RE<DETR> TDGD VOD?V ED> BR?GM<R
conoceros como n un viejo nmigo. Aqui tienes ngunns idens pnrn recono4
TR? 6 SR>T?MUM? HD @;R 9R> RE RH TMRHDa
! pM><MEP;R HV> R><?RHHV> SR HD> BHVER<V>u
! Identihcn constenciones, estrens individunes y otros objetos cees4
<R> BD? >; EDGU?Ru
! dU>R?9V RH U?MHHD -SVSD TDGD GVPEM<;S3u
! Comprende e concepto de no uz.
! _M<V HV BD>MTME RE RH TMRHD -GRSMSD RE ;EMSVSR> R>BRTMVHR> SREDGM4
nndns AR y Dec).
d@SQ<F=W? CIWF=SWTW? HNSF=@W? :NWMWVWFb
TNRS@SFUNW? SF=@S CIWFS=W? 7 S?=@SIIW?
oH <?GMED BHVER<V B?DTRSR SR HV BVHVU?V P?MRPV BHVER<R>, que signihcn
errnnte". Ln n nntigun Grecin (y otros puebos de n Antigednd) se die4
?DE T;RE<V SR @;R OVUV TMETD B;E<D> SR H;5 @;R >R GD9VE V <?V9> SRH
resto de ns estrens, hjns en e cieo. Agunns se movinn constnntemente
hncin ndennte, otrns, de vez en cunndo dnbnn mnrchn ntrs. Nndie snbin
BD? @;u cR?D V@;RHHD> B;E<D> SR H;5 ED BV?BVSRVUVE TDGD HV> R><?RHHV>
(nndie entendin n diferencin). Cndn cuturn tenin un nombre pnrn nqueos
TMETD B;E<D> SR H;5 @;R VOD?V SREDGMEVGD> BHVER<V>u _;> EDGU?R> >DE
Mercurio, Venus, Mnrte, 1upiter y Snturno. Lstos cuerpos ceestes no
9MVLVE V <?V9> SR HV> R><?RHHV>, >MED @;R D?UM<VE VH?RSRSD? SRH _DH, HV R><?R4
HHV TRE<?VH SR E;R><?D _M><RGV _DHV?u
lD6 RE SV, HD> V><?EDGD> >VURE @;R HD> BHVER<V> B;RSRE >R? GRED?R> D
GV6D?R> @;R HV ^MR??V, BR?D <DSD> >DE G;TOD G> BR@;RD> @;R RH _DHu
hD> BHVER<V> SR E;R><?D _M><RGV _DHV? R><E <VE TR?TV SR HV ^MR??V @;R
C
O
N
L
A
V
I
S
T
A
E
NE
L
C
I
E
L
O
C
O
N
L
A
V
I
S
T
A
E
NE
L
C
I
E
L
O
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 1! 14"!5"13 12:19
((
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
<MRERE SM>TD> BR?TRB<MUHR> -TDGD GEMGD, T;VESD >R DU>R?9VE V <?V9> SR
;E <RHR>TDBMD3, V> @;R BDSRGD> 9R? >; QD?GV 6 <VGVDu hV> R><?RHHV>
R><E <VE HRLD> SR HV ^MR??V @;R METH;>D, V;E@;R HV> 9RV> V <?V9> SR ;E
BD<RE<R <RHR>TDBMD, VBV?RTRE TDGD B;E<D> SR H;5u -cV?V DU<RER? G>
MEQD?GVTME >DU?R HD> BHVER<V> SRH _M><RGV _DHV?, 9R V HV BV?<R kku3
`N :S? <FW e?W hW7E@- C@SEU'CW=Sb UHE CEFS@
FEHV@S W S?=@SIIW? 7 UEF?=SIWUNEFS?
Cunndo os visitnntes mirnn ns estrens en e pnnetnrio, es digo: Si no
podeis ver n Osn Mnyor nhi nrribn, no os preocupeis. Quiz deberinn
B?RDT;BV?>R HD> @;R > que ven unn Osn Mnyor".
Los nstrnomos de n Antigednd dividinn e cieo en hgurns imnginnrins,
como n Ursn Mnjor (n Osn Mnyor), Cygnus (e Cisne), Andromedn (Andr4
medn, n Mujer encndenndn) y Perseus (Perseo, e Heroe). Lntonces, iden4
tihcnbnn n cndn hgurn con unn formncin de estrens. Ln verdnd es que,
pnrn n mnyorin de ns personns, Andrmedn no se pnrece n unn seorn
encndenndn, ni n ningunn otrn cosn, en renidnd (consutn n hgurn 1-2).
lD6 RE SV, HD> V><?EDGD> OVE SM9MSMSD RH TMRHD RE xx TDE><RHVTMDER> @;R
contienen todns ns estrens que pueden verse. Ln Unin Astronmicn
kE<R?EVTMDEVH, @;R TDE<?DHV R><V TMRETMV, R><VUHRTR HGM<R> BV?V HV> TDE><R4
HVTMDER>, BV?V @;R HD> V><?EDGD> B;RSVE BDER?>R SR VT;R?SD >DU?R @;
R><?RHHV R>< RE TVSV TDE><RHVTMEu oE RH BV>VSD, HD> GVBV> TRHR><R> <?V5V4
dos por distintos nstrnomos soinn discrepnr. Ahorn, cunndo tu ens que
HV ERU;HD>V ^V?E<;HV R>< RE pD?VSD -TDE>;H<V RH TVB<;HD (=3, >VUR>
@;R, BV?V 9R? R><V ERU;HD>V, SRUR> U;>TV?HV RE HV TDE><RHVTME pD?VSD, RE
RH ORGM>QR?MD >;?u
Ln mnyor constencin es Hydrn (n Serpiente ncuticn). Ln menor es Crux
(n Cruz) que n mnyorin de n gente denominn Cruz de Sur. Tnmbien pue4
Andromeda
oNQ<@W (5>b
Andr*ue-
da taubi;n
se conoce
couo
la Mujer
encade-
nada
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 11 14"!5"13 12:19
(>
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
des ver n Cruz de Norte, pero no n encontrnrs en unn istn de ns cons4
tenciones, es un nsterismo (termino yn dehnido) dentro de Cygnus (e
Cisne). A pesnr de que os nstrnomos suenn estnr de ncuerdo sobre os
nombres de ns constenciones, no existe consenso respecto n signihcndo
SR TVSV EDGU?Ru cD? RLRGBHD, VHP;ED> V><?EDGD> SREDGMEVE cR5 o>BV4
SV V pD?VSD, BR?D V G, BR?>DEVHGRE<R, GR P;><V?V VTVUV? TDE R>R EDG4
U?Ru ]EV TDE><RHVTME, _R?BRE> -HV _R?BMRE<R3, >R ?DGBR RE SD> >RTTMDER>
que no estn conectndns. Lns dos secciones, situndns n cndn ndo de Ohu4
co (e Portndor de n serpiente), son Serpens Cnput (n Cnbezn de n ser4
piente) y Serpens Cnudn (n Con de n serpiente).
hV> R><?RHHV> MESM9MS;VHR> SR ;EV TDE><RHVTME ED >;RHRE <RER? G> ?RHV4
TME @;R >; B?D7MGMSVS RE RH TMRHD <VH TDGD HD 9RGD> SR>SR HV ^MR??Vu oE
RH R>BVTMD, HV> R><?RHHV> @;R QD?GVE ;EV TDE><RHVTME B;RSRE ED GVE<RER?
