Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

Map 6 Asia Orientalis

Compiled by M.U. Erdosy, 1997 Introduction

Map 6 embraces four distinct regions: central Asia and the Indus valley, which had lengthy contacts with the Greeks and Romans; and Tibet and Chinese Turkestan, which had practically none. The first two entered Western consciousness through the eastward expansion of the Achaemenid empire, which brought them into the orbit of Greek geographical knowledge, and won them prominence as the theaters of Alexander the Greats eastern campaigns. Although colonization in the wake of Macedonian conquests was short-lived, classical influence on the arts and crafts of the area, if not its religious and political institutions, remained prominent for centuries. Moreover, even though the Parthians and Sasanians effectively severed overland links between central Asia and the Mediterranean world, the Alexander legend helped preserve geographical information for posterity (albeit frequently in a distorted form), even if little in the way of fresh data was added until Late Roman times. By contrast, areas to the north and east of the Himalayas remained in effect terra incognita until the nineteenth century, when the heart of Asia first received serious exploration by westerners, mostly as a by-product of the Great Game. Despite the impressive lists of toponyms and ethnonyms found in Ptolemys Geography and Ammianus Marcellinus, few cities and tribes can be localized with any certitude, since ancient geographers not only lacked first-hand knowledge of the area, but were also hampered by a defective image of the world, which was sure to produce serious distortions in peripheral regions. As a result, the eastern half of Map 6 is largely devoid of identifiable sites (although it contributes extensively to the list of unlocated toponyms and ethnonyms), while the western half is densely populated. This is not to say that the historical topography of Pakistan and central Asia constitutes a closed chapter. Just how much is left to resolve can be appreciated by merely browsing through the literature generated by, say, Steins localization of the site of at Pir Sar (for a brief survey, Bosworth 1995, 178-80). The fact that many solutions were proposed by historians without first-hand field experience, or by archaeologists who ignored historical questions, has not helped; nor has the inaccessibility of some areas, and the chronic instability of others. These factors have prevented the verification of many recent hypotheses. Compilation of the Directory follows the principles set out in the introduction to Map 5, except that in citing Greek and Latin sources I have relied more heavily on modern treatments which either list textual references (note Renou 1925, 75-89; Andr 1986, 429-453), or mention them in the course of discussing the identification of certain toponyms or ethnonyms (note Andr 1980; Bosworth 1980; 1995; Casson 1989). This difference in approach is necessitated by the multitude of textual references, itself the product of the frequent recycling of information relating to Alexanders exploits. I have, however, cited original sources directly if they are omitted from the lists just mentioned, or if the modern treatments either do not correctly identify a name, or take no account of the possibility that one name can cover a range of geographical features (Caucasus, for example). The most important physical changes since ancient times have been hydrological, and they are of a different order of magnitude from those experienced in either peninsular India or the Ganges valley. The two principal problemsdebated for over a centuryconcern the movements of the R. Indus and its tributaries, and the location of the R. Oxus delta. I refrain from commenting extensively on the second problem, since both the Aral Sea and most of the Caspian Sea fall outside the scope of the Barrington Atlas. Suffice it to say that, even if the Oxus drained mostly into the Aral Sea in antiquity, the Uzboy channel connecting it to the Caspian could have carried some of its flow, and could have misled ancient authors into equating the channel with the principal branch. This may well explain why the Aral Sea remained unknown until Late Antiquity. Another explanation may be deduced from the shape and size of the Caspian Sea in Ptolemys system, which suggests that at least the eastern and southern shores of the Aral Sea were known, but were considered to belong to the Caspian. It should also be noted that several of the

78

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS

left-bank tributaries of the Oxus no longer reach it now, but are lost in the sands of Bactria; their lower courses in antiquity can only be guessed at. The Indus and its tributaries are principal points of reference for all of Alexanders historians, and their location in protohistoric times is vital to the map. Fortunately, with the advent of remote sensing techniques, and advances in archaeological surveying, the general outlines of the westward shift of the Indus system, and of the desiccation of the Ghaggar and Nara channels (representing the Vedic Sarasvat), are clear. For this reason, I have adopted Wilhelmys scheme (1968; 1968a; 1969, summarized in Eggermont 1975; 1993) for both the palaeochannels of the Indus system and the ancient shoreline around the Indus delta. While the geographical outlines are clear and seldom contested, one historical issue does remain to be resolved, namely the channel of the Indus delta which Nearchos used as his outlet to the Arabian Sea. Here I cannot accept Eggermonts preference for the eastern channel, in spite of his detailed arguments. Instead, I maintain that Nearchos must have used a branch of the western channel which emptied itself into the Gulf of Kutch at 68 longitude (just east of Pir Patho hill: see the map in Eggermont 1975, 31).

Directory
All place names are in India unless otherwise noted Abbreviations
EIA Avst. OPers. Skt. A. Ghosh (ed.), An encyclopaedia of Indian archaeology. Volume 2: a gazetteer of explored and excavated sites in India, New Delhi, 1989 Avestan Old Persian Sanskrit

Note: For commentary on Arrian references, see Bosworth 1980 (Books 1-3); 1995 (Books 4-5); and Hinber 1985 (Book 8). For commentary on PME references, see Casson 1989.

Names
Grid E5 C4 Name Abali Abastanoi/ Sambastai Megallae Sabarcae Sabbas Sabou Subagrae Aberia Period R H/ H R H L R Modern Name / Location people in hills of S Bihar IND / PAK Skt.: Ambastha / Mekala References Pliny, NH 6.67; McCrindle 1926, 139-40 Law 1943, 96-97; NPauly Pliny, NH 6.73; Law 1943, 374

B4

A1 C5 C3 C3 F5

Abii Abiria Abisareis Acadira = Arigaion Acutri? Adamas? fl.

HRL R H R R

Indo-Greek province above R. Indus delta PAK Skt.: Abhira-dea UZB hinterlands of Gujarat coast Skt.: Abhirdea Skt.: Abhisra people in Bajaur (cf. Arigaion) Subarnarekha (contra Vogel 1952a, 229)

Andr 1986, 257 Ptol. 7.1.55; Law 1943, 79-81

Bosworth 1995, 13-15 PME 41 Andr 1980, 106; Bosworth 1995, 177-78 Pliny, NH 6.94 Ptol. 7.1.17, 41; Chandra 1977, 122

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Grid D4 C3 C3 F5 F5 C3 C5 C3 Name Adisdara Adrestae A(n)dri Agalasseis/ Agensonae Gesonae Aganagara? Agensonae = Agalasseis Agoranis fl. Ahin Posh Ajabpura Akesinos/ Sandabal fl. Cantaba Akota = Minnagara? Akra Alexandria Alexandria Alexandria/ Alexandropolis/ Cufis Alexandria = Arachosiorum Oppidum Alexandria Ariorum/ Artacavan/ Harey Alexandria Eschate Cyreschata Alexandria Oxiana? Alexandria/ Antiochia/ Merv Alexandria/ Rhambakia Alexandropolis Arbis Alexandropolis = Alexandria Alexandrou Limen/ Portus Macedonum Abies Barbara Barce Biblon Paricea Xylinepolis Aliabad Altin Dilyar tepe Amystis fl. Anauon Andomatis fl. Aninacha Antibolei fl. Period R HRL RL H/ HR L R H R R HRL R Modern Name / Location Ramnagar? Skt.: Adhicchatra Skt.: Aratta References Ptol. 7.1.53; Law 1943, 34 Bosworth 1995, 328-29 Andr 1986, 141, 257 DiodSic 17.96; Andr 1986, 141, 257, 383 (n. 290); Eggermont 1993, 23-25, 33 Ptol. 7.2.14; Law 1976, 112 Arrian 8.4.4 Ball 1982.17 EIA Strabo 15.1.18, 27; Renou 1925, 87; Andr 1980, 102; 1986, 429; NPauly Akesines 2

79

Agradvpa Garai BAN AFG Chenab, as well as combined streams of R. Indus tributaries IND / PAK Vedic / Skt.: Asikn PAK AFG Begram (cf. Kapisa) AFG Kandahar AFG

C3 A3 B3 B3

CHR HR RL/ R

Allchin et al. 1986, 184 See Map 3 Tarn 1951, 460-42; Bosworth 1980, 369-70; Fraser 1996, 140-51 IsidChar 19; Ptol. 6.20.4; AmmMarc 23.6.72; Tarn 1951, 470-71; Andr 1980, 120; 1986, 388 (n. 310); NPauly Alexandreia 7 See Map 98 Curtius 7.6.13; Ptol. 6.17.6; Bosworth 1995, 15-17, 19 See Map 99 See Map 98 Eggermont 1975, 69-77; Andr 1980, 127-28; Fraser 1996, 164-67, 178 Andr 1986, 276, 408 (n. 479) Ptol. 6.21.5 Eggermont 1975, 33-45, 132-37; Andr 1980, 127 Casson 1989, 188 Andr 1986, 383, 432 Philostratus, Vita Apollonii 3.53 ItMiller 788; Eggermont 1993, 116

A3 B1 B2 A2 B4

AFG HR RL Khojend TAJ AFG TKM HR/ H L R Khandewari? PAK

B5

H/ R R R R R L R H H R R

PAK

B2 B2 F5 A3 F5 E4 G5

AFG AFG Ajaya Skt.: Ajamat AFG Damodar Skt.: Dmodara Nimsur? Meghna channel in Ganges delta BAN

See Map 99 See Map 98 Arrian 8.4.5; Law 1976, 203 See Map 3 Arrian 8.4.4 Ptol. 7.1.53; EIA Nimsur; Schwartzberg 1992, 330, 358 Ptol. 7.1.18; 7.2.2

80 Grid B2 C3 B3 C5 B4 Name Antiochia = Alexandria Aornos Aornos Aornis Aparytai Apokopa M. Arabis fl. Arbi(u)s fl. Barbarus fl. Chariphou fl. Arabitai Ar(i)bae Arbies Abritai Terabdoi Arachosia Arachotoi Arachosii Rachousoi Arachosia fl. Arachotos fl. Arachosiorum Oppidum/ Alexandria Arachosia Arachotos Demetrias (A)Gazaca Arachotos Krene Arana = Chaarene Arbita M. Arbitani M. Ar(e)ia Argenuus? = Kokala Ariake/ Larike Period

