Optics refers to the field of study of light. Light is one of seven groups of electromagnetic wave and has its own range of frequency that differs with other e.m. waves. Why does the word geometrical optics is used in this topic? The word geometrical optics is used because in this topic two phenomena regarding to light (reflection and refraction) are studied with its aim is to determine the properties of image produced. One of the methods to determine the properties is by using graphical method known as the ray diagram. To use this method, a geometry set (such as metre rule, protractor and a pair of compasses) because to draw the diagram, the scale as well as the shape of the medium surfaces must be drawn perfectly to make sure the position of the image produced is exactly at the right place. There are three possible types of image property: o realvirtual, o uprightinverted, o magnifieddiminishedsame size as the object. Beside graphical method, the properties of image also can be determined by using mathematical method that based on formula (dependst on the sign conventions).
The position and the properties of image due to these all types of surface can be determined by using either the ray diagram or formula of reflection: 1/f = 1/u + 1/v where f = focal length, u = object distance, v = image distance.
The magnification of image: M = v/u. For convex mirror, three basic information must be known: o all parallel incident rays which incident on the convex mirror will be diverged. o the focal point of the convex mirror is located behind the mirror which means that f is negatively assigned. o the properties of image are fixed no matter where the object is located in front of the convex mirror : virtual (located behind the mirror), upright, diminished. However, the position of the image does depend on the object distant.
Reflection of light refers to the return of all or part of light rays when incident on the boundary of a medium. The reflection of light happens on all types of media especially mirror. In order to determine the properties of image due to reflection, two laws of reflection must be obeyed especially if the ray diagram is used: o incident angle = reflected angle, o incident ray, reflected ray and normal line all lie on the same plane.
normal line
For concave mirror, three basic information must be known: o all parallel incident rays which incident on the concave mirror will be converged. o the focal point of the concave mirror is located in front the mirror which means that f is positively assigned. o the position and the properties of image are variable and surely depend on the object distance. Refraction of light refers to the change in the direction suffered by wave front of light as it passes obliquely from one medium to another in which its speed of propagation is changed. The refraction of light happens on all the transparent media especially glass.
To simplify the investigation of reflection, two types of mirror are studied : plane mirror and spherical mirror (convex mirror and concave mirror).
In order to determine the properties of image due to refraction, two laws of refraction must be obeyed especially if the ray diagram is used: o incident ray, refracted ray and normal line all lie on the same plane, o ratio: sin i / sin r = n2 / n1 = c / v = 1 / 2 with n2 = refractive index of refracted medium, n1 = refractive index if incident medium. This statement is known as the Snells law.
the properties of image are fixed no matter where the object is located in front of the concave glass: virtual (located in front the glass), upright. However, the position of the image does depend on the object distant.
For convex glass, three basic information must be known: o all parallel incident rays which incident on the convex glass will be converged. o the radius of curvature of the convex glass is located behind the glass which means that r is positively assigned. o the position and the properties of image are variable and surely depend on the object distant. Besides, the relationship between radius of curvature and focal length is as follow : r = 2f Thin lens refers to a glass consisting of two surfaces where the thickness of the lens is relatively small compared the radius of curvature of the two surfaces. There are several types of lens: biconvex lens, biconcave lens, meniscus convex lens, meniscus concave lens, planoconvex lens and planoconcave lens. Since a lens has two surfaces, the incident ray will undergo twice refraction. Every surface has respective focal point. It seems that a lens has two focal points (and focal lengths). Therefore, the actual focal length, f of the lens must be determined by using a special formula known as the lens makers equation: 1/f = ((n2 / n1) 1)(1/r1 + 1/r2) where n2 = refractive index of the lens, n1 = refractive index of medium surround the lens.
n2 > n1
n2 < n1
The frequency of light never changed when passing through different media. To simplify the investigation of refraction, three types of glass are studied: plane glass, single spherical glasses (convex glass and concave glass) and thin lenses. The position and the properties of image due to these all types of surface (excluding thin lenses) can be determined by using either the ray diagram or formula of refraction: n1/u + n2/v = (n2 n1)/r where n1 = refractive index of the medium where the object is located. r = radius of curvature. For plane glass, two basic information must be known: o the radius of curvature of the plane mirror is located at infinity, which means that r = . o the properties of image are fixed no matter where the object is located in front of the plane mirror: virtual (located behind the mirror), upright. However, the position of the image does depend on the object distant. For concave glass, three basic information must be known: o all parallel incident rays which incident on the concave glass will be diverged. o the radius of curvature of the concave glass is located in front the glass which means that r is negatively assigned.
n1 n2
Moreover, this formula also can be used to identify the lens material. When the focal length of the lens is determined, then the position as well as the properties of the image can now be determined, whether by using ray diagram or a formula known as the lens formula: 1/f = 1/u + 1/v with magnification, M = v/u
For a system that consists of more than two lenses, two process of refraction occurred. The st image produced by the 1 lens acts as the object nd for the 2 lens. The final magnification equals the product of individual magnification of the both lenses: M = M1M2 where M1 = magnification by lens 1, M2 = magnification by lens 2.
Optics refers to the field of study of light. Light is one of seven groups of electromagnetic wave and has its own range of frequency that differs with other e.m. waves. Why the word physical optics is used in this topic? The word physical optics is used because in this topic, two more phenomena related to light (that are interference and diffraction) are being studied with its aim is to draw and explain the patterns produced from that phenomena where the physical property of light, i.e. wave must be applied.
Diffraction of light (leads to make an image unclear @ blur) refers to a phenomenon of the spreading of light over its geometrical region as they pass through an obstacle or an aperture whose the size of which are comparable to its wavelength (a ). If the width of the aperture (or slit) is wide enough (a >> ), then the diffraction is said no happen. The patterns of diffraction produced are also depending on the setting of the optical devices made. In this topic, 2 types of diffraction pattern are studied respectively through o a single slit, o a device called the diffraction grating. And surely, for every case, 4 basic things must be known: o schematic diagram of the optical devices, o the drawing of the interference pattern, o the pair of equation (for constructive @ maximum and destructive @ minimum), o the explanations about the pattern. These all information is summarized in TABLE 1 and FIGURE 2. Besides, the investigation on the spectrum of light using a diffraction grating is also made.
Interference of light refers to a phenomenon occurred when two or more light waves overlapped in the same space. In order to produce the pattern of interference, two conditions must be obeyed: o the waves must be coherent, which have the same frequency (or wavelength) and fixed phase different. o the principle of superposition is applied. There are 2 types of interference: o constructive interference (which is related to the bright image) that occurred if the two waves are inphase. o destructive interference (which is related to the dark image that occurred if the two waves are antiphase.
The patterns of interference produced depend on the setting of the optical devices made. In this topic, 4 types of interference pattern are studied respectively through the: o double slits, o thin films of different media, o air wedge, o interference pattern known as the Newtons rings. For every case, 4 basic things must be known : o schematic diagram of the optical devices, o the drawing of the interference pattern, o the pair of equation (for constructive and destructive), o the explanations about the pattern. These all information is summarized in TABLE 1 and FIGURE 1. Besides, the changing upon the pattern (such as the number of fringes observed, the thickness of fringes, ect.) when one of the physical factors is changed, is also investigated.
The phenomenon of diffraction also is relating to the sharpness of an image. A sharp image is said to have high resolution. The resolution (sharpness) of an image depends on the spreading angle (or angle of diffraction), of light which means that the diffraction with bigger will produce higher blur and thus producing an image of less clear. This angle moreover, is directly proportional to the magnitude of the wavelength, of the light used. As a conclusion, a clearer image is coming from a shorter wavelength of light. TABLE 2 below shows the main differences between the pattern of interference and diffraction : Interference The thickness of all fringes is the same. All bright fringes have the same level of intensity. Diffraction The thickness between bright and dark fringes is obviously different. The intensity is higher for bright fringes that are closer to the centre.
FIGURE 1 : Schematic diagram of the setting of the optical devices & Interference patterns. a) Young Double Slit :
m 4 3
m 3 2 1 (2 dark) 0 (1 dark) 0 1 2
st nd
2 1
d Q R
0 1 2
b)
Thin Film :
c)
Air Wedge :
m= m' = 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 bright fringe 1 dark fringe
st st
d)
Newtons Rings :
FIGURE 2 : Schematic diagram of the setting of the optical devices & Diffraction patterns. a) Single Slit :
m=3 m=2
1 1
y1 y1
21
S2
2
1 1
m=1
y1 y1
21
b)
Diffraction Grating :
m=0
m=2 m=3
m=1
Table 1 : Formula for Interference and Diffraction Apparatus Formula Bright ym = Dark Pattern Symmetrical fringes. Central bright fringe, m = 0.
m D d
1 m'+ D 2 ym = d
where m = 0, 1, 2, 2nt = m where m = 0, 1, 2, 2nt = m'+
1 2nt = m + 2
where m = 0, 1, 2, 2nt = m where m = 0, 1, 2, 2nt = m +
Either bright or dark. For dark, tmin refers to m = 1. Either bright or dark. For bright, tmin refers to m = 1. Nonsymmetrical fringes. 1 fringe refers to m = 0. Symmetrical rings. Central dark sport, m =0. Symmetrical fringes. The thickness of dark fringes is much narrower. st 1 dark fringe refers to m = 1. Symmetrical fringes. The thickness of bright fringes is much narrower. Central bright fringe, m = 0.
