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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


How our ancestor use to !s"erse !n#or$at!on to ot%ers&

o In the early year of Tanah Melayu, when there was no television or

radio. The Beduk play an important role.

o The Headman of the village was the one who announced any news,
e it irth, death, time of prayers or even when the village was in danger. o !ifferent rhythms signified different events. The rhythm of the Beduk to announce death was different from the rhythm used to announce prayers. '%at !s ICT&

o I"T is the technology re#uired for information processing, in

particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime. A() In#or$at!on

o Information refers to the knowledge o tained from reading,

investigation, study or research.

o The tools to transmit information are the telephone, television and


o $e need information to make decisions and to predict the future. %or

e&ample, scientists can detect the formation of a tsunami using the latest technology and warn the pu lic to avoid disasters in the affected areas. o Information is knowledge and helps us to fulfill our daily tasks. %or e&ample, forecasting the stock e&change market. )() Co$$un!cat!on

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

o Is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process where y

information is e&changed etween individuals using sym ols, signs or ver al interactions. o 'reviously, people communicated through sign or sym ols, performing drama and poetry. $ith the advent of technology, these older forms of communication are less utilised as compared to the use of the internet, e(mail or video conferencing. C() Tec%no*o+,

o Is the use of scientific knowledge, e&perience and resources to create

processes and product that fulfill human needs. o )iding "ommunication ( telephone and fa& machines are the devices used in e&tending communication o *preading Information + To roadcast information such as news or weather reports effectively. ,adio, television, satellites and the $orld $ide $e -www. are powerful tools that can e used. T!$e*!ne For T%e De-e*o"$ent O# Tec%no*o+, Year /011 B" 2011 B" 210 B" 2404 256/ 2758 2690 2642 2607 268/ 2686 Creat!on *umerians developed cuneiform writing The 'hoenicians developed the alpha et Tsai 3un of "hina invented paper The first printing egan with the creation of printing machine. Telegraph line was invented The first telephone was introduced Television was made known to pu lic "omputer was created 'hotocopier machine was introduced "ommunication satellite was introduced The first internet known as ),'):;T started.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


Before the era of computer egins, counting machine was invented to help people with usiness industry. The usage of counting machine, egin as early as 911 B.". ;volution of computers can e traced at 5 stages< a. The early years . %irst generation c. *econd generation d. Third generation e. %ourth generation f. %ifth generation g. :ew era generation A( T%e ear*, ,ears T!$e*!nes o# Count!n+ Mac%!ne =ear 911 B" 011 B" 2891 280/ 285/ 2712 279/ 2642 Invention "hinese ) acus -%irst counting machine. ;gyptian ) acus >ohn :apier invented :apiers Bone -Multiplication ta le carves on ones. Blaise 'ascal invented 'ascaline ?ottfried $ilhelm @on 3ei niA invented 3ei niAs ,echner -which use first inary mathemathic calculating machine. >oseph Marie >ac#uard invented weaving loom -using punch card technology. "harles Ba age invented mechanical calculator machine. Mark 2 was invented in Harvard Bniversity. The first computer which is slow, e&pensive and unrelia le. It uses mechanical switches

)( F!rst Generat!on (0123 4 0156) 2. 'resper ;ckert and $illiam Mauchly uilt the ;:I)" -;lectronic :umerical Integrator and "omputer. in 2648. 9. ;:I)" use vacuum tu es rather than mechanical switches in Mark 2.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

/. In 2602, ;ckert and Machly uild B:I@)" -Bniversal automatic computer. which can calculate at the rate of 21 thousand additions per second. 4. :ew technology was needed in the invention of technology. These technologies are a. @acuum tu e + an electronic tu e a out the siAe of light ul s. It was used as the internal computer components. Thousands of them were used. . 'unched card + used to store data c. Magnetic tape + introduced in 2605. It is used to store data. ) faster and more compact method of storing data. 0. 'ro lems< a. The vacuum tu es generated great deal of heat causing many pro lems in temperature regulation and climate control. . The tu es urnt out fre#uently. c. 'eople operating the computer did not know that the pro lem was in the programming machine. C( Secon Generat!on (0156 4 0167) 2. The second generation computer scientists invented something new due to lots of pro lem created y vacuum tu es. 9. The famous computer scientists during the second generation era were< a. >ohn Bardeen . $alter Houser Brattain c. $illiam *hockley /. The creation of transistor sparks the production of second generation computers. Transistor is a small devices use to transfer electronic signal across a resistor. 4. The advantages of transistor< a. *maller than vacuum tu es . :eed no warm up time c. "onsumed less energy d. ?enerated much less heat e. %aster f. More relia le D( T%!r Generat!on (0162 8 0190)
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

2. IBM /51 series were introduced in 2684. It came in several models and siAes. It is used for usiness and scientific programs. 9. Cther computer models introduced were "!" 5811, BD 011. /. :ew hardware technology< a. *ilicone chip were manufactured in 2682 at the silicone valley. . Integrated circuit technology, which had reduced the siAe and cost of computers. It is a complete electronic circuit or a small chip of silicone which is also known as semiconductor. c. The magnetic core memory was replaced y microchip. -The first 90/ it ,am, asis for the development of the 2E it ,am.. 4. )dvantages< a. *ilicone chips were relia le, compact and cheaper. . *old hardware and software separately which created the software industry. c. "ustomer service industry flourished -reservation and credit checks. 0. *oftware technology< a. More sophisticated . *everal programs run at the same time c. *haring computer resources d. *upport interactive processing E( Fourt% Generat!on (0190 4 /resent) 2. It took only 00 years for the 4th generations to evolve. 9. The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of computer inventions. /. There are many types of computer models such as a. )pple Macintosh . IBM c. !;33 d. )";, 4. In 2652, Intel created first microprocessor 0. In 2658, *teve >o s uilt the first )pple computer 8. In 2672, IBM introduced its first personal computer 5. )mong the famous inventors in fourth generations were< a. Bill ?ates who invented Microsoft . Michael !ell who invented !ell "omputer 7. Hardware technology invented in fourth generation were a. *ilicone chip
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

