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Jonathan Wolgin Professor Walter Everett Theory 405: Interpreting the Beatles April 19, 01 The !

ole of the "#II $hor% in the Beatles& $areer 'f all the vario(s non)%iatoni* *hor%s the Beatles (se% thro(gho(t their *areer, one stan%s o(t as the +ost pervasive: the "#II *hor%, By one *o(nt, they in*orporate this *hor% into +ore than -songs,1 It fig(re% in nine *o+positions .(st for Help! alone, Why /ere the Beatles so %ra/n to this *hor%0 1o/ %i% they e2ploit an% e2pan% its possi"le f(n*tions0 An% ho/ %i% s(*h (sage enhan*e their songs& +eaning0 Tho(gh I /ill not have spa*e to %is*(ss all of the Beatles& songs that feat(re the "#II *hor%, I /ill analy3e its role in vario(s note/orthy settings, The Beatles e+ploye% the "#II *hor% in the follo/ing *onte2ts: As a /hole)tone progression to the toni* 45P,6, I 7ove 8o(9, 5I A+ the Walr(s9, 5With a 7ittle 1elp :ro+ ;y :rien%s9, 57a%y ;a%onna9< Po/erf(l intro%(*tions 451ar% =ay&s >ight9, 51elp?9< ;(lti)plagal progressions 458o(&ve @ot to 1i%e 8o(r 7ove A/ay9 5With a 7ittle 1elp :ro+ ;y :rien%s9, 5A =ay in the 7ife9, 51ey J(%e9, 51ere $o+es the 6(n9, 58o( >ever @ive ;e 8o(r ;oney9<, TilleAens, @er. A Flood of Flat Sevenths Soundscapes. #ol(+e 9, J(ne 00-, http:BB///,i**e,r(g,nlBCso(n%s*apesB#'7D;E09BAEfloo%EofEflat) sevenths,sht+l
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Toni*i3ing "#II 45=o*tor !o"ert9, 5Penny 7ane9< As a progression to an% fro+ the toni* 45:or >o 'ne9, 5We $an WorA It '(t9, /ith a toni* pe%al tone))5To+orro/ >ever Fno/s9, 5@ot to @et 8o( Into ;y 7ife9< Pivoting to another Aey 451ere, There an% Every/here9< 6("stit(tion for ii 45All ;y 7oving9, 58es It Is9<,

The Beatles +ight have "een first intro%(*e% to the #II *hor% thro(gh their *over of 5A Taste of 1oney9 4/ritten "y 6*ott an% ;arlo/, release% in 19-0<, In the Aey of :G +inor, the refrain feat(res a #II)i *a%en*e, 6(*h *a%en*es are (se% "y 1arrison on his first f(ll song, 5=on&t Bother ;e9 419- <, an% 7ennon on 5>ot a 6e*on% Ti+e9 419-H<, The first taste /e get of the "#II in a +a.or Aey is in ;*$artney&s hit 5P,6, I 7ove 8o(9, "ase% in the Aey of = +a.or, 4The "#II in this song is a $ *hor%, /hi*h is not to "e *onf(se% /ith the #III *hor%, $GI, /hi*h +aAes a rare appearan*e here, in the verses,< In a *o(rageo(s +ove, ;*$artney e+ploys a :la+en*o)inspire% %e*eptive *a%en*e in the refrain, going fro+ # to b#I, To resolve the re+aining tension, he ree+phasi3es the prono(n 5yo(9 "y leaping an o*tave (p to % , an% singing %)*)"")*)% +elis+ati*ally, =(ring this vo*al *li+a2, the *hor%s sli%e (p t/o /hole)tones to *a%en*e on the toni* 4"#I)"#II)I<, This step/ise sli%ing +otion is *alle% a chord stream, Polla*A says, 5JItK is a