st
1 2
where m = 0, 1, 2,
Air Wedge
1 2 1 2
where m = 0, 1, 2,
Single Slit
ym =
m' D a
Diffraction Grating
CHAPTER 3 : Electrostatics
Electrostatics refers to the study of charge at rest. Charge exists in the form of electron, proton or atom of more / less electron (known as ion). A neutral atom has the same number of electron and proton. This neutral atom can become a charge, Q when it receives electrons (becoming a negative charge) or donates its electrons (becoming a positive charge).
negative charge (electron)
The unit of force is Newton (N). The system, which consists of a test charge and only one point charge, is called the system of a point charge. If the test charge, q interacts with as many as N point charge, then there are also N individual force will interact upon q. Consequently, q will experiences a single net force named the resultant force, FT which represented by the formula of magnitude :
FT =
( Fx )2 + ( Fy )2
Fy = tan1 F x
There are 4 basic properties of charge: o there are 2 types of elementary charge, i.e. electron, q = e (negatively charge) and proton, q = p (positively charge). o there are interactions between charges (2 like charges repel each other while 2 different charges attract each other). o charge obeys the principle of conservation. o charge is quantized (the value of charge is discrete through a relationship of Q = Nq with N = multiple factor and q = magnitude of basic 19 charge, i.e. 1.6x10 C). Under this topic, 4 physical quantities will be studied regarding to charge, i.e. electrostatic force (F), electric field (E), electric potential energy (U) and electric potential (V). Interaction between charges is caused by electrostatic force, F. This force is too strong compared with the gravitational attractive force. This force obeys the Coulombs law, which states that: 2 charges will repel/ attract with a force which directly proportional to the product of the magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the charges. Charge which is being investigated is called the test charge, q while the charge which interacts upon the test charge is named the point charge (or fixed charge), Q. Force between the test charge and each point charge is called the individual force with formula: 2 F = kQq/r where k = 9.0x10 Nm C r = distance between the two charges. Electric field is a vector quantity where the direction for positively point charge is forming a pattern directed outwards from the charge, while for negatively point charge directed inwards to the charge.
9
9 2 2
This system, which consists of a test charge and more than one point charge, is called the system of point charges. Electric field, E refers to the 3D space around a point charge where electrostatic force can be experienced. The magnitude of electric field around a point charge is represented by: 2 E = kQ/r where r = the distance between the point charge to a referred point in the field. The unit of electric field is NC or also can be 1 written as Vm . This system, which consists of only one point charge (without test charge), is called the system of a point charge.
1
Besides, the patterns of electric field for combinations of point charges are also being studied such as: o combination of 2 like charges (identical and nonidentical magnitudes), o 2 different charges (identical and nonidentical magnitudes), o 2 parallel plates. The strength of electric field graphically shows by the number of line. The greater the number of line, the stronger the electric field is. If a point experiences as many as N electric fields (which are produced by as many as N point charges), then the point will experiences a net electric field called the resultant electric field which represented by the formula of magnitude :
Electric potential energy, U refers to the work done/ required to bring a test charge, q from infinity to a point around a point charge, Q. The magnitude the potential energy (work done) at the point is represented by: U = kQq/r where r = distance between the point charge to the referred point. The system, which consists of a test charge and only one point charge, is called the system of a point charge. The unit of the potential energy is Joule (J).
ET =
( E x )2 + ( E y )2
Ey = tan1 E x
Electric potential energy is a scalar quantity where the positive sign indicates that the work is done upon the test charge, while the negative sign indicates that the work is done by the test charge. If the point is surrounded by as many as N point charges, then a net value of potential energy (total work done/ needed by a test charge) must be calculated through the formula of :
and for sure this system, which consists of more than one point charges (without test charge), is called the system of point charges. Based on the concept, actually the test charge, q only experiences the electrostatic force, F because it is located in the electric field of the point charge, Q through relationship: F = qE It means that, without electric field, the electrostatic force will never be produced. A test charge, q that moves perpendicularly to uniform electric field (which is produced by 2 parallel plates) will undergo projectile motion towards the plate of different type of charge. However, if it moves parallel with the electric field, a linear path will be made also towards the plate of different type of charge.
Q1 Q 2 Q 3 U = k qo r + r + r + .... 2 3 1
and for sure this system, which consists of more than one point charges (within test charge), is called the system of point charges. Electric potential, V refers to the work per unit charge to bring a test charge, q from infinity to a point around a point charge, Q. A unit charge refers the charge of magnitude 1 C. The magnitude of electric potential (work per unit charge) at the point is represented by: V = kQ/r where r = distance between the referred point to the point charge.
10
The system, which consists of only one point charge (without test charge), is called the system of a point charge. The unit of electric potential is 1 JC or volt (V). The electric potential is a scalar quantity which can be related with the electric potential energy by: V = U/q Moreover, all points around the point charge with the same distance from the charge have the same value of electric potential. If a line/ surface is drawn to join all the points, then a spherical area (surface) is formed. This surface is known as the equipotential surface. It means that, to transfer a test charge from one to any other point within the surface, the work done is zero.
Furthermore, two points of different distance from the point charge, Q surely has different magnitude of electric potential. Then, the difference values is called potential difference, or voltage. If the point is surrounded by as many as N point charges, then a net value of electric potential (total work done/ needed per unit of test charge) must be calculated through the formula of :
Q1 Q 2 Q 3 V = k r + r + r + .... 2 3 1
and for sure this system, which consists of more than one point charges (without test charge), is called the system of point charges. The equipotential surface of this system do also exist but no longer in the spherical shape (depends on the system itself).
11
Capacitor is one of various electronic devices in an electric circuit. Basically, it consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator known as dielectric material. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the symbol respectively neutral and charged capacitor.
Figure 1 :
In application, capacitance, C can be related with potential difference across the capacitor, V and charge accumulated on the plate, Q through a relationship: C = Q/V In an electric circuit, if there are more than one capacitor, all of them can be connected through three ways, either connected in : series, parallel, or combination of seriesparallel. For series and parallel connections, two information must be known: o sketching the circuit including the voltage supplied and connection of all capacitors and how to simplified into effective circuit, o three formula related that are the effective capacitance CT , total charge QT as well as the total voltage VT (refer Figure 2). When a neutral capacitor is charged, negatively charges (electrons) will transfer from one of the plate (which is connected to the positive terminal of a dry cell) to the other plate. Consequently, the first plate will has less electrons (becoming positively plate) while the second plate will has more electrons (becoming negatively plate). This transformation leads to the production of the electric potential difference, V as well as the electric field, E between the plates. At this time, the capacitor is said having the electric potential energy (in the form of electric field). The energy if formulated by: 2 U = CV and exist as long as the electric field exist between the plates. Charging process refers to a process where a neutral capacitor accumulates charge. Electrons at one of the plate are transferring to the other plate. Discharging process refers to a process where a charged capacitor reduces the charge (returns the electrons to the original plate). For each of the process, four information must be known: o sketch of circuit diagram, o graphs (I vs t and Q vs t), o equations (I and Q), o the time constant (refer FIGURE 3).
Q V
+Q
Neutral capacitor
Charged capacitor
There are various types of capacitor but in this topic investigation only made upon the parallel plate capacitor. In this topic, based on the conceptual provided, 5 fields are being studied regarding to capacitor: o the property of capacitor known as capacitance C, o types of connection of capacitors in a circuit, o energy stored in a charged capacitor, o processes performed by a capacitor, o the role played by the dielectric materials. The main use of capacitor in the circuit is to store charges, Q on each plate. The quantity (magnitude) of charge on each plate is the same but has different sign. These charges (brought by electrons from one plate to another) are stored during charging process due to potential difference, V (supplied by voltage of a dry cell/ power supply) across the plates. For every 1 unit of voltage (1 V) supplied, the ability of a capacitor to store charge depends on its physical property known as capacitance, C. The magnitude of capacitance is fix (constant) and depends on the physical conditions of the capacitor. The magnitude of capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is represented by: C = A/d A = area of each plate, d = separation between the 2 parallel plates, = o r 12 2 1 2 with o = 8.85x10 C N m and r @ = dielectric constant (depends on the type of dielectric material). where
12
Time constant, refers to the time taken by the capacitor to store 63% of its maximum charge during charging process or remain 37% of its maximum charge during discharging. There are two main uses of the time constant: o as an indicator to determine the percentage of charge stored in the capacitor at certain time. o to control the time taken of the process (a measure of how quickly the capacitor charges or discharges) since this process cannot be observed by our naked eyes. The time constant is controlled by using proper value of the capacitance, C as well as the resistance, R of the circuit through relationship of: = RC Dielectric material refers to an insulator which placed between the two conductor plates to built a capacitor. The main use of the dielectric material is to increase the ability of the capacitor to store
more charge (increase the magnitude of capacitance). When a voltage is supplied across the capacitor, the molecules of the dielectric material will be polarized and then the magnitude effective electric field across the capacitor decreases. The decrease in the electric field will cause the electric potential decreases. Since the capacitor still connected to the dry cell, then this potential difference must remain constant. Therefore, more charge must be stored on each plate of the capacitor. Hence, the new ratio of the quantity of charge stored per unit potential difference is grater and it means the capacitance of the capacitor is now upgraded. Moreover, the dielectric material has a property called the dielectric constant, or r. The constant shows the multiple factor of the capacitance.