?RHVTME RE<?R >, 6V @;R VHP;EV> R><E ?RHV<M9VGRE<R TR?TV SR HV ^MR??V 6
D<?V> >R RET;RE<?VE V SM><VETMV> G;TOD GV6D?R> RE RH R>BVTMDu _ME RGUV?4
go, pnrn os observndores de n Tierrn formnn unn hgurn sencin que nos
BR?GM<R SM>Q?;<V?HV>u
cD? ?RPHV PRER?VH, V HV> R><?RHHV> G> U?MHHVE<R> SR ;EV TDE><RHVTME >R HR>
nsign unn etrn griegn, yn fuernn os griegos de n Antigednd o nstrno4
GD> SR TM9MHM5VTMDER> BD><R?MD?R>u oE TVSV TDE><RHVTME, HV R><?RHHV G>
brinnte recibin e nombre de Afn, n primern etrn de nfnbeto griego.
hV >MP;MRE<R R><?RHHV G> U?MHHVE<R R?V rR<V, HV >RP;ESV HR<?V P?MRPV, 6 V>
>;TR>M9VGRE<R OV><V HHRPV? V dGRPV, HV H<MGV HR<?V SRH VHQVUR<D P?MRPD SR
=% TV?VT<R?R>u -hD> V><?EDGD> >HD ;<MHM5VUVE HV> HR<?V> P?MRPV> GME>T;4
HV>, BD? R>D HV> 9R> R>T?M<V> ., -uuu $!3
Por tnnto, Sirio, n estren ms brinnte de cieo nocturno (en Cnnis Mn4
jor, e Cnn Mnyor) recibe e nombre de Afn Cnnis Mnjoris. (Los nstrno4
mos nnden un suhjo nqui o n pnrn poner n os nombres de ns estrens
en e cnso genitivo de ntin. A os cientihcos siempre es hn gustndo e
HV<Eu3 oE HV <VUHV (4(, >R G;R><?V ;EV HM><V SRH VHQVUR<D P?MRPD, RE D?SRE,
TDE HD> EDGU?R> SR HV> HR<?V> 6 >;> >GUDHD> TD??R>BDESMRE<R>u
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 12 14"!5"13 12:19
(+
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
_WVIW (5(v pI WIRWVS=E Q@NSQE
iS=@W fEHV@S
. Alfa
- eta
5 0auua
7 elta
6 psilon
2 seda
, Eta
# Zeta
8 lota
4 Kappa
& Laubda
+ Mi
1 Ni
' Xi
* uicron
9 Fi
0 Fo
( Sigua
/ Tau
" lpsilon
) Fi
3 Ji
% Fsi
$ 0uega
Cunndo mirns un ntns de estrens, descubres que ns de unn constencin
ED R><E GV?TVSV> TDGD . Cnnis Mnjoris, - Cnnis Mnjoris, y nsi sucesivn4
GRE<Ru cD? HD PRER?VH, RH T?RVSD? SRH V<HV> GV?TV RH ?RV SR <DSV HV TDE><R4
ncin como Cnnis Mnjor y denominn n ns estrens concretns ., -, 6 V>
sucesivnmente. Cunndo consutes informncin ncercn de unn estren en
;EV HM><V SR DULR<D> @;R DU>R?9V?, BD? RLRGBHD, RE ;EV ?R9M><V SR V><?DED4
C
O
N
S
E
JO
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 13 14"!5"13 12:19
(%
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
min (consutn e cnpituo 2), probnbemente no n vers cnsihcndn como
Afn Cnnis Mnjoris ni siquiern . Cnnis Mnjoris, sino que, pnrn nhorrnr espn4
TMD, HV ?R9M><V HD B;UHMTV TDGD . CMn, qgV R> HV VU?R9MVTME SR <?R> HR<?V>
de Cnnis Mnjoris (y tnmbien se utiizn pnrn nbrevinr Cnnis Mnjor). Te ofrez4
TD HV VU?R9MV<;?V SR TVSV ;EV SR HV> TDE><RHVTMDER> RE HV <VUHV (4=u
hD> V><?EDGD> ED VT;V?DE EDGU?R> R>BRTMVHR> TDGD _M?MD BV?V TVSV
estren de Cnnis Mnjor, nsi que es nsignnron etrns griegns u otros simbo4
HD>u pR ORTOD, VHP;EV> TDE><RHVTMDER> ED <MRERE EM ;EV R><?RHHV UV;<M5VSVu
-eD TVMPV> RE HV <?VGBV SR R>D> VE;ETMD> RE HD> @;R DQ?RTRE BDER? EDG4
bre n unn estren n cnmbio de un precio. Ln Unin Astronmicn Internn4
TMDEVH ED ?RTDEDTR HD> EDGU?R> SR R><?RHHV> TDGB?VSD>u3 oE D<?V> TDE><R4
HVTMDER>, HD> V><?EDGD> V>MPEV?DE HR<?V> P?MRPV>, BR?D BDSVE 9R? G> SR
=%, @;R R> RH EGR?D SR HR<?V> SRH VHQVUR<D P?MRPDu cD? HD <VE<D, HD> V><?4
EDGD> V>MPEV?DE V VHP;EV> R><?RHHV> EGR?D> V?UMPD>, HR<?V> SRH VHQVUR<D
HV<MED D EGR?D> SR TV<HDPD> B?DQR>MDEVHR>u cD? R>D, OV6 R><?RHHV> @;R >R
nmnn 61 Cygni, b Vupecune, HR 1b16, etc. Puede que incuso te encuen4
tres con nombres de estrens como RU Lupi y YY Sex (no me o estoy
ME9RE<VESD3 BR?D, TDGD DT;??R TDE T;VH@;MR? R><?RHHV, HV> B;RSR> ?RTDED4
TR? BD? HV BD>MTME @;R DT;BVE RE RH TMRHD -<VH TDGD VBV?RTRE RE HV> HM><V>
SR R><?RHHV>3, >; U?MHHD, >; TDHD? D BD? D<?V> B?DBMRSVSR>, >M ED HD OVTR>
BD? >;> EDGU?R>u
lD6 RE SV, >M GM?V> HV> TDE><RHVTMDER>, B;RSR> 9R? G;TOV> R7TRBTMDER> V
HV ?RPHV SR @;R HD> EDGU?R> SR HV> HR<?V> P?MRPV> TD??R>BDESRE VH U?MHHD SR
SMTOV> R><?RHHV> RE ;EV TDE><RHVTMEu hV> R7TRBTMDER> R7M><RE BD?@;Ra
! hD> EDGU?R> SR HR<?V> >R UV>VUVE RE MGB?RTM>V> DU>R?9VTMDER> SRH
U?MHHD @;R >R OVTVE V >MGBHR 9M><Vu
! Con os nos, os nutores de os ntns de estrens cnmbinbnn os
HGM<R> SR HV> TDE><RHVTMDER>, SR GDSD @;R VHP;EV> R><?RHHV> BV>VUVE
SR ;EV TDE><RHVTME V D<?V @;R METH;V R><?RHHV> @;R 6V R><VUVE UV;<M4
5VSV>u
! Agunos nstrnomos identihcnron constenciones pequens y de
ORGM>QR?MD >;? SR>B;> SRH BR?DSD P?MRPD, 6 ED >MRGB?R >MP;MR?DE HV
B?T<MTV SR SR>MPEV?HV> GRSMVE<R HR<?V>u
! oH U?MHHD SR VHP;EV> R><?RHHV> OV TVGUMVSD TDE HD> >MPHD> SR>SR @;R >R
?RPM><?V?DE RE HV VE<MP;V m?RTMVu
]E RLRGBHD U;RED -D GVHD3 R> HV TDE><RHVTME \;HBRT;HV -HV XD??V3, RE HV
@;R >HD ;EV R><?RHHV -VHQV3 <MRER ;EV HR<?V P?MRPVu
pVSD @;R VHQV ED >MRGB?R R> HV R><?RHHV G> U?MHHVE<R SR ;EV TDE><RHVTME,
HD> V><?EDGD> ERTR>M<VUVE D<?D <?GMED BV?V SR>T?MUM? R>R R><VSD, 6
RHMPMR?DE HV BVHVU?V H;TMSV -SRH HV<E H;TMS;>, que signihcn brio" o bri4
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 14 14"!5"13 12:19
("
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
nnte"). Ln estren ms brinnte de Cnnis Mnjor es Sirio, n estren nfn,
pero n estren ms brinnte de Orion (e Cnzndor), es Rige, que es Betn
Orionis. Ln estren ms brinnte de Leo Minor, Len Menor (unn consten4
cin pnrticunrmente discretn), es 46 Leonis Minoris.
oE HV <VUHV (4=, VBV?RTRE HV> xx TDE><RHVTMDER>, HV R><?RHHV G> U?MHHVE<R SR
TVSV ;EV 6 HV GVPEM<;S SR R>V R><?RHHVu hV GVPEM<;S R> HV GRSMSV SRH U?MHHD
de unn estren (ms ndennte, en e npnrtndo Cunnto ms pequeo, ms
U?MHHVE<Ra TGD HHRPV? V HV ?V5 SR HV> GVPEM<;SR>, OVUHV? G> >DU?R R><R
temn). Cunndo n estren ms brinnte de unn constencin es n estren
nfn y tiene nombre, so pongo e nombre. Por ejempo, en Aurign, e
Cochero, n estren ms brinnte, Afn Aurigne, es Cnpen. Ln cnmbio,
T;VESD HV R><?RHHV G> U?MHHVE<R ED R> VHQV, MESMTD >; HR<?V P?MRPV ; D<?V
SR>MPEVTME RE<?R BV?E<R>M>u cD? RLRGBHD, HV R><?RHHV G> U?MHHVE<R SR
Cnncer (e Cnngrejo) es Atnrf, que es Betn Cnncri.