te*hniL(e is +ost *losely asso*iate% /ith either early 0th *ent(ry I+pressionis+ or Ja33 an% it happens to "reaA one of the stan%ar% ol%) fashione% r(les against (sing parallel o*taves an% fifths "et/een *hor%s,9 Altho(gh he says, 5Aestheti*ally, it s(ggests a lang(i% sens(ality,9 I /o(l% s(ggest that it is a for*ef(l %isplay of rea*hing o(t to a lover, as he (ses /hat are al+ost po/er)*hor%s, The sa+e /hole)tone progression feat(res in the 5Billy 6hears9 the+e an% in 5I A+ the Walr(s9, "(t /ith a %ifferent sort of pro*la+ation, 1ere the Beatles anno(n*e the entran*e of fi*tional "an%lea%er Billy 6hears, replete /ith va(%eville triplets on the organ, in the transition "et/een 56gt, Pepper&s9 an% 5With A 7ittle 1elp :ro+ ;y :rien%s,9 1e serves as an alter ego for the Beatles, allo/ing the+ to e2plore %ifferent i%entities /ith their i+agination, Everett points o(t the strong *onne*tion "et/een his the+e an% the 5P,6, I 7ove 8o(9 *li+a2, saying, 5The "#I)"#II)I fanfare progression itself ties the song together, as it reappears in the *o%a, there /ith a vo*al .(+p even +ore strongly re+inis*ent of the sa+e %evi*e in the refrain of 5P,6, I 7ove 8o(,9 /hile "a*Aing vo*als provi%e there an o"liL(e %es*ent, as hear% in 5Please Please ;e,9 Are /e s(ppose% to hear Billy 6hears as the one)ti+e star of the 19- )19-H Beatles09 4Vol. 2, 10 < 45With A 7ittle 1elp :ro+ ;y :rien%s9 also feat(res the %o("le

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plagal *a%en*e: "#II)I#)I, B(t /e /ill ret(rn to %is*(ss this f(n*tion later,< 7ennon&s 5I A+ the Walr(s9 presents a si+ilar (se of the pro*la+ation progression, 1ere /e have t/o %e*larations, "oth of /hi*h are s(ng over the *hor%s $)=)E: 58o( are +e an% /e are all together9 in the verse, an% 5I a+ the egg+an, 4'oh< they are the egg+en, 4'oh< I a+ the /alr(s9 in the *hor(s, The str(*t(re in the *hor(s *o+es a*ross as +ore a(%a*io(s as 7ennon sings the roots of the *hor%s here, /hereas in the verses he i+itates a siren /ith a *hro+ati* e )%G , This song presents +(*h +ore tonal a+"ig(ity than the previo(s t/o %o, /hi*h is appropriate given 7ennon&s overall p(rpose for /riting itNto *onfo(n% his over)analyti*al *riti*s, The song is in A +a.or overall, "(t there are hints of toni*i3ations of E +a.or s(*h as in the intro 4A< an% 4CO-)10<, an% espe*ially the E se*tion, 56itting in an English gar%en /aiting for the s(n,9 :or that reason, an% "e*a(se of the si+ilar *a%en*es in the other t/o songs, I thinA the $)=)E progression *an "e *onsi%ere% "#I)"#II)I, This progression taAes on even +ore str(*t(ral signifi*an*e in 57a%y ;a%onna9, It provi%es a *a%ential rest helping the Beatles transition "et/een ea*h se*tion: into)verse, verse)solo se*tion, "ri%ge) verse, In the Aey of A +a.or /e hear an :)@)A +ove+ent al+ost every seven "ars, The : *hor% is 5prepare%9 "y a =, /hi*h *reates another *ross relation that s(ggests %isapproval, as Pa(l sings, 5Won%er ho/

yo( +anage to fee% the rest9, an% 5=i% yo( thinA that +oney /as heaven sent09 The three g(itarists (se %istortion an% over%rive to e+phasi3e this ra/ /hole)tone progression, also %o("le% on the roots "y the sa2ophones, 7e% "y Pa(l, the Beatles intentionally "ase% the ti+"re an% *hor% str(*t(re of 57a%y ;a%onna9 on a tra%itional .a33 n(+"er 5Ba% Penny Bl(es9, In the stri%e style, Pa(l plays /ith his left han% the piano o*taves /hi*h "o(n*e (p, %o/n an% step/ise, 1o/ever, no/here in the ar*hetype %o /e fin% "#I)"#II)I, so /e *an attri"(te that ro*A) inspiring str(*t(re to the Beatles& *reativity, At the en% of the "ri%ge, /e get another hint of this progression "(t in a %ifferent Aey, for it is a retransitional +o+ent, When Pa(l sings 56ee ho/ they r(n?9 /e hear a $ *hor%, /hi*h /as prepare% "y a @I, "(t is follo/e% "y B+I ) =BE P EI, Altho(gh EI is not e2a*tly toni*i3e%, the Beatles feel *o+forta"le (sing this /hole)tone progression to transition "a*A into the ho+e Aey of A, In a%%ition to (sing this /hole)tone f(n*tion of the "#II *hor%, the Beatles e2ploit the *hor% to *reate a +(lti)plagal progression in +any of their highly appre*iate% songs, 7ennon first %is*overs this progression, /hi*h involves three or +ore *onse*(tive *hor%s a fo(rth apart, in his =ylan)style song 58o(&ve @ot to 1i%e 8o(r 7ove A/ay,9 Before its %o("le plagal (se in the en%ing, the "#II *hor% 4in this *ase an :< plays a *entral role in the verse, a*ting as a I# of I# an%