13
V T = V1 + V2 + V3 + QT = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 =
+ Vn = Qn +
1 1 1 1 = + + + CT C1 C2 C3
b) Parallel connection :
1 Cn
I V
mA
C R
t RC
t RC
14
b)
Discharging process :
V R
++++
mA
I
Current flowing in the circuit, I = Io e
t RC
t RC
15
An electric current, I is the orderly flow of electrons in a conductor, which is induced by an electrostatic field produced by a voltage voltage. The electric current is equal to the ratio of the charge, dq within a small mall period of time, d t. dq or I= dt
If the magnitude and direction of the flow of electric current do not change in time (known as Direct Current (DC)), then: Q I= t
Resistor is a most popular component in a DC circuit. It is made of a conductor and used to resist the movement ment of electrons.
The direction of current flow is oppos opposite of that of electron flow. Metals are usually good conductors of electricity. In metal, there are many free electrons moving randomly. When a metal is connected to a voltage source, the he electrons become accelerated in the short distances between the collisions with the ions of the crystal lattice of the metal.
resistor
symbol of resistor
Resistor has a property named resistance, R which measures the opposition to the flow of current in the circuit. It is measured in ohm,
The magnitude of resistance, esistance, R while building a resistor depends on : a constant depends on the types t of material of the resistor called resistivity, . length, l of the resistor. crosssectional area, A of the resistor. l or R = A
During the collisions, their velocities change as part of their electric energy is transmitted to the ions as heat. . Then the electrons are again accelerated and will again slow dow down as the result of collisions. The velocity of the electrons reaches a permanent mean value vd known as the drift velocity.
When the resistor is applied in the circuit, it obeys the Ohms law, which state that: At At a given temperature, the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference between the ends of the conductor. VI Or V=RI The resistor which obeys beys the Ohms law is called ohmic resistor, while nonohmic non resistor does not obey the Ohms law. The change in temperature will affect the rate of collision between these electrons and the atoms in the conductor as well as the resistance to the flow of the current.
16
The change of resistance, R is directly proportional to the change of temperature, T as well as the original value of the resistance, Ro. or R = RoT where = the temperature coefficient of increase in the resistance. Note that this equation is valid for metal only. For semiconductor, if the temperature increases, the resistance decreases. This is because the number of free electron increases by the increase of temperature. Electrical energy, U can be transformed into different types of energy, such as heat, light or mechanical work. It is represented as: U = VIt where V = potential difference across the load. I = current flows through the load. t = time taken. The unit of electrical energy is joule, J. The rate of work performed (or energy used) by the load is called the electrical power, P and represented as: P = VI The unit of electrical power is watt, W.
V = V1 + V2 + V3 + I = I1 = I2 = I3 = = In R = R1 + R2 + R3 +
+ Vn + Rn
Direct current refers to electric current, which has constant magnitude as well as direction of current flow. Current flows from a point of higher potential to another point of lower potential. This potential difference is supplied and remained by using a source (example: battery). A battery is supplying the socalled electromotive force (e.m.f.), . It refers to the amount of energy per unit charge (voltage) passing through the circuit. The voltage produces electric field so that electrons can be forced to move in one direction to flow current. The e.m.f, can be formulated as: = I ( R + r) where I = current flows in circuit. R = resistance in the circuit. r = internal resistance of the battery. In DC circuit, if there are more than one resistor, then the total resistance contributed by all the resistance must be calculated. The value is depending on the connection of the resistors.
V = V1 = V2 = V3 = I = I1 + I2 + I3 + + In
= Vn
= InRn 1 + ... + R n
In DC circuit, the uses of resistor are as follow: to control electric current (if the resistors are arranged in parallel). to distribute voltage (if the resistors are arranged in series).
17
Ohms law is used to analyze voltage and current is a circuit. However, it can be used if the circuit consists of only one cell (battery). If the circuit consists of one cell or even more than one cell, then the more flexible laws called Kirrchoffs laws are take place.
In a DC circuit, there are also some types of circuit design also to do measurement, such as: potentiometer :  to determine internal resistance of cell.  To determine e.m.f. of unknown cell.
I1
r1
I3 I2
R3
r2
R2
It can be divided into two laws but must be must together: st Kirrchoffs 1 law (or Kirrchoffs current law) states that: The algebraic sum of the current at a junction of a circuit is zero, since electric charges do not stay at a junction. or
VAP = VXY
wheatstone bridge:  to determine the resistivity of resistor.
I = I
in
nd
out
Kirrchoffs 2 law (or Kirrchoffs voltage drop law) states that: For a closed loop, the algebraic sum of the voltages drops is equal to the algebraic sum of the e.m.f.s. or
= (IR)
In a DC circuit, there are some devices to do measurement, such as: voltmeter (arranged in parallel to the component) to measure voltage. ammeter (arranged in series to the component) to measure current.
R RX = a R Rb
voltmeter
ammeter
18
Magnetic field, B refers to a three dimensional field (region) around a magnetic body or a currentcarrying conductor where the force can be experienced. The magnetic field strength is called the magnetic flux density. It is a vector quantity with SI unit of Tesla, T. Based on the above definition, there are two main sources of magnetic field: magnet bar (directed North to South). currentcarrying conductor (right hand grip). Earth has a week magnetic field caused by the electrical current flowing in its core. It directed from geographical South Pole to the North. There two types of magnetic force: o Magnetic force due to moving charge across the magnetic field, which represented as follow: F = qvB sin where
q = magnitude of charge. v = velocity of the particle. = angle between the direction of v and B
o
Pattern of magnetic field is represented by the socalled magnetic field lines. The properties of the magnetic field lines: o The field lines never cross or split each other. o There are no two or more of field lines at the same point. There is no specific equation of magnetic field of a currentcarrying conductor. The formula depends on the shape of the conductor itself. Example equations of magnetic field, B for several symmetrical conductor are as follow: o Magnetic field at the centre of the coil with N turns and radius R : NI B= o 2R
Magnetic force due to current flows in a conductor across the magnetic field, which represented as follow: F = ILB sin where
I = magnitude of current flowing through the conductor. L = length of the conductor. = angle between the direction of I and B.
Magnetic field on the axis of a solenoid which has number of turns per meter, n: B = onI Magnetic field at a long straight wire:
The direction of magnetic force can be determined by using Fleming LeftHand Rule. If two long straight wire carrying current are located side by side, interaction will happen and described as follow: o If the currents flow in the same direction, the wires will attract each other. o If the currents flow in the opposite direction, the wires will repel each other.
19
B=
oI 2r
No matter what interaction it is, the magnitude of force per unit length is the same: oI 2 F 1 = F 2 = I1 L 2d
This is the main working principle of a galvanometer. When a charge is moving across a uniform magnetic field, then magnetic force will produced which deflect the original direction of the charge. If the magnetic is large, then the charge will undergo a circular motion and contributes the centripetal force, FC.
Therefore, 1 Ampere is defined as : The DC current which, when flowing through two parallel infinitely long straight conductors of negligible circular crosssection, placed one meter apart in free space, will produce a force of magnitude 7 2 x10 N on every meter of their lengths. If a current flows in a coil of N turns in a radial magnetic field, a pair of magnetic forces produced and generate total constant torque and represented as follow: = NIAB where A = area of the coil.
FC = FB
or
qvB =
mv 2 r
mv qB 2m qB
20
In laboratory, experimentally shows that there is a magnetic field, B surrounding a currentcarrying conductor. On the other hand, can a magnetic field produces current in a conductor? Current flows if there is electromotive force (e.m.f.). E.m.f. normally supplied by a source (such as battery, accumulator, power supply, ect.) Actually, e.m.f. not only supplied by a source. It also can be produced through a process called induction. Electromagnetic induction refers to phenomena, which occur when there is a change in magnetic flux, through a conductor and thus produces the socalled induced e.m.f. in the conductor. It leads to the production of current named induced current.
There are two laws explaining the production of induced e.m.f : o Faradays law states that : The magnitude of the e.m.f. induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage through the circuit. d or dt
Lenzs law states that : The induced current flow in such a direction that is opposes the change that produces it. d or =  dt or
=
d (NBA cos ) dt
There are several phenomena which induced e.m.f. is produced, such as: o Relative motion between magnet bar and a coil. o Interaction between two neighboring circuits. o The movement of a mobile straight rod with constant velocity v across a uniform magnetic field. o Revolution of a revolving rotor across a uniform magnetic field. The production of induced e.m.f in all above phenomena is due to the rate change of magnetic flux in the conductor. Magnetic field flux through an area A normal to a magnetic field B is defined as : = NBA cos where
Note : Induced e.m.f, = ve (against the increment of d) Induced e.m.f, = +ve (against the reduction of d) The direction of induced current can be determined by using RightHand Grip rule.
N = number of loop. B = magnetic field strength. A = area of surface. = angle between magnetic field line and the normal line.
Based on the general equation, the formula of induced e.m.f. of above phenomena are as follow: o Relative motion between magnet bar and a coil: dB =  NA cos dt where dB B Bi = f dt t
Thus, the change in the flux : = (NBA cos) The flux is changed if at least one of the factors changes. The SI unit for magnetic flux is Tm or normally known as Webber (Wb).