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Modern Name / Location AFG Pir Sar? PAK Afridi AFG / PAK Skt.: Aparta Aravalli Mts. (contra Vogel 1950, 146-49) Hab PAK Skt.: Arav References See Map 99 Andr 1986, 294, 431; Bosworth 1995, 178-80; NPauly 2 Hdt. 3.91; Singh 1972, 133-34 Ptol. 7.1.19; Law 1976, 20, 304 Ptol. 6.19.2, 6.21.2; AmmMarc 23.6.73; Eggermont 1975, 46-47, 200; Andr 1980, 127-28 Ptol. 7.1.2, 28 Arrian 6.21.4; Goukowsky 1976, 143; Andr 1986, 293, 398 (n. 378) Pliny, NH 6.77; Eggermont 1975, 102-104 Strabo 15.2.1 DiodSic 17.104; Ptol. 6.21.4 PME 37 Arrian 5.6.2; Ptol. 6.18.1, 7.1.1; AmmMarc 23.6.72; Andr 1980, 120; NPauly Arrian 3.8.4; Andr 1986, 431 Curtius 4.12.6, 7.3.4, 8.13.3 PME 47; Eggermont 1970, 122 Pliny, NH 6.92; Andr 1980, 120 IsidChar 19 Pliny, NH 6.61, 92; Andr 1980, 120 StByz ; Tarn 1951, 470 IsidChar 19 Ptol. 6.18.4; AmmMarc 23.6.70 Ptol. 6.20.1; Bernard 1974, 183-85 Renou 1925, 76; Eggermont 1975, 48 See Map 98 PME 41; Ptol. 7.1.4, 62; Law 1976, 287-88

HRL HL C R HRL HR H R H RL H HR R HRL

B4

PAK

B3

A3 B3

R R R R HR R H R R L R

hilly country between R.Indus, Hilmand basin, Quetta valley and S slopes of Hindukush AFG Argandhab AFG Avst.: Harvaiti Kalat-e-Ghilzai? AFG

B3 B4 A3 C5

Dasht-i-Nawar AFG Kirthar Mts. PAK AFG hinterlands of Barygaza and parts of N Konkan coast Skt.: Aryaka / Lt / Ltadea AFG / IRN Nawagai? Shahbazgarhi Skt.: Aristhapura AFG people in Bharatpur-Alwar region inhabitants of Ouarsa AFG

A3 C3 C3 A2 D4

Ari(m)aspai Arigaion/ Acadira Ariani Aristobathra/ Orobatis Arius fl. rjunyanas Arouadis fl. = Hydraotes fl. Arsagalitae Orsaei Artamis? fl. Artacavan = Alexandria Ariorum Ascatancas M. Asigramma

H L R/ H HR

See Map 3 Curtius 8.10.19; Arrian 4.24.6; Bosworth 1995, 163 AmmMarc 23.6.69; Andr 1986, 215, 293 Arrian 4.28.5; Ptol. 7.1.57; Eggermont 1993, 11.139 See Map 98 Majumdar 1951, 162-63

C3 B2 C1 C3

R R

Pliny, NH 6.78; Foucher 1947, 216 (n. 12) Pliny, NH 8.76; Eggermont 1970, 105 See Map 99 Ptol. 6.13.1; AmmMarc 23.6.60; Fontaine 1977, 106 Ptol. 7.1.57; Eggermont 1993, 10-11

RL R

Talas-Alatau and Chatkal'sky ranges KYR / UZB Asgrm

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Grid C3 C3 Name Asioi = Tochari Aspasioi Hypasioi Assakanoi Asmagi Assoi Assakia Astakana Astakenoi/ Sattagydai Aspagani? Tatakene Asthagoura Asthala/ Solis?/ Karmina? Ins. Karnine Ins. Nosala Ins. Nympharum Cubile Astomi Astrybai Attakenoi Automula Bactra/ Zariaspa Bactria Bactrus?/ Zariaspis? fl. Bagisara Bagoon M. Baitia M. Bamanghati Bandobene Peukelaotis Barake Inss. Barakes Kolpos Kanthikos Kolpos Barbarikon Bargysoi Barna Barygaza Bargose Barygazon Kolpos Barygazenos Kolpos Batankaisara? Bazira Beira Bepyron M. Bessadae = Sesatai Bestia Desolata = Bigis Bibakta Ins. Bibaga Ins. Bibasis fl. = Hyp(h)asis fl. Bidaspes fl. = Hydaspes fl. Period H H H R R H HR/ C R R R R/ RL/ R H H RL R H H R Modern Name / Location lower Kunar valley AFG Skt.: Avakyanh country of Assakanoi AFG AFG OPers.: attagu Ahraura? Astalu PAK References Arrian 4.23.1, 4.24.1; Bosworth 1995, 144, 155 Strabo 15.1.17, 27 Bosworth 1995, 167 Pliny, NH 6.73; Hinber 1985, 1081 Pliny, NH 6.78; Eggermont 1970, 107 Arrian 8.1.8 See Map 99 Andr 1980, 108 Ptol. 6.19.3 Ptol. 7.1.72 Ptol. 6.21.6; Eggermont 1975, 81-82; Andr 1980, 129-30

81

B2 B2

E4 A4

E3 C3 C3 C5 B2 B2 B2 A4 A3 A4 F5 C3 B5 B5 B4 E4 A4 C5 C5 D4 C3 G4

along R. Sutlej Vallabhipur? AFG

Pliny, NH 7.25 Arrian 8.4.8; Renou 1925, 76 Arrian 8.4.8; Hinber 1985, 1100 Pliny, NH 6.75; Schwartzberg 1992, 331, 371 See Map 98 See Map 99 AmmMarc 23.6.57; Fontaine 1977, 103; Andr 1980, 64-65 Arrian 8.26.2; Eggermont 1975, 81 Ptol. 6.17.1, 6.19.1 Ptol. 6.19.1, 6.21.3; Ronca 1971, 73 Turner 1989, 49 Strabo 15.1.26; Eggermont 1975, 139 Bosworth 1995, 184 Ptol. 7.1.94; Schwartzberg 1992, 332-333 Casson 1989, 195-96; Schwartzberg 1992, 332, 351 PME 38; Eggermont 1975, 37-40 PME 62; Law 1976, 71 See Map 3 PME 40-47; Ptol. 7.1.62; EIA Bharuch Strabo 15.1.73 PME 41 Ptol. 7.1.5; Renou 1925, 77 Ptol. 7.1.51; EIA Bateswar Arrian 4.27.5; Bosworth 1995, 176-77 Curtius 8.10.22 Ptol. 7.2.8, 9, 11, 15, 18; Berthelot 1930, 395 Arrian 8.21.11; Eggermont 1975, 38-41 Pliny, NH 6.80

HR/ HRL H R R RL H HR R R R R R

Balkh-b AFG Ormara PAK AFG PAK Skt.: U(n)dabhanda Beyt Is., in Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Kutch PAK between rvast and Vail Skt.: Bhrga PAK Broach Skt.: Bhrgukaccha Gulf of Cambay Bateshwar Barikot

R H R R R H H R

B5

H R

PAK

82 Grid A3 Name Bigis/ Bestia Desolata/ Parabeste Biyt Bilaspur Bolingae Boukephala Boos Kephalai Branchidai Bubacene? Butae Byltai Bolitai Period R/ L/ R R R R HRL RL R R R

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Modern Name / Location Qila-i-Bust AFG References Ptol. 6.19.5; Andr 1980, 121; Eggermont 1993, 115 IsidChar 19 Turner 1989, 49-50 Law 1976, 123; Andr 1980, 106 Renou 1925, 78; Bosworth 1995, 311-13 See Map 98 See Map 99 Pliny, NH 6.76; McCrindle 1926, 151 Ptol. 6.13.3

E5 D4 C3 B2 B2 B5 D2

in Alwar region of Rajasthan Skt.: Bhaulinga Jalilpur? PAK TAJ Buddas, people living in Kutch? Scythian people in Pamirs (name may be preserved in modern Baltis / Balitstan) Skt.: Khaa Ken AFG Skt.: Kapi AFG Mt. Abu Kosi IND / NEP Skt.: Kauik

D3 E5 F4 B2 C2 C5 F4

A4 E5 D4 A2 C5 D2 F4

Caesi Cainnas? fl. Camp Capisa Caphisa Capisene Capitalia M. Caspyre = Kaspiria Casuagus/ Kossoanos fl. Caucasus M. = Hemodos M. Caucasus M. = Paropamisos M. Chaarene/ Arana Rhana Chakerbedha Charmae Chatracharta Chatriaioi Chaurana Chirotosagi/ Kirradai Cirrabe Indi Kirradia Korouda Piladai Sciratae Thalutae Choaspes fl. Gouraios fl. Garoias fl. Parospus fl. Choes? fl. Chrisobora/ Kleisobora Chrysoun Stoma Chunar Colobae

R H HR R R R R H/ H

Pliny, NH 6.73; McCrindle 1926, 145-46 Pliny, NH 6.64; Arrian 8.4.3 EIA Ptol. 6.18.4; Tarn 1951, 460-62; Andr 1986, 160, 388 (n. 310) Pliny, NH 6.92; Tarn 1951, 96-97 Pliny, NH 6.74; Law 1976, 323 Pliny, NH 6.65; McCrindle 1926, 191-92; Andr 1980, 94

HR L R R R RL R/ R L R R R H R H H R H R/ H R R R

Kharan region, in Baluchistan Chamars, inhabitants of Bundelkhand TKM Khatri, people in Malwa, also caste Khotan CHN E Himalayas NEP Skt.: Kirta