preparing the %o+inant *hor%, $o+ing after =+a.or, ho/ever, it *a(ses a %issonant *ross)relation as /e hear fG *lash /ith fQ, :ittingly, then, +ost of 7ennon&s e2pressions of inse*(rity an% self)%epre*ation start on this : *hor%: 5hea% in han%9, 5I *an&t go on9, 5people stare9, 5la(gh at +e9, It&s interesting that 7ennon grapples /ith the sa+e the+e of inse*(rity an% the "#II *ross)relation on t/o of his earlier songs, As, Everett says, 5What /as *ertain in the =ylanesL(e RI&+ a 7oser&, a lost love, is fore"o%e% in the *onte+plative R8o(&ve @ot to 1i%e 8o(r 7ove A/ay,9 An% the sa+e to(*h of paranoia noti*e% in R8es It Is& is also palpa"le here,94 SS< 'nly in the en%ing of this song %o /e get the revol(tionary %o("le plagal *a%en*es, /ith the intro%(*tion of the fl(tes, The relatively si+ple progression I#)"#II)I#)I /o(l% *o+e to play a Aey role in +any of the Beatles& +ost respe*te% songs, fro+ 5A =ay in the 7ife9 to 51ere $o+es the 6(n9, It /o(l% also infl(en*e the /hole genre of ro*A, The +ost pro+inent early appearan*es of its *o(ntless e2a+ples to *o+e are hear% in the 6tones& 56y+pathy for the =evi9 4=e*e+"er 19-S<, the Who&s 56ee ;e, :eel ;e9 4J(ne 19-9<, an% the Airplane&s 5#ol(nteers9 4>ove+"er 19-9<, 4Everett vol 2,, 10H< The Beatles (se% this *hor% in a provo*ative /ay on 5A =ay in the 7ife9, a song on /hi*h they rea*he% ne/ heights e2peri+entally, Its synthesis of *ontrasting the+es an% stories "oth profo(n% an% "anal, its (n/orl%ly or*hestral "(il%(p, an% its %rea+liAe +i%%le

se*tion stan% o(t to +e as the +ost salient feat(res of this e2peri+entation, The /or%less 5%rea+9 has often "een interprete% as a state of "eing high on +ari.(ana, %(e to the pre*e%ing lines 5I&% love to t(rn yo( on9 an% 5ha% a s+oAe9, as /ell as the vo*al /ailings, B(t ;artin says that 5To (s, tho(gh, those vo*als /ere no +ore than an inventive /ay of getting "a*A to the original Aey?9 Tho(gh I %on&t thinA a /hole L(a%riplagal *a%en*e fro+ $ to @ to = to A to E /as ne*essary to get "a*A to the ho+e Aey of @Nafter all, it *a%en*es on ANI thinA it *ertainly /as an inventive +ane(ver, As I hear it, ;*$artney&s "ass line on the piano %(ring this seL(en*e *on.(res (p a ship (n%(lating over the /aves, for he alternates a rising an% falling arpeggio /ith ea*h s(**essive *hor%, The prolongation of the vo*al e on 5Ahh9 over three *hor%s 4A, E an% $< slightly stagnates the .o(rney, ho/ever, The ship finally an*hors, I feel, %(ring the reappearan*e of the %otte% L(arter to note eighth note pattern 4e )% )* )% )g1<, /hi*h is no/ %o("le% "y the or*hestra as /ell as the piano, At this point /e go "a*A to the %aily ro(tine of rea%ing the ne/s, While the "#II *hor% fin%s profo(n% appli*ation in the %rea+ se*tion, its f(n*tion in the verses of 5A =ay in the 7ife9 *a(ses a "it of (neasiness, This is partly "e*a(se the previo(s senten*e /ent to E+BB fro+ $, an% no/ /e are going to : 4"#II< fro+ $, 'r%inarily this fo(rth +otion /o(l% so(n% fine, "(t 7ennon&s +elo%y is really +eant for the

E+BB progression, for he sings ")a)g, This +elo%y *lashes /ith the *hor% tones of : +a.or, pro%(*ing a tritone /ith f an% a +inor
n%