21
2
Inductor is an electronic device (in the form of a coil or solenoid) which undergoes induction and used to store energy.
symbol of inductor
Inductor has a constant value known as inductance. There are two types of inductance: selfinductance, L mutual inductance, M. The SI unit of inductance is Henry, H.
Selfinductance, L is the property of a coil or solenoid which can induce an e.m.f. (named back e.m.f.) in the component itself due to the rate change of current (selfinduction process). The back e.m.f is represented as follow: dI =  L dt
The movement of a mobile straight rod of length L with constant velocity v across a uniform magnetic field: = BLv
The magnitude of the selfinductance, L depends on the form of the inductor: L in the form of a coil: N L= I L in the form of a solenoid:
L = on lA
During the process of building up the current, selfinduction would have taken place and the applied external voltage would have done work to overcome this selfinduced e.m.f. which opposes the applied voltage. The work done represents the total energy
U=
1 2 LI 2
The unit of energy is joule, J. This amount of energy is stored by the inductor in the form of magnetic field.
Mutual induction is the process where an e.m.f. is induced in a coil (or solenoid) when the current in a neighboring coil (or solenoid) is changing (Refer phenomenon 2).
22
The magnitude of the mutualinductance, M depends on the form of the inductor: M in the form of a coil:
M2 =
N2 2 I1
23
Alternating current (AC) refers to a type of current whose magnitude and direction change periodically. The symbol of an AC source in the electrical circuit :
Since the magnitude of the current always changed, then an effective value named the rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) is investigated. It refers to the magnitude of the steady direct current (DC) which produces the same power in a resistor (load) as the mean power produced by the alternating current.
The electromotive force (e.m.f) of sinusoidal form of alternating current : = o sin(t) where
Since the e.m.f. undergoes sinusoidal changes, then the current flowing through the circuit and components (such as resistor, capacitor and inductor) must change in the sinusoidal way as well and represented by: I = Io sin(t) where IP = peak value of current.
The potential difference across the components also varies sinusoidally and represented by: V = Vp sin(t) where
By the same way, the r.m.s. potential difference can be represented by: 1 Vr.m.s. = 2 Vp
Note that the phase of current and potential difference across the component may the same and may differ depends on the type of component.
24
In an AC circuit, resistance is not coming only from resistor but it also contributed by capacitor and inductor. However, the resistance coming from capacitor and inductor respectively is named capacitive reactance, XC and inductive reactance, XL and determined by: XC = 1/C and XL = L where
Power refers to the rate of expending energy or doing work in an electrical system. Generally, it is represented as: P = IrmsVrms This power is called apparent power, Papp. It does not consider the phase of Irms and Vrms. Apparent power also known as the maximum power delivered by the circuit. In an AC circuit containing a resistor together with a capacitor or an inductor or both, power is dissipated only in the resistor and not in other two components (Pmean for inductor and capacitor equals zero). Of the total r.m.s. voltage supplied to a circuit, the voltage across the resistor is given by VR = Vrms cos where = phase difference between the voltage and the current in the circuit. Thus, average power for an AC circuit with resistors, capacitors and inductors is given by: Pave = (Irms)(Vrms) cos The ratio of these two powers is known as the power factor and calculated as: P cos = ave Papp The average power is always less or at least equal to the apparent power. The average power is only equal to the apparent power if: the circuit consists of only resistors. resonance occurs (if XL = XC)
C = capacitance, L = inductance.
Moreover, XL and XC have the same unit i.e. ohm () but they have different phase ( = o radian or equivalents 180 ). Combination of these three resistance contributes the total resistance of the circuit which named as impedance, Z and determined by:
Z = R 2 + ( XL X C )2
with phase:
= tan1
XL X C R
In circuit, based on the Ohms law the impedance can be related with current and potential difference as follow: Vp V Z = rms = Irms Ip
FIGURE 1 shows the properties of pure AC circuits (including pure resistor, pure capacitor and pure inductor). Pure circuit refers to a circuit consists of one or more of the same component. FIGURE 2 shows the properties of combined circuits (including RC, RL and RLC circuits).
The effectiveness of AC current (Irms) can be increased by a situation called resonance. Resonance occurs when the impedance, Z of the circuit is minimum. The impedance can be minimize if XL = XC, then the impedance Z = R. It happens if the frequency is set at a certain value called resonant frequency, fo, which calculated as: 1
fo =
2 LC
25
FIGURE 1 : Properties of Pure AC circuit. Pure Resistor, R Pure Inductor, L Pure Capacitor, C
Circuit
Voltage
VR = VP sin(t)
VL = VP cos(t)
VC = VP sin(t)
Current
IR = IP sin(t) In phase (R = 0) R
IC = IP cos(t) IC leads VC C = 2 XC = 1 C
Phase
Impedance
Circuit
(VL VC)
VL
VR
Voltage V=
VR
2 VR + ( VL VC ) 2 VL VC 1 = tan V R
VR V=
2 2 VR + ( VL ) VL 1 = tan V R
VC V=
V
2 2 VR + ( VC ) VC 1 = tan V R
26
(XL XC)
XL
Impedance
R
2 R 2 + ( XL ) XL 1 = tan R
Xc
Z=
R 2 + ( XL X C )2 XL X C 1 = tan R
Z=
Z=
2 R 2 + ( X C ) XC 1 = tan R
27
Light is one of the electromagnetic waves. As wave, light undergoes reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction. However, there are some cases such cases as black body radiation and photoelectric effect, explanation based on classical theory (light as a wave) are failed. The explanation cannot be proved by experiment. In order to overcome the problem, quantum theory takes place by describing light is discrete just like a particle.
Js).
Photoelectric effect is a process of emitting electrons (known as photo electrons) from a metal surface when irradiated with light or other electromagnetic radiations.
Black body radiation refers to the radiation (ranges between Infra Red, IR to Ultra Violet, UV) of a body due to its temperature. An example of ideal black body is a small hole (which seems black). Radiation from the hole is investigated.
There are contradictions between classical theory (especially based on Rydberg theory) with the experimental result. According to the classical theory, the intensity of a black body is directly proportional to the frequency (inversely proportional to the wavelength of light).
When the e.m. radiation irradiates on the target metal (acts as a cathode), free electrons absorb photon (energy) and escape from the metal (ionization process) and has kinetic energy to reach the anode. Without power supply, current (known as photoelectric current) will flow in the circuit with minimum value, Io. Power supply is used to increase the kinetic energy of photoelectrons, so that more electrons can reach to the anode to increase the current. The process can be explained by using Einstein equation : E = Wo + Kmax where
At long wavelengths, classical theory is in agreement with the experimental data. At short wavelength, however, major disagreement exists between classical theory and experimental data.
According to the quantum theory (Planck theory), the intensity of a black body depends on the number of photon. Photon has single discrete energy and depends on the frequency (or wavelength).
Im
Io
VS
28
The graph shows the experimental result. If the power supply is overturned, the current still flow but the magnitude is decreases (lower than Io). This is because the kinetic energy of the electrons is being reduced. The greater the reverse voltage supplied, the smaller the current flows. Stopping voltage, Vs is the minimum reverse voltage needed to stop the motion of electrons (thus, no more photoelectric current flows in the circuit). At this moment, the kinetic energy of electrons is balanced by the potential energy supplied by the voltage : Kmax = eVs The effect is only happen if the energy of photon is greater than the work function of
the metal. Work function refers to the minimum energy needed to release an electron from the atom of the metal (it is a constant which depends on the types of metal used) and represented as : Wo = hfo = hc/o where ho = threshold frequency o = threshold wavelength. According to the classical wave theory, an electron needs time to absorb sufficient energy for it to escape from the metal surface. Hence, there would be a time lapse before photoelectrons are emitted. Hence, the frequency of the light neednt exceed a certain minimum value. However, experimental observations show otherwise.
29
Waveparticle duality is the phenomenon where under certain circumstances a particle exhibits wave properties, and under other conditions, a wave exhibits properties of particle. As wave, it undergoes interference and diffraction because it has wavelength. However, the photoelectric effect (the ability of photon to eject electrons from a metal surface) as well as the explanation on the black body radiation suggests that electromagnetic waves may have properties of particles.
potential energy to be totally converted into kinetic energy, U = K where U = eV and 2 K = mv ) to reach deeded velocity. The wavelength produced is represented by : =
h 2mK
h 2meV
The basic property of particle is mass. This is because wave does not have mass. When a particle is moving, it has momentum (p = mv). Can a moving particle such as an electron be considered exhibits wave properties? Can electron produce interference or diffraction pattern? Does it have wavelength? A particle will show duality if the wavelength can be determine. The theory of de Broglie states that : If electromagnetic radiation  which treated as a wave, can also demonstrate corpuscular (particle) properties, thus indicating its dual nature, then surely particles of matter must also have a dual nature and demonstrate wave characteristics. The wavelength of particle is known as de Broglie wavelength and represented by: = h/mv where
The moving electrons then incident on a crystal lattice which acts as the diffraction grating (because separation between planes of crystal, d wavelength of electron, ) through suitable angle (known as glancing angle) to make sure the diffraction pattern is clear. Experimentally shows that the pattern produced by electron is almost the same as the pattern produced by Xray. Therefore the diffraction pattern of electron can be analyzed by using Bragg equation (equation of Xray diffraction): 2dsin = m.
m = mass of the particle, v = velocity of the particle, 34 h = plack constant = 6.63 x10 Js.