Strabo 15.2.11; Ptol. 6.19.5; Eggermont 1993, 113-15 ItMiller 787 Turner 1989, 51 Pliny, NH 6.75; McCrindle 1926, 150-51 See Map 3 Ptol. 7.1.64; Vogel 1952a, 232-33 Ptol. 6.15.4; AmmMarc 23.6.63; Fontaine 1977, 109 Renou 1925, 82 ; Law 1976, 98-99; Andr 1980, 92, 97-98 Aelian, de Natura Animalium 3.35.3 Ptol. 7.2.16; Law 1976, 98-99

C3

C3 D4 B5 E4 D3

combined streams of Swt (Souastos) and Panjkora (Gouraios) Skt.: Gaur Alingar AFG Gokul? E mouth R. Indus PAK Skt.: Kolta

Tucci 1977, 47; Bosworth 1995, 156-57, 168-69 Arrian 8.4.11; Hinber 1985, 1099 Pliny, NH 6.94 Arrian 4.23.2; Bosworth 1995, 155-57 Pliny, NH 6.69 Arrian 8.8.5 Ptol. 7.1.2, 28; Eggermont 1975, 87 Wheeler 1951, 379 Pliny, NH 6.76; McCrindle 1926, 139-40; Law 1943, 90

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Grid C2 B1 Name Comedus M. Caumestes M. Cufis = Alexandria Cyropolis/ Kyra Cyreschata Dadikai = Daradrai Dahae Dahan-i Ghulaman/ Zra(n)ka? Dal'verzin tepe Daradrai/ Dadikai Dardae Dardaneis Datichai Dargamanes? fl. Dargoidos? fl. Dari Diardines fl. = Oidanes fl. Dilbarjin Dionysopolis = Nagara Dosara Dosaron fl. Drapsaka Dushanbe Dymos? fl. Dyrta Eirinon Eiron M. Embolima Ecbolima Emodon/ Kasia M. Emshi tepe Eorta = (H)Eorta Eragassa Erannoboas/ Sonus fl. Eramnomboua fl. So fl. Erythr(ae)um/ Indicum Mare Erymandros fl. Cymander? fl. Ebimaris fl. Etymandros fl. Ethymantus fl. Euas(...) fl. Euthymedeia/ Sangala Focari *Tochari Frakh-kar-Peroz = Phra(da) Period RL RL H RL TKM IRN R/ CR R L R RL R R UZB Dards in Hindukush range, Nuristan AFG See Map 97 See Map 3 See Map 99 Ptol. 7.1.42; Renou 1925, 79; Foucher 1947, 197; Andr 1980, 98 Ptol. 7.1.51 Ptol. 6.11.2, 4 Ptol. 6.11.2; Ronca 1971, 25, 67; Staviskij 1986, 107 Pliny, NH 6.73; McCrindle 1926, 145-46 See Map 98 Ptol. 7.1.77; Sircar 1971, 187 See Map 5 See Map 99 See Map 99 Ptol. 6.12.3; AmmMarc 23.6.59; Fontaine 1977, 105 Arrian 4.30.5 PME 40 Arrian 8.21.9; Eggermont 1975, 43-45 Arrian 4.28.7; Ptol. 7.1.57 Curtius 8.12.1 Ptol. 6.15.2, 6.16.2; AmmMarc 23.6.64; Fontaine 1977, 111 See Map 98 Ptol. 7.1.50; Vogel 1948 Pliny, NH 6.65; Arrian 8.10.5; Renou 1925, 88 ; McCrindle 1926, 191-93 See Map 4 H L R R H H R/ HR R Helmand AFG / PAK Avst.: Htumant Arrian 4.6.6; Andr 1986, 390 (n. 328), 398 (n. 382), 437; Bosworth 1995, 37 Andr 1980, 120 Kunar AFG / PAK Arrian 4.24.1 Ptol. 7.1.46, 53; Foucher 1947, 398; Tarn 1951, 486-87; Bosworth 1995, 327-37 Pliny, NH 6.55; Tarn 1951, 84 Modern Name / Location TAJ Kurkat? TAJ References Ptol. 6.12.3; AmmMarc 23.6.60 Andr 1986, 277 Bosworth 1995, 19

83

A2 A3 B2 C2

B2 B2 C5 B2 E5 E5 B2 B2 B1 C3 C5 B5 C3 E2 B2 D4 E5

Ab-e-Safed AFG Qunduz AFG Gulf of Kutch PAK AFG

Tusra? (contra Sircar) AFG TAJ Chirtchik UZB Daggar? marsh / Rann of Kutch IND / PAK Makli hills PAK Kabulgram? Altun Shan-Kunlun range CHN AFG Erach Skt.: Erakaksa Son Skt.: Hiranyavhu / Sona

RL H R H HR H L/ R R H/ HR H R

A5 A3

C2 C3

E1

in Tarim basin CHN

84 Grid C5 C3 Name Gallitalutae Gandaris Gandaritis Ganganoi Gangaridae Gandaridai Gange Ganges fl. Padus fl. Phison fl. Alibotra? fl. Garav kala Gari Gatasmira Gaza Gedrosia Glauganikai Glausai Gogaraei Goryaia Gouraioi Gynaikon Limen/ Morontobara Harey = Alexandria Ariorum Hemodos/ Imaus/ Caucasus M. Emodus M. (H)Emoda M. Imaikos M. Lamnus M. Tauros M. (H)Eorta/ Sageda Sagala? Arate? Horaia? = Kokala Hydaspes/ Bidaspes fl. Idaspes fl. Hydraotes/ Arouadis/ Porrus fl. Hiarotis fl. Hyp(h)asis/ Bibasis fl. Hypanis fl. Hypasis fl. = Zadadros fl. Hyperboraei = Ottorokorai A2 Iasonion Period R CHRL H R RL H H HRL L L L R R H H H R R H HRL/ H

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Modern Name / Location Gehlots, Rajput people in Gujarat area N R. Kabul, between Kunar and R. Indus AFG / PAK Skt.: Gandhra upper R. Ganges-Ghaggar Doab Bengal BAN / IND Skt.: Vangas Allahabad Ganges References Pliny, NH 6.77; McCrindle 1926, 152-53 Renou 1925, 79 ; Law 1943, 9-11; Tucci 1977, 11; Andr 1980, 62 Ptol. 7.2.13; Schwartzberg 1992, 24 McCrindle 1926, 134, 136-37; Andr 1980, 95; 1986, 163 DiodSic 2.37, 17.91 Strabo 15.1.72; Wheeler 1951, 379 Renou 1925, 78; Andr 1986, 277, 311-13, 438-39, 448 See Map 99 IsidChar 16; Ball 1982.378 Ptol. 7.1.50 Arrian 4.2 See Map 3 Arrian 5.20.2-5 Pliny, NH 6.76; McCrindle 1926, 151 Ptol. 7.1.42 Arrian 4.23, 4.25.6 Arrian 8.22.4-5; Ptol. 6.21.2; AmmMarc 23.6.73; Eggermont 1975, 54-55

D4 F5 E4 E4

B2 A3 D4 B1 A4 C3 C4 C3 B5

TAJ Girdai Ghundai? AFG Kathumar? Nau? TAJ IRN / PAK IND / PAK Panjkora valley Karachi PAK

D3

HRL RL HR H L R L HR/ R R HR/ R/ H HR HR/ R HRL

Himalayas Pli: Hemoda Skt.: Hmavat

Curtius 8.9.3; Renou 1925, 80-81; Andr 1980, 60, 81, 88; 1986, 437, 441-42, 452; Janvier 1982 Strabo 11.8.1; Arrian 8.6.4; Ptol. 6.15.2 Bosworth 1995, 237-38

E4

Faizabad? Skt.: Ayodhya

Renou 1925, 80, 87; Law 1976, 67, 122; EIA Ayodhy Ptol. 7.1.53; Schwartzberg 1992, 340 Renou 1925, 77-78; Andr 1986, 440; Eggermont 1993, 11, 65 Curtius 9.1.8; Renou 1925, 76; Eggermont 1993, 6-8 (n. 30a) Renou 1925, 77; Eggermont 1993, 11, 65, 130 Andr 1986, 440

C3 C3

Jhelum IND / PAK Skt.: Vitast Ravi IND / PAK Skt.: Irvat VedicSkt.: Parusn Beas, as well as combined Beas-Sutlej stream IND / PAK Skt.: Vips

D3

TKM

See Map 98

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Grid C1 Name Iaxartes/ Silis/ Tanais fl. Araxes fl. Laxates fl. Orexartes fl. Oxyartes fl. Ichthyophagoi Imaus M. = Hemodos M. Indabara Indicum Mare = Erythr(ae)um Mare Indoi Indoskythia Indus/ Sinthos/ Phison fl. Sindus fl. Sygoton fl. Iomanes/ Iobares fl. Diamounas fl. Issedones Kafir kala Kakouthis Kalama Kolpos Kamberichon Stoma Kambistholoi Kambouson Stoma Kamigara Camagora? Kanogiza Kanagora? Kanthi Karkuya/ Korok? Karmina? Ins. = Asthala Ins. K Kasia M. = Emodon M. Kaspatyros? = Peukelaotis Kaspiria/ Caspyre/ Kattybourine Katadoupe Kathaioi/ Xathroi Catheani Mathai Kattybourine = Kaspiria Kaumb Period HR/ R/ HR HR RL R H IRN / PAK R Delhi (Purana Qila site)? Skt.: Indraprastha? inhabitants of Sindh PAK Sindh, Makran coast, and Rann of Kutch PAK Skt.: akasthna Indus Skt.: Sindhu Avst.: Hndu Jumna Skt.: Yamuna NE slopes of Altun-Shan / Kunlun range CHN TAJ Kako? Bay of Kalmat on Makran coast mouth of R. Garai BAN S Panjab Skt.: Kapisthala Bhgrath, W mouth of R. Ganges Aror PAK Skt.: Kaman(nagar)? Kanauj? Pli: Kannakujja? Skt.: Knyakubhya Kanthkot IRN Modern Name / Location Syr Darya Burushaski: ts.hil, water References Strabo 11.6.1, 11.11.5; Ptol. 6.12.1; Andr 1980, 66; Bosworth 1980, 378; Harmatta 1992, 377 Aristotle, Meteorologica 1.13; Strabo 11.8.6; Eggermont 1993, 59 (n. 224), 61 Plutarch, Alexander 45.6 See Map 3 Ptol. 7.1.49; Majumdar 1960, 380