_WVIW (5>v iW? UEF?=SIWUNEFS? 7 ?<? S?=@SIIW? H? V@NIIWF=S?
fEHV@S tV@S:NW=<@W "7#479',%3 p?=@SIIW *,#47.-%
Androueda And Andr*ueda
(la Mujer encadenada)
Alferatt 2,1
Antlia Ant Mquina neuutica Alfa Antliae 1,3
Apus Aps Ave del paraiso Alfa Apodis 3,8
Aquarius Aqr Acuario (el portador
de agua)
Sadaluelik 3,0
Aquila Aql \guila Altair 0,8
Ara Ara Altar Altar eta 2,9
Aries Ari Carnero haual 2,0
Auriga Aur Auriga ( el cochero,
conductor de carro
de coubate o de
carreras)
Capella 0,1
ootes oo oyero (el pastor de
bueyes)
Arturo dR1R(
Caeluu Cae Cincel Alfa Caeli 1,5
Cauelopardalis Cau Jirafa eta
Cauelopardalis
1,0
Cancer Cnc Cncer
(el cangrejo)
Altarf (eta
Cancri)
3,5
-TDE<MEV3
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 15 14"!5"13 12:19
(&
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
fEHV@S tV@S:NW=<@W "7#479',%3 p?=@SIIW *,#47.-%
Canes venatici Cvn Lebreles (los perros
de cata)
Cor Caroli 2,8
Canis Major CMa Can Mayor Sirio d01:
Canis Minor CMi Can Menor Froci*n 0,1
Capricornus Cap Capricornio
(la cabra)
eneb Algedi
(elta
Capricorni)
2,9
Carina Car 0uilla Canopus dR1<
Cassiopeia Cas Casiopea (la reina) Schedar 2,2
Centaurus Cen Centauro Figil Kentaurus dR19
Cepheus Cep Cefeo (el rey) Alderauin 2,1
Cetus Cet allena eneb Kaitos
(eta Ceti)
2,0
Chauaeleon Cha Cauale*n Alfa
Chauaeleontis
1,1
Circinus Cir Coups Alfa Circini 3,2
Coluuba Col Faloua Fhakt 2,
Coua
erenices
Cou Cabellera de
erenice
eta Couae
erenices
1,3
Corona
Australis
CrA Corona Austral Alfa Coronae
Australis
1,1
Corona
orealis
Cr Corona oreal Alphekka 2,2
Corvus Crv Cuervo 0ienah (0auua
Corvi)
2,
Crater Crt Copa elta Crateris 3,
Crux Cru Crut Acrux R1<
Cygnus Cyg Cisne eneb 1,3
elphinus el elfin Fotanev
(eta elphini)
3,
orado or orado Alfa oradus 3,3
raco ra rag*n Tuban 91<
Equuleus Equ Caballito Kitalpha 3,9
Eridanus Eri Eridano (el rio) Achernar 0,5
Fornax For Crisol Alfa Fornacis 3,9
-TDE<ME;VTME3
-TDE<MEV3
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 16 14"!5"13 12:19
(#
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
fEHV@S tV@S:NW=<@W "7#479',%3 p?=@SIIW *,#47.-%
0euini 0eu 0euelos F*lux (eta
0euinoruu)
1,1
0rus 0ru 0rulla Alnair 01<
hercules her h;rcules Fas Algethi 2,
horologiuu hor Feloj Alfa horologii 3,9
hydra hay hidra
(la serpiente acutica)
Alfard 2,0
hydrus hyi hidra Macho
(la pequea
serpiente acutica)
eta hydri 2,8
lndus lnd lndio Alfa lndi 3,1
Lacerta Lac Lagarto Alfa Lacertae 3,8
Leo Leo Le*n F;gulo 1,1
Leo Minor LMi Le*n Menor Fraecipua (1
Leo Minoris)
3,8
Lepus Lep Liebre Arneb 2,
Libra Lib alanta Zubenescheuali
(eta Librae)
2,
Lupus Lup Lobo Alfa Lupus 2,3
Lynx Lyn Lince Alfa Lyncis 3,1
Lyra Lyr Lira vega 0,0
Mensa Men Mesa Alfa Mensae 5,1
Microscopiuu Mic Microscopio 0auua
Microscopii
(1<
Monoceros Mon unicornio eta
Monocerotis
91<
Musca Mus Mosca Alfa Muscae B1<
Norua Nor Escuadra 0auua Noruae 1,0
0ctans 0ct 0ctante Nu 0ctantis 3,8
0phiuchus 0ph ;[L-S 3+" QSOM/,SO
de la serpiente)
Fasalhague 2,1
0rion 0ri 0ri*n (el catador) Figel
(eta 0rionis)
0,1
Favo Fav Favo Alfa Favonis 1,9
Fegasus Feg Fegaso (caballo
alado)
Enif (Epsilon
Fegasi)
2,1
-TDE<ME;VTME3
-TDE<MEV3
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 17 14"!5"13 12:19
(y
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
fEHV@S tV@S:NW=<@W "7#479',%3 p?=@SIIW *,#47.-%
Ferseus Fer Ferseo (el h;roe) Mirfak 1,8
Fhoenix Fhe F;nix Ankaa 2,1
Fictor Fic Caballete de pintor Alfa Fictoris 3,2
Fiscis Fsc Fiscis (los peces) Eta Fisciuu 3,
Fisces
Austrinus
FsA Fet Austral Foualhaut 1,2
Fuppis Fup Fopa Zeta Fuppis 2,3
Fyxis Fyx r@jula Alfa Fyxidus 91<
Feticuluu Fet Feticulo Alfa Feticuli 3,1
Sagitta Sge Flecha 0auua Sagittae 3,5
Sagittarius Sgr Sagitario
(el arquero)
Kaus Australis
(EpsilonSagittarii)
1,9
Scorpius Sco Escorpi*n Antares 1,0
Sculptor Scl Escultor Alfa Sculptoris 1,3
Scutuu Sct Escudo Alfa Scuti 3,9
Serpens Ser Serpiente unukalhai B1<
Sextans Sex Sextante Alfa Sextantis 1,5
Taurus Tau Tauro (el toro) Aldebarn 0,9
Telescopiuu Tel Telescopio Alfa
Telescopiuu
3,5
Trianguluu Tri Tringulo eta Trianguli 3,0
Trianguluu
Australe
TrA Tringulo Austral Alfa Trianguli
Australis
1,9
Tucana Tuc Tucn Alfa Tucanae 2,9
ursa Major uMa 0sa Mayor Alioth (Epsilon
ursae Majoris)
1,8
ursa Minor uMi 0sa Menor Folaris 2,0
vela vel vela Suhail al Muhlif
(0auua
veloruu)
1,8
virgo vir virgo (la virgen) Spica 1,0
volans vol Fet volador 0auua volantis 3,
vulpecula vul Zorra Anser 1,1
-TDE<ME;VTME3
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 18 14"!5"13 12:19
(*
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
Te resutnrin mucho ms fci identihcnr estrens si tuviernn pequens
R<M@;R<V> TDE RH EDGU?R @;R B;SMR?V> 9R? V <?V9> SRH <RHR>TDBMD, BR?D,
TDGD GEMGD, ED R> ;EV TMQ?V MESR<R?GMEVSV, TDGD RH EGR?D SR R><?RHHV>
de Hoywood. Si tienes un >GV?<BODER, B;RSR> SR>TV?PV? ;EV VBHMTVTME
que identihque ns estrens por ti. Bnstn con que descnrgues un mnpn
TRHR><R D ;EV VBB SR BHVER<V?MD -TDGD _J6 _VQV?M, _<V? [VHJ, D mDDPHR _J6
Mnp) y enfoques e cieo con e teefono. Ln npicncin genern un mnpn de
HV> TDE><RHVTMDER> RE HV SM?RTTME V HV @;R >R SM?MPR <; <RHQDEDu oE VHP;EV>
VBHMTVTMDER>, T;VESD <DTV> HV MGVPRE SR ;EV R><?RHHV, VBV?RTR >; EDGU?Ru
(Describo ms npicnciones de nstronomin en e cnpituo 2, pnrn ver
MEQD?GVTME SR<VHHVSV >DU?R HV> R><?RHHV>, TDE>;H<V RH TVB<;HD ((u3
H53K %6 @= :3% 1%=( $F?= B'%>4BJ)+8 %@ )+4I@=!=
hS??NS@ 7 E=@E? EVMS=E? USIS?=S?