It means that a particle can only show its wave property if it is moving with high speed (v c) to make sure the wavelength produced is in e.m. wavelength range. In order to produce diffraction pattern, electrons which is initially at rest, must be accelerated by a high voltage (supplies
30
An atom is the smallest particle of an element. It consists of a positively charged nucleus (which consists of protons and neutrons) and surrounded by electrons. Nucleus contains most of the atoms mass. Historically, J.J. Thompson proposes the first model of atom when he discovered the existence of electrons in an atom. He suggested a model of atom as a volume of positively charge with electrons embedded throughout the volume. The model is known as the plum pudding model. Later, based on the result of scattering experiment, Ernest Rutherford suggested the idea of nucleus in an atom. He proposed that an atom consists of a massive central nucleus which is positively charged and surrounded by electrons which neutral the atom.
discrete orbits known as stable energy levels such that the angular momentum is given by :
mvr = n
where n = 1, 2, 3,
h 2
This means that the angular momentum of the electron is quantized. c. Bohrs 3 postulate states that : The emission or absorption of radiation occurs only when an electron jumps from one orbit to another. The change of energy : E = Ef  Ei = hf When an electron absorbs energy it jumps from inner to an outer orbit. When an electron jumps from an outer to an inner orbit it emits radiation.
rd
Normally, the electron is in the lowest energy level known as the ground state, as it is the most stable state. The electron in the ground state may absorbed sufficient energy (by heat, absorbing photon, etc) to be in one of higher energy level known as the excited state. n=n n=3 n=2 n=1
Later, Niels Bohr improved this idea by presented his postulates to explain for the emission of line spectrum from hydrogen atom. Hydrogen is an element of atom which consists of a proton as the nucleus (it has no neutron) and surrounded by an electron.
Under this chapter, the Bohrs model of Hydrogen atom is studied. Three subtopic are being concentrated, including : 1) Bohrs postulates, 2) Bohrs radius of orbit, and 3) Bohrs energy level. An orbit constitutes a hypothetical trajectory of electrons moving around the atomic nucleus under the influence of the electric forces between the nucleus and the electrons based on some assumptions, called Bohrs postulates: st a. Bohrs 1 postulate states that : In hydrogen atom, the electron revolves in circular nonradiating orbits around the nucleus. b. Bohrs 2 postulate states that : In hydrogen atom, the electron is able to orbit around the nucleus in certain allowed
nd
r1 = ro r2 = 4ro r3 = 9ro 2 rn = n ro The radius of orbit refers to the distance between the centre of nucleus and the position where nd electron is allowed to orbit (obeying the 2 Bohrs postulate). The radius of orbit in a hydrogen atom is expressed by the following formula : 2 r n = ro n where
11
31
th
En
excited state
3.4
1 excited state
st
n=2
Em
The frequency and wavelength of photon respectively is represented by :
13.6
f=
n=1
Eo 1 1 2 2 h m n
and
Each orbit in hydrogen atom has energy level. It refers to energy required for electron to stay on it. The energy level in a hydrogen atom is expressed by the following formula :
1 1 1 = RH 2 2 m n
En = 
or
where n = principle quantum number (orbit number). This means that the energy possessed by the electron is quantized. Generally, there are three types of energy possessed by electron: Ground energy = The minimum energy possessed by the electron to stay in ground level. Excitation energy =The energy required by the electron to move up from the ground level to any excitation level. Ionization energy = The energy required by the electron to escape completely from the attraction of the nucleus.
32
CHAPTER 12 : XRays
Xray is one form of electromagnetic radiation ranges (12 120,000)pm between ultraviolet and gamma ray and first time discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen while conducting research on the radiation which pass through numerous substances and induce chemical reactions. accelerating voltage
Bremstruhlung spectrum is continuous Xray spectrum emitted from the conversion of kinetic energy of thermionic electrons due to collision between thermionic electrons with the nucleus of target metal. This spectrum has various amount of energy. The maximum energy has minimum wavelength which represented by :
min =
where
hc eV
focusing cylinder
heating voltage
Characteristic spectrum is discrete Xray spectrum emitted due to transition of outer electron to the inner vacant orbit of the target metal (because of collision between thermionic electron with inner electron of the target metal). There several ways of transition and therefore, this spectrum can be grouped in series, such as : Electrons from outer shells jump to K shell to replace the electron lost. As a result, energy is emitted by the atom and carried away by X ray photon. Electrons from outer shells jump to L shell to replace the electron lost. As a result, energy is emitted by the atom and carried away by X ray photon. Electrons from outer shells jump to M shell to replace the electron lost. As a result, energy is emitted by the atom and carried away by X ray photon.
Xray tube is used to produce Xray. X rays are produced when a stream of electrons of relatively high energy (known as thermionic electrons) from the filament (acts as cathode) bombards a metal (acts as anode) which consists of an element composed of manyelectron atoms. Thermionic electron refers to electron emitted (ionized) from the filament due to heating current supplied by heating voltage (electron absorbed heat to emit). Heating voltage is used to control the intensity of Xray (based on the number of thermionic electrons emitted). The accelerating voltage is used to control the penetrating power of Xray (based on the kinetic energy of the thermionic electrons). Besides, the target metal must has high melting point because almost 99% of the kinetic energy of electrons is converted into heat. During the bombardment of atoms by energetic fast electrons, two types of X rays are produced which are overlapping each other : 1) Bremsstrahlung (background) spectrum. 2) Characteristic spectrum.
K series (n = 1)
L series (n = 2)
M series (n = 3)
The energy of characteristic spectrum in each series also depends on the material (element) of metal used.
min
33
It depends on the atomic number, Z and the arrangement of the electrons in the shell. Moseley states that:
fZ
or
= a(Z b)
min Generally, the xray spectrum is influenced by 3 main factors : o Filament current (due to heating voltage). o Applied voltage across xray tube. o Target material used. As a wave, Xrays undergo diffracted by using the crystal lattice as their wavelength approximately equal to the distance between two consecutive atomic planes of the crystal. The diffraction pattern can be analyzed by using Braggs law which states that : When a beam of X rays whose wavelength strikes a crystal surface in which the layers of atoms separated by a distance d (~), the maximum intensity of the reflected ray occurs when : 2d sin() = m where
min
There are some uses of Xray, such as : o Hard X rays are used in radio therapy for destroying cancerous cell (cancerous cells are more easily damaged by X rays than stable ones. o X rays are used to study the structure of crystal.
mino
min1
34
CHAPTER 13 : Nucleus
An atom consists of a nucleus, which is surrounded by electrons. The nucleus itself consists of nucleons (refers to protons and neutrons).
or
m =
which measured in u. Actually, the mass lose is converted into nuclear forces that bind the nucleons to form a nucleus based on the Einsteins principle of equivalence of mass and energy, which states that : 2 E = mc where
The properties of proton and neutron are as follow : Nucleon Charge Mass
The process of formation of a nucleus involves the merging of nucleons. If the newly formed nucleus is to be stable, it must emit some energy. The energy equals the magnitude of the energy necessary to split the nucleus into its free nucleons. It is related to the mass defect and represented as follow : 2 E = mc or E = ((A Z)mn + Zmp) MN)c measured in J or E =
2
Proton (p)
+e 1.673 x10 kg
27
Neutron (n)
0 1.675 x10 kg
27
1.007276 u
1.008665 u
The mass of nucleon is more suitable measured 27 in the unit of u (1 u = 1.660566 x10 kg). In an atom, electrons show its chemical properties (through donations, receptions or sharing of electrons between atoms), while the nucleus shows its physical properties. Such physical properties of a nucleus are known as atomic number, Z and Mass Number, A. The atomic number, Z refers to the number of proton in the nucleus, while the mass number, A refers to the sum of the number proton and neutron (A = Z + N). By knowing the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus, it should have no problem in determining the mass of an atomic nucleus. However, the mass of a nucleus is smaller than the sum of the masses of its components. The difference between the sum of the masses of the components and the mass of a nucleus is called the nucleus mass defect, m. It can be calculated mathematically as follow : m = ((A Z)mn + Zmp) MN) which measured in kg.
measured in MeV This energy is called the nuclear binding energy. This energy actually contributed by all nucleons in the nucleus. The magnitude of binding energy contributed by each nucleon is called the binding energy per nucleon, En and represented mathematically by the following equation :
En =
mc 2 A
where A = mass number (the number of nucleon). The binding energy per nucleon of a nucleus is a measure of the stability of the nucleus. Nuclei which are more stable have higher value of binding energy per nucleon (contribute more defect mass). It is assumed that the mean nucleon binding energy is 8 MeV.
35
Nuclear reaction refers to a reaction to change an atomic nucleus. This may be a natural spontaneous disintegration (known as radioactive decay) or an artificial bombardment of a nucleus with an energetic particle. A nuclear reaction is commonly represented as follow : a+XY+b+Q where
Artificial fission reactions commonly related with the socalled Nuclear Chain Reaction.
a = the incoming particle, b = the outgoing particle, X = the initial nuclide, Y = the final nuclide.