. Microprocessor ( a specialised chip developed for computer memory and logic ( it is a large(scale integrated circuit which contained thousands of transistors. ( the transistors on this one chip are capa le of performing all of the functions of a computers central processing unit. c. *torage devices 6. )dvantages< a. 211 times smaller than ;:I)" -the first computer. . %aster c. ,elia le d. ?reater storage capacity e. 'ersonal and software industry oomed F( F!#t% +enerat!on ("resent an :e,on ) 2. :ew hardware technology< a. *ilicone chips . 'rocessor c. ,o otics d. @irtual reality e. Intelligent system f. 'rograms which translate languages G( New Era Co$"uter 2. *uper "omputers ( %astest, most powerful, most e&pensive. ( Bsed in applications such as sending astronauts into space, testing safety and aerodynamic features on cars and aircraft, controlling missile guidance systems, and weather forecasting which re#uired e&treme accuracy and immense speed to perform the comple& calculation. 9. Mainframe computers ( 3arge, e&pensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected user simultaneously. ( used in large organiAation to handle high volume processing of usiness transactions and routine paperwork. /. Mini computer ( Medium siAed computer
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

( Bsually used as servers, with several '"s or other devices networked to access the midrange computers resources. 4. 'ersonal computers ( *mall computer system, designed to e used y one person at a time. ( $idely used in small and large ussineses. ;&amples< tracking merchandise, illing customer, manage company accounts. 0. Mo ile computers + personal computer that you can carry from place to place 8. ;&pert system + teleconferencing, speech recognition system.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


"omputer plays maFor roles in our daily lives. $e need computers to assists us in completing various tasks and Fo s. )mong the sector where I"T is used widely are< a.. education .. anking c.. industry d.. usiness A() E ucat!on 2. Today, most schools and higher education institution have computer in the classroom for teachers and students. 9. "omputer is used in the sector of education ecause they can offer a. enhanced learning . cognitive development c. interactive e&periences /. Bser who enefits are a. Teac%er + Teacher uses computers to research for teaching materials, participate in online forums and online conferences as well as to aid their teaching. . Stu ents + *tudents use the computers as a reference tool. They use computers to rowse the internet to look for information c. Researc%ers + ,esearchers use computers to collect and process data. d. Sc%oo* a $!n!strators + They use computers for administrative purposes to make sure that the entire operation runs smoothly. )() )an;!n+ 2. The computer is the nerve centre of the anking system around the world. It functions to control the entire anking system that also includes ;lectronic Banking *ervices. 9. ;lectronic Banking *ervices provide 94 hour services. The services include a. )TM -)utomatic Teller Machine.
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

. cash deposit c. electronic fund transfer d. direct deposit e. pay y phone system f. personal computer anking g. internet anking /. Bser who enefits are a. Custo$ers + "ustomers can make any transactions at the 94 hour service centres or via online. These services allowed them to do transaction at anytime they want. . )us!ness$en + Businessmen can save their time y using the online services offered y anks. They can access company accounts for loan applications, usiness transactions and update on their cash flow at anytime c.. )an; a $!n!strators + Bank administrators can oversee the entire anking activities such as reconciliations, inter( ranch transaction -IBT., telegraphic transfer and others y referring to the anking system C() In ustr, 2. "omputers are used to a. facilitate production planning and control systems, . to support chain management c. to help in product design in the industrial sector 9. Bser who enefits are a. 'or;ers + $orkers use computers to analyAe and collect research data for future reference. . Researc%ers + ,esearchers use computers to analyAe and collect research data for future reference. c.. A $!n!strators + )dministrators use computers to oversee the entire operations in the plant or factory to detect specific errors or defects that occurred in the process. D() E8co$$erce
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

a. ;(commerce helps in oosting the economy. It makes uying and selling activities easier, more efficient and faster. %or this application, computers, internet and shared software are needed. 9. Bser who enefits are a. Custo$ers + "ustomers use computers to e connected online with suppliers to purchase products. This method can save time and cost as they do not have to go any outlet. . Su""*!ers + *uppliers use computers to keep track of their transactions. )ll products are ar coded and can e read y the computer scanner to help in determining prices and managing inventory. c. E$"*o,ees + ;mployees use computers and telephones to communicate with their customers for any en#uiries. The system helps employees to get the latest updates on inventory to e informed to the customers. E() Ot%er sector t%at :ene#!ts #ro$ t%e usa+e o# ICT Sector )rchitecture )rts "areer )ene#!t Bse computer graphic to e&perience with possi le interiors to give client a visual image. Modern artists use computers to e&press their creativity >o opportunities that are related to I"T such as computer engineers, graphic designer, software engineers and programmer offer more technical skill and knowledge To forecast weather, process immigrant "omputers are use to promote telemedicine. ,esearchers found it useful in information sharing. !octors and medical practical are a le to apply modern treatment such as laser treatment. "omputer are use for record keeping, writing letters, preparing udget and communicating with others In maintaining national fingerprints floes, modeling !:) and others information.
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?overnment Healthcare