85

A4 D4

B4 B4 B4

C R CHRL/ R/ L RL L R/ H R RL

Hdt. 3.94; RE Ptol. 7.1.55, 62; Casson 1989, 186 Renou 1925, 81; Wilhelmy 1969; Andr 1980, 101; 1986, 441-42, 448

D4 G2 B2 F4 A4 G5 C3 F5 B4 D4 C5 A3

Renou 1925, 79 ; Law 1976, 34, 36 Ptol. 6.16.5; AmmMarc 23.6.66 See Map 99 Arrian 8 4.4; McCrindle 1926, 194 Arrian 8.26.6; Eggermont 1975, 81 Ptol. 7.1.18, 30 Arrian 8.4.8; Witzel 1987, 180-82, 212 Ptol. 7.1.18, 30; Berthelot 1930, 307 Ptol. 7.1.61; Majumdar 1960, 381 (n. 61) Ptol. 7.2.22; Wheeler 1951, 379 Ptol. 7.1.53; Schwartzberg 1992, 347 Ptol. 7.1.2; Schwartzberg 1992, 347 See Map 3

H H R H R R R R R

E4

HR

Rajghat mound in Varanasi Kashmir IND / PAK Katwa? people between R. Ravi and R. Chenab Skt.: Katha Kosam Inam

Raschke 1978, 1027-28 (n. 1549); EIA Rajghat PME 48; Ptol. 7.1.42; ItMiller 627 Arrian 8.4.5 Arrian 5.22.1, 6.15.1 Andr 1986, 382-83 Arrian 8.4.5; Hinber 1985, 1095-96 EIA

C3 F5 C3

R/ L/ R H H/ H RL H HR

E4

86 Grid C3 F4 E4 Name Kekeoi Ceae Kelydna Kindia Kirradai = Chirotosagi Kleisobora = Chrisobora Koa fl. = Kophen fl. Kognabanda Kokala/ Horaia?/ Argenuus? Komedai Kommenases fl. Kondochates fl. Kophen Kophen/ Koa fl. Cephen fl. Korandakaloi = Orumcolae Korok? = Karkuya Kossoanos fl. = Casuagus fl. Kusnas Kylindrene Chora Kyra = Cyropolis C3 Lambatai Ambautai Lamnaios fl. = Namades fl. Larike = Ariake Lithinos Pyrgos Lonibarai? Stoma Mactocalingae Madyandinoi Maghas Magon fl. Maiandros M. Mais fl. Elymaide fl. Mophis fl. Malamantos? fl. Malana Pr. Balaio Pr. Male Pr. Maleus M. Mlavas Maleus M. R R Period H R R R

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Modern Name / Location E Panjab Skt.: Kekaya Malda? Kandwa? NEP Sanchi harbor associated with Alexandria (Khandewari) PAK Alai range TAJ Skt.: Gomeda Karmanasa Gandak Kabul? AFG Kabul AFG Skt.: Kubh References Arrian 8.4.8; Singh 1972, 161-62 Pliny, NH 6.77 Ptol. 7.2.14; Schwartzberg 1992, 348, 353 Ptol. 7.1.53

D5 B4 C2 E4 E4 B3 C3

R HR/ R/ R R H H HRL HRL/ R L

Ptol. 7.1.50, 65; Eggermont 1966, 263-64 Pliny, NH 6.97; Ptol. 7.1.58; Arrian 8.23.4; Eggermont 1975, 73; Casson 1989, 182-84 Ptol. 6.13.3, 7.1.42; Sircar 1971, 128 Arrian 8.4.4 Arrian 8.4.4 StByz ; Tarn 1951, 469 Arrian 4.22.5, 5.1.1; Ptol. 7.1.26-28, 42; Andr 1980, 90; 1986, 401 (n. 409), 434-35

A2 D3

R R

dynasty ruling between Margiana in NW and Punjab in SE area in Himalayas (name preserved in modern Kulu valley?) Lamghan AFG Skt.: Lampka

Majumdar 1951, 136-53 Ptol. 7.1.42; Law 1943, 90-91

Ptol. 7.1.42; Eggermont 1975, 151 Ptol. 6.18.3

D2 B4 E5 F4 E4 F4 G5 C5 C3 B4

RL R R H R H R R L R H H R L R R HRL

Tashkurgan CHN E arm of Indus Delta PAK Mekalas, people at source of R. Narmada Skt.: Mdhyandini dynasty of Kaumb Mohana Skt.: Mahnda mountain chain in Arakan BRM Mah Kalpani Nala Ras Malan PAK

Ptol. 6.13.2; AmmMarc 23.6.60; Fontaine 1977, 106 Ptol. 7.1.2, 28; Lambrick 1964, 140 Pliny, NH 6.64; Singh 1972, 279 Arrian 8.4.4; Witzel 1987, 194-95, 212 Majumdar 1951, 175-76 Arrian 8.4.4 Ptol. 7.2.8, 10; Berthelot 1930, 395 PME 42 ItMiller 788 Ptol. 7.1.4, 31 Arrian 8.4.11; McCrindle 1926, 196; Tucci 1977, 43 Arrian 8.25.1; Hinber 1985, 1132 Ptol. 7.1.4; Renou 1925, 77 CosmasInd 445, 448 Pliny, NH 2.184-85 Majumdar 1951, 164-65 Pliny, NH 6.69; Law 1976, 21, 235; Andr 1986, 149, 263

C4 F5

tribal oligarchy in Jaipur-Udaipur Parswanath hill

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Grid F5 C3 F5 D4 E5 B2 A2 A2 C4 F4 B3 A2 C3 D4 C3 F5 D5 C2 Name Malli Malloi Mallus M. Maltecorae Mandaei Monaedes Marakanda Margiana/ Margush/ Merv Margus fl. Maroae Maroundai Molindae Masianoi Massagetai Massaka Masoga Massaga Mauryas Mazagae Mazi Mega Stoma Memadakhedi Meros M. Liseus M. Nysus M. Merv = Alexandria Merv = Margiana Mesae Methora Modoura Methorgum Minnagar = Patala Minnagara?/ Akota Mirzapur Mitras Morontobara = Gynaikon Limen Mosarna Mousikanoi Period H HR H R HR H HR Modern Name / Location Maler, people in Rajmahal hills people on lower course of R. Ravi Mt. Mandar branch of lvas in Alwar region Mundas Samarkand UZB TKM TKM W India (name preserved in modern Maruha tribe?) N Bihar / Bengal Skt.: Murundas people at confluence of R. Kabul and R. Ghorband AFG Scythians between lower Oxus and Iaxartes UZB fort in Katgala Pass Skt.: Maaka dynasty of S Asia, 322-187 B.C. IND / PAK Massaka mouth of Oxymatis channel in Ganges delta Tirich Mir? References Pliny, NH 6.64; Law 1943, 60-65 Strabo 15.1.33; Arrian 5.22.2; 8.4.10, 8.19.8; RE; Law 1943, 60-65 Pliny, NH 6.64; Law 1976, 21, 235 Pliny, NH 6.74; McCrindle 1926, 146-47 Renou 1925, 83 ; McCrindle 1926, 141 Strabo 11.11.4; Curtius 7.6.10; Arrian 3.30; Ptol. 6.11.9; Bosworth 1980, 377 See Map 98 See Map 98 Pliny, NH 6.74 Law 1976, 112 Renou 1925, 83 Strabo 15.1.27; Eggermont 1975, 178-79 Curtius 8.1.3; Arrian 4.16, 17; Ptol. 6.10.2; Andr 1980, 67; 1986, 279 Arrian 8.1.8; Hinber 1985, 1083 Strabo 15.1.27 Arrian 4.26 Majumdar 1951, 54-92 Curtius 8.10.22-26; Andr 1986, 349-50 Pliny, NH 6.92 Ptol. 7.1.18, 30 Turner 1989, 67 DiodSic 2.38.4; Tucci 1977, 27; Andr 1986, 408 (n. 482); 443-44; Bosworth 1995, 205-207 Pliny, NH 8.141 around Shikarpur, Sindh (modern Mazari) PAK Mathura Pliny, NH 6.77; McCrindle 1926, 152-53 Renou 1925, 84 ; Turner 1989, 67; EIA Mathura Eggermont 1993, 105 PME 41; Ptol. 7.1.63; Renou 1925, 84; EIA Vadodara Wheeler 1951, 379 Majumdar 1951, 171-73 Arrian 8.26.10, 27.2; Ptol. 6.8, 6.21.5 DiodSic 17.102; Strabo 15.1.21, 33; Curtius 9.8.8; Arrian 6.15.5-17; Eggermont 1975, 5-9 Ptol. 7.1.61; Schwartzberg 1992, 24, 356

87

R R R H CHRL H H H H H R R R HRL L HR R HR R R R R R HR H

B4 D4

C5 E4 D4 A4 B4

Baroda dynasty of Ahicchatra Pasni PAK N Sindh PAK Skt.: Muika Nausharo? PAK Skt.: Navagrma

B4

Naagramma

88 Grid A3 C3 C5 C5 B2 C3 C3 C2 A2 D3 G4 C3 C4 B4 Name Nad-i Ali/ Zarang? Nagara/ Dionysopolis Namades/ Lamnaios fl. Nareae Nautaka Nearti = Oreitae Nikaia Nysaioi? Oaxus L. Ochos? fl. Odonbaeorae Oidanes/ Diardines fl. Ora Hora Oratae Oreitae/ Nearti Abor(i)tae Noritae Oreitidoi Oroi Orobatis = Aristobathra Oromenus M. Orumcolae/ Korandakaloi Oscobares M. Ossadioi Massanioi Ottorokorai/ Hyperboraei Attacori Ouandabanda? Ouarsa Orza Ouindion M. Lymodus? M. Ouxenton M. Period

