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2014
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811.111(075.8)
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81.2-923
8032
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2014. 334, [1] . ( ).

ISBN 978-5-222-22246-1


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ISBN 978-5-222-22246-1

811.111(075.8)
81.2-923
.., 2014
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- www.phoenixbooks.ru


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UNIT

HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER




Read and translate the text:

HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER


What is a Computer? In its most basic form a computer is any
device which aids humans in performing various kinds of computations
or calculations. In that respect the earliest computer was the abacus,
used to perform basic arithmetic operations.
Every computer supports some form of input, processing, and
output. This is less obvious on a primitive device such as the abacus
where input, output and processing are simply the act of moving the
pebbles into new positions, seeing the changed positions, and counting.
Regardless, this is what computing is all about, in a nutshell. We input
information, the computer processes it according to its basic logic or
the program currently running, and outputs the results.
Modern computers do this electronically, which enables them to
perform a vastly greater number of calculations or computations in
less time. Despite the fact that we currently use computers to process
images, sound, text and other nonnumerical forms of data, all of it
depends on nothing more than basic numerical calculations. Graphics,
sound etc. are merely abstractions of the numbers being crunched within
the machine; in digital computers these are the ones and zeros,
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UNIT 1. HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER

representing electrical on and off states, and endless combinations of


those. In other words every image, every sound, and every word have a
corresponding binary code.
While abacus may have technically been the first computer most
people today associate the word computer with electronic computers
which were invented in the last century, and have evolved into modern
computers we know of today.
First Generation Computers (1940s 1950s). First electronic
computers used vacuum tubes, and they were huge and complex. The
first general purpose electronic computer was the ENIAC (Electronic
Numerical Integrator And Computer). It was digital, although it didnt
operate with binary code, and was reprogrammable to solve a complete
range of computing problems. It was programmed using plugboards
and switches, supporting input from an IBM card reader, and output to
an IBM card punch. It took up 167 square meters, weighed 27 tons,
and consuming 150 kilowatts of power. It used thousands of vacuum
tubes, crystal diodes, relays, resistors, and capacitors.
The first nongeneral purpose computer was ABC (AtanasoffBerry
Computer), and other similar computers of this era included german
Z3, ten British Colossus computers, LEO, Harvard Mark I, and
UNIVAC.
Second Generation Computers (1955 1960). The second generation
of computers came about thanks to the invention of the transistor, which
then started replacing vacuum tubes in computer design. Transistor
computers consumed far less power, produced far less heat, and were
much smaller compared to the first generation, albeit still big by todays
standards.
The first transistor computer was created at the University of
Manchester in 1953. The most popular of transistor computers was
IBM 1401. IBM also created the first disk drive in 1956, the IBM 350
RAMAC.
Third Generation Computers (1960s). The invention of the integrated
circuits (ICs), also known as microchips, paved the way for computers
as we know them today. Making circuits out of single pieces of silicon,
which is a semiconductor, allowed them to be much smaller and more

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IT :

practical to produce. This also started the ongoing process of


integrating an ever larger number of transistors onto a single
microchip. During the sixties microchips started making their way
into computers, but the process was gradual, and second generation
of computers still held on.
First appeared minicomputers, first of which were still based on
nonmicrochip transistors, and later versions of which were hybrids,
being based on both transistors and microchips, such as IBMs System/
360. They were much smaller, and cheaper than first and second
generation of computers, also known as mainframes. Minicomputers
can be seen as a bridge between mainframes and microcomputers,
which came later as the proliferation of microchips in computers grew.
Fourth Generation Computers (1971 present). First microchips
based central processing units consisted of multiple microchips for
different CPU components. The drive for ever greater integration and
miniaturization led towards singlechip CPUs, where all of the
necessary CPU components were put onto a single microchip, called a
microprocessor. The first singlechip CPU, or a microprocessor, was
Intel 4004.
The advent of the microprocessor spawned the evolution of the
microcomputers, the kind that would eventually become personal
computers that we are familiar with today.
First Generation of Microcomputers (1971 1976). First
microcomputers were a weird bunch. They often came in kits, and
many were essentially just boxes with lights and switches, usable only
to engineers and hobbyists whom could understand binary code. Some,
however, did come with a keyboard and/or a monitor, bearing somewhat
more resemblance to modern computers.
It is arguable which of the early microcomputers could be called a
first. CTC Datapoint 2200 is one candidate, although it actually didnt
contain a microprocessor (being based on a multichip CPU design
instead), and wasnt meant to be a standalone computer, but merely a
terminal for the mainframes. The reason some might consider it a first
microcomputer is because it could be used as a defacto standalone
computer, it was small enough, and its multichip CPU architecture

