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Lists of integrals

Lists of integrals

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Integration is the basic operation in integral calculus. While differentiation has easy rules by which the derivative of

a complicated function can be found by differentiating its simpler component functions, integration does not, so tables of known integrals are often useful. This page lists some of the most common antiderivatives.

Historical development of integrals

A compilation of a list of integrals (Integraltafeln) and techniques of integral calculus was published by the German

mathematician Meyer Hirsch in 1810. These tables were republished in the United Kingdom in 1823. More extensive tables were compiled in 1858 by the Dutch mathematician David de Bierens de Haan. A new edition was published in 1862. These tables, which contain mainly integrals of elementary functions, remained in use until the middle of the 20th century. They were then replaced by the much more extensive tables of Gradshteyn and Ryzhik. In Gradshteyn and Ryzhik, integrals originating from the book by de Bierens are denoted by BI.

Not all closed-form expressions have closed-form antiderivatives; this study forms the subject of differential Galois theory, which was initially developed by Joseph Liouville in the 1830s and 1840s, leading to Liouville's theorem which classifies which expressions have closed form antiderivatives. A simple example of a function without a closed form antiderivative is e x 2, whose antiderivative is (up to constants) the error function.

Since 1968 there is the Risch algorithm for determining indefinite integrals that can be expressed in term of elementary functions, typically using a computer algebra system. Integrals that cannot be expressed using elementary functions can be manipulated symbolically using general functions such as the Meijer G-function.

Lists of integrals

More detail may be found on the following pages for the lists of integrals:

Gradshteyn, Ryzhik, Jeffrey, Zwillinger's Table of Integrals, Series, and Products contains a large collection of results. An even larger, multivolume table is the Integrals and Series by Prudnikov, Brychkov, and Marichev (with volumes 13 listing integrals and series of elementary and special functions, volume 45 are tables of Laplace transforms). More compact collections can be found in e.g. Brychkov, Marichev, Prudnikov's Tables of Indefinite Integrals, or as chapters in Zwillinger's CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae, Bronstein and Semendyayev's Handbook of Mathematics (Springer) and Oxford Users' Guide to Mathematics (Oxford Univ. Press), and other mathematical handbooks.

Other useful resources include Abramowitz and Stegun and the Bateman Manuscript Project. Both works contain many identities concerning specific integrals, which are organized with the most relevant topic instead of being collected into a separate table. Two volumes of the Bateman Manuscript are specific to integral transforms.

There are several web sites which have tables of integrals and integrals on demand. Wolfram Alpha can show results, and for some simpler expressions, also the intermediate steps of the integration. Wolfram Research also

Lists of integrals

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operates another online service, the Wolfram Mathematica Online Integrator [1] .

Integrals of simple functions

C is used for an arbitrary constant of integration that can only be determined if something about the value of the integral at some point is known. Thus each function has an infinite number of antiderivatives.

These formulas only state in another form the assertions in the table of derivatives.

Integrals with a singularity

When there is a singularity in the function being integrated such that the integral becomes undefined, i.e., it is not Lebesgue integrable, then C does not need to be the same on both sides of the singularity. The forms below normally assume the Cauchy principal value around a singularity in the value of C but this is not in general necessary. For instance in

of C but this is not in general necessary. For instance in there is a singularity

there is a singularity at 0 and the integral becomes infinite there. If the integral above was used to give a definite integral between -1 and 1 the answer would be 0. This however is only the value assuming the Cauchy principal value for the integral around the singularity. If the integration was done in the complex plane the result would depend on the path around the origin, in this case the singularity contributes when using a path above the origin and for a path below the origin. A function on the real line could use a completely different value of C on either side of the origin as in:

different value of C on either side of the origin as in: Rational functions more integrals:

Rational functions

These rational functions have a non-integrable singularity at 0 for a ≤ −1.

These rational functions have a non-integrable singularity at 0 for a ≤ − 1. ( Cavalieri's
These rational functions have a non-integrable singularity at 0 for a ≤ − 1. ( Cavalieri's
These rational functions have a non-integrable singularity at 0 for a ≤ − 1. ( Cavalieri's
These rational functions have a non-integrable singularity at 0 for a ≤ − 1. ( Cavalieri's
These rational functions have a non-integrable singularity at 0 for a ≤ − 1. ( Cavalieri's

Lists of integrals

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Exponential functions

more integrals: List of integrals of exponential functions Logarithms more integrals: List of integrals of logarithmic
more integrals: List of integrals of exponential functions Logarithms more integrals: List of integrals of logarithmic

Logarithms

more integrals: List of integrals of logarithmic functions Trigonometric functions more integrals: List of integrals
more integrals: List of integrals of logarithmic functions Trigonometric functions more integrals: List of integrals

Trigonometric functions

integrals: List of integrals of trigonometric functions (See Integral of the secant function . This result
integrals: List of integrals of trigonometric functions (See Integral of the secant function . This result
integrals: List of integrals of trigonometric functions (See Integral of the secant function . This result
integrals: List of integrals of trigonometric functions (See Integral of the secant function . This result
integrals: List of integrals of trigonometric functions (See Integral of the secant function . This result