cDER? EDGU?R V HV> R><?RHHV> Q;R UV><VE<R QTMH BV?V HD> V><?EDGD>u cR?D
@; DT;??R TDE <DSD> R>D> DULR<D> SRH TMRHD, TDGD PVHV7MV>, ERU;HD>V>,
cumuos de estrens y siminres (que comento en n pnrte III) Chnres
Messier (178O-1817), un nstrnomo frnnces, cre unn istn numerndn de
VH?RSRSD? SR TMRE DULR<D> SMQ;>D> RE RH TMRHDu _; HM><V >R TDEDTR TDGD
qV<HDPD gR>>MR?, y, nhorn, cunndo oyes que nmnn n n gnnxin Andrme4
dn por su nombre cientihco, M81, snbes que es e numero 81 de cntogo.
Actunmente, e Cntogo Messier est formndo por 11O objetosu
Puedes encontrnr imgenes y unn istn competn de os objetos Messier en
n web de Cntogo Messier de Students for the Lxporntion nnd Deveop4
GRE< DQ _BVTR, RE 888u>RS>uD?PWGR>>MR?u Y <VGUME BDS?> SR>T;U?M?
cmo obtener un certihcndo por ver objetos Messier de n web de Cub
Messier de n Lign Astronmicn (Astronomicn Lengue) en 888uV><?DHR
VP;RuD?PWVHWDU>TH;U>WGR>>MR?WGR>>uO<GHu
Los nhcionndos n n nstronomin que yn cuentnn con unn ciertn experiencin
sueen pnrticipnr en mnrntones Messier, en ns que cndn uno observn todos
os objetos de Cntogo Messier S;?VE<R ;EV EDTORu oE T;VH@;MR? TV>D, RE
;EV GV?V<E ED <MRER> <MRGBD SR SM>Q?;<V? SR ;EV ERU;HD>V, TG;HD> SR
estrens o gnnxins concretos. Mi consejo es que te o tomes con cnmn y
>VUD?RR> TVSV ;EV SR R><V> GV?V9MHHV> BV?V HV 9M><Vu lV6 ;E HMU?D QVE<><MTD
de Stephen 1. O`Menrn sobre os objetos Messier, en e que se incuyen
TDE>RLD> >DU?R TGD DU>R?9V?HD>, <M<;HVSD pRRB4_J6 qDGBVEMDE>a ^OR gR>4
>MR? dULRT<> (Cnmbridge University Press, 2OOO). Ln espno puedes echnr
;E 9M><V5D V HV DU?V hV gV?V<E gR>>MR?, de Don Mnchhoz (Akn, 2OO8).
Desde os tiempos de Messier, os nstrnomos hnn conhrmndo n existen4
TMV SR GMHR> SR DULR<D> SRH TMRHD B?DQ;ESD, termino que utiiznn os nhcionn4
C
O
N
S
E
JO
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 19 14"!5"13 12:19
>D
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
SD> BV?V TG;HD> SR R><?RHHV>, ERU;HD>V> 6 PVHV7MV>, 6 @;R HD> SM><MEP;RE
de ns estrens y pnnetns. Como Messier no os registr, os nstrnomos
se reheren n dichos objetos por sus numeros, tn y como npnrecen en
D<?D> TV<HDPD>u c;RSR> RETDE<?V? G;TOD> SR R><D> DULR<D> RE;GR?VSD>
en guins de observncin y mnpns de estrens por sus numeros NGC (de
EDGU?R RE MEPH> SR e;R9D qV<HDPD mRER?VH) y de IC -ESMTR SRH qV<HD4
PD3u cD? RLRGBHD, RH U?MHHVE<R TG;HD SDUHR SR cR?>RD, RH O?DR, R>< QD?4
mndo por NGC 86D y NGC 884.
Cunndo te fnmiinrices con ngunos de os objetos Messier, empiezn con
os objetos de Cndwe utiiznndo tu teescopio y hnbiidndes de observn4
cin. Consutn n Listn de Objetos de Progrnmn Cndwe, pubicndn en
estn web de n Astronomicn Lengue: 888uV><?DHRVP;RuD?PWVHWDU>
TH;U>WTVHS8RHHWTHS8HM><uO<GHu oH V><?EDGD U?M<EMTD >M? cV<?MTJ
Moore proporcionn informncin bsicn sobre unn seeccin de 1OD cumu4
HD> SR R><?RHHV>, ERU;HD>V> 6 PVHV7MV> BV?V @;R SM>Q?;<R> SR >; DU>R?9V4
cin. Cunndo ens estn istn, tnmbien te ser uti consutnr n obrn ^OR
qVHS8RHH dULRT<> VES lD8 <D dU>R?9R ^ORG, de Mnrtin Mobberey (Sprin4
ger, 2OOD).
$3+>4= ?I6 <%:3%C=& ?I6 *8B@@+>4%A
UHE IISQW@ W IW @W6 TS IW? HWQFN=<TS?
]E GVBV R><RHV?, ;E SMU;LD SR HV> TDE><RHVTMDER> D ;EV HM><V SR R><?RHHV>
>MRGB?R MESMTV HV GVPEM<;S SR ;EV R><?RHHVu hV> GVPEM<;SR> ?RB?R>RE<VE RH
U?MHHD SR HV> R><?RHHV>u oE HV VE<MP;V m?RTMV, lMBV?TD SM9MSM <DSV> HV> R><?R4
ns que vein en seis cnses. A ns estrens ms brinntes ns nm mngni4
<;S ( D B?MGR?V GVPEM<;S, 6 VH >MP;MRE<R P?;BD SR R><?RHHV> G> U?MHHVE<R>,
R><?RHHV> SR >RP;ESV GVPEM<;S, 6 V> >;TR>M9VGRE<R OV><V HHRPV? V HV> G>
<RE;R>, HV> SR >R7<V GVPEM<;Su
nLV<R RE @;R, VH TDE<?V?MD SR HD @;R DT;??R TDE HV> R>TVHV> 6 ;EMSVSR> SR
GRSMSV G> OVUM<;VHR>, T;VE<D G> U?MHHVE<R R> HV R><?RHHV, GRED? R> >;
GVPEM<;Su hD> P?MRPD> ED R?VE BR?QRT<D>, METH;>D lMBV?TD <REV >; <RESE
de Aquies: en su sistemn, no dej sitio pnrn ns estrens ms brinntes
T;VESD >R GRSVE TDE B?RTM>MEu
Asi, hoy en din, reconocemos ngunns estrens con mngnitud cero o mng4
nitud negntivn. Sirio, por ejempo, tiene unn mngnitud ~1,b. Y e pnnetn
ms brinnte, Venus, n veces es de mngnitud ~4 (e vnor exncto dihere, en
Q;ETME SR HV SM><VETMV V HV @;R R>< \RE;> SR HV ^MR??V RE R>R GDGRE<D 6
>; SM?RTTME ?R>BRT<D VH _DH3u
C
O
N
S
E
JO
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 2! 14"!5"13 12:19
>(
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
Las estrellas de priuera uagnitud son alrede-
dor de cien veces us brillantes que las de
sexta uagnitud. e hecho, las estrellas de
priuera uagnitud son unas 2,512 veces us
brillantes que las de segunda uagnitud, que
sonalrededor de2,512vecesusbrillantesque
las de tercera uagnitud, y asi sucesivauente.
(En la sexta uagnitud, se llega a algunos n@-
ueros grandes. las estrellas de priuera uag-
nitud son unas cien veces us brillantes.) Los
uateuticos que leis esto reconocer;is que
se trata de una C@EQ@S?NF QSEH=@NUWv Cada
uagnitud es la rait quinta de 100 (es decir,
cuando uultiplicas un n@uero por si uisuo
cuatro veces, por ejeuplo, 2,512 c 2,512 c 2,512
c 2,512 c 2,512, el resultado es 100). Si dudas
de ui palabra y haces el clculo por tu cuenta,
te dar una respuesta un poco distinta porque
no he tenido en cuenta algunos deciuales.