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Modern Name / Location AFG R Nagarahara AFG References See Map 3 Ptol. 7.1.43; Tarn 1951, 244 See Map 5 R H HRL HR R R H/ H H HL R HR HR H H H HR R/ R L H H R/ R RL R R R R L R Salt Range Skt.: Raumaka E Himalayas, perhaps in Assam BAN Mt. Kailash CHN people at confluence of R. Indus and R. Chenab Skt.: Vasti N Himalayas CHN Skt.: Uttara-Kuru AFG Hazara region Skt.: Uras Vindhya range mountains linking Vindhya ranges to E Ghats Skt.: Rksavat UZB marshy area presently under Aydarkul lake? (not Oxia Lacus) UZB Nairs, N Mt. Abu Shahr-i-Sabz? UZB left bank of R. Jhelum PAK lower Kunar Valley AFG Lake Sar-i-kol in Wakhn AFG AFG E Panjab, around Pathankot Skt.: Audumbri Brahmaputra (contra Renou) Udegram Rathors, people in Ajmir region Makran coast, between Ras Malan and R. Arabis PAK Pliny, NH 6.74; McCrindle 1926, 147 Curtius 8.2.19; Arrian 3.28.9; Bosworth 1995, 121 DiodSic 17.95; Strabo 15.1.29; Curtius 9.3.23; Arrian 5.19.4; Andr 1986, 445; Eggermont 1993, 12 Strabo 15.1.27; Arrian 8.1.4; Bosworth 1995, 160-61 Andr 1980, 64 See Map 98 Pliny, NH 6.75; Law 1943, 355 Renou 1925, 79 Curtius 8.11.1; Arrian 4.27.5 Pliny, NH 6.75; McCrindle 1926, 149 DiodSic 17.105.1; Arrian 6.21.4, 6.22; 8.21.8; Eggermont 1975, 71-74, 103; Andr 1980, 125 Pliny, NH 6.77 Curtius 9.10.6 DiodSic 17.105 Strabo 15.2.7 Pliny, NH 31.77; Eggermont 1993, 16-17 Renou 1925, 82; Andr 1980, 97-98 Andr 1986, 405 (n. 449), 446 Arrian 6.15; Eggermont 1993, 107 DiodSic 17.102 Andr 1980, 78-79 Ptol. 6.12.4; Eggermont 1975, 224 Ptol. 7.1.45; Foucher 1947, 216 (n. 12) Ptol. 7.1.51 Renou 1925, 84; Law 1976, 20 ItMiller 850 Ptol. 7.1.24, 30, 76; Law 1976, 20, 328

C3 G5 E3 C4 D3 B2 C3 D5 E5

B2 B1

Oxeia? M. Oxeiane Limne

See Map 99 Ptol. 6.12.3; Fontaine 1977, 105

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Grid A1 Name Oxus fl. Araxes fl. Baktros fl. C3 Oxydrakai/ Sydrakai Hydrakai Sodroi Sydroi Oxymatis fl. Ozene Ozoamis? Ozoana Pagala Pegadai Pakidare Paktyike? Kaspiraioi Palibothra Palimbothra Parabeste = Bigis Pareitakene Parenos? Paropamisadai Parapinae Paroparsisiani Paropamisos/ Caucasus M. Parnassos M. Paropanisadai M. Parsyetai Parsyetai M. Pasirae Parsidai Parsirai Patala/ Minnagar Theophila Binagara Patalete Patauitanus Portus Patalene Patala Patale Ins. Patalii Pauravas Pentapolis Persakra Pertalis Period HRL C C HR/ HR H H H H R R R H R R C CR HRL H H HRL R L HRL C R R R HR R R HR R R L HRL HR RL H H R R R near confluence of R. Indus and R. Chenab Skt.: Ksudraka Ichamati, channel in Ganges delta Ujjain Skt.: Ujjayni Aujhan Skt.: Ujjhana Naka Kharari PAK Padra? Pakhtuns AFG / PAK Skt.: Paktha Patna Skt.: Pataliputra UZB Kurram (contra Eggermont) satrapy in Kabul and Ghorband valleys (to R. Indus in Achaemenid period) AFG Hindukush Avst.: para-uparsana Modern Name / Location Amu Darya Avst.: Vaxu References Strabo 11.6.1; Pliny, NH 6.48, 52; Ptol. 6.10.1; Bosworth 1980, 372-74; Andr 1986, 446 Hdt. 1.205 Aristotle, Meteorologica 1.13; Eggermont 1993, 59 Renou 1925, 80 ; Andr 1980, 121-22; 1986, 446; Bosworth 1995, 218-19 Strabo 15.1.6; Eggermont 1993, 43, 92 DiodSic 17.102 Arrian 8.4.5 PME 48; Ptol. 7.1.63; EIA Ujjain; Ptol. 7.1.65 Ptol. 7.1.76; Vogel 1955 Arrian 8.23; Eggermont 1975, 70 Philostratus, Vita Apollonii 3.54 Ptol. 7.1.4 Hdt. 3.102; 4.44; How 1912, 1.319-20; Hdt. 3.93; Ptol. 7.1.47 Renou 1925, 85; EIA Pataliputra See Map 99 Arrian 8.4.12; Cunningham 1871, 88 (Map V); Eggermont 1993, 49-50 Renou 1925, 85; Tarn 1951, 95-100; Andr 1986, 447 Pliny, NH 6.92 Arrian 3.28.5, 8.5.10; Ptol. 6.12.1; Renou 1925, 85; Andr 1980, 60, 86-88; 1986, 434, 447 Aristotle, Meteorologica, 1.13; Eggermont 1993, 59 Ptol. 6.18.3, 6.20.3; Ronca 1971, 67 Ptol. 6.18.1; Ronca 1971, 66 Andr 1980, 129; 1986, 279 PME 37 Ptol. 6.21.4 DiodSic 17.104.1; Pliny, NH 2.184; Renou 1925, 85; Eggermont 1975, 27-28; Casson 1989, 189 Ptol. 7.1.61 Andr 1986, 447 Renou 1925, 85; Andr 1986, 447; Bosworth 1995, 225

89

F5 D5 D4 B4 C5 C3 F4 B2 C3 B3

B3

B3 B3 A4 B4

S slopes of Hindukush AFG Skt.: Paru S flank of Hindukush Gulf of Ormara region PAK Bahmanabad? PAK (contra Eggermont)

B5

area enclosed by two principal mouths of R. Indus PAK between R. Jhelum and R. Chenab PAK Chittagong? BAN Sankra? Skt.: Paricakra Tribeni? Skt.: Prvasthli

C3 G5 D4 F5

Bosworth 1995, 263 Ptol. 7.2.2; Berthelot 1930, 379 Ptol. 7.1.52; Vogel 1952, 80 Pliny, NH 6.66; Schwartzberg 1992, 360

90 Grid C3 Name Peukelaotis/ Kaspatyros? Kaspeira Spatura Peucolitae Phison fl. = Indus fl. Phra(da)/ Prophthasia/ Frakh-kar-Peroz Phrynoi/ Phuni Phuni = Phrynoi Phyllitai Polytimetos fl. Porouaroi? Porrus fl. = Hydraotes fl. Portus Macedonum = Alexandrou Limen Poulindai Agriophagi Praesti Prapiotai Prasiane Ins. Prasii Bresioi Praesidae Praxioi Prinas fl. Prophthasia = Phra(da) Pseudostomos Pundranagara Qal'a-i Zal Rarungae Rjagrha Rhambakia = Alexandria Rhappha? Rhodopha Sacae Sagapa Stoma Sageda = (H)Eorta Sakai Sakarauloi Sacaraucae R HR R H HRL R Period HRL/ C R L R

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Modern Name / Location Charsada Skt.: Puskalvat References Renou 1925, 86 ; Eggermont 1993, 90; Bosworth 1995, 183-84 Andr 1986, 217, 398 (n. 381), 448

A3 D1 C4 B1 D5

AFG H/ R R HR R Tarim Basin CHN Bhils Zeravshan UZB Pauravas, people in Vindhyas

See Map 3 Strabo 11.11.1; Tarn 1951, 84-85 Pliny, NH 6.55 Ptol. 7.1.66; Majumdar 1951, 381 Strabo 11.11.5; Curtius 7.10.2; Arrian 4.5.6, 4.6.7, 6.5.7 Ptol. 7.1.70; Sircar 1971, 133

D5 B4 D5 B4 E4

R RL H R R HR H R H H R HR

Jabalpur region Skt.: Pulinda between R. Indus and Nara channel PAK people of Pariptra (W Vindhyas) area between R. Indus and Nara channel PAK Magadhas Skt.: Prcyas, easterners Tons branch of Ganges delta BAN Mahasthan(garh) BAN AFG Veranj, in Mathura region? Rajgir Aphaur Dabhai? Scythians living in highlands E Sogdiana TAJ W mouth of R. Indus PAK (contra Eggermont) akas, after occupying Sindh and (briefly) N Deccan IND / PAK Scythian people E Khojend (moving W to Bokhara and Merv by 160 B.C.) UZB

Ptol. 7.1.64; Law 1943, 174-75 Renou 1925, 75 Curtius 9.8.11; Eggermont 1975, 9-15 Ptol. 7.1.65; Eggermont 1966, 263 Pliny, NH 6.71; Eggermont 1975, 9-15 Renou 1925, 86 ; McCrindle 1926, 55 Pliny, NH 6.64; McCrindle 1926, 135 Ptol. 7.1.18, 30; Law 1976, 33-35 Law 1976, 246-48 See Map 99 Pliny, NH 6.74; Eggermont 1966, 289 EIA Rajgir Ptol. 7.2.13 Pliny, NH 6.63; McCrindle 1926, 130-31 Strabo 11.8.2, 5; Curtius 7.9.17; Arrian 3.8.3; AmmMarc 23.6.60; Fontaine 1977, 106 Ptol. 7.1.2, 28; Eggermont 1975, 85

E5 G5 F5 B2 D4 F4 E4 D4 C2 B5

B4 C1

R H L

Ptol. 7.1.1; Law 1976, 295 Strabo 11.8.2; Tarn 1951, 80, 291-92 Janvier 1982, 227; Andr 1986, 255