Home 3aw ;nforcement

Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

Sector )ene#!t Transportation In rapid transit system and tracking railway system Travel "omputers are use to do room reservation. It helps tourists to plan their holiday well

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


E-o*ut!on o# $an an $ac%!ne

o The evolution of man and machine happened hundreds of years ago

ut the evolution of the computeriAed system happened only less than a century ago. o Many tasks can now e accomplished easily via the computeriAed system. Co$"uter S,ste$

o ) system is an arrangement of elements that when it is put together it

ecomes an organiAed and esta lished procedure. -In 3atin(?reek, the term GsystemH means to com ine, to set up, to place together. o ) system typically consists of components connected together in order to facilitate the flow of information, matter or energy. o ) computer system consists of a set of hardware and software which processes data in a meaningful way. A() E ucat!on 2. ;ducation is the science of teaching and learning of specific skills. 9. It also imparts knowledge, good Fudgment and wisdom. )() )an;!n+ S,ste$ )an;!n+ :e#ore ICT Banking was done manually taking deposits directly Transactions can only during working hour y )an;!n+ a#ter ICT )ll transactions computers are done y

e made Transaction can e done at anytime and place. Cnline services, phone anking system, credit cards are availa le

Takes time to approve any loan applications

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

C() In ustr, In ustr, :e#ore ICT In ustr, a#ter ICT

Industry was slow ecause "omputers and telecommunications everything was done manually and industry ecame very popular and totally depended on human la or. profita le since production can e increased through an all day operator. D() Co$$erce 2. "ommerce is an activity of e&changing and uying and selling of commodities in large scale involving transportation from place to place. Co$$erce :e#ore ICT Trading was made using the system and it was then developed into currency. arter later Co$$erce a#ter ICT ;(commerce plays an important role in the economic scene. It includes distri ution, uying, selling and servicing products that are done electronically.

)dvertisement was in the form of word of mouth, ill oards and printed flyers. Trading glo ally was e&tremely slow, late and e&pensive. Traders had to find ways to market glo al products in the glo al market.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


I"T development has changed every aspect of the human society. It has affected our life in many ways. A() Faster co$$un!cat!on s"ee 2. In the past, it took a long time for any news or messages to e sent. :ow with the internet, news or messages are sent via e(mail to friends, usiness partners or to anyone efficiently. 9. $ith the capa ility of andwidth, road and and connection speed on the internet, any information can travel fast and at an instant. It saves time and is ine&pensive. )() Lower co$$un!cat!on cost 2. Bsing the Internet is cost(effective than the other mode of communication such as telephone, mailing or Eorea *ervice. It allows people to have access to large amounts of data at a very low cost. 9. $ith the internet we do not have to pay for any asic services provided y the Internet. %urthermore, the cost of connection to the internet is relatively cheap. C() Re*!a:*e $o e o# co$$un!cat!on 2. "omputers are relia le. $ith the Internet we can access and retrieved information from anywhere and at anytime. This makes it a relia le mode of communication. 9. However, the input to the computer is contri uted y the human. If the data pass through the computer is faulty, the result will e faulty as well. This is related to the form ?I?C. ?I?C is a short form for ?ar age In ?ar age Cut. It refers to the #uality of output produced according to the input. :ormally ad input produces ad output. D() E##ect!-e s%ar!n+ o# !n#or$at!on 2. $ith the advancement of I"T, information can e shared y people all around the world. 'eople can share and e&change opinions, news and information through discussion groups, mailing lists and forums on the Internet. This ena les knowledge sharing which will contri ute to the development of a knowledge( ased society. 9. *ome e&amples of popular discussion groups on the Internet are< a. Goo+*e Grou"s (www(+oo+*e+rou"s(co$)
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

. Ya%oo= Grou"s (www(,a%oo+rou"s(co$) c.. C*ass!c !scuss!on +rou" E() /a"er*ess en-!ron$ent 2. I"T technology has created the term paperless environment. This term means information can e stored and retrieved through the digital medium instead of paper. Cnline communication via email, online chat and instant messages also helps in creating the paperless environment. F() )or er*ess co$$un!cat!on 2. Through the internet, information and communication can e orderless. 9. Internet offers fast information retrieval, interactivity, accessi ility and versatility. It has ecome a orderless source for services and information. G() Soc!a* "ro:*e$s 2. There are some negative effects of I"T. It has created social pro lems in the society. 9. :owadays, people tend to choose online communication rather than having real time conversations. /. 'eople tend to ecome more individualistic and introvert theft, hacking, pornography and online gam ling. This will result in moral decadent and generate threat to the society. H() Hea*t% "ro:*e$s 2. ) computer may harm user if they use it for long hours fre#uently. 9. "omputers users are also e&posed to ad posture, eyestrain, physical and mental stress. /. In order to solve the health pro lems, an ergonomic chair can reduced ack strain and a screen filter is to minimiAe eyestrain. Su$$ar, 2. The advantages of I"T in the society< a. faster speed of communication . lower communication cost c. relia le mode of communication d. effective sharing of information e. paperless environment f. orderless communication g. urging for research and development of new products
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