/ith

c, ;oreover, the "#II *hor% %oes not resolve to I or # or even I# liAe it %oes in all of its other (sesT rather it sli%es %o/n to vi 4E+<, :or these reasons, Everett says, 5the Aey of @ is often (n%er+ine% "y ;i2oly%ian J"#IIK to(*hes, an% *a%en*es are avoi%e% as the %o+inant is al/ays slighte%,9 411I< In%ee%, /e never get an a(thenti* *a%en*e, not even in the transition fro+ the %rea+ "a*A to the verses, To +e, a s(staine% sense of (proote%ness lingers on after the f(ll or*hestral fortissi+o en%ing on E +a.or, I thinA this avant)gar%e *on*l(sion to the song 4an% al"(+< %rives ho+e the Beatles& overall +essage to 5/aAe (p9, to L(estion ho/ o(r %aily ro(tine is infl(en*e% "y so*ietal nor+s, an% to fin% o(r o/n +eaning in life, A"o(t a year an% a half later, the Beatles /o(l% re*or% another +on(+ental song /ith a pro+inent +(lti)plagal *a%en*e: 1ey J(%e, To (n%erstan% the signifi*an*e of the e2ten%e% plagal *o%a, I)"#II)I#)I, /e have to (n%erstan% ;*$artney&s inspiration for the song, Pa(l&s relationship /ith Jane Asher /as en%ing aro(n% the sa+e ti+e that John&s relationship /as en%ing /ith his /ife $ynthia, /ho /as getting repla*e% "y 8oAo 'no, Th(s Pa(l felt so+e e+pathy for 7ennon&s yo(ng son J(lian, to /ho+ he ha% "een a sort of (n*le, While %riving to visit J(lian an% /ishing to *onsole hi+, Pa(l *a+e (p /ith so+e of the /or%s an% t(ne to 51ey J(les9 /hi*h "e*a+e 51ey J(%e9, I agree /ith

Everett that 5the R1ey J(%e& +elo%y is a +arvel of *onstr(*tion, *ontrasting /i%e leaps /ith step/ise +otions, s(staine% tones /ith rapi% +ove+ent, sylla"i* /ith +elis+ati* /or%)setting, an% tension 4R%on&t +aAe it bad&< /ith resol(tion 4R+aAe it "etter&<,9 419 < Pa(l i+agines that J(les is having a lot of negative e+otions a"o(t hi+self an% his parents that he %oesn&t nee% to have, In this vein, Pa(l sings, 5=on&t *arry the /orl% (pon yo(r sho(l%ers,9 This line helps (s (n%erstan% /hat he +eans /hen he later sings a"stra*tly, 5the +ove+ent yo( nee% is on yo(r sho(l%er9, /hi*h John insiste% "e Aept in the lyri*s, As I interpret it, Pa(l is telling J(les here that it&s oA to Rshr(g& his feelings off, tho(gh not non*halantly of *o(rse, It +(st have "een very *o+ple2 to "e John 7ennon&s son at that ti+e, an% at any ti+e for that +atter, 6o+e of Pa(l&s lyri*s see+ to s(ggest that J(les *an a**li+ate to John&s ne/ partner, 8oAo, as /hen he says 5The +in(te yo( let her into yo(r heart, then yo( *an start to +aAe it "etter,9 Perhaps this is /hy 7ennon 5at first tooA the song as ;$artney&s "lessing of his an% 'no&s relationship,9 4ibid.< B(t as I interpret it, Pa(l is telling J(les not to give (p hope on love .(st "e*a(se of his father&s %ivor*e, In general ter+s, the singer&s L(est to *onsole J(%e an% *heer hi+ (p is s(**essf(l, /e *an infer, "y the "(il%(p to the *o%a an% the %o("le plagal progression in the *o%a itself, The "(il%)(p feat(res a "l(esy)*hro+ati* repetition of 5"etter, "etter , , ,9, /hi*h is as e2*iting