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UNIT 1. HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER

actually became a basis for the x86 architecture later used in IBM PC
and its descendants. Plus, it even came with a keyboard and a monitor,
an exception in those days.
However, if we are looking for the first microcomputer that came
with a proper microprocessor, was meant to be a standalone computer,
and didnt come as a kit then it would be Micral N, which used Intel
8008 microprocessor.
Popular early microcomputers which did come in kits include MOS
Technology KIM1, Altair 8800, and Apple I. Altair 8800 in particular
spawned a large following among the hobbyists, and is considered the
spark that started the microcomputer revolution, as these hobbyists
went on to found companies centered around personal computing,
such as Microsoft, and Apple.
As microcomputers continued to evolve they became easier to
operate, making them accessible to a larger audience. They typically
came with a keyboard and a monitor, or could be easily connected to a
TV, and they supported visual representation of text and numbers on
the screen.
In other words, lights and switches were replaced by screens and
keyboards, and the necessity to understand binary code was
diminished as they increasingly came with programs that could be
used by issuing more easily understandable commands. Famous early
examples of such computers include Commodore PET, Apple II, and
in the 80s the IBM PC.
The nature of the underlying electronic components didnt change
between these computers and modern computers we know of today,
but what did change was the number of circuits that could be put onto
a single microchip. Intels cofounder Gordon Moore predicted the
doubling of the number of transistor on a single chip every two years,
which became known as Moores Law, and this trend has roughly
held for over 30 years thanks to advancing manufacturing processes
and microprocessor designs.
The consequence was a predictable exponential increase in
processing power that could be put into a smaller package, which had
a direct effect on the possible form factors as well as applications of

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modern computers, which is what most of the forthcoming paradigm


shifting innovations in computing were about.
http://www.historyofcomputer.org/

The words you may need:


Aid ,
Abacus
Crunch ,
Huge ,
Plugboard , , 

Punch ,
Capacitor
Mainframe , 

Proliferation
CPU

VOCABULARYPRACTICE

Ex. I. Translate into Russian and learn the pronunciation (


):

Performing various kinds of computations or calculations; moving


the pebbles into new positions;endless combinations of those;
representing electrical on and off states; consumed far less power,
produced far less heat; a bridge between mainframes and
microcomputers; weird bunch; spawned a large; went on to found
companies centered around personal computing;a predictable
exponential increase in processing power.
Ex. 2. Find English equivalents and learn them ( 
):

;
; 
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UNIT 1. HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER

11

;
; 
; ;
.

SPEAKING SKILLS

Ex. 3. Complete the sentences ( ):

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Every computer supports


We currently use computers
The first general purpose electronic computer was
The first nongeneral purpose computer was
The second generation of computers came about thanks to
The invention of microchips, paved the way for
First microchipsbased central processing units consisted of
The advent of the microprocessor spawned
First microcomputers were
As microcomputers continued to evolve they
A predictable exponential increase in processing power was

Ex. 4. Answer the questions to the text ( ):

1.What is a Computer?
2. What is considered to be the earliest computer?
3. How did the first electronic computers look like?
4. What can you tell about the second generation of computers?
5. When did the third generation computers appear?
6. What were the fourth generation computers based on?
7. What invention spawned the evolution of the microcomputers?
8. Have modern computers changed greatly since the end of 80th?

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Ex 5. Render the text HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER. 