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Grid A3 G5 D4 E4 C3 C4 E4 A3 A2 A3 C5 F5 G2 Name Sakastan(e) Paraitakene Salariga Sambalaka Sambastai = Abastanoi Sambos fl. Sandabal fl. = Akesinos fl. Sangala = Euthymedeia Saparnos? fl. Sarabastrae Sarabos fl. Saripha M. Sarnios fl. Sar-o Tar Sattagydai = Astakenoi Sauarabatis Selampoura Serae R R H H R R Period Modern Name / Location includes Drangiana and western Arachosia AFG / IRN Agartala? BAN Sambhal? Gumti Barandu Jodhpur region Skt.: lva(-vastya) Ghaggar Skt.: Sarabhu TKM AFG R R HR Candrvat Serampur CHN (usually confused with Scythians and Parthians up to Pliny's time) Assam BAN Swt Skt.: veta TAJ UZB kingdom centred on Shorkot in Panjab VedicSkt.: iva Shorkot PAK near Shikarpur? PAK around Umarkot (modern Sanghis) PAK mouth of R. Indus PAK Salivra? Soan Skt.: Susom Salween realm of Sauvras of Sindh? PAK Skt.: Sauvra province between R. Oxus and R. Iaxartes UZB Hissar-Alai Range TAJ / UZB Yarkand CHN References RE Ptol. 7.2.14 Ptol. 7.1.53, 73; Schwartzberg 1992, 364 Arrian 8.4.4; McCrindle 1926, 193-94 Arrian 8.4.12; Tucci 1977, 43 Pliny, NH 6.75; McCrindle 1926, 149-50 Ptol. 7.1.29; Law 1976, 120-21 See Map 98 See Map 3 See Map 3 Ptol. 7.1.54; Law 1976, 312 Ptol. 7.2.22 Tarn 1951, 110-11; Andr 1980, 74-76; 1986, 377 (nn. 254, 263), 450 Andr 1986, 303, 414-15 (n. 525); Casson 1989, 242-43 Andr 1980, 98 See Map 99 Frumkin 1970, 40 DiodSic 17.96; Strabo 15.1.8; Arrian 8.5.12; StByz ; Law 1943, 82-85; Andr 1986, 450; Eggermont 1993, 92 Law 1976, 126 Pliny, NH 6.77; McCrindle 1926, 153 Pliny, NH 6.74; McCrindle 1926, 146-47 Ptol. 7.1.2, 28 Ptol. 7.1.31, 63 Arrian 8.4.12; Hinber 1985, 1100 Ptol. 7.2.6 Andr 1986, 401 (n. 411), 446 Strabo 11.8.1; Curtius 7.10.1; Arrian 3.28.9; RE; Andr 1980, 65 Mela 1.13; Curtius 7.4.5; Arrian 3.8.3 Hdt. 7.66; Foucher 1947, 196-97 Ptol. 6.12.2; AmmMarc 23.6.59; Fontaine 1977, 104 Ptol. 6.15.4; AmmMarc 23.6.63; Fontaine 1977, 109 Ptol. 7.2.22; EIA Bangarh Ptol. 7.1.42 Pliny, NH 6.78; Eggermont 1970, 107 Ptol. 7.1.26; Hinber 1985, 1099; Andr 1986, 370 (n. 212)

91

G4 C2 B2 C1 C3 C3 B4 C4 B5 E5 C3 G3 B4 B2

Sesatai/ Bessadae Sosaeadae Setae Shakhrinau Shurabashat Sibai Sibarae ibipura Silae Silis fl. = Iaxartes fl. Singae Sinthon Stoma Sinthos fl. = Indus fl. Siripalla Soanos fl. Sobanos? fl. Sofera Ophir Sogdiana Sogdiani Sogd(iai)oi Sogdii M. Soita Solis? Ins. = Asthala Ins. Sonus fl. = Erannoboas fl. Souannagoura Souastene Amenda Souastos fl. Hypobarus

R/ L R R CHRL HRL L HR R R R R H R L L H HRL CH RL RL

B2 D2

F4 C3 C3

R R R HR R

Bangarh? BAN Swt Valley Swt Skt.: Suvastu

92 Grid D4 E4 B4 B5 E5 D5 B4 B2 Name Sourasenoi rvast Stobera Suarattaratae Suari/ Uberae Sabarai ugas Surae Suri Surkh Kotal Sydrakai = Oxydrakai Sydrus fl. = Zadadros fl. Tachoroi Takoraioi Tazora Takht-i Sangin Tamalites Gange Tanais fl. = Iaxartes fl. Tapoureoi Tarmita/ Termez Taxila Taxilae Terabdon Kolpos Thorax Tiausa Tochari/ Asioi Athagorae Tagorae Tagouroi Tonberon fl. Lonibarai? fl. Tomeros fl. Tubero fl. Toprakkale Toutapos? fl. Tripuri Tulamba Tulkhar Uberae = Suari F4 A2 D5 D4 B3 B2 Vail Varakhsha Vidi Virta Wardak Xathroi =Kathaioi Xenippa HR HR HR R H Period H HR R R R/ R R H R R

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Modern Name / Location Mathura region Skt.: rasena Set Mahet city at mouth of R. Hingol PAK in Syrastrene (Map 5) Pli: Soratta Suars, people in Chota Nagpur Skt.: abara successors to Mauryas in Ganges valley, 187-75 B.C. lower Sindh PAK Skt.: Sauvra? AFG References Arrian 8.8.5; Law 1976, 51 EIA Philostratus, Vita Apollonii 3.55; Eggermont 1975, 64-65 Pliny, NH 6.75 Renou 1925, 86 ; Law 1976, 187; Andr 1980, 97 Majumdar 1951, 95-99 Pliny, NH 6.73 Pliny, NH 6.77 See Map 99

B2 B2 F5 C1 B2 C3 B4 C5 C3 B1

R R L R R R HRL RL R R R RL/ H L R R R R H R H HR R

UZB TAJ Tamluk Skt.: Tmralipti KYR UZB Taxila Skt.: Taksaila Sonmiani Bay Tharad? Chuksha district, between Taxila and R. Indus Kushans N R. Iaxartes KYR Skt.: Tukhara Hingol PAK

Ptol. 6.12.4; Ronca 1971, 34 Ptol. 7.2.15; Tarn 1951, 515-19 ItMiller 797 See Map 99 Ptol. 7.1.73; EIA Tamluk PME 63; Ptol. 7.1.81 Ptol. 6.14.7-14; Tarn 1951, 516 See Map 99 Renou 1925, 88; Marshall 1951; Andr 1980, 90 PME 37 Pliny, NH 6.75 Ptol. 7.1.57; Eggermont 1975, 10 Tarn 1951, 277-89, 515-19, 533; Andr 1980, 78-80

B4

Eggermont 1975, 64, 86; Andr 1980, 122-23 Ptol. 7.1.2, 28 See Map 99 Arrian 8.4.10; Hinber 1985, 1099 EIA Mughal 1967 See Map 99

B2 C3 D5 C3 B2

AFG Tvi IND / PAK Tewar UZB

UZB Besnagar Bairat AFG Karshi? UZB

EIA See Map 3 EIA Besnagar EIA Ball 1982.1229 Curtius 8.2.14; Bosworth 1995, 109, 117-18

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Grid D3 A2 C3 Name Yaudheyas Yaz tepe Zadadros/ Hypasis/ Sydrus fl. Neudros Zarang? = Nad-i Ali Zar tepe Zariaspa = Bactra Zariaspis? fl. = Bactrus? fl. Zra(n)ka? = Dahan-i Ghulaman Period HR R H Modern Name / Location Indo-Gangetic Divide TKM Sutlej (also combined streams of R. Indus tributaries in Ptol.) IND / PAK Skt.: utudr UZB References Tarn 1951, 239 See Map 98 Renou 1925, 80; Eggermont 1993, 159-60 Arrian 8.4.8; Hinber 1985, 1099

93

B2

See Map 99

Walls
Grid A2 A2 Name / Location around Munon tepe and Kushmeikhan, Antiochus wall TKM around Merv, Gilyakin-Chilburj wall TKM Reference See Map 98 See Map 98

Unlocated Toponyms
Name Aigloi/ Augaloi Achaia Akinakai Alexandre(i)a/ Iomousa Alexandr(e)ia Alexandreia Alexandreia in Opiane Alexandria Alexandria Alexandropolis Alicodra Amakatis Amareis Andaka Andiseni Andrapana Anieseis Antachara Antiochia Tharmata/ Arma Ara Alexandri Period C/ R H R HR H R H H H R RL R R HR HR R R R RL L Probable Location people S upper Iaxartes city in Areia people in Bactria Uch? city at confluence of Indus and Chenab, built (?) on Alexanders orders city attributed to Alexander; probably identical with Alexandria / Rhambakia city attributed to Alexander city founded by Alexander on Akesines city N Hindukush founded by Alexander city in India city in Bactria city of Kaspiraioi people in Bactria city in Kunar valley tribe living in Taxila region town in Indo-Scythia, W R. Indus people on upper Iaxartes city in Indus Valley possibly a blend of two locations, Antiochia (Merv) and Tarmita (Termez) References Hdt. 3.92; Ptol. 6.12.4; How 1912, I.284; Foucher 1947, 252 Strabo 11.10.1; Andr 1980, 64 Ptol. 6.11.6 Curtius 9.8.8; Arrian 6.15; Tarn 1951, 246-47; Eggermont 1993, 106-107 DiodSic 17.96; Curtius 9.8.8; Arrian 5.29; Fraser 1996, 71 Fraser 1996, 166 Fraser 1996, 141, 148-50 Curtius 9.3.20; Arrian 5.29; Fraser 1996, 70 DiodSic 17.83; Fraser 1996, 141 (n. 69) Appian, Syr. 57; Fraser 1996, 37-38 Ptol. 6.11.8; AmmMarc 23.6.58; Fontaine 1977, 104 Ptol. 7.1.48 Ptol. 6.11.6 Arrian 4.23.5; Bosworth 1995, 158 Pliny, NH 6.78; Eggermont 1984, 220 Ptol. 7.1.56 Ptol. 6.12.4 Ptol. 7.1.64 ItMiller 798; Tarn 1951, 118-19 ItMiller 624, 837