(See Integral of the secant function. This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.)

of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see
of the secant function . This result was a well-known conjecture in the 17th century.) (see

Lists of integrals

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Inverse trigonometric functions

List of integrals of inverse trigonometric functions Hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of
List of integrals of inverse trigonometric functions Hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of
List of integrals of inverse trigonometric functions Hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of
List of integrals of inverse trigonometric functions Hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of
List of integrals of inverse trigonometric functions Hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of
List of integrals of inverse trigonometric functions Hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of

Hyperbolic functions

more integrals: List of integrals of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of
more integrals: List of integrals of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of
more integrals: List of integrals of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of
more integrals: List of integrals of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of
more integrals: List of integrals of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of
more integrals: List of integrals of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of

Inverse hyperbolic functions

of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of inverse hyperbolic functions
of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of inverse hyperbolic functions
of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of inverse hyperbolic functions
of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of inverse hyperbolic functions
of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of inverse hyperbolic functions
of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions more integrals: List of integrals of inverse hyperbolic functions

Lists of integrals

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Products of functions proportional to their second derivatives

of functions proportional to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si:
of functions proportional to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si:
of functions proportional to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si:
of functions proportional to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si:

Absolute value functions

to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei:
to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei:
to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei:
to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei:
to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei:
to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei:
to their second derivatives Absolute value functions Special functions Ci, Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei:

Special functions

Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei: Exponential integral , li: Logarithmic integral function , erf: Error function
Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei: Exponential integral , li: Logarithmic integral function , erf: Error function
Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei: Exponential integral , li: Logarithmic integral function , erf: Error function
Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei: Exponential integral , li: Logarithmic integral function , erf: Error function
Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei: Exponential integral , li: Logarithmic integral function , erf: Error function
Si: Trigonometric integral s, Ei: Exponential integral , li: Logarithmic integral function , erf: Error function

Lists of integrals

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Definite integrals lacking closed-form antiderivatives

There are some functions whose antiderivatives cannot be expressed in closed form. However, the values of the definite integrals of some of these functions over some common intervals can be calculated. A few useful integrals are given below.

can be calculated. A few useful integrals are given below. (see also Gamma function ) (the

(see also Gamma function)

integrals are given below. (see also Gamma function ) (the Gaussian integral ) for a >
(see also Gamma function ) (the Gaussian integral ) for a > 0 for a >

for a > 0

Gamma function ) (the Gaussian integral ) for a > 0 for a > 0, n

for

a > 0, n is 1, 2, 3,

and !! is the double factorial.

> 0, n is 1, 2, 3, and !! is the double factorial . when a

when a > 0

1, 2, 3, and !! is the double factorial . when a > 0 for a

for a > 0, n = 0, 1, 2,

factorial . when a > 0 for a > 0, n = 0, 1, 2, (see

(see also Bernoulli number)

a > 0, n = 0, 1, 2, (see also Bernoulli number ) (see sinc function
a > 0, n = 0, 1, 2, (see also Bernoulli number ) (see sinc function
a > 0, n = 0, 1, 2, (see also Bernoulli number ) (see sinc function
number ) (see sinc function and Sine integral ) (if n is an even integer and
number ) (see sinc function and Sine integral ) (if n is an even integer and

(if n is an even integer and

)
)
and Sine integral ) (if n is an even integer and ) (if is an odd

(if

and Sine integral ) (if n is an even integer and ) (if is an odd

is an odd integer and

) (if n is an even integer and ) (if is an odd integer and (for

(for

n is an even integer and ) (if is an odd integer and (for integers )

integers

)
)

with

integer and ) (if is an odd integer and (for integers ) with and , see

and

, see also Binomial coefficient ) Binomial coefficient)

(for integers ) with and , see also Binomial coefficient ) (for real and non-negative integer,

(for

integers ) with and , see also Binomial coefficient ) (for real and non-negative integer, see

real and

) with and , see also Binomial coefficient ) (for real and non-negative integer, see also

non-negative integer, see also Symmetry)

) (for real and non-negative integer, see also Symmetry ) (for integers with and , see

(for

real and non-negative integer, see also Symmetry ) (for integers with and , see also Binomial

integers with

integer, see also Symmetry ) (for integers with and , see also Binomial coefficient ) (for

and

, see also Binomial coefficient ) Binomial coefficient)

) (for integers with and , see also Binomial coefficient ) (for integers with and ,

(for

integers withalso Symmetry ) (for integers with and , see also Binomial coefficient ) (for and ,

and) (for integers with and , see also Binomial coefficient ) (for integers with , see

) (for integers with and , see also Binomial coefficient ) (for integers with and ,

, see also Binomial coefficient)

Lists of integrals

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)
)

(where

Lists of integrals 7 ) (where (where is the Gamma function ) is the exponential function
Lists of integrals 7 ) (where (where is the Gamma function ) is the exponential function

(where

is the Gamma function ) Gamma function)

is the Gamma function ) is the exponential function (the Beta function ) (where is the
) is the exponential function (the Beta function ) (where is the modified Bessel function of

(where

is the modified Bessel function of the first kind) Bessel function of the first kind)

(where is the modified Bessel function of the first kind) , and , this is related
,
,

and

is the modified Bessel function of the first kind) , and , this is related to

, this is related to the probability density

function of the Student's t-distribution) The method of exhaustion provides a formula for the general case when no antiderivative exists:

formula for the general case when no antiderivative exists: The " sophomore's dream " attributed to
formula for the general case when no antiderivative exists: The " sophomore's dream " attributed to
exists: The " sophomore's dream " attributed to Johann Bernoulli . References • M.

attributed to Johann Bernoulli.