). Use some of the following phrases (
):


:
The title of the article is;
The article is devoted to the problem of;
The article deals with;
The text (extract from the article) deals with (the problem of);
This text is about;
The extract centers round the problem of;
The author of the article deals with the problem of ;
The author describes ;
It is clear from the text that;
:
It further says that;
One of the main problems to be singled out is;
Great importance is also attached to;
We shouldnt forget that;
It should be noted that ;
It must be mentioned that ;
In my opinion ...;
To my mind ...;
According to the text ...;
Judging from the authors point of view ...;
Among other problems the text raises the problem of...;
The problem described in the article is of great interest (importance)
to;

:
The author finishes with...;
To sum it up ;
Summing the text up (summing it up);
On the whole ;

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UNIT 1. HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER

13

Having analyzed the information it is possible to say;


In conclusion ;
All things considered we can come to the conclusion;
Finally the author sums up/summarizes...;
The author praises, criticizes, approves;

REVISING GRAMMAR

Ex. 6.
A.Write the nouns in Plural and read them. (
):

A. Datum; provision; court; addendum; vote; basis; erratum;


territory; force; memorandum; change;body; phenomenon; dispute;
referendum; fate; right; crisis; responsibility; phenomena.
B.Write the nouns in Singular and read them. ( 
, ):

B. Women; children; phenomena; trousers; bases; shelves;


constitutions; cases; mice; instruments; factories; data; copies; scissors;
deer; systems; courts; teeth; declarations; peace, riches; houses; men;
peoples; memoranda.
Ex. 7.
A. Read: :

Quantitative numerals ( ): 2,
48, 16, 326, 412, 82, 56, 51, 210, 24, 2048, 40968, 192, 39, 278, 1249.
Ordinal numerals ( ): 64, 23, 47,
893, 496, 203, 17, 823, 908, 73, 4, 981, 52, 30, 893, 48, 9, 76, 530, 12,
789, 230, 917, 696, 253, 8943
Chronological dates ( ): 18.03.1998;
29.02.1996; 19.12.1910; 16.01.1982; 21.04.1972; 12.06.1910;
22.08.2010; 03.05.2025.

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UNIT

15

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
SCIENCE USING JAVA


Read and translate the text:

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
SCIENCE USING JAVA
Java is a simple and yet powerful object oriented programming
language and it is in many respects similar to C++. Java originated at
Sun Microsystems, Inc. in 1991. It was conceived by James Gosling,
Patrick Naughton, Chris Warth, Ed Frank, and Mike Sheridan at Sun
Microsystems, Inc. It was developed to provide a platformindependent
programming language. This site gives you an Introduction to Java
Programming accompanied with many java examples.
Platform independent. Unlike many other programming languages
including C and C++ when Java is compiled, it is not compiled into
platform specific machine, rather into platform independent byte code.
This byte code is distributed over the web and interpreted by virtual
Machine (JVM) on whichever platform it is being run.
Java Virtual Machine. What is the Java Virtual Machine? What is its
role? Java was designed with a concept of write once and run
everywhere. Java Virtual Machine plays the central role in this concept.
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UNIT 15. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE USING JAVA

175

The JVM is the environment in which Java programs execute. It is


software that is implemented on top of real hardware and operating
system. When the source code (java files) is compiled, it is translated
into byte codes and then placed into (.class) files. The JVM executes
these bytecodes. So Java byte codes can be thought of as the machine
language of the JVM. A JVM can either interpret the bytecode one
instruction at a time or the bytecode can be compiled further for the
real microprocessor using what is called a justintime compiler. The
JVM must be implemented on a particular platform before compiled
programs can run on that platform.
Object Oriented Programming. Since Java is an object oriented
programming language it has following features:
Reusability of Code
Emphasis on data rather than procedure
Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions
Objects can communicate with each other through functions
New data and functions can be easily added.
Java has powerful features. The following are some of them:
Simple; Reusable; Portable (Platform Independent); Distributed;
Robust; Secure; High Performance; Dynamic; Threaded; Interpreted.
Object Oriented Programming is a method of implementation in
which programs are organized as cooperative collection of objects,
each of which represents an instance of a class, and whose classes are
all members of a hierarchy of classes united via inheritance
relationships.
OOP Concepts. Four principles of Object Oriented Programming
are: Abstraction; Encapsulation; Inheritance; Polymorphism.
Abstraction. Abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an
object that distinguish it from all other kinds of objects and thus provide
crisply defined conceptual boundaries, relative to the perspective of
the viewer.
Encapsulation. Encapsulation is the process of compartmentalizing
the elements of an abstraction that constitute its structure and behavior;
encapsulation serves to separate the contractual interface of an
abstraction and its implementation.Encapsulation:

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hides the implementation details of a class;


forces the user to use an interface to access data;
makes the code more maintainable.
Inheritance. Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires
the properties of another object.
Polymorphism. Polymorphism is the existence of the classes or
methods in different forms or single name denoting different
implementations.
Java is Distributed. With extensive set of routines to handle TCP/IP
protocols like HTTP and FTP java can open and access the objects
across net via URLs.
Java is Multithreaded. One of the powerful aspects of the Java
language is that it allows multiple threads of execution to run
concurrently within the same program. A single Java program can have
many different threads executing independently and continuously.
Multiple Java applets can run on the browser at the same time sharing
the CPU time.
Java is Secure. Java was designed to allow secure execution of code
across network. To make Java secure many of the features of C and
C++ were eliminated. Java does not use Pointers. Java programs cannot
access arbitrary addresses in memory.
Garbage collection. Automatic garbage collection is another great
feature of Java with which it prevents inadvertent corruption of memory.
Similar to C++, Java has a new operator to allocate memory on the
heap for a new object. But it does not use delete operator to free the
memory as it is done in C++ to free the memory if the object is no
longer needed. It is done automatically with garbage collector.
http://www.sis.pitt.edu/~icucart/fshi/java_introduction.html

The words you may need:


Conceive , ,
Robust , , ,
Crisply ,
Thread

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CONTENTS

335

........................................................................................................................................... 3
UNIT 1. HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER ............................................................................ 6
UNIT 2. CISCO ASA 5500 SERIES ADAPTIVE SECURITY APPLIANCES .... 19
UNIT 3. EVOLUTION OF THE FIREWALL INDUSTRY ........................... 29
UNIT 4. THE FIRST GENERATION
OF FIREWALL ARCHITECTURES ................................................................... 40
UNIT 5. THE HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL .............................................. 54
UNIT 6. FOUNDATIONS OF MODERN CRYPTOGRAPHY .................... 67
UNIT. 7. THE PROGRESS OF ABSTRACTION AND
THE OBJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH ..................................... 79
UNIT 8. AN OBJECT HAS AN INTERFACE .................................................................. 90
UNIT 9. THE HIDDEN IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................ 102
UNIT 10. REUSING THE IMPLEMENTATION ........................................ 111
UNIT 11. THE PROCESS OF LANGUAGE TRANSLATION .............................. 122
UNIT 12. THE COMPILATION PROCESS ............................................. 137
UNIT 13. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN .................................................... 147
UNIT 14. DATA ABSTRACTION ......................................................... 159
UNIT 15. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE USING JAVA ..... 174
UNIT 16. PROTECTION OF INFORMATION ............................................................ 184
UNIT 17. INTRUSION DETECTION TOOLS ............................................................ 193
UNIT 18. FILES AND FILE SYSTEM SECURITY ...................................................... 202
UNIT 19. DIRECTORY PERMISSIONS AND OWNERSHIP ............................. 212
UNIT 20. CLOUD COMPUTING ....................................................................................... 226
UNIT 21. ETHICAL ISSUES FOR IT SECURITY PROFESSIONALS ............. 239
UNIT 22. THE PROFESSIONAL
AND APPLIED ETHICS CONSTITUENTS OF IT SPECIALISTS AND
USERS ..................................................................................................................... 251
UNIT 23. INFORMATION TECHNOLOLOGY SPECIALIST
JOB DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................... 263
UNIT 24. WRITING IT SPECIALIST RESUME .......................................................... 275
GUESS PUZZLES ..................................................................................................................... 288
............................................... 292
.................... 313

.......................... 322

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