good competition among the producers

9. The disadvantages of I"T in the society< a. social pro lems . health pro lems c. changing peoples attitude and demand


A() Et%!cs !n +enera*

2. $e often see pirated "!s, software and @"! eing sold at the
night market. Buying pirated software is an e&ample of unethical activity in computer ethic. 9. ) guideline is needed to stop the current technology products from eing e&ploited, for e&ample y replicating originals "!s and selling them as pirated software. This unethical ehavior can e controlled y the code of conducts. /. Bnder the Malaysia "opyright act 2675, any individual charge with piracy will e fine up to 21,111 for each copy or up to 0 years imprisonment or oth. 4. "omputer ethics is a system of moral standards or values used as a guideline for computer users. )() T%e ten co$$an $ents o# co$"uter et%!cs 2. The Bnited *tates Institute of "omputer ;thics has come out with the Ten "ommandments of "omputer ;thics. 9. These principles consider the effective code of conducts for the proper use of information technology. /. T%e ten co$$an $ents o# co$"uter et%!cs i. =ou shall not use a computer to harm other people. ii. =ou shall not interfere with other peoples computer work. iii. =ou shall not snoop around in other peoples computer files. iv. =ou shall not use a computer to steal. v. =ou shall not use a computer to ear false witness. vi. =ou shall not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

vii. =ou shall not use other peoples computer resources without authoriAation or proper compensation. viii. =ou shall not appropriate other peoples intellectual output. i&. =ou shall think a out the social conse#uences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. &. =ou shall always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans. C() Gu! e*!nes on t%e e8$a!* an Internet usa+e 2. The !epartment of 'u lic *ervices of Malaysia has provided guidelines on the e(mail and Internet usage as reference to the staff. 9. This guidance covers the usage of e(mail account, mail o& maintenance, e(mail preparation and delivery, mailing list and the Internet. /. *ome guidelines from the !epartment of 'u lic *ervices of Malaysia< a. Bse only individual e(mail address to forward individual opinion. . Eeep the identity name and password a secret to avoid the misuse of your e(mail without your knowledge. c. ;(mail must e active to promptly reply the necessary actions needed for any matters. d. ;nsure the total mail kept in the o& is within the computer storage capacity. e. *can files regularly to avoid the transmission of virus from one computer to another. f. !o not send e(mails that contain classified information which can e used to tarnish other people or country. g. "hoose a suita le time to search Internet to save access time and cost. h. Beware of prohi ited sites which could affect ones moral, organiAation or nation. i. 'rint only relevant documents that you think can e used in future to save cost. D() Unet%!ca* co$"uter co e o# con ucts
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

2. Have you copied materials from the internet and claims that it is your own and su mit them as an assignmentI If you have, you are reaching the computer code of conducts. In other word, you are reaking the law of intellectual property y stealing someone elses idea. Intellectual property refers to any products of human intellect that is uni#ue and has a value in the market place. This covers ideas, inventions, uni#ue names, computer program codes and many more. 9. ;&amples of unethical computer code of conducts include< a. modifying certain information on the internet, affecting the accuracy of the information . selling information to other parties without the owners permission c. use information without authoriAation. d. involvement in stealing software e. invasion of privacy /. $ith the advancement of I"T, it is easy for anyone to retrieve your information from the Internet. =ou may release that when you fill a form on the Internet, your information may e e&posed and stolen. 4. Eevin !avid Mitnick was a famous hacker. He accessed computers without authoriAation. He deprived the privacy of many individuals y hacking into network of a few companies. He also managed to get valua le data unethically for his own usage. E() Et%!ca* co$"uter co e o# con ucts 2. Have you ever ask for permission to download materials from the internet such as music, articles, graphic and other material. If you have, you are following the computer code of conducts. There are many we sites with restriction where the pu lic is allowed to use their material. Bsers may have to pay royalty to the owner or #uote the we site in their assignment or proFect, in order to e a le to use this material. 9. ;&amples of ethical computer code of conducts include< a. sending warning a out viruses to other computer users
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

. asking permission efore sending any usiness advertisements to others c. using information with authoriAation Su$$ar, 2. ;thics refers to a standard of moral guideline that is used to determine proper ehavior. 9. There are two codes of conducts that can e referred to which are the Ten "ommandments of "omputer ;thics y the Bnited *tates Institute of "omputer ;thics and the e(mails and Internet guidelines y the !epartment of 'u lic *ervices of Malaysia. /. Bnethical computer code of conducts include modifying the accuracy of the information, selling information to other parties without the owners permission, using information without authoriAation, involvement in stealing software and invasion privacy. 4. ;thical computer code of conducts include sending warning a out viruses to other computer users, asking permission efore sending any usiness advertisements to others and using information with authoriAation.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


A() De#!n!t!on o# Et%!cs 2. In general, ethics is a moral philosophy where a person makes a specific moral choice and sticks to it. 9. Cn the other hand, ethics in computing means moral guidelines to refer to when using the computer and computer networks. This includes the Internet. )() De#!n!t!on o# Law 2. 3aw is a legal system comprising of rules and principles that govern the affairs of a community and controlled y a political authority. 9. 3aw differs from one country to another. In the era of technology, computer law is needed to clarify goods or actions that fall under the computer law. "omputer law refers to all areas in law that re#uires an understanding of computer technology such as hardware, software and Internet. /. ;&amples of laws of computing in Malaysia include the Malaysian "ommunication and Multimedia )ct, the computer "rime )ct 2665 and the Telemedicine )ct 2665. C() '%, o we nee et%!cs an *aw !n co$"ut!n+& 2. ,especting Cwnership $e must respect ownership y not stealing other peoples work either y duplicating or distri uting it. !uplicating and distri uting copies of audio tapes, video tapes and computer programs without permission and authoriAation from the individual or company that created the program are immoral and illegal. 9. ,especting privacy and confidentiality $e should respect other peoples privacy and confidentiality y refraining ourselves from reading their mails or files without their
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