U235
U235
Q = the reaction energy, which be defined as follow : 2 Q = m c 2 or Q = [(ma + MX) (MY + mb)] c
where
U235
MX = mass of nuclide X, MY = mass of nuclide Y, ma = mass of particle a, mb = mass of particle b. c = speed of light.
If Q > 0 Exothermic reaction (the energy is released from the system). If Q < 0 Endothermic reaction (the energy must be supplied to the system). The nuclear reaction must satisfies all of the conservation principles, including Conservation of Energy, Linear Momentum, Angular Momentum, Charge as well as Mass Number, A. Generally, there are two types of nuclear reaction: Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion. Nuclear Fission is a nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus splits into two smaller nucleus which releasing a quantity of energy. Fission may occur spontaneously or as a result of irradiation. Energy is released during nuclear fission because : the bigger nucleus has lower binding energy per nucleon. The nucleons in the bigger nucleus are at a higher energy state (unstable). the products of nuclear fission are two smaller nuclei which have higher binding energy per nucleon. The nucleons in the smaller nuclei are at a lower energy state (more stable). The difference in the binding energies is released as energy (heat) during the reaction.
It refers to a kind of reaction that is selfsustaining as a result of the products of one step initialing a subsequent step. One nucleus of the isotope uranium235 can be disintegrated with the production of two or three neutrons, which cause similar fission of adjacent nuclei. These in turn produce more neutrons. In a nuclear reactor, the chain reaction is controlled by using water as moderator to slow down the secondary neutrons. Cadmiums are used in control rods to absorb some of the secondary neutrons. Nuclear Fusion however is a type of nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of large amount of energy. Based on the binding energy per nucleon graph, it shows that a small nucleus has low binding energy per nucleon (unstable). The nucleus produced by nuclear fusion has higher binding energy per nucleons (more stable). The difference in the energies of the nucleons is released during fusion. Two nuclei would only fuse together if they have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between the two positively charged nuclei. A method of achieving the high kinetic energy is by raising their temperature to 8 about 10 K (thermonuclear reaction). Therefore, the reactions naturally are suitable happen on the Sun. The reactions occur on Earth when a hydrogen bomb is exploded. The explosion provides the high temperature necessary to initiate the fusion reaction. As the kinetic energy required increases with the nuclear charge (atomic number), reactions involving low atomic number nuclei are the easiest to produce.
36
The suns energy is produced by fusion in the 8 core of the sun at temperature 10 K. Proton are converted to helium by fusion by the following thermonuclear reactions :
37
CHAPTER 15 : Radioactivity
Radioactivity is a type of fission reaction, which occurs spontaneously. It refers to the decay process of unstable nuclei (radioactive) to form a new nucleus with energy in the form of radiation is released. This random event cannot be predicted. This chapter can be divided into two subtopic : o Nuclear radiations, o Radioactive decay process. Generally, there are three types of nuclear radioactive decay that emit three types of radiations : o Alpha decay, o Beta decay, o Gamma decay. In alpha () decay, the nucleus of heavy radioactive element emits an alpha particle (also known as alpha radiation). General equation of an alpha decay process is :
A Z
The comparison between the three radiation are tabled as follow : Properties Charge Deflection by E and B Penetrating power Ionizing power particle +2e

particle e

The deflections of radiation respectively in electric and magnetic field are described as follow : E
A 4 Z 2
Y+ 4 2 He
In beta () decay, the nucleus emits a beta particle (also known as beta radiation) that has high velocity. There are two types of beta radiation, i.e. negatron
0 1 0 +1
( ) and positron ( ) .
B
0 1
A Z +1
Y+
+
where is called neutrino Neutrino is an elementary particle that exists to account the missing energy in positron decay, while antineutrino is an elementary particle that exists to account the missing energy in negatron decay. If the two elementary particles meet together, they will disappear. In gamma () decay, a photon (gamma ray) is emitted when the excited nucleus changes from a higher level energy state to a lower level. General equation of gamma decay process :
A Z
Radioactivity is the spontaneous and random emission of radiations from a radioactive element through decaying its unstable nucleus. Note : 1 nucleus decays 1 radiation (alpha or beta or gamma) emits.
X * (excited state)
A Z
X+
38
Light nucleus are more stable and N = Z. Heavier nucleus are stable if N > Z. More neutrons are needed to overcome the increase of electric repulsion between protons in heavy nucleus as well as to increase the binding energy in the nucleus. Nevertheless, nuclides with Z > 83 are unstable (radioactive). Examples : Uranium238, Thorium232, Radium226, Rubidium87. If heavy nucleus is undergoing natural radioactivity, a daughter nucleus is produced which is also radioactive and a chain of radioactive transformations is formed. The process of radioactive decay is involving radioactive elements. According the law of radioactive decay : The decay rate is directly proportional to the number of nucleus present at that instant. or
The graph describes the radioactivity process. It can be represented by the following formula :
N = No e t
where
dN N dt
dN = the number of radioactive nucleus decayed = Nfinal Ninitial N = the number of radioactive nucleus at that instant.
No = initial number of radioactive elements (or nucleus). N = number of radioactive elements at that instant (the number of nuclei remain at time t from initial).
where
One more physical term related with radioactivity is halftime, T1/2. It defined as the time taken for half of the initial number of radioactive elements to undergo decay. It is represented as follow :
The decay rate is also known as activity, A. It is defined as the disintegrations (decay) per second by the radioactive nucleus and is measured in Becquerel (Bq). Note : 1 Bq = 1 decay per second. Another unit for activity is Curie (Ci). 10 Note : 1 Ci = 3.7 x10 Bq Hence :
T1/ 2 =
ln 2
Halflife actually is a constant (depends on type of radioactive element). It also indicates the level of stability of radioactive elements. A radioactive element is more stable if it has longer half life. The radioactivity process has many uses. Such the uses are : o as object dating : to estimate the archeology age of a specimen. o as tracers : to detect oil leakage or investigate metabolic pathways. o as a thickness gauge : to control the thickness of sheets during manufacture. o as sterilization : for sterilizing medical instruments and for food by killing bacteria.
dN A= =N dt
where is known as the decay constant (of unit 1 s ). It indicates the probability of a nucleus to decay per unit time and defines the speed of radioactive decay.
39
Step
1 2
Technique
Draw the plane mirror. Draw the object at distance u from the mirror. Choose any one point on the object and label as A (normally as O). Draw one incident ray, which connects point A to any point on the mirror (label as B). Draw the normal line on the mirror. Measure the angle of incident, i. Measure the angle of reflection, r. Draw the reflected ray which connects point B through angle r. Repeat steps (4) to (8) for other point on the mirror (label as C). Determine the intersection point between the two reflected rays drawn before. Measure the distance v from the mirror. Determine the properties of the image produced.
Remarks
The object can be drawn at the left side or even right side of the mirror Show the direction of the ray using an arrow. Make sure i = r Show the direction of the ray using an arrow. Label the point as A (normally as I). This point actually is the image of the point object A chosen before. 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12
40
Step
1
Technique
Draw the spherical mirror (concave mirror or convex mirror) of radius of curvature, r. Draw the principle axis and label points P, F and C respectively stands for pole of the mirror, focal point and centre of sphere. Draw the object at distance u from the mirror (normally in the shape of uprightarrow). Choose any one point on the object and label as A (normally as O). Draw a normal line, which connects the centre of sphere, C to the object A and the mirror. Draw two incident rays as well as the respective reflected rays from the listed pairs below :
Remarks

4 5 6
a) Convex mirror : Incident ray (connect point A to the mirror) Incidents through the normal line Parallel with the principle axis
Converges the focal point, F Parallel with the principle axis Towards the pole of the mirror, P
Determine the intersection point between the two reflected rays drawn before. Label the point as A (normally as I). Measure the distance v from the mirror. Determine the properties of the image produced.
This point actually is the image of the object of point A chosen before.
8 9
41
Step
1
Technique
Draw the plane surface of refractive index n2. Draw an object at distance u from the surface (normally in the form of point called point object) in a medium of refractive index n1 and label as O. Draw one incident ray, which connects point O to any point on the surface (label as A). Draw a normal line at A. Measure the angle of incident, . Based on Snells law, calculate the angle of refraction, . Draw the refracted ray, which connects point A through angle . Repeat steps (3) to (7) for other point on the surface (label as B). Determine the intersection point between the two refracted rays drawn before. Label the point as I. Measure the distance v from the surface. Determine the properties of the image produced.
Remarks

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Show the direction of the ray using an arrow. Show the direction of the ray using an arrow. This point actually is the image of the object O. 
Step
1
Technique
Draw the spherical surface (concave surface or convex surface) of radius of curvature, r and refractive index, n. Draw the principle axis and label points P and C respectively stands for pole of the surface and centre of sphere. Draw the object at distance u from the surface (normally in the form of point called point object) on the principle axis and label as O. Draw one incident ray which connects point O to any point on the surface (label as A). Draw a normal line which connects point A to the centre of sphere, C. Measure the angle of incident, . Based on Snells law, calculate the angle of refraction, .
Remarks

4 5 6 7
42
8 9 10 11 12
Draw the refracted ray which connects point A through angle . Repeat steps (4) to (8) for other point on the surface (label as B). Determine the intersection point between the two refracted rays drawn before. Label the point as I. Measure the distance v from the surface. Determine the properties of the image produced.
Show the direction of the ray using an arrow. This point actually is the image of the object O. 