References

• I.S. Gradshteyn (И.С. Градштейн), I.M. Ryzhik (И.М. Рыжик); Alan Jeffrey, Daniel Zwillinger, editors. Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, seventh edition. Academic Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-12-373637-6. Errata. [2] (Several previous editions as well.)

• A.P. Prudnikov (А.П. Прудников), Yu.A. Brychkov (Ю.А. Брычков), O.I. Marichev (О.И. Маричев). Integrals and Series. First edition (Russian), volume 15, Nauka, 19811986. First edition (English, translated from the Russian by N.M. Queen), volume 15, Gordon & Breach Science Publishers/CRC Press, 19881992, ISBN 2-88124-097-6. Second revised edition (Russian), volume 13, Fiziko-Matematicheskaya Literatura, 2003.

• Yu.A. Brychkov (Ю.А. Брычков), Handbook of Special Functions: Derivatives, Integrals, Series and Other Formulas. Russian edition, Fiziko-Matematicheskaya Literatura, 2006. English edition, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2008, ISBN 1-58488-956-X.

• Daniel Zwillinger. CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae, 31st edition. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58488-291-3. (Many earlier editions as well.)

Lists of integrals

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Historical

• Meyer Hirsch, Integraltafeln, oder, Sammlung von Integralformeln [3] (Duncker und Humblot, Berlin, 1810)

• Meyer Hirsch, Integral Tables, Or, A Collection of Integral Formulae [4] (Baynes and son, London, 1823) [English translation of Integraltafeln]

• David Bierens de Haan, Nouvelles Tables d'Intégrales définies [5] (Engels, Leiden, 1862)

• Benjamin O. Pierce A short table of integrals - revised edition [6] (Ginn & co., Boston, 1899)

External links

Tables of integrals

• S.O.S. Mathematics: Tables and Formulas [7] (warning: may serve popunders)

• Paul's Online Math Notes [8]

• A. Dieckmann, Table of Integrals (Elliptic Functions, Square Roots, Inverse Tangents and More Exotic Functions): Indefinite Integrals [9] Definite Integrals [10]

• Math Major: A Table of Integrals [11]

• O'Brien, Francis J. Jr. Integrals [12] Derived integrals of exponential and logarithmic functions

• Rule-based Mathematics [13] Precisely defined indefinite integration rules covering a wide class of integrands

Derivations

• V. H. Moll, The Integrals in Gradshteyn and Ryzhik [14]

Online service

• Integration examples for Wolfram Alpha [15]

Open source programs

• wxmaxima gui for Symbolic and numeric resolution of many mathematical problems [16]

References

Article Sources and Contributors

9

Article Sources and Contributors

Lists of integrals Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=465622541 Contributors: 00Ragora00, Akikidis, Albert D. Rich, Amazins490, AngrySaki, ArnoldReinhold, Asmeurer, BANZ111, BananaFiend, BehzadAhmadi, Bilboq, Brutha, CWenger, Ciphers, Cícero, DJPhoenix719, DavidWBrooks, Deineka, DerHexer, Dmcq, Doctormatt, Dogcow, Doraemonpaul, Dpb2104, Drahmedov, Dysprosia, Euty, FerrousTigrus, Fieldday-sunday, Fredrik, Giftlite, Giulio.orru, Gloriphobia, Happy-melon, IDGC, Icairns, Imperial Monarch, Itai, Itu, Ivan Štambuk, JNW, Jaisenberg, Jimp, Jj137, John Vandenberg, Jon R W, Jwillbur, KSmrq, Kantorghor, Kilonum, LachlanA, LeaveSleaves, Legendre17, Lesonyrra, Linas, LizardJr8, Lzur, Macrakis, MathFacts, Michael Hardy, MrOllie, Msablic, Muro de Aguas, NNemec, Nbarth, New Math, NewEnglandYankee, NickFr, NinjaCross, Oleg Alexandrov, Perelaar, Phatsphere, Physman, Physmanir, Pimvantend, Pokipsy76, Pschemp, Qmtead, RobHar, Salih, Salix alba, Schneelocke, Scythe33, ShakataGaNai, Sseyler, Stpasha, TStein, TakuyaMurata, Template namespace initialisation script, Tetzcatlipoca, The Transhumanist, Tkreuz, Unyoyega, VasilievVV, Vedantm, Waabu, Wile E. Heresiarch, Willking1979, Xanthoxyl, Yeungchunk, Ylai, Zmoney918, 242 anonymous edits

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