permission. If we do so, it is considered as violating an individuals right to privacy and confidentiality. /. ,especting property 'roperty here means ownership. *ince an individual data and information are considered as property, therefore, an act of tampering and changing electronic information is considered as vandalism and disrespect for other peoples property. D() S!$!*ar!t!es :etween Et%!cs an Law 2. Both ethics and law are complimentary to each other and are made a. to guide user from misusing computers . to create a healthy computer society, so that computers are used to contri ute to a etter life. c to prevent any crime. E() D!##erences :etween et%!cs an *aws Et%!cs 2. ?uideline )s a guideline to computer users 9. Moral standard ;thical ehavior is Fudged y moral standard. /. %ree to follow "omputer users are free to follow or ignore the code of ethics 4. :o punishments :o punishments for anyone who violates ethics Law 2. "ontrol )s a rule to control computer users. 9. >udicial standard 3aw is Fudged y Fudicial standards /. Must follow "omputer users must follow the regulations and law 4. 'enalties, imprisonments and other punishments 'enalties, imprisonments and other punishments for those who reak the law. 0. !epends on country !epends on country and state
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0. Bniversal Bniversal, can e applied anywhere,

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

Et%!cs Law all over the world where the crime is committed. 8. 'roduce ethical computer user 8. 'revent misusing of computers To produce ethical computer users To prevent misuse of computers 5. Immoral 5. "rime :ot honoring computer ethics :ot honoring the law means means ignoring the moral elements committing a crime -immoral.. F() Unet%!ca* -s( *aw :rea;!n+ con ucts Unet%!ca* Bsing the office computer to do personal thing ,eading your friends e(mail without his or her permission. 'lagiarising and using materials from the Internet for your class assignments without giving credits to the original author. Law :rea;!n+ 2. *ending a computer virus via e(mail 9. Hacking into your school data ase to change your e&amination results. /. *elling pirated software in a night market.

2. 9.


Su$$ar, 2. 9. ;thics in computing means moral guidelines to refer to when using the computer, computer networks and the Internet. "omputer law is a concept from e&isting law, which is applied to the relatively new technologies of computer hardware and software, e(mail and Internet. ;thical ehavior is Fudged y moral standards while law is Fudged y Fudicial standards.


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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


It is important to have your creation patented to protect your rights. ,eproducing other peoples inventions without their permission or piracy is illegal. $e must respect the rights of others. A() De#!n!t!on o# Inte**ectua* /ro"ert, 2. Intellectual 'roperty -I'. refers to works created y inventors, authors and artists. Those works are uni#ue and have value in the market value. 9. In our daily lives, we are surrounded y things that are protected y I'. =our school ags, your shoes and even your socks are protected y Intellectual 'roperty ,ights. :ike, Bata or )didas, for e&ample, are all protected y a group of legal rights. )() Inte**ectua* /ro"ert, Law 2. Intellectual property and intellectual property right can e protected under the Intellectual 'roperty 3aw. 9. Intellectual 'roperty 3aws cover ideas, inventions, literary creations, uni#ue names, usiness models, industrial processes, computer program codes and more. C() In-ent!ons /rotecte ), Inte**ectua* /ro"ert, Laws 2. )s usinesses continue to e&pand glo ally, usiness owners must realiAe the importance of getting professional advice on how to esta lish and safeguard their intellectual property rights. 9. This includes Trademarks, *ervice marks, TradeJ"ompany names, !omain names, ?eographical indications, "opyrights, 'atents. /. ;&ample of creation that are covered under the Intellectual 'roperty 3aw include architectural, audio visual, sound recording, 3iterary, musical and sculptural. D() Inte**ectua* /ro"ert, /rotect!on There are four types of Intellectual 'roperty 'rotection. They are<
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

2. "atents for invention o Btility, design or plant patents that protect inventions and improvements to the e&isting inventions. o It is a grant of a property right to the inventor. %or e&ample. "entrino is a processor which introduce efficient power management. The design of the processor is patented y Intel. 9. tra e$ar;s for rand identity o $ords, names, sym ols, devices and images that represent products, goods or services o Trademarks for rands, identity of goods and services allowed the distinction to e made etween different traders. %or e&ample< Intel and )M!. /. es!+ns for product appearance

o The features of, in particular, the lines, contours, colours,

shape, te&ture or material of the product itself or its ornaments.

o The design for product appearance covered the whole or a part

of a product resulting from the feature such as the lines, contours, colours, shape, te&ture or material. %or e&ample< )pple IM)". 4. co",r!+%t for material o 3iterary and artistic material, music, films, sound recordings and roadcast, including software and multimedia. o "opyrights protect the e&pression of idea in literary, artistic and musical works. %or e&ample, you can copyrights the we content you have Fust designed. o "opyrights give the holder some e&clusive rights to control the reproduction of works of authorship, such as ooks and music for a certain period of time. Su$$ar, 2. Intellectual 'roperty -I'. refers to work created y investors, authors and artists. 9. Intellectual 'roperty ,ights are rights to which creators are entitled to for their inventions, writings and works of art.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