Step
1
Technique
Draw the lens (concave lens or convex lens). Draw the principle axis and label points P, F and 2F respectively stands for pole of the lens and focal point at both side of the lens. Draw the object at distance u from the lens (normally in the shape of uprightarrow) and label as O. Draw two incident rays as well as the respective refracted rays from the listed pairs below.
Remarks

3 4
Refracted (from the lens) Diverges from the incident focal point, F
Away from the pole of the lens through the same path
5 6 7
Determine the intersection point between the two reflected rays drawn before. Label the point as I. Measure the distance v from the lens. Determine the properties of the image produced.
43
Apparatus
Formula Bright
ym =
Dark
Pattern
Symmetrical fringes. Central bright fringe, m = 0. Either bright or dark. For dark, tmin refers to m = 1. Either bright or dark. For bright, tmin refers to m = 1. Nonsymmetrical fringes. st 1 fringe refers to m = 0. Symmetrical rings. Central dark sport, m =0. Symmetrical fringes. The thickness of dark fringes is much narrower. st 1 dark fringe refers to m = 1. Symmetrical fringes. The thickness of bright fringes is much narrower. Central bright fringe, m = 0.
m D d 1 2
1 m'+ D 2 ym = d
where m = 0, 1, 2, 2nt = m where m = 0, 1, 2, 2nt = m'+
1 2
where m = 0, 1, 2,
Air Wedge
1 2 1 2
where m = 0, 1, 2,
Single Slit
ym =
m' D a
where m = 1, 2,
Diffraction Grating
d sinm = m where m = 0, 1, 2,
44
Step
1
Technique
Draw the figure (if not provided). Identify the test charge (based on question) and its type (positive or negative). Draw all individual forces (repel / attracting forces) acting upon the test charge. Example : point charge
Remarks
Draw xy axes where the origin is located at the test charge. Show the direction and resolved angle for every force.
F3
point charge
F3
3 1
test charge
point charge
F2
F2 F1
F1
free body diagram Fi = k
system of particles 4 Calculate the magnitude for all the individual forces using equation (3.1), i.e. : Construct a table consisting x and y components of forces as below :
Qiq ri
2
F F1 F2 F3 Fi
. . . . .
. . . . .
Fx
Note :
Fy
+ sign for rightwards or upwards direction.  sign for leftwards or downwards direction.
Determine the magnitude of the resultant force using equation (3.2), i.e. : Determine the direction of the resultant force using equation (3.3), i.e. :
FT =
( Fx )2 + ( Fy )2
= tan F
1
Fy x
Note :
The angle can be stated either in quadrant (e.g. = 25 (quadrant III)) o o o o or in range of 360 (e.g. = 205 (180 + 25 ))
45
Step
Technique
Draw the figure (if not provided).
Remarks

E1
A
1
E2
C E2
E1
point charge, Q1
E1 B
E2
point charge, Q2
E2 E1
2 3
Label the selected point as O (or A or B ect.) Draw all individual electric field acting upon the point within direction. Calculate the magnitude for all the individual electric field using equation (3.4), i.e. :
The number of individual electric field is depending on the number of point charge.
E=k
Qi ri
2
The point A acts as the origin. Draw the x and y axis. Draw all individual electric field acting upon the point A (the arrow directs away from the origin). Determine the angle, i for each electric field (based on xaxis).
y E1 1 x A 2 E2
E E1 E2 E3 Ei
. . . . .
. . . . .
Ex
Note :
Ey
+ sign for rightwards or upwards direction.  sign for leftwards or downwards direction.
46
Determine the magnitude of the resultant electric field using equation (3.5), i.e. : Determine the direction of the resultant electric field using equation (3.6), i.e. : Note :
ET =
( E x )2 + ( E y )2
Ey = tan E x
1
The angle can be stated either in quadrant (e.g. = 25 (quadrant III)) o o o o or in range of 360 (e.g. = 205 (180 + 25 ))
Item
Formula 1
Formula 2
Resultant force :
Remark
Vector quantity (sign for charges do not need to be inserted into equation).
Coulombs Force
F=k
Qq r2
FT =
Fy = tan F x
1
( Fx )2 + ( Fy )2
Q E=k 2 r
ET =
( E x )2 + ( E y )2
= tan E
1
Ey x
Vector quantity (sign for charges do not need to be inserted into equation). Scalar quantity (sign for charges do need to be inserted into equation). Scalar quantity (sign for charges do need to be inserted into equation).
kQ V= r kQq U= r
Q1 Q 2 Q 3 V = k r + r + r + .... 2 3 1
Net electric potential energy : U = k qo
Q1 Q 2 Q 3 + + + .... r2 r3 r1
47
STAGE N = 1
Draw and simplifyS the circuit. Assign all the individual capacitance as C1 , C2 , Identify all the specific basic connections (series or parallel). Calculate each of the equivalent capacitances involved using appropriate formula.
Example : Stage 1 :
1 2 3 5 4
Stage 2 :
123 4
STAGE N = N + 1
Draw the equivalent circuit (simpler than the previous stage).
Stage 3 :
1234
5
Assign all the equivalent capacitances (e.g. C12, C345, ) Identify all the specific basic connections (series or parallel).
No
Yes
Calculate the total equivalent capacitance, Ceq
48
Relationship Between Electromative Force (e.m.f.) @ Voltage and The Flow of Current
@ Chapter 5 : Electric Current & Direct Current (DC)
Coulomb Force to accelerate all the Electrons to Flow in the Same Direction
depends on
reason
reason
Based on Formula : F = qE
reason
49
Step
1
Technique
Simplify the closed circuit.
Remarks
Choose any junction and label as A. Identify the currents whose join the junction and label as I1, I2, I3, Predict the direction of each current (if not given in the diagram). Determine the current which flow into the junction, Iin as well as away from the junction, Iout. Use the formula :
st
I= 0
or + I1 + I2 + I3 + =0
..(i)
Choose one of the circuit involved. Draw a closed loop within direction (even following clockwise or anticlockwise). Concentrate every side of the circuit with respect to the loop : o Determine the number of cell and its direction :
= 1 2 3 ...
3 Use the 2
nd
Kirchhoffs law :
= (IR) or
= + (I1R1) + (I2R2) +
..(ii)
If the combination between equation (i) and (ii) does not enough to solve the problem, then repeat step (3) for other involved circuit. Use all equation derived to solved the problem using mathematical skills (normally to get the value of current flows and their respective directions). the sign of current is negative (in the answer), it means that the actual direction of the current flow is in the opposite direction upon the predicted direction earlier. However, the magnitude of the current remains the same.
50
Induced Current
depends on
Relationship 1 : Relationship Between Induced Current and The Rate Change of Magnetic Flux
@ Chapter 7 : Electromagnetic Induction
reason
Based on Ohms Law : in = Iin R Number of Turn, N Magnetic Field, B Cross Sectional Area, A Angle, Between B and Anormal Time Interval, t
Pure Resistor, R
Pure Inductor, L
Pure Capacitor, C
Circuit
Voltage
VR = VP sin( t) IR = IP sin( t) In phase (R = 0) R PR = (IP R) sin ( t) Papp = IrmsVrms 2 = Irms R Pave = IrmsVrmscos(0) = IrmsVrms
2 2
Current
Phase
Impedance
1 C
51
Intensity of Light
refers to Total Energy of Photon per unit Area per unit Time depends on Total Energy of Photon depends on
Number of Photon
reason
PhotoElectric Current
refers to The Rate of Charge Flows In The Circuit depends on
Number of PhotoElectron
depends on
reason
Number of Photon
depends on
Intensity of Light
52
Resolution of Image
refers to The Sharpness of an Image depends on Diffraction Pattern depends on Glancing Angle depends on reason The Sharpness of an Image is Low if the Diffraction Pattern is Obvious (or Vise Versa)
Magnitude of Wavelength
53
Intensity of Xrays
refers to Total Energy of Xray Photon per unit Area per unit Time depends on Total Energy of Xray Photon depends on
reason
note
reason
Ionization of Termionic Electrons is due to Electrical Energy from the Heating Voltage The Higher the Voltage is Supplied the More the Electron escapes from the Metal Surface
54
Conversion from Kinetic Energy During Collision Between Target Metal Termionic Electron
depends on
reason
55
Generally, the xray spectrum is influenced by 3 main factors : i) Filament current (due to heating voltage). ii) Applied voltage across xray tube. iii) Target material used. Intensity :  Number of thermionic electrons reach onto the target material. (a) Filament Current : intensity Ifilament (b) Accelerating Voltage : intensity Vaccelerating Atomic Number : intensity Z
(c)
Physics Teaching Courseware
1 Z
min
min (Bremsstrahlung Spectrum) :  Kinetic Energy of thermionic electron undergoes headon collision with the nucleus of target material (Accelerating Voltage). min
1 V
56
Determine The Number of Proton Determine The Number of Neutron Determine The Number of Electron
Determine The Total Mass of Proton Determine The Total Nucleon Mass
Determine The Total Mass of Neutron Determine The Total Mass of Electron Determine The Atomic Mass
In Unit (a.m.u.)