as it is a for+ of te2t)painting, Then the *o%a&s 19)fol% repetition of the plagal progression :)E")B"):, replete /ith a *hor(s, Pa(l&s s*at singing an% a "otto+)heavy or*hestra, i+plies that J(%e Ano/s he *an over*o+e a"ove his sorro/, Pa(l is not the only Beatle to (se a +(lti)plagal progression to e2press rising a"ove, 1arrison, /ho ha% a ro(gh ti+e in 19-9, %oes the sa+e in his 51ere $o+es the 6(n,9 Besi%es having L(it the "an% for a /eeA, he /as arreste% for +ari.(ana possession, ha% his tonsils taAen o(t, an% generally felt %raine% "y the "(rea(*ra*y at Apple, not to +ention the long, *ol%, English /inter, 1arrison fo(n% inspiration for 51ere $o+es the 6(n9, he re*alle%, on a "ea(tif(l spring %ay /ith Eri* $lapton: 5Being in Eri*&s gar%en felt liAe playing hooAy fro+ s*hool Ji,e, AppleK, I fo(n% so+e sort of release an% the song .(st *a+e,9 4Everett 5I< In%ee%, 51ere $o+es the 6(n9 *onveys the *o+poser&s ne/fo(n% *onfi%en*e, enlighten+ent an% (plifte% feeling, These senti+ents *o+e a*ross *learly in the +i%%le se*tion, /here the tri)plagal *a%en*e plays a Aey role, 1e sings 56(n, s(n, s(n here it *o+es9 over the progression $)@)=)A, /here $ is the "#II *hor%, 6o+e people hear this repetition as a +e%itative +antra, /hi*h +ight +aAe sense given 1arrison&s spirit(alityNhe ha% learne% Trans*en%ental ;e%itation /hile in !ishiAesh, In%ia, 1o/ever, I interpret the se*tion as +ore of an e2("erant anno(n*e+ent, tho(gh very %ifferent of *o(rse fro+ the /hole)tone fanfares of 5Billy 6hears9

an% 5I A+ the Walr(s9, In +y opinion, the Ain% of relief 1arrison e2presses here is *loser to that in the *o%a of 51ey J(%e9 than to that in the %rea+liAe se*tion of 5A =ay in the 7ife9, 1o/ever, in the Abbey Road song 58o( >ever @ive ;e 8o(r ;oney9, I thinA that the Beatles %o all(%e to 5A =ay in the 7ife9 an% also 51ere $o+es the 6(n9, In the *o%etta to Part 4C-D 1:H1 ) :09<

;*$artney repeats 5'h that +agi* feeling, no/here to go9 over the %o("le plagal *a%en*e B"):)$, Ti+e see+s to stop in this se*tion .(st as in the %rea+ seL(en*e of 5A =ay in the 7ife9, as the har+oni* rhyth+ has in%ee% slo/e% %o/n to one *hor% per "ar, Also, the Beatles play a three)"ar gro(ping five ti+es here .(st as they %o in the +i%%le se*tion of 51ere $o+es the 6(n9, 41o/ever, the te+po an% +eter of 5;oney9 is +(*h slo/er an% less *o+ple2 than that of 56(n9,< Everett notes t/o +ore si+ilarities "et/een these t/o songs: 5The spe*ial R+agi* feeling& is e+phasi3e% "y 6tarr&s ri%e an% *rash *y+"als an% "y 1arrison&s 7eslie% g(itar ringing /ith tria% arpeggiations %es*en%ing in fo(rths, /hi*h also +ay re*all the "ri%ge of 51ere $o+es the 6(n,9 4 -1< In a%%ition, I thinA that ;*$artney&s trans*en%ent feeling of free%o+ here rese+"les 1arrison&s in his song, Altho(gh 1arrison free% (p his s*he%(le "y %is+issing Apple intentionally, /hile ;*$artney&s persona /as passively 5sa*Ae%9, they "oth reali3e they %on&t have to go any/here if they %on&t /ant to, 7iAe 1arrison, ;*$artney /as also fe% (p /ith so+e of Apple&s "(siness