For lo tanto, puedes calcular lo tenue que es
unaestrellaencouparaci*nconotrapartiendo
de su uagnitud. Si dos estrellas estn a cinco
uagnitudesdediferencia(porejeuplo, unaest
en la priuera y la otra, en la sexta), se diferen-
cian por un factor de 2,5125 (2,512 elevado a la
quinta potencia), y una buena calculadora de
bolsillo te uuestra que una estrella es cien ve-
ces us brillante. Si dos estrellas estn a seis
uagnitudes de distancia, una es alrededor de
doscientas cincuenta veces us brillante que
la otra. Y, si deseas couparar, por ejeuplo, una
estrella de priuera uagnitud con una de uag-
nitud 11, couputas una diferencia de 2,51210
en el brillo, que es un factor de 1002, o 10.000.
El objeto us tenue visible con el telescopio
espacial m<VVISesalrededor de25uagnitudes
ustenuequelaestrellaustenuequepuedes
ver a siuple vista (suponiendo una visi*n y
habilidades de observaci*n noruales, aunque
algunos expertos y algunos uentirosos y fan-
farrones digan que pueden ver estrellas de
s;ptiua uagnitud). hablando de estrellas te-
nues, las 25 uagnitudes son cinco veces cinco
uagnitudes, loquecorrespondealadiferencia
de brillo de un factor de 1005. For lo tanto, el
telescopio m<VVIS puede ver 100 c 100 c 100 c
100 c 100, o 10 uil uillones de veces cosas us
tenues que el ojo huuano. Los astr*nouos no
esperan uenos de un telescopio que cuesta
LTSN <<: !%""ST+N ,+ +LOSN$
Fuedes conseguir un buen telescopio por
uenos de 800 euros y ver gratis las uejores
fotos del telescopio espacial m<VVIS (que vale
LTSN <<: !%""ST+N ,+ +LOSN= +T %TM+OT+ME
888uO;UUHR>M<RuD?P.
dE@ IE? FHS@E?b IW? HW=SH=NUW? TSI V@NIIE
d<?V DGM>MEa lMBV?TD ED <REV ;EV GVPEM<;S BV?V V>MPEV? V HV> R><?RHHV>
SRGV>MVSD <RE;R> BV?V >R? DU>R?9VSV> V >MGBHR 9M><Vu oE V@;RHHV BDTV,
ED BV?RTV ;E SR>T;MSD BD?@;R EVSMR TDEDTV HV R7M><RETMV SR R><V> R><?R4
HHV> VE<R> SR @;R >R ME9RE<V?V RH <RHR>TDBMDu _ME RGUV?PD, OD6 RE SV, HD>
V><?EDGD> >VURE @;R R7M><RE GMHR> SR GMHHDER> SR R><?RHHV> @;R ED BDSR4
mos ver n simpe vistn. Sus mngnitudes son numeros eevndos: 7 u 8 pnrn
estrens que se observnn fcimente n trnves de unos prismticos, y 1O u
C
U
E
S
T
I
O
N
E
S T

C
N
I
C
A
S
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 21 14"!5"13 12:19
>>
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
(( BV?V R><?RHHV> @;R >R DU>R?9VE TDE ;E U;RE <RHR>TDBMD BR@;RDu hV>
GVPEM<;SR> HHRPVE V >R? <VE RHR9VSV> -6 <VE <RE;R>3 TDGD RH =( BV?V HV>
estrens ms tenues de Lstudio de Cieo de Observntorio de Monte
Pnomnr (Pnomnr Observntory Sky Suvey) y nrededor de 81 pnrn os
DULR<D> G> <RE;R> 9M><D> TDE RH <RHR>TDBMD R>BVTMVH l;UUHRu
9*6%81+ %@ <+6+'= !8+)B+6 + @=6 +C=6 @3,
hV> SM><VETMV> V HV> R><?RHHV> 6 V D<?D> DULR<D> G> VHH SR HD> BHVER<V> SR
E;R><?D _M><RGV _DHV? >R GMSRE RE VD> H;5u Como medidn de ongitud
ren, un no uz equivne n unos D,b biones de kimetros.
hV PRE<R TDEQ;ESR ;E VD H;5 TDE ;EV GRSMSV SR <MRGBD BD?@;R RH <?GM4
ED TDE<MRER HV BVHVU?V VDu _ME RGUV?PD, ;E VD H;5 R> ;EV GRSMSV SR
SM><VETMVa HV HDEPM<;S @;R ?RTD??R HV H;5, GD9MESD>R V <?V9> SRH R>BVTMD
n unos 8OO.OOO kimetros por segundo, durnnte un no.
Cunndo ves un objeto en e espncio, o ves tn como npnreci cunndo n
H;5 SRL RH DULR<Du \RVGD> R><D> RLRGBHD>a
! Cunndo os nstrnomos detectnn unn exposin en e So, no n ve4
mos en tiempo ren, n uz de n exposin tnrdn unos ocho minutos
RE HHRPV? V HV ^MR??Vu
! Ln estren ms prximn, npnrte de So, Prximn Centnuri, est n
;ED> % VD> H;5 SR SM><VETMVu hD> V><?EDGD> ED B;RSRE 9R? c?7MGV
Centnuri tn como es hoy, sino tn y como ern hnce cuntro nos.
! Observn n gnnxin Andrmedn, e objeto ms distnnte que se puede
9R? V >MGBHR 9M><V, RE ;EV EDTOR SR>BRLVSV 6 D>T;?V RE D<DDu hV H;5
@;R ?RTMUR <; DLD SRL R>V PVHV7MV OVTR ;ED> =,& GMHHDER> SR VD>u _M
se produjern un grnn cnmbio en Andrmedn mnnnn, no o snbrin4
GD> OV><V SRE<?D SR G> SR SD> GMHHDER> SR VD>u -oE RH TVB<;HD (=
encontrnrs consejos pnrn observnr Andrmedn y otrns gnnxins
SR><VTVSV>u3
oE ?R>;GREa
! Cunndo observns e espncio, ves e pnsndo.
! hD> V><?EDGD> ED B;RSRE >VUR? TDE R7VT<M<;S T;H R> RH V>BRT<D
@;R <MRER ;E DULR<D RE RH R>BVTMD RE R><R B?RTM>D GDGRE<Du
Cunndo ves estrens grnndes y brinntes de unn gnnxin ejnnn, contem4
BHV n posibiidnd de que esns estrens yn no existnn. Agunns estrens
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 22 14"!5"13 12:19
>+
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
La Tierra se encuentra a unos 150 uillones
de kil*uetros del Sol, es decir, a una <FNTWT
W?=@EFHNUW (ua o au, en ingl;s). Las distan-
cias entre objetos del Sisteua Solar suelen
darse en unidades astron*uicas. Su plural
taubi;n es ua.
Al hacer declaracionesp@blicas, couunicados
de prensa y en libros de divulgaci*n, los astr*-
nouos sealan a qu; distancia de la Tierra
estn las estrellas y las galaxias que estudian.
En caubio, entre ellos y en revistas t;cnicas,
sieupre dan las distancias uedidas desde el
Sol, el centro de nuestro Sisteua Solar. Esta
discrepancia rara vet iuporta porque los as-
tr*nouos no pueden uedir las distancias de
"/N +NMO+""/N -ST NL[-%+TM+ QO+-%N%bT Q/O/ PL+
unaauusouenoscaubiealgo, perolohacen
asi para uantener la coherencia.
^W</ fE- FE- A<NS@E TSUN@ W<
mnsivns so viven 1O o 2O miones de nos. Si ns ves en unn gnnxin que
est n bO miones de nos uz de distnncin, o que ests mirnndo son es4
<?RHHV> MEVT<M9V>u YV ED U?MHHVE RE R>V PVHV7MV, R><E G;R?<V>u
_M HD> V><?EDGD> RE9MV?VE ;E SR><RHHD SR H;5 OVTMV ;EV SR HV> PVHV7MV>
G> SM><VE<R> RETDE<?VSV> TDE RH l;UUHR ; D<?D> P?VESR> <RHR>TDBMD>, HV
H;5 <V?SV?V GMHR> SR GMHHDER> SR VD> RE HHRPV?u _ME RGUV?PD, HD> V><?ED4
GD> TVHT;HVE @;R RH _DH V;GRE<V? SR>TDG;EVHGRE<R SR <VGVD 6 SR>4
<?;M? HV 9MSV SR HV ^MR??V SRE<?D SR >DHVGRE<R ;ED> TMETD GMH D >RM> GMH
GMHHDER> SR VD>, V> @;R SMTOV H;5 >R?V ;E VE;ETMD ME<MH SR HV R7M><RETMV
de nuestrn civiizncin, unn mern nnecdotn, or de un din.
fE TSMS? TS HE:S@=Sb W:S@NQ<W IW CE?NUNF
TS IW? S?=@SIIW?
