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Diffusion Current

Kuliah #9 EL-3012 Material Elektroteknik Semester I - 2013

Carrier transport phenomena


Carrier transport originate from carriers drift and diffusion mechanism. An important current component can exist if there is a spatial variation of carrier concentration in the semiconductor material. The carriers tend to move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This current component is called diffusion current.

Diffusion current derivation (1)


Assumtions:
Temperature is homogen, independent of x is the mean free path

Diffusion current derivation (2)


Consider the number of electrons crossing the plane at = 0 per unit time and per unit area. Because of finite temperature, the electrons have random thermal motions with a thermal velocity , and a mean free path (note that = . , where is the mean free time.) The electrons at = , one mean free path away on the left side, have equal chances of moving left or right; and in a mean free time one half of them will move across the plane x = O

Diffusion current derivation (3)


Average rate of electron flow per unit area from left side, 1 . () 1 2 = = (). 2 Similarly for flow from right side, 1 = (). 2

Diffusion current derivation (4)


Recall the Taylor expansion for from n=0 until = , 2 1 = (0 + + 2 2 + ) 2 The net rate of electron flow is = 1 = 0 0 + 2

Diffusion current derivation (5)


= = is the diffusion coefficient or diffusivity.
The electron diffusion current density is = and for hole, =

Illustration of diffusion current

Total current in semiconductor


= +
= ( + + )

General form in 3D, = ( + + )

Non-uniform impurity
Consider a material with nonuniform impurity (which is most case in real device), in thermal equilibrium, no current flow. At initial, carriers flow from high concentration to area with lower concentration. Electrons flows leaving holes, creating an electric field. As equilibrium reached, this electric field prevent further diffusion process

Electric potential of non-uniform impurity


Electric potential is related to electron potential energy by a charge, 1 = ( ) The electric field for one dimensional, =

Quasi Neutrality
Assuming that the electron density is almost equal the donor concentration, 0
0 = = ) The fermi level is constant in equilibrium. The taking the derivative in respect to , the equation become = Subtituting we get 1 =
exp( ) ln(

Einstein relation
Assuming quasi neutrality where , total current is zero in equilibrium, so that = 0 = + Substitue for , 1 0 = + As a result, we get

or for hole