94 Name Arasmi? Aratha Arbaca Ardabae Ardone Argadina Argouda Argyre Ins. Ariaka Ariana/ Arioi Ariaspe Aratrioi Arikada/ Chorochoad Arippara Arispai Aristophyloi Arius L. Arosape/ Arusace fl. Artacoana/ Artacabene Artoarta Asiake Asinda Asta Astauenoi Astrassos Auxoamis Azeika Baborana Bagarda Balomos Barda/ Bardaxima Barzaura Baskatis fl. Ba(i)tai/ Bautae Batanagra Bateni Batrioi Bautis fl. Bazaira Bis Bisambritae Bitaxa/ Vitaxa Bonis Boudaia Brachmanai Period R R RL HR R R R R R HR

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Probable Location people in central Asia city in Margiana city in Arcahosia tribe in Sind city of Kaspiraioi city in Margiana city in Paropamisadai probably mythical, in R. Indus delta city in Margiana area between R. Indus, Arabian Sea, Caspian Gates and Hindukush Avst.: rynm Xaram general term for autonomous tribes of Punjab city in Arachosia city of Kaspiraioi in Punjab (cf. Arispai) people along Sinaros (tributary of R. Jhelum) tribe in Paropamisadai swamp along R. Hari Rd in Ariana Gaurin? city in Paropamisadai city in Arachosia town of Indo-Scythia, E Patalene city in Drangiana people in N Areia city of Kaspiraioi town of Indo-Scythia, E Patalene city on Indus city in Panjshir valley, 82.5 miles from confluence city in Paropamisadai anchorage of Nearchos, E Gwdar village in Saurashtra? (contra Eggermont) city in Paropamisadai tributary of Iaxartes people on upper Huang-Ho? city of Kaspiraioi people on upper Oxus people on Drangiana-Arachosia border Huang-Ho district near Samarkand city in Aria (Drang?) tribe along Indus, N Taxila city on N slope of Koh-i-Baba town on Indus in Sindh town of Indo-Scythia, on Indus name of caste, frequently treated as tribal designation References Pliny, NH 6.48; Andr 1980, 63 Ptol. 6.10.3 Ptol. 6.20.4; AmmMarc 23.6.72 Pliny, NH 6.77 Ptol. 7.1.49 Ptol. 6.10.3 Ptol. 6.18.5 Andr 1980, 109; 1986, 431 Ptol. 6.10.3 DiodSic 2.37; Strabo 15.2.1; Andr 1980, 107, 122-23 Ptol. 6.19.5; Bosworth 1980, 365; Fraser 1996, 127-40 PME 47; Bosworth 1995, 320 IsidChar 19; Ptol. 6.19.4; Eggermont 1993, 114 Ptol. 7.1.48 Arrian 8.4.9; Hinber 1985, 1101 Ptol. 6.18.3 Pliny, NH 6.93; Fontaine 1977, 116 Mela 3.71; Pliny, NH 6.93; Andr 1980, 123 Andr 1980, 123; Bosworth 1980, 356-57 Ptol. 6.18.4 Ptol. 6.20.5 Ptol. 7.1.60 Ptol. 6.19.5 Ptol. 6.17.3 Ptol. 7.1.48 Ptol. 7.1.60 Ptol. 7.1.57; Eggermont 1975, 12 Ptol. 6.18.4, 7.1.43; Berthelot 1930, 279 Ptol. 6.18.5 Arrian 8.27.2 Ptol. 7.1.3; IsidChar 18; Eggermont 1975, 89 Ptol. 6.18.4 Ptol. 6.12.3 Ptol. 6.16.5; AmmMarc 23.6.66; Fontaine 1977, 113 Ptol. 7.1.48 Pliny, NH 6.48; Andr 1980, 64 Ptol. 6.19.3 AmmMarc 23.6.65; Fontaine 1977, 111 Curtius 8.1.10 IsidChar 16 Pliny, NH 6.78 Ptol. 6.17.4; AmmMarc 23.6.69; Fontaine 1977, 117 Ptol. 7.1.58 Ptol. 7.1.61 Renou 1925, 78; Hinber 1985, 1115-18; Eggermont 1993, 49-63

R R R R HR R RL R HR/ R R R R R R R R R R R HR R R R R/ L R R R L HR R HR R/ L R R HRL

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Name Brangosi Brasuertae Brisari Butae Cadrusi Cadrusium Caetriboni Cartana/ Karnasa/ Tetrogonis Cataces Choamani Choana Choaspa Cholbesina Chomara Chomarae Chonnamagara Chryse/ Aurea Ins. Chuni Cocondae Condigramma Cosiri Crocala Ins. Daedali M. Daidala Dammana Dangalae Darandai Daritis Darkama Daroakana Dexendrusi Dimuri Domai/ Coralliba Ins. Dorisdorsigi Drastoka Drepsianoi Drybaktai Eoritai Eorum fl. Epipausa Etymandroi Gabai Galactophagi Gammake Gandaris Geretae Godana Period HR HR R HR R R HR R R R R RL R R R R HRL/ L L HR R HR R HRL R R R R R R R R HR HR/ R R R R R R R R R HR HRL R H R R Probable Location tribe in Gujarat / Sindh tribe in Sindh? people in inner Asia? tribe in Gujarat / Sindh? people in Begram area? (cf. Cadrusium) fortress in Hindukush hill tribe in Punjab? Bamiyan? AFG people in Arachosia tribe on border of Bactria and Margiana city in Bactria, near upper Oxus fl. city in Arachosia city in Sogdiana in highlands along Oxus fl. city in Bactria people in Bactria city of Kaspiraioi probably mythical, in R. Indus delta Huns? (localized in E Himalayas) tribe in Gujarat / Sindh Skt.: Kokonada city on R. Kabul people in Himalayas Skt.: Khasra at mouth of R. Indus? mountain region in Bajaur city of Kaspiraioi city in Arachosia tribe in Afghanistan tribe in N Drangiana tribe in S Afghanistan city on Areia-Paropamisadai border city in Paropamisadai in Arachosia tribe in lower Indus valley near W mouth R. Indus (contra Eggermont) tribe in Afghanistan city in Panjkora valley? people in Badakshan? people in Hissar-Alai range people in Arachosia tributary of Indus in NW? town of Indo-Scythia, on Indus people on upper Helmand? city in W Zeravshan valley? Scythians E Iaxartes fl. city in Arachosia upper Chenab and Ravi basins tribe city in Areia, on Arius fl. References Pliny, NH 6.76 Pliny, NH 6.77 Pliny, NH 6.55; Andr 1980, 81 Pliny, NH 6.76 Pliny, NH 6.92 Pliny, NH 6.92; Andr 1980, 122 Pliny, NH 6.73 Pliny, NH 6.92; Andr 1980, 121; Fraser 1996, 149-50 (nn. 87-88) Pliny, NH 6.92; Andr 1980, 170 Mela 1.13; Pliny, NH 6. 47; Andr 1980, 62 Ptol. 6.11.7 Ptol. 6.20.4; AmmMarc 23.6.72; Andr 1986, 399 (n. 392) Ptol. 6.12.5 Ptol. 6.11.8 Pliny, NH 6.47; Ptol. 6.11.6 Ptol. 7.1.49 PME 60; Eggermont 1975, 38; Andr 1986, 435 Orosius 1.2.45; Andr 1986, 405-406 (n. 449) Pliny, NH 6.76; McCrindle 1926, 151; Law 1943, 90 Pliny, NH 6.94 Pliny, NH 6.64; McCrindle 1926, 132 Pliny, NH 6.80 Andr 1986, 436; Bosworth 1995, 160 Ptol. 7.1.49 Ptol. 6.20.5 Pliny, NH 6.92 Ptol. 6.19.3 Pliny, NH 6.95 Ptol. 6.17.8 Ptol. 6.18.5 Pliny, NH 6.92; RE Pliny, NH 6.77; McCrindle 1926, 152 Pliny, NH 6.80; Arrian 8.22.2; Eggermont 1975, 30, 38, 46 Pliny, NH 6.94; Andr 1980, 123 Ptol. 6.18.4, 7.1.43 Ptol. 6.12.4 Ptol. 6.12.4 Ptol. 6.20.3 Pliny, NH 6.94 Ptol. 7.1.61 Ptol. 6.17.3 Arrian 4.17.4; Bosworth 1995, 120 Strabo 7.3.7, 9; AmmMarc 23.6.62; Fontaine 1977, 108 Ptol. 6.20.5 Strabo 15.1.30 Pliny, NH 6.78; Eggermont 1970, 108 Ptol. 6.17.5

95

96 Name Gorys/ Gorya? Gouriane Gymnosophistai Harmatelia Heptanesia Inss. Iatioi Indikomordana Inna Isagouros Isari Izi Kabana Kaisirotai Kanagara Kandak Kandaroi Karatai Karbis? Kariatas Karnasa Kauaris Kaumana Killouta/ Skilloustis Ins. Kirradaieis Kodrana Koiamba Kolta Komoi Koreestis Kottobara Kouni Kouriandra Kysa Labaka Labokla Liganeira Locharna Lyphorta Magarsus fl. Maliane Manain fl. Marakodra Mardyenoi Margania Maroae Marogamatrae Marotiani Marouka Period H/ R R HRL H R R R R R HR HR HR R R R R R HR HR R R HR HR R R R HR R HR R R R HR R R R R R L R R R R HR HR HR R R