/. Intellectual 'roperty 3aws cover ideas, inventions, literary creations, uni#ue names, usiness models, industrial processes and computer program codes from eing manipulated y people other than the owner. 4. $hy do we need intellectual property lawI o To appreciate other hard works and energy o To safeguard one property o To protect human relationship

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


$e should respect other peoples privacy y not invading their personal lives. 'eople treasure privacy as there are some things that they do not wish to disclose to others. The same goes for privacy in I"T. A() '%at !s "r!-ac,& 2. 'rivacy in IT refers to data and information privacy. 9. !ata refers to a collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures and sym ols. Then, computer is used to process data into information. In general, data include te&ts, num ers, sounds, images and video. /. Information privacy is descri ed as the rights of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information a out them. )() 'a,s co$"uter tec%no*o+, t%reaten our "r!-ac, 2. How does computer technology threaten the privacy of our dataI It is done through< a. "ookies o are used to identify users y we casting, e(commerce and other we applications. o contain user information and are saved in the computer hard disk. o are used y some we sites to store passwords and track how regularly we visit a we site, thats how we ecome potential targets for we advertisers. o ena le we sites to collect information a out your online activities and store them for future use, then the collected details will e sold to any company that re#uests for it. . ;lectronic profile o electronic profile is the com ining of data in a data ase that can e sold to the Internet y the company to the interested parties. o this data ase is in a form such as magaAine su scription or product warranty cards that had een filled y online su scri ers. o the information in electronic profile includes personal details such as your age, address and marital status. c. *pyware
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

o refers to a program that collects user information without

users knowledge.

o can enter computers, sneaking in like a virus. o is a result of installing new programs. o "ommunicates information it collects to some outside
source while we are online. 9. "omputer technology threatens our privacy through electronic profiling. %or e&ample, when we fill out a form such as a magaAine su scription, purchasing products or contest entry form on the Internet, this data is kept in the data ase. It will include age, address, marital status and other personal details. /. ;very time you click on an advertisement or register a software product online, your information is entered into a data ase. 4. "omputer technology can also threaten privacy through spam. *pam is unsolicited e(mail messages, advertisements or newsgroup postings sent to many recipients at once. C() '%, o we nee "r!-ac,& 2. $e need privacy for anonymity. 9. %or e&ample, the internet creates an ela orate trail of data detailing a person surfing on the we ecause all information is stored inside cookies. $e do not want our trail to e detected. /. $e also need privacy for confidentiality. %or e&ample, online information generated in the course of a usiness transaction is routinely used for a variety of other purposes without the individuals knowledge or consent. 4. $e do not want our private lives and ha its e&posed to third parties. D() Can "r!-ac, :e "rotecte & 'rivacy can e protected y 2. 'rivacy law The privacy laws in Malaysia emphasiAes on the following< a. *ecurity services to review the security policy . *ecurity Management to protect the resources c. *ecurity Mechanism to implement the re#uired security services d. *ecurity o Fects, the important entities within the system environment.
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

9. Btilities software ;&ample< anti(spam program, firewall, anti(spyware and anti(virus Su$$ar, 2. 'rivacy in IT refers to data and information privacy and the right of individuals and companies to restrict the collection and use of information to others. 9. There are three ways computes technology can threaten our privacy< a. "ookies . electronic profile c. spyware /. 'rivacy can e protected y privacy law and utilities software.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


A() '%at !s aut%ent!cat!on& 2. )uthentication is a process where users verify that they are who they say they are. The user who attempts to perform functions in a system is in fact the user who is authoriAed to do so. 9. %or e&ample, when you use an )TM card, the machine will verify the validation of the card. Then, the machine will re#uest for a pin num er. This is where the authentication takes place.
I ent!#!cat!on ( present what the user has -e.g. smart card.

@erification ( verify the validity of the I! @alid -T. I ent!#!cat!on ( present what the user is -e.g. iometric.

:ot valid -%.

Access en!e

)uthentication ( authenticate who the user is True Access +rante


)() Met%o s o# Aut%ent!cat!on /. There are two commonly used authentication methods, which are iometric device and call ack system.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

4. Biometric device is a device that translates personal characteristics into a digital code that is compared with a digital code stored in the data ase. 0. "all ack system refers to the checking system that authenticates the user. C() )!o$etr!c e-!ces The e&amples of iometric devices are a.. %ingerprint recognition

o ) dedicated fingerprint reader is attached to a computer and

takes the image data from the scanner and sends it to the data ase. The user is usually re#uired to leave his finger on the reader for less than 0 seconds during which time the identification or verification takes place. The data received is compared to the information stored within the data ase. o In order to prevent fake fingers from eing used, many iometrics fingerprint systems also measure lood flow, or check for correctly arrayed ridges at the edges of the fingers. o This authentication method is accurate and cost effective. .. %acial ,ecognition

o %acial recognition analyses the recorded information of

distance etween eyes, nose, mouth and Faw edges of an individualKs face images captured through a digital video camera. o %acial recognition is widely used, touted as a fantastic system for recogniAing potential threats -whether terrorists, scam artists, or known criminals.. o But so far, it has een unproven in high level usage. It is currently used in the verification only system with a good deal of success. o The accuracy is fair and the cost involve for this method is reasona le. c.. Hand ?eometry *canning

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

o Hand scanning involves the measurement and analysis of the

shape of oneKs hand.