In Unit (kg)
In Unit (J) 2 E = mc
In Unit (J) 2 En = mc A
57
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
1 1 1 = + f u v
Magnification : h M= = H Focal length :
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
v u
Destructive :
2nt = m +
1 where m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 2
f=
r 2
2t = m +
1 2
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
where m = 1,2, 3,
1 1 1 = + f u v
Lens Makers Equation :
ym =
m' D a
where m = 1,2, 3,
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
1 1 1 n2 = 1 + f n1 r1 r2
CHAPTER 2: Physical Optics
Youngs Double Slits : Bright :
N=
1 d
CHAPTER 3: Electrostatics
Charge : where m = 0, 1, 2, 3,
m D ym = d
Dark :
Q = Nq
Electrostatic Force :
1 m'+ D 2 ym = where m = 0, 1, 2, 3, d
Thin film (1n2n1) : Constructive :
F=k
Qq r2
Resultant Force :
2nt = m +
1 where m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 2
( F ) + ( F ) F = tan F
FT =
2 x y y x 1
Electric Field :
E=k
Q r2
58
Relationship FE :
Energy Stored :
F E= q
Resultant Electric Field :
U=
1 CV 2 2
t RC
Charging Process :
+ Ey Ey = tan1 E x
ET =
2
( E x )
I = Io e
t Q = Q o 1 e RC
Electric Potential :
V=
kQ r Q1 Q 2 Q 3 + + + .... r2 r3 r1
Discharging Process :
I = Io e
t RC t RC
V = k
Q = Qo e
Time Constant : = RC Relationship CCo : C = Co
U=
kqQ r Q1 Q 2 Q 3 + + + .... r r r 2 3 1
U = k q
I=
Resistance :
dq dt l A
R =
C=
Q V o A d
+ Vn = Qn
+
C=
Relationship RT : R = Ro[1 + (T To)] Electric Energy/Work : W = VIt Electric Power : P = IV Electromotive Force (e.m.f) : = I ( R + r)
Serial Connection : V T = V1 + V2 + V3 + QT = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 =
1 1 1 = + + CT C1 C2
Parallel Connection : V T = V1 = V2 = V3 = QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + CT = C1 + C2 + C3 +
1 Cn
= Vn + Qn + Cn
59
1 1 1 = + R R1 R 2
Kirrchoffs 1 Law :
in
st
1 + R3
1 + ... + R n
d =  dt
Induced e.m.f (magnet barcoil) :
I = I
nd
dB =  NA cos dt
out
Kirrchoff 2
Law :
(IR)
dB =  NA cos dt
Induced e.m.f (mobile rod) : =  BLv Induced e.m.f (rotating rotor) : = NBA sin(t ) Selfinductance (coil) :
o NI B= 2R
Magnetic Field (Solenoid) : B = onI Magnetic Field (Straight Wire) :
L=
N I
B=
oI 2r
U=
1 2 LI 2 N2 2 I1 o N1N 2 A 2 L1
Magnetic Force (particle) : F = qvB sin Magnetic Force (Current) : F = ILB sin Magnetic Force (2 conductors) :
M21 =
M21 =
F = I1 L
oI 2 2d
AC e.m.f :
= o sin(t)
AC Voltage : V = Vp sin(t) AC Current : I = Io sin(t)
60
Resonance Frequency :
1 Ip Ir.m.s. = 2 1 Vp Vr.m.s. = 2
Impedance :
fo =
1 2 LC
Apparent Power : Pa = (Irms)(Vrms) Average Power : Pave = (Irms)(Vrms) cos Power Factor : cos =
Z=
Vp Vrms = Irms Ip
Pure Resistor Circuit : VR = VP sin(t) IR = IP sin(t) R = 0 (in phase) Z=R 2 2 PR = (IP R) sin (t)
Pave Pa
1 Pmean = IP VP 2
Pure Capacitor Circuit : VC = VP sin(t) IC = IP cos(t)
W o = h fo =
hc o
1 2 mv max = eVS 2
CHAPTER 10 : Wave Properties of Particle
Duality :
L =
p=
h h 2mK h 2meV
Z = XL = L PL = VPIP Pmean = 0
RLC Circuit : IT = IR = IL = IC
de Broglie Wavelength :
= =
V + ( VL VC ) VL VC = tan1 V R
VT =
2 R
R 2 + ( XL X C ) 2 XL XC = tan1 R
Z=
61
CHAPTER 13 : Nucleus
Mass Defect (kg) : m = ((A Z)mn + Zmp) MN) Mass Defect (a.m.u.) : m =
h mvr = n 2
Emission/ Absorption Energy : E = Ef  Ei = hf Radius of Hydrogen Orbit : 11 2 rn = 5.29x10 n Energy Level (eV) :
Binding Energy (J) : 2 E = ((A Z)mn + Zmp) MN)c Binding Energy (eV) :
En = 
1 13.6 2 n
E=
En = 
1 2.17 x10 18 2 n
En =
Photon Frequency :
f=
Eo 1 1 2 2 h m n
En =
m(931.494) A
Photon Wavelength :
1 1 1 = RH 2 2 n m
CHAPTER 12 : XRay
Bremstrahlung Wavelength :
CHAPTER 15 : Radioactivity
Activity :
min =
hc eV
A=
dN =N dt
 t
Characteristic Wavelength :
A = Ao e
hc E f Ei
N = No e t
Half Life :
Moseleys Law :
f = a(Z b)
Braggs Equation : 2d sin() = m
T1/ 2 =
ln 2
62
12. 13.
6. 7.
14.
CHAPTER 3 : Electrostatics
What electrostatics refers to? State the Coulombs law. State the formula of electrostatics force and its unit. 4. Explain briefly the direction of electrostatics force. 5. What is the difference between test charge and point charge? 6. What is electrostatics field? 7. State the formula of electrostatics field strength (intensity) and its unit. 8. Explain briefly the direction of the electrostatics field. 9. Graphically, how to describe the strength of the electrostatics field of a charge. 10. Sketch patterns of electrostatics field produced by : a. isolated positive and negative charge. b. parallel plate of uniform charges. 1. 2. 3. c. dipole identical (same magnitude of charge) and nonidentical charges. d. like identical (same magnitude of charge) and nonidentical charges. Explain briefly the trajectory done by a moving charge perpendicular with a uniform electrostatics field and state the magnitude of the acceleration. What is the difference between electric potential, electric potential energy and potential difference between two points? State the formula of respectively for electric potential and electric potential energy for a point charge and their unit. State the formula of respectively for electric potential and electric potential energy for a system of point charges. What is the relationship between electric potential and electric potential energy?
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
63
16. 17.
What equipotential surface refers to? Sketch equipotential surfaces of an isolated charge.
18. 19.
What is the work performed when a charge is moved within the equipotential surface. Distinguish the work done by the charge and the work done on the charge.
10.
7.
discharging process? State the formula and unit of time constant. State 2 uses of time constant. What is dielectric constant and state the effect to the capacitance.
State the formula of capacitance within dielectrics.
19.
64
12.
6.
7.
8.
7.
15. 16.
65
6.
4.
7. 8.
CHAPTER 12 : XRay
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. With the aid of a diagram, explain briefly the production of Xray from an Xray tube. What is the use of heating voltage in Xray tube? What is the use of accelerating voltage in Xray tube? What is termionic electron? Why must the target metal have a high melting point? What is the difference between Bremstruhlung spectrum and characteristic spectrum? How to produce Bremstruhlung spectrum and characteristic spectrum? Sketch a graph of intensity, I vs wavelength, for Bremstruhlung spectrum and characteristic spectrum in the same graph. 9. 10. 11. 12. State the formula of of min for Bremstruhlung spectrum and its unit. State the series of characteristic spectrum and their main property. What is the difference between K, K , and K? With the aid of graph intensity vs wavelength, sketch a new graph if the following quantity is increased : a. heating voltage. b. accelerating voltage. With the aid of graph intensity vs wavelength, sketch a new graph if the target metal is changed with other metal which has higher atomic number, Z. State the Moseleys law and show its formula. State the Braggs law and show its formula. State 2 main uses of Xray.
13.
66
CHAPTER 13 : Nucleus
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is nucleon? What is the main difference between proton and neutron? What is the difference between atomic number, Z and mass number, A? What is the relationship between atomic number, Z and mass number, A? What is mass defect? State the formula of mass defect and its unit. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. State the Einsteins principle of equivalence of mass and energy. What is binding energy of nucleus? State the formula of binding energy and its unit. Physically, what is binding energy per nucleon? State the formula of binding energy per nucleon and its unit. How to identify the stable nuclei?
CHAPTER 15 : Radioactivity
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is radioactivity? State 3 types of radiation emitted through radioactive decay. State the general formula for alphadecay process. State the general formula for betadecay process. What is neutrino and antineutrino? State the general formula for gammadecay process. What are differences among nuclear radiation in terms of : a. charge. b. deflection by electric field, E and magnetic field, B. c. penetrating power. d. ionizing power. With the aid of a diagram, describe the deflection of nuclear radiation through electric field, E. With the aid of a diagram, describe the deflection of nuclear radiation through magnetic field, B. State the law of radioactive decay. What is activity, A? What is the unit of activity, A? State the formula related to the number of radioactive element. State the formula related to activity, A. Physically, what is decay constant, ? What is halflife, T1/2? State the formula of halflife, T1/2 and its unit. 18. 19. State the relationship between halflife, T1/2 and the stability of nuclei. State 2 uses of radioisotopes.
8.
9.
67
68