pra*ti*es an% "roAen pro+ises, Event(ally, the Beatles /o(l% free the+selves of ea*h other&s presen*e in the st(%io, /hi*h they so+eti+es felt /as li+iting their e2pression 47ennon an% 1arrison espe*ially<, We have no/ *overe% several of Beatle&s +ost pro+inent, effe*tive (ses of the +(lti)plagal +ove+ent, "ase% on the "#II *hor%, 6tarting /ith its ro*A)inspiring f(n*tion on 58o(&ve @ot to 1i%e 8o(r 7ove A/ay9, it ass(+es a %rea+)in%(*ing role in 5A =ay in the 7ife9, a reass(ring presen*e in 51ey J(%e9 an% 51ere $o+es the 6(n9, an% an e2pression of free%o+ on 58o( >ever @ive ;e 8o(r ;oney9, Ea*h ti+e the Beatles e2ploit this versatile progression, they "reaA ne/ gro(n%, >o/ I /o(l% liAe to *o+pare their treat+ent of the "#II *hor% in t/o of their +ost gra""ing intros: 5A 1ar% =ay&s >ight9 an% 51elp9, The for+er intro /ill set the stage for the /hole song, an% +ore "roa%ly, the /hole fil+, It is stri%ent :a%%9 *hor% playe% in (nison "y ;artin&s piano an% 1arrison&s 1 )string !i*Aen"a*Aer, /ith ;*$artney playing a %1 in the "ass, As the song is in @ +a.or, the "ass note gives so+e inAling of a %o+inant *hor%, preparing the toni*, The *o+ple2 an% a+"ig(o(s opening *hor% also prepares the "#II 4:< *hor%, /hi*h f(n*tions as a "l(esy ;i2oly%ian neigh"or to the toni* in the verse progression: I)I#)I)"#II)I, Pa(l an% John al/ays e+phasi3e the se*on% sylla"le of the /or% /hi*h lan%s on this *hor%, as in 5/orAI>@9 an% 5sleepI>@9, As they %o this, they sing a "l(esy +inor thir% fro+ % to f,

+aAing this "#II *hor% an :- *hor%, This *hor%, tho(gh a"sent in the +i%%le se*tion, ret(rns in the *o%a to "ring satisfa*tion an% pea*e, The last ti+e John repeats 58o( Ano/ I feel alright9, the :-B9 *hor% of the opening is reprise%, B(t this ti+e, I thinA that : +a.or is toni*i3e% thro(gh 1arrison&s arpeggios in the fa%e o(t, s(spen%ing the ninth 4g< an% resolving it to f, 7iAe the +(lti)plagal progression, the ;i2oly%ian neigh"or progression also i+pa*te% the history of ro*A, The Beatles /eren&t the first to (se this sort of progressionNit goes "a*A to Bo =i%%ley 41955< N"(t they largely pop(lari3e% it, Everett says, 5It /as not hear% often (ntil res(rre*te% "y the Beatles to "e*o+e a staple of late)19-0s har% ro*A, "asi* to Jefferson Airplane, the =ea%, the =oors, the Who, , ,9 4 H-< As /ith 5A 1ar% =ay&s >ight9, the intro%(*tion to 51elp9 4another Beatles& fil+ title< enti*es the listener thro(gh the (se of the "#II 4@< a+ong other %evi*es, :irst of all, it starts /ith 7ennon&s sin*ere *ry, inviting the listener into his personal tho(ghts, By e2pressing his inse*(rity an% +aAing hi+self v(lnera"le, I thinA he helps the listener relate +ore to his +essage, Another striAing feat(re is the *o(nterpoint: 7ennon&s +elo%y rea*hes (p *hro+ati*ally /hile Pa(l&s "ass plays passing tones %o/n/ar%, gro(n%ing the *hor%s, Then as 7ennon .(+ps fro+ an e to an *G , 1arrison (ses a li*A /ith a *onf(sing progression of pse(%o)seventh *hor%s, 7astly, the *ross)

relation in the intro "et/een the @ 4"#II< *hor% an% EI *hor% heightens the intensity of 7ennon&s plea, This foresha%o/s the sa+e progression in the D se*tion 40:H1)0:50< over a %ifferent +elo%y, It also intro%(*es the *hor% /hi*h /ill play an i+portant ;i2oly%ian role in the verse, .(st as the opening *hor% of 5A 1ar% =ay&s >ight,9 In the first verse, the I#)"#II)I progression *o+es a*ross to +e as terse an% neatly pa*Aage%, To +e this s(ggests that the singer 47ennon< not only %i%n&t nee% help, "(t %i%n&t /ant people trying to help hi+ in any /ay, 1o/ever, all of the follo/ing verses e2press his openness to *hange an% *riti*is+ /ith the sa+e neat *a%en*e, I feel that the *a%en*e as str(++e% on 7ennon&s a*o(sti* is a "it too resol(te, even tho(gh it&s not an a(thenti* "(t ;i2oly%ian *a%en*e 4as "#II is playing the role of #<, B(t perhaps I a+ .(st pi*Aing (p on the i++o"ility of the +elo%y in the verses, /hi*h (ses only three notes *) *G)%, In respon%ing to Pa(l&s *riti*is+ for this, 7ennon %i% a%+it that, 58o( Ano/, I&% gra" a note an% ra+ it ho+e,9 4 9I< Ironi*ally, I *an&t tell if 7ennon is taAing this *riti*is+ positively or negatively, Perhaps neither,