o It is a fairly straight forward procedure and it is surprisingly


o )lthough it re#uires special hardware to use, it can e easily

integrated into other devices or system.

o Bnlike fingerprints, the human hand is not uni#ue. Individual o It is possi le to revise a method
hand features are not descriptive enough for identification. y com ining various individual features and measurements of fingers and hands for verification purposes.

d.. Iris *canning

o Iris scanning analyses the features that e&ist in the coloured

tissues surrounding the pupil which has more than 911 points that can e used for comparison, including rings, furrows and freckles. o The scans use a regular video camera and can e done from further away than a retina scan. o It will work perfectly fine through glasses and in fact has the a ility to create an accurate enough measurement that it can e used for identification purposes. o The accuracy of this method is e&cellent while the cost involved is high. e.. ,etina *canning

o ,etina iometrics involves the scanning of retina and analyAing

the layer of lood vessels at the ack of the eye.

o ,etina scanning involves using a low intensity light source and

an optical coupler and can read the patterns at a great level of accuracy. o ,etina scanning re#uires the user to remove glasses, place their eye close to the device and focus on a certain point. o $hether the accuracy can overweight the pu lic discomfort is yet to e seen.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

o The accuracy in retina scanning is very good and the cost

involves is fair. f.. @oice ,ecognition

o @oice recognition system compares a personKs live speech with

their stored voice pattern. o @oice recognition iometrics re#uires users to speak into a microphone. $hat he speaks can e his password or an access phrase. o @erification time is appro&imately 0 seconds. To prevent recorded voice use, most voice recognition devices re#uire the high and low fre#uencies of the sound to match, which is difficult for many recording instruments to recreate well. )lso, some devices generate random num er of se#uences for verification. o The accuracy in voice recognition is fair and the cost involved is very reasona le. g.. *ignature @erification *ystem

o *ignature @erification *ystem recogniAes the shape of your o o o o o

handwritten signature, as well as measuring the pressure e&erted and the motion used to write the signature. *ignature @erification *ystem uses special pen and ta let. )fter pre(processing the signature, several features are e&tracted. The authenticity of a writer is determine y comparing an input signature to a stored reference set -template. consisting of three signatures. The similarity etween an input signature and the reference set is computed using string matching and the similarity value is compared to a threshold. The accuracy in *ignature @erification *ystem is fair and the cost involved is e&cellent.

D() Ca**:ac; S,ste$

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

o The call ack system is commonly used in the ank operation

and usiness transaction.

o %or e&ample, when you ook for the ta&i services, the operator
will ask you to hang up and she will call you ack to confirm for the service re#uired. E() '%, !s aut%ent!cat!on !$"ortant& )uthentication is important in order to safeguard against the unauthoriAed access and use. Su$$ar, 2. )uthentication is a process where users verify that they are who they say they are. 9. There are 9 commonly used authentication methods, which are iometric device and call ack system. /. Biometric device is a device that translates personal characteristics into a digital code that is compared with a digital code stored in the data ase. 4. "all ack system refers to the checking system that authenticates the user. 0. )uthentication is important in order to safeguard against the unauthoriAed access and use.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


A() '%at !s -er!#!cat!on& @erification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification
I ent!#!cat!on ( present what the user has -e.g. smart card.

@erification ( verify the validity of the I! @alid -T. Access +rante

:ot valid -%.

Access en!e

I ent!#!cat!on ( present what the user is -e.g. pin num er.

)() Met%o s o# -er!#!cat!on 2. There are two methods, commonly used in verification, which are user identification and processed o Fect. 9. Bser identification refers to the process of validating the user. /. 'rocessed o Fect refers to something the user has such as identification card, security token and cell phone. C() User ! ent!#!cat!on The e&amples of validating process using the user identification are< 2. Eey in the user name to log(in to a system and the system will verify whether the user is valid or invalid user.
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

9. *how e&am slip to verify that you are the valid candidate for the e&am. /. *how a passport efore departure. D() /rocesse o:?ect The e&amples of validating process using the processed o Fect are< 2. The policeman will check on the drivers license to identify the valid driver. 9. ;mployees have to swipe their security card to enter the uilding /. Buy louses at the mall using a credit card Su$$ar, 2. @erification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specifications. 9. Two methods commonly used in verification are user identification and processed o Fect. /. Bser identification refers to the process of validating the user. 'rocessed o Fects refer to something the user has such as identification card, security token, key, adge and cell phone.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


A() Contro-ers!a* content ) controversial content is information that causes disagreement in opinions and may cause the disruption of peace ecause different people or culture will have different views a out the contents )() Issues on contro-ers!a* contents

o The issues on controversial contents are always focusing on

pornography and slander. Malaysia considers pornography and slander as illegal. o 'ornographic and slanderous activities can e in the forms of plots and actions displayed on video games, controversial rhythm or lyrics of music, controversial contents of ooks and controversial issues on religion and philosophy. C() /orno+ra"%,

o "ute pictures of innocent

a ies cant e considered as pornography y normal standards. However these pictures may attract "ae o"%!*es. 'aedophiles are people who are se&ually arouse y young children. They e&ploit children for se&ual pleasure. *e&ual acts against children are a crime everywhere and must e cur ed. These pictures are pornography to paedophiles. o The definition of pornography is any form of media or material -like ooks or photographs. that depicts erotic ehaviour and is intended to cause se&ual e&citement. o 'ornography tends to e&ploit men, women and children in a distasteful manner D() S*an er