Ln e pnsndo, os nstrnomos nmnbnn n ns estrens estrens hjns pnrn
SMQR?RETMV?HV> SR HD> BHVER<V>, B;R> R><D> H<MGD> >R GD9VEu eD DU><VE<R,
HV> R><?RHHV> <VGUME R><E RE GD9MGMRE<D TDE><VE<R, <VE<D ?RVH TDGD VBV4
?RE<Ru ^DSD RH TMRHD PM?V >DU?R ED>D<?D> BD?@;R HV ^MR??V PM?Vu hV> R><?RHHV>
>VHRE 6 >R BDERE, TDGD RH _DH 6 HV h;EV, BR?D GVE<MRERE >; QD?GVTMEu hV>
estrens que formnn pnrte de n Osn Mnyor no se vnn n Cnn Menor o Acun4
?MDu hV> SM9R?>V> TDE><RHVTMDER> VBV?RTRE RE GDGRE<D> 6 QRTOV> SM><ME<D>,
TDGD >R B;RSR DU>R?9V? SR>SR SMQR?RE<R> H;PV?R> SR HV ^MR??Vu
C
U
E
S
T
I
O
N
E
S T

C
N
I
C
A
S
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 23 14"!5"13 12:19
>%
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
pR ORTOD, HV> R><?RHHV> SR HV d>V gV6D? -6 SR T;VH@;MR? D<?V TDE><RHVTME3
>R G;R9RE ;EV> ?R>BRT<D V D<?V>u sSRG>, HD OVTRE V 9RHDTMSVSR> V>DG4
U?D>V> @;R >R GMSRE RE TMRE<D> SR JMHGR<?D> BD? >RP;ESDu qDGD R>V>
-POQ-""1P -POaV O1V "-&UP3 "UP /'-VO_]/UP V-/-P'O1V !-.'.1P SQ-/'P1P .NQ1V4
<R ME<R?9VHD> SR <MRGBD TDE>MSR?VUHR> BV?V SR<RT<V? >;> GD9MGMRE<D> RE
RH R>BVTMDu cD? HD <VE<D, SRE<?D SR 9RME<R GMH VD>, HV> R><?RHHV> SR HV d>V
>1GUQ +UQ!1QaV NV1 ])NQ1 .'PO'VO1 -V -" /'-"U 6RN'DaP 'V/"NPU S1Q-D/1V
;EV d>V gV6D?3u
gMRE<?V> <VE<D, HD> V><?EDGD> OVE GRSMSD HV> BD>MTMDER> SR GMHHDER> SR
R><?RHHV> 6 G;TOV> SR RHHV> R><E ?RTDPMSV> RE TV<HDPD> R MESMTVSV> RE
HD> GVBV> R><RHV?R>u hV> BD>MTMDER> >R ?RPM><?VE RE ;E >M><RGV SREDGMEV4
SD V>TRE>ME ?RT<V 6 SRTHMEVTME, TDEDTMSV> BD? <DSD> HD> V><?EDGD>,
1]/'UV1.UP G SQU+-P'UV1"-P3 /U!U K9 G C-/H
! @1 K9 -P "1 SUP'/'`V .- NV1 -POQ-""1 !-.'.1 -V "1 .'Q-//'`V -PO-?U-PO-
RE RH TMRHD -MP;VH @;R HV HDEPM<;S, HV BD>MTME SR ;E H;PV? SR HV ^MR??V
GRSMSD VH R><R D VH DR><R SRH GR?MSMVED B?METMBVH SR m?RRE8MTO, kEPHV4
<R??V3u
! hV pRT R> HV BD>MTME SR HV R><?RHHV GRSMSV RE SM?RTTME ED?<R4>;?,
TDGD HV HV<M<;S SR ;EV TM;SVS, @;R >R GMSR VH ED?<R D VH >;? SRH
oT;VSD?u
@UP 1POQ`VU!UP PN-"-V Q-)'POQ1Q "1 K9 -V NV'.1.-P .- (UQ1P3 !'VNOUP
G P-)NV.UP3 /U!U -" O'-!SU% @1 .-/"'V1/'`V P- ]&1 -V )Q1.UP3 !'VNOUP G
>RP;ESD> SR V?TDu eD9RE<V P?VSD> QD?GVE ;E EP;HD ?RT<D, &C GME;<D> SR
V?TD R@;M9VHRE V ;E P?VSD 6 &C >RP;ESD> SR V?TD >DE ;E GME;<D SR V?TDu
]E GME;<D D ;E >RP;ESD SR V?TD <VGUME >R >;RHRE SREDGMEV? V?TDGME;4
<D D V?TD>RP;ESD ?R>BRT<M9VGRE<Ru
BPO1P P-V/'""1P Q-)"1P RN'Da O- 1GN.-V 1 Q-/UQ.1Q /`!U +NV/'UV1V "1 K9 G
"1 C-/ G /`!U "--Q NV !1S1 -PO-"1Q 6/UVPN"O1 "1 ])NQ1 2?;=H
! oH cDHD eD?<R qRHR><R -ceq3 R> RH H;PV? VH @;R VB;E<V RH RLR SR HV ^MR4
QQ1 -V .'Q-//'`V VUQO-% 8' -POaP -V -" SU"U VUQO- )-U)Qa]/U3 -" :<F
R>< L;><D RETMGV SR ED>D<?D> ->M 9V> VHH, >VH;SV V cVB eDRH SR GM
BV?<R, BR?D <RE T;MSVSD BD?@;R B;RSR @;R R><> RE ;E <R??RED BRHM4
)QUPU3 G1 RN- VU (1G O'-QQ1 -V -" SU"U VUQO- )-U)Qa]/U=%
! oH cDHD _;? qRHR><R -c_q3 R> RH H;PV? VH @;R VB;E<V RH RLR SR HV ^MR??V
-V .'Q-//'`V PNQ% 8' -POaP -V -" SU"U PNQ )-U)Qa]/U3 -" :8F -POa
L;><D RETMGV SR ED>D<?D>u o>BR?D @;R <R OV6V> VU?MPVSD UMRE BD?@;R
R><> RE HV sE<?<MSV.
C
O
N
L
A
V
I
S
T
A
E
NE
L
C
I
E
L
O
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 24 16"!5"13 12:53
>"
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
una estrella con una AF 2h00u00s est a dos
horas al este de una estrella con AF0h00u00s,
independienteuente de sus declinaciones. La
AF auuenta de oeste a este a partir de la AF
0h00u00s, que corresponde a una linea en el
cielo (de hecho, es uedio circulo, centrado en
el centro de la Tierra) desde el Folo Norte
Celeste al Folo Sur Celeste. La priuera estrella
puede estar en la ec 30S norte y la segunda,
en la ec 15S 25'12" sur, pero siguen estando
a dos horas de distancia en direcci*n este-
oeste (y a 15S 25'12" de distancia en direcci*n
norte-sur). El Folo Norte y Sur Celestes son
puntos en el cielo (hacia el norte y hacia el sur)
alrededor de los cuales parece que gire todo
el cielo, con las estrellas apareciendo y ocul-
tndose.
Fecuerda los siguientes detalles sobre las
unidades AF y ec.
! una hora de AF es igual a un arco de 15 en
el ecuador del cielo. veinticuatro horas de
AF cubren el cielo y 21 c 15 = 30, o un
circulo coupleto alrededor del cielo. un
uinutodeAF, denouinadoHNF<=ETS=NSHCE-
es una uedida de un ngulo en el cielo que
N+ -S!QST+ ,+ 0WGR ,+ LT/ &SO/ ,+ H6$ ?N
,+-%O1 0:` _ GR1 S 0W(`$ 2T N+'LT,S ,+ H61
o un ?SQ<FTE TS =NSHCE, es sesenta veces
us pequeo que un uinuto de tieupo.
! La ec se uide en grados, couo los grados
de un circulo, y en uinutos y segundos de
arco. ungradocoupletoesalrededordedos
veces el tauao aparente o angular de la
luna llena. Cada grado se divide en 0 ui-
nutos de arco. Tanto el Sol couo la Luna
tienen un ancho de aproxiuadauente 32
uinutos de arco (32'), tal y couo se ve en
el cielo, a pesar de que, en realidad, el Sol
sea uucho uayor que la Luna. Cada uinu-
todearcosedivideen0 segundos dearco
(0"). Cuando uiras a trav;s de un telesco-
pio de jardin con un auuento elevado, la
turbulencia del aire enturbia la iuagen de
la estrella. En condiciones buenas (turbu-
lencia baja), la iuagen deberia uedir 1" o
BY ,+ /T-&S$ ?NMS N%'T%[-/ 0 S B N+'LT,SN
de arco, no 1 o 2 pulgadas.
p?=<TNE SF C@ER<FTNTWT TS IW ta 7 IW qSU
! Lns inens imnginnrins de AR igunes ntrnviesnn e PNC y e PSC como
semicircuos centrndos en e centro de n Tierrn. A pesnr de ser imn4
PMEV?MV>, VBV?RTRE RE HV GV6D?V SR HD> GVBV> TRHR><R> BV?V V6;SV? V
RETDE<?V? HV> R><?RHHV> RE V>TRE>MDER> ?RT<V> TDET?R<V>u
! hV> HERV> MGVPMEV?MV> @;R <MRERE HV GM>GV SRTHMEVTME, TDGD HV HERV
de cieo que mnrcn n Dec de 8O norte, pnsn por encimn de ns ntitu4
des geogrhcns correspondientes. Por o tnnto, si ests en Nuevn
YD?J, HV<M<;S %( norte, e punto sobre tu cnbezn siempre est en Dec
%( norte, n pesnr de que su nscensin rectn cnmbie constnntemente
V GRSMSV @;R PM?R HV ^MR??Vu o><V> HERV> MGVPMEV?MV> VBV?RTRE RE HD>
GVBV> SR R><?RHHV>, <VGUME, TDGD T?T;HD> SR SRTHMEVTMEu
C
U
E
S
T
I
O
N
E
S T

C
N
I
C
A
S
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 25 14"!5"13 12:19
>&
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
Supongnmos que quieres encontrnr e PNC desde tu jnrdin. Cocnte hncin
RH ED?<R 6 GM?V V ;EV VH<M<;S SR 7 P?VSD>, SDESR 7 es tu ntitud geogrhcn.
Pnrto de n bnse de que vives en Americn de Norte, Luropn o en ngun
B;E<D SRH ORGM>QR?MD ED?<Ru _M 9M9R> RE RH ORGM>QR?MD >;?, ED BDS?> 9R? RH
PNC. Ln cnmbio, puedes buscnr e PSC. Hnn e punto hncin e sur cuyn
VH<M<;S RE RH TMRHD, GRSMSV RE P?VSD> BD? RETMGV SRH OD?M5DE<R, >RV MP;VH V
tu ntitud geogrhcn.
Prcticnmente en todos os ibros de nstronomin, e simboo signihcn
>RP;ESD> SR V?TD, ED B;HPVSV>u oE T;VH@;MR? TV>D, RE <DSV> HV> ;EM9R?>M4
SVSR> >MRGB?R OV6 ;E R><;SMVE<R SR HV V>MPEV<;?V SR kE<?DS;TTME V HV
V><?DEDGV @;R R>T?MUR RE RH R7VGREa hV MGVPRE SR HV R><?RHHV R?V SR
nproximndnmente 1 pugndn de dimetro." Comprender siempre es mu4
TOD GRLD? @;R GRGD?M5V?, BR?D ED <DSD RH G;ESD HD RE<MRESRu
cR?D <REPD ;EV U;REV ED<MTMVa >M >HD @;MR?R> 9R? HV> TDE><RHVTMDER>
6 HD> BHVER<V>, ED R> ERTR>V?MD @;R >RBV> ;<MHM5V? HV V>TRE>ME ?RT<V 6 HV
SRTHMEVTMEu rV><V TDE @;R TDE>;H<R> ;E GVBV R><RHV? SMU;LVSD BV?V HV
semnnn o e mes nctunes (puedes encontrnr estos mnpns en n web de
_J6 | ^RHR>TDBR D RE HV> SR HV> ?R9M><V> @;R GRETMDED RE RH TVB<;HD =,
<VGUME B;RSR> ;<MHM5V? ;E B?DP?VGV SR BHVER<V?MD SR R>T?M<D?MD BV?V <;
D?SREVSD? BR?>DEVH D ;EV VBHMTVTME SR BHVER<V?MD BV?V <; <VUHR< D >GV?<4
BODER, te recomiendo progrnmns, webs y npicnciones en e cnpituo 2).
pR <DSV> QD?GV>, >M @;MR?R> >VUR? TGD Q;ETMDEVE HD> TV<HDPD> 6 HD>
mnpns de estrens y cmo identihcnr gnnxins tenues con tu teescopio, es
<MH @;R TDGB?RESV> R><R >M><RGVu
_M TDGB?V> ;ED SR R>D> <RHR>TDBMD> E;R9D>, 9M><D>D> 6 >D?B?RESRE<RGRE4
te nsequibes con contro informtico (consutn e cnpituo 8), puedes
GV?TV? HV V>TRE>ME ?RT<V 6 HV SRTHMEVTME SR ;E TDGR<V SR>T;UMR?<D OVTR
BDTD 6 RH <RHR>TDBMD VB;E<V? SM?RT<VGRE<R VH TDGR<V -TVSV 9R5 @;R VBV4
?RTR ;E E;R9D TDGR<V, >R METH;6R ;EV BR@;RV <VUHV SREDGMEVSV RQRG?M4
SR>. Se indicn n AR y n Dec previstns de cometn en noches sucesivns n
GRSMSV @;R UV??R RH TMRHD3u
C
O
N
L
A
V
I
S
T
A
E
NE
L
C
I
E
L
O
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 26 14"!5"13 12:19
>#
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
iW Q@W:STWTb <FW R<S@6W A<S PW7 A<S =SFS@
SF U<SF=W
Desde e trnbnjo renizndo por sir Isnnc Newton, e cientihco inges (1642-
1727), n nstronomin hn girndo en torno n n grnvednd. Newton expic n
P?V9RSVS TDGD ;EV Q;R?5V RE<?R SD> DULR<D>u hV Q;R?5V SRBRESR SR HV
mnsn y de n sepnrncin. Cunnto ms gignntesco sen e objeto, ms poten4
te ser su ntrnccin. Cunnto mnyor sen n distnncin, ms debi ser n
ntrnccin grnvitncionn. No hny dudn de que Newton ern isto!
Abert Linstein desnrro unn teorin mejorndn de n grnvednd, que supe4
rn pruebns experimentnes que suspende n teorin de Newton. Ln teorin
de Newton fue o suhcientemente buenn pnrn n grnvednd que suee ex4
BR?MGRE<V?>R, TDGD HV Q;R?5V @;R OM5D @;R HR TV6R?V HV GVE5VEV RE HV
POLO
NORTE
CELESTE
POLO SUR
CELESTE
ECUADOR
CELESTE
ECLPTICA
EQUINOCCIO
VERNAL
oNQ<@W (5+b
@+-S,%[-
caci*n de
la esfera
celeste
para
encontrar
la direc-
ci*n en el
espacio
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 27 14"!5"13 12:19
>y
dW@=S lb eV?S@:SHE? SI UE?HE?2222222222222222222222222222222222222
TVUR5V ->M R> @;R DT;??M SR 9R?SVS3u _ME RGUV?PD, RE D<?D> V>BRT<D>, HV
teorin de Newton ern imprecisn. Ln teorin de Linstein es mejor porque
ndenntn todo o que Newton predijo correctnmente, pero tnmbien otros
RQRT<D> @;R >R SVE TR?TV SR DULR<D> GV>M9D> RE HD> @;R HV P?V9RSVS R>
G;6 Q;R?<Ru oME><RME TDE>MSR?VUV @;R HV P?V9RSVS ED R?V ;EV Q;R?5V, >MED
HV T;?9V<;?V SRH R>BVTMD 6 RH <MRGBD SRUMSD V HV GR?V B?R>RETMV SR
;E DULR<D GV>M9D, TDGD ;EV R><?RHHVu cD? > >DHV, R>V MSRV 6V R> R7<?VD?4
SMEV?MVu
L concepto de grnvednd de Newton expicn o siguiente:
! cD? @; HV h;EV SR>T?MUR ;EV ?UM<V VH?RSRSD? SR HV ^MR??V, BD? @; HV
^MR??V D?UM<V VH?RSRSD? SRH _DH, BD? @; RH _DH D?UM<V VH?RSRSD? SRH
TRE<?D SR HV \V hT<RV, 6 BD? @; G;TOD> D<?D> DULR<D> D?UM<VE VH?R4
SRSD? SR VHPE D<?D DULR<D RE RH R>BVTMDu
! cD? @; ;EV R><?RHHV D ;E BHVER<V >DE R>Q?MTD>u
! cD? @; RH PV> 6 RH BDH9D RE RH R>BVTMD B;RSRE VP?;BV?>R BV?V QD?GV?