o *lander is a legal term for false and malicious statement

-meaning knowing that it is false or Greckless disregardH that it was false. a out someone.
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

o ;&ample<
i. =ou wrote an e(mail that a fellow classmate was having an affair with a teacher, even though it was not true. =ou then sent it to five other friends. ii. )hmad is a Muslim. Cne day, he received a GspamH e(mail stating that his favourite soda drink G*oda ModaH uses non( halal food colouring, ut he does not know if the source of the content is credi le or true. He decides to forward the e( mail to 01 of his friends. iii. "hin $ei spreads a rumour that a ?overnment Minister is receiving ri es from an enemy government. E() I$"acts On Ma*a,s!an Soc!et, 2. 9. /. 4. /orno+ra"%, "an lead to criminal acts such as e&ploitation of women and children "an lead to se&ual addiction or perversion. "an develop low moral value towards other men, women or children. "an erode good religious, cultural and social eliefs and ehaviour. S*an er 2. "an develop into a society that disregards honesty and truth. 9. "an develop ad ha it of spreading untruths and rumours. /. "an lead to unnecessary argument. 4. "an cause people to have negative attitudes towards another person.

Su$$ar, 2. "ontroversial content is the information that causes dispute among people with different eliefs and values. 9. "ontroversial contents such as slander and pornography can give effect to the society in the following manner. a. "auses arguments and #uarrels . "an harm reputation of people. c. 3owers moral ehaviour d. May e&ploit men, women and children e. "an lead to se&ual addiction and crimes
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f. ;rodes good religious, cultural and social ehaviour.

eliefs and

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A() Internet #!*ter!n+

o Internet pornography politically incorrect sites, hatred sites and

many other misleading and controversial contents are at large in the information super highway. Internet has ecome more accessi le to anyone. o It is our responsi ility to ensure that the teenagers are protected from these corruptions of the mind y filtering access to the Internet. o Internet filtering is a process that prevents or locks access to certain materials on the Internet. o %iltering is most commonly used to prevent children from accessing inappropriate material and to keep employees productive on the Internet. )() Contro* access to t%e Internet 2. The current preferred method of choice to limit access on the Internet is to filter content either y a( @e,wor :*oc;!n+ i. Bses a list of anned words or o Fectiona le terms such as the word Gse&H and GpenisH. ii. )s the page is downloading, the filter searches for any of these words. If found, it will lock the page completely, stop downloading the page, lock the anned words and even shut down the rowser. iii. @e,wor :*oc;!n+ /rocess

Type keywords -in rowser. %alse Eeyword L Blocked data ase True )ccess denied
"' P a g e

)ccess granted
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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society


;&amples of keyword that can e locked are *e&, 'enis, Breast. However locking these keywords will also lock searchers for information on places like ;sse& and 'enistone. The word reast will also lock searches for recipes using chicken reast.

:( S!te :*oc;!n+ i. This software is more sophisticated than word locking as it involve people visiting the site and evaluating them. ii. This method compiles a list a du ious Internet sites which the software then can prevent people from accessing it. iii. !enial list regularly updated and can e automatically downloaded to the software purchaser. iv. *ome e&ample of du ious Internet sites are www.&&&.&om, www.poker.com, www.porn.com v. AS!te :*oc;!n+ "rocessB

Type B,3 %alseee B,3 checks for locked True )ccess

The lists are often organiAed into categories of information. %or e&ample< activist group, se&uality and lifestyle. Bsers then can have control on what they locked and dont lock. However, there are concerns on what goes on the denial list. These lists are sensitive commercial information and companies are conse#uently often not willing to make them availa le. It is unrealistic
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vi. vii. viii.

Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

i&. &.

that a software company is a le to keep track of the whole of the Internet. %ilters can use oth site locking and word locking. This could catch the sites that are on the locked list

c( 'e: Rat!n+ S,ste$ i. $e sites are rated in terms of nudity, se&, violence and language. ii. The ,ecreational *oftware )dvisory "ouncil or ,*)"I is responsi le for the rating of the Internet. iii. A'e: Rat!n+ S,ste$B

*oftware companies rate we sites %alse "ontent to e accessed M allowed we sites True

)ccess granted

)ccess denied

o The pages are rated according to their content

either y the we page author or y the independent ureau. o The rating is either em edded in the we page itself or access to the we is managed through the ureau. o Browsers set to only accept pages with certain levels of ratings. %or e&ample< partial nudity, mild e&pletives, innocent kissing and romance and sports violence. o )ny page with rating a ove this level will not e accepted or viewa le. ,atings like this have een taken out at a high level y politician ut o viously very few pages have een rated and so its value is still eing decided.

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Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society

o )gain, there are issue, who decided the ratings and

how they Fudge the criteria. %or e&ample< How do you decide what mild e&pletives or moderate e&pletives areI Cr how do you take into account the cultural differencesI 9. "ontrolling access to the Internet y means of filtering software has ecome a growing industry in Malaysia and elsewhere. /. Its use has ecome as the mandatory response to the current place of society mainly internet pornography, politically incorrect sites, hatred, violent, hate and in general anything due to e threatening or unpleasant. 4. These method re#uired software to e install at a client or server level. Su$$ar, The process of internet filtering through several ways which are 2. ,eferred to y the B,3s 9. By using a large set of keywords to prevent accessing sites that contain one or more of the words. /. ,ate specific we sites o ,ating either done y we page author or y independent ureau. o Browsers set to only accept pages with certain levels of ratings.

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