E;R9V> R><?RHHV>u
hV <RD?V SR HV P?V9RSVS SR oME><RME, HV <RD?V SR HV ?RHV<M9MSVS, R7BHMTV HD
>MP;MRE<Ra
! cD? @; HV> R><?RHHV> 9M>MUHR> B?7MGV> VH _DH, S;?VE<R ;E RTHMB>R
<D<VH, BV?RTRE HMPR?VGRE<R VHRLVSV> SR BD>MTMEu
! cD? @; R7M><RE VP;LR?D> ERP?D>u
! cD? @; R7M><R ;EV HRE<R P?V9M<VTMDEVH T;VESD DU>R?9VGD> RH R>BVTMD
B?DQ;ESDu
! cD? @;, T;VESD HV ^MR??V PM?V, V??V><?V RH R>BVTMD 6 RH <MRGBD V >;
nrededor, un efecto que os cientihcos hnn comprobndo con nyudn
SR >V<HM<R> @;R D?UM<VE VH?RSRSD? SR HV ^MR??Vu
dU<RES?> G> MEQD?GVTME >DU?R HD> VP;LR?D> ERP?D> RE HD> TVB<;HD> ((
y 18 y estudinrs en que consisten ns entes grnvitncionnes en os cnpitu4
os 11, 14 y 1b sin que necesites dominnr n teorin de n rentividnd.
_R?> G> HM><D >M <R HRR> <DSD> HD> TVB<;HD> SR R><R HMU?D, BR?D <;> VGMPD>
ED <R HHVGV?E oME><RME >M ED <R SRLV> T?RTR? RH BRHD, <R BV>RV> TDE ;E LR?4
>R6 9MRLD 6 ?VSD, 6 >VTV> HV HREP;V T;VESD <R OVTRE ;EV QD<Du
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 28 14"!5"13 12:19
>*
222222222 rWC=<IE (b rHE :S@ IW I<6b SI W@=S 7 IW UNSFUNW TS IW W?=@EFEHW
pI S?CWUNEb <FW UEFHEUNF TS HE:NHNSF=E
oE RH R>BVTMD, <DSD >R G;R9R 6 PM?Vu hD> DULR<D> ED B;RSRE BR?GVERTR?
MEG9MHR>u pRUMSD V HV P?V9RSVS, HD> T;R?BD> TRHR><R> R><E >MRGB?R RLR?4
TMRESD ;EV Q;R?5V >DU?R ;EV R><?RHHV, BHVER<V, PVHV7MV D EV9R R>BVTMVHu
Agunos de nosotros nos creemos e centro de universo, pero e universo
ED <MRER TRE<?Du
cD? RLRGBHD, HV ^MR??Va
! mM?V >DU?R >; RLR -HD @;R TDEDTRGD> TDGD ?D<VTME3 6 <V?SV ;E SV RE
SV? ;EV 9;RH<V RE<R?Vu
! d?UM<V VH?RSRSD? SRH _DH -HD @;R TDEDTRGD> TDGD <?V>HVTME3 6 <V?SV
;E VD RE ?RTD??R? ;EV ?UM<V TDGBHR<Vu
! \MVLV TDE RH _DH RE ;EV ?UM<V RED?GR VH?RSRSD? SRH TRE<?D SR HV \V
hT<RVu oH 9MVLR S;?V VH?RSRSD? SR ==& GMHHDER> SR VD> 6 HV S;?VTME
SR SMTOD 9MVLR ?RTMUR RH EDGU?R SR VD PVHT<MTDu
! _R G;R9R TDE HV \V hT<RV RE ;EV <?V6RT<D?MV VH?RSRSD? SRH TRE<?D
SRH m?;BD hDTVH SR mVHV7MV>, ;E BV? SR SDTREV> SR PVHV7MV> SR E;R>4
<?D H;PV? SRH ;EM9R?>Du
! _R G;R9R V <?V9> SRH ;EM9R?>D TDE RH m?;BD hDTVH BV?V QD?GV? BV?<R
SRH nH;LD SR l;UUHR, HV R7BVE>ME PRER?VH SRH R>BVTMD TV;>VSV BD? RH
rMP rVEPu
oH rMP rVEP R> RH QREGRED @;R SMD D?MPRE VH ;EM9R?>D R OM5D @;R >R
R7BVESV V ;E ?M<GD 9R?<MPMED>Du hV> <RD?V> G> SR<VHHVSV> >DU?R RH
rMP rVEP R7BHMTVE G;TOD> SR HD> QREGRED> DU>R?9VSD> 6 OVE HDP?V4
SD B?RSRTM? VHP;ED> D<?D> @;R ED >R OVUVE DU>R?9VSD VE<R> SR @;R
TM?T;HV?VE R><V> <RD?V>u -cV?V DU<RER? G> MEQD?GVTME >DU?R RH rMP
rVEP 6 D<?D> V>BRT<D> SRH ;EM9R?>D, TDE>;H<V HV BV?<R k\u3
Te ncuerdns de Ginger Rogers Cunndo bninbn en ns peicuns, hncin o
mismo que Ired Astnire, pero o hncin hncin ntrs. Igun que Ginger y Ired,
HV h;EV >MP;R <DSD> HD> GD9MGMRE<D> SR HV ^MR??V -V;E@;R ED >RV OVTMV
V<?>3, R7TRB<D HV ?D<VTME SR HV ^MR??V, BD?@;R HV h;EV PM?V G> SR>BVTMD,
VB?D7MGVSVGRE<R ;EV 9R5 VH GR>u Y ?RVHM5V >;> <V?RV> GMRE<?V> PM?V VH?R4
SRSD? SR HV ^MR??V -TD>V @;R OVTR VH?RSRSD? SR ;EV 9R5 VH GR>3u
Y <, TDGD BR?>DEV @;R R>< RE HV ^MR??V, BV?<MTMBV> RE HD> GD9MGMRE<D>
SR ?D<VTME, <?V>HVTME, ?UM<V VH?RSRSD? SRH TRE<?D PVHT<MTD, T?;TR?D> SRH
m?;BD hDTVH 6 R7BVE>ME T>GMTVu lVTR> <DSD R>D GMRE<?V> 9V> VH <?VUVLD
RE TDTOR, <VE<D >M R?R> TDE>TMRE<R SR RHHD TDGD >M EDu cSRHR V <; LRQR @;R
<REPV ;E BDTD SR TDE>MSR?VTME HV B?7MGV 9R5 @;R HHRP;R> ;ED> GME;<D>
<V?SRu
!32-ASTRONOMIA PARA DUMMIES !1#ndd 29 14"!5"13 12:19
((()%&"&$+''*#!)#!
IDIOMAS
RELACIONES
AUTOAYUDA
032-109498-HBLR PUBLICO DUMMIES 001-156.indd 149 23/04/13 13:09
((()%&"&$+''*#!)#!
OCIOY AFICIONES
032-109498-HBLR PUBLICO DUMMIES 001-156.indd 150 23/04/13 13:09
((()%&"&$+''*#!)#!
INFORMTICA
FINANZAS PERSONALES
ESPIRITUALIDAD
MANAGEMENT
032-109498-HBLR PUBLICO DUMMIES 001-156.indd 151 23/04/13 13:09
((()%&"&$+''*#!)#!
CULTURA GENERAL
SALUD
032-109498-HBLR PUBLICO DUMMIES 001-156.indd 152 23/04/13 13:09