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Probable Location city on Panjkora city in Margiana caste of ascetics treated by Ptolemy as a tribe city in Indus valley in Indus delta? people near Iaxartes fl. city in Sogdiana city in Drangiana city in Hazara, N Taxila people in Himalayan foothills Pli: Issara people in Himalayan foothills anchorage between Miani Hor and Ras Malan people on border of Areia and Drangiana town of Indo-Scythia, W R. Indus town in Aria people in Sogdii M. Scythian tribe, in Karatau Range? village on Makran coast E Mosarna city in Bactria city in Hindukush city in Bactria anchorage of Nearchos in Indus delta in W branch of Indus delta tribe on Oxus fl. (= Chirotosagi?) town of Indo-Scythia, W R. Indus city on coast of Gedrosia city on Makran coast, W Cape Mogal people in Bactria anchorage of Nearchos in R. Indus city in Gedrosia city in Gedrosia city in Bactria village in Gedrosia just inland from Karbis city of Pandouoi on R. Jhelum city of Kaspiraioi city of Kaspiraioi city in Paropamisadai city in India? in India city in Arachosia on NW Frontier? city of Bactria people S Sogdia M. city in Sogdiana people in India people in India tribe in Central Asia city along upper Oxus fl. References Strabo 15.1.26; Ptol. 7.1.43; Eggermont 1970, 108 Ptol. 6.10.4 Renou 1925, 79; Foucher 1947, 402; Andr 1986, 439 DiodSic 17.103; Eggermont 1975, 107-66 Ptol. 7.1.95; Eggermont 1975, 209 Ptol. 6.12.4 Ptol. 6.12.6 Ptol. 6.19.4 Ptol. 7.1.45 Pliny, NH 6.64; Andr 1980, 92 Pliny, NH 6.64; Andr 1980, 92 Arrian 8.23.2; Eggermont 1975, 70 Ptol. 6.17.3 Ptol. 7.1.56 IsidChar 15 Ptol. 6.12.4 Ptol. 6.13.3; Eggermont 1993, 131 Arrian 8.26.8 Strabo 11.11.4 Ptol. 7.1.43; Fraser 1996, 149 (n. 87) Ptol. 6.11.8 Arrian 8.21.3 Arrian 6.19.3; Plutarch, Alexander 66.1; Eggermont 1975, 28, 209 Ptol. 6.12.4; Eggermont 1993, 54 Ptol. 7.1.56 Ptol. 6.21.2 Arrian 8.26.6; Eggermont 1975, 81-82 Ptol. 6.11.6 Arrian 8.21.4 Ptol. 6.21.5 Ptol. 6.21.5 Ptol. 6.11.8 Arrian 8.26.8 Ptol. 7.1.46 Ptol. 7.1.48 Ptol. 7.1.49 Ptol. 6.18.5 Pliny, NH 6.94 Andr 1986, 443 Ptol. 6.20.5 Pliny, NH 6.94 Ptol. 6.11.9 Ptol. 6.12.4 Curtius 7.10.15; Bosworth 1995, 108 Pliny, NH 6.74 Pliny, NH 6.77 Pliny, NH 6.48; Andr 1980, 63 Ptol. 6.12.5

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Name Maroukaioi Mathoae Matiani Megari Memaceni Menapi(l)a Min Moci Modressae Moruni Mousarnaioi Nasbana Naulibis Nereae Nesei Nigranigramma Nikaia Niphanda Nisibis Nobundae Nostana Nysa Period R HR R HR HR RL R R HR HR R R RL HR HR R HR R RL HR R HR Probable Location people in Bactria people in India people in Central Asia people in Sindh people in Sogdiana, E Cyropolis city in Bactria, near Balkh in Sakasten(e) people in Central Asia people in Punjab Skt.: Madra people in Aravallis people in N Gedrosia town of Indo-Scythia, W R. Indus tribe in Sindh tribe in Gujarat-Sindh city in Indus valley city in Paropamisadai? town in Paropamisadai city in Ariana tribe E of Indus delta city in Paropanisadae city in Bajaur References Ptol. 6.11.6 Pliny, NH 6.77 Pliny, NH 6.48 Pliny, NH 6.77 Curtius 7.6.17-19; Bosworth 1995, 20 Ptol. 6.11.8; AmmMarc 23.6.58; Fontaine 1977, 104 RE Pliny, NH 6.48; Andr 1980, 64 Pliny, NH 6.67; Andr 1980, 97 Pliny, NH 6.74 Ptol. 6.21.4 Ptol. 7.1.56 Ptol. 6.18.5; 7.1.44; AmmMarc 23.6.70 Pliny, NH 6.76 Pliny, NH 6.76 Ptol. 7.1.64 Arrian 4.22.6; Bosworth 1995, 146 Ptol. 6.18.4 Ptol. 6.17.7; AmmMarc 23.6.69; Fontaine 1977, 117 Pliny, NH 6.76 Ptol. 6.19.5 Pliny, NH 6.79; Arrian 5.1.1, 5.26.5, 8.1.5, 8.5.9; Andr 1986, 445; Bosworth 1995, 160 Ptol. 6.17.3 Pliny, NH 6.94; Fraser 1996, 128-29 Tarn 1951, 96-97 Pliny, NH 6.94; Andr 1980, 62 Ptol. 6.17.7 Ptol. 6.11.6 Pliny, NH 6.77 Pliny, NH 6.76 Pliny, NH 6.78 Strabo 11.8.9, 15.2.8; Ptol. 6.18.5; Andr 1980, 90; Fraser 1996, 141-45 Ptol. 6.21.5 Ptol. 7.1.48 Ptol. 6.11.9 Ptol. 6.16.8 Ptol. 6.11.6 Ptol. 6.12.5 Ptol. 6.12.4 Ptol. 6.12.4; Solinus 49.1; Andr 1980, 64; Eggermont 1993, 38 Ptol. 6.20.4 Pliny, NH 6.76 Pliny, NH 6.49; Solinus 49.3; Martianus Capella 6.692 Ptol. 7.1.46; Tarn 1951, 511-12; Andr 1980, 105 Ptol. 7.1.61; Tarn 1951, 86 Ptol. 6.21.4; Singh 1972, 159-160

97

Obareis Ophradus fl. Opiane Orbi Orbitane Or(ei)sitoi Organagae Orostrae Orsi Orsitoi = Or(ei)sitoi Ortospana/ Kaboura Oskana Ostobalasara Ostobara Ottorokor(r)a Ouarnoi Oxeiana Oxeianoi Oxydrankai/ Oxystacae/ Oxyttagae Ozola Palatitae Panda Pandoouoi Parabalei Paradene

HR R R R R R HR HR HR HRL/ R R R R R R R R R R HR RL R HR R

city in Areia in Drangiana region around Charikar? people on NW frontier town in Areia people in Bactria tribe along R. Indus (in Sind?) people in Indus delta tribe in Taxila region city in Hindukush town in Gedrosia city of Kaspiraioi town in Bactria city in Tibet people in Bactria city in Sogdiana people near Oxus fl. in Sogdiana people in Sogdian mountains city in Arachosia tribe in Gujarat-Sindh city in Sogdiana mythical people between R. Jhelum and Ravi Skt.: Pndava garrison town (Parembole) on Indus interior region of Gedrosia Skt.: Prada

98 Name Parasangae Pardabathra Parin Parsiana/ Parsia Parsis Pasianoi Pas(i)kai Pasikana Pasipeda Pasira Pentagramma Petra Ariamazou/ Petra tou Oxou/ Petra tou Sogdianou Petra Sisimithrou/ Petra Chorienou/ Gazaba Pharazana? Pharnacotis fl. Phegeus Phoklis Phoraua Phratroua Pimprama Piska Plemyrion/ Peukelaotis? Pomanus fl. Posingae Proklais Rhagiraua/ Ratira Rhamnai Rhaugara Rhea Rhizana 1 Rhizana 2 Rhoploutai Sabadioi Sabalassa Saddaros fl. Sakala Salagisa Salaterai Saleantes fl. Sallenites Salobriasae Samarab(r)iae Sambraceni Sangada Period HR R R R R H R R R HR R HR HR R R H R R R HR R HR R HR R R/ L R R R R R R R R R HR R R L L HR HR HR HR

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Probable Location tribe in hills of Indo-Gangetic divide Skt.: Para-Tangana? town of Indo-Scythia, on Indus city in Drangiana city in Paropamisadai, near Khavak pass city in Gedrosia Scythian tribe in Bactria people in NW Sogdiana city of Kaspiraioi town of Indo-Scythia, on R. Indus village in Makran, inland from Bay of Ormara city in Buner Baisun-tau? Koh-i-noor? city in Drangiana, near Bigis in Afghanistan limit of Alexander's advance on W bank R. Beas town in Arachosia town in upper Arius valley town on upper Oxus fl. city of Adrestai, E Hydraotes town of Indo-Scythia, on R. Indus city on confluence of R. Choes and R. Choaspes tributary of R. Indus tribe in Gujarat-Sindh region around Peukelaotis coastal city between Indus and Arabis people between Indus and Kirthar range town in Areia town in Margiana town in Arachosia coastal town in Gedrosia people in Arachosia people in Bactria, S Ouarnoi 6th mouth of R. Indus, according to Ptolemy, but confused with Sakala tributary of Kabul anchorage of Nearchos near Karachi city of Kaspiraioi people in N Bactria, near Oxus fl. branch of Oxus fl. city on Saleantes? fl. tribe in Gujarat / Sindh tribe along Indus, N Taxila tribe along Indus, N Taxila region around W mouth of Indus delta References Pliny, NH 6.73; Law 1943, 388 Ptol. 7.1.58 IsidChar 17 Ptol. 6.18.4-5 Ptol. 6.21.5 Strabo 11.8.2; Tarn 1951, 292 Ptol. 6.12.4 Ptol. 7.1.49 Ptol. 7.1.58 Arrian 8.26.3 Ptol. 7.1.57; Eggermont 1975, 10-11 Curtius 7.11.1; Bosworth 1995, 125-27 Strabo 11.11.4 Arrian 4.18.4; Bosworth 1995, 125-27 Strabo 11.11.4; Bosworth 1995, 120, 125-27, 135 IsidChar 19; Ptol. 6.19.5; Eggermont 1993, 114-15 Pliny, NH 6.94; Andr 1980, 123 DiodSic 17.93 Ptol. 6.20.4 Ptol. 6.17.5 Ptol. 6.11.7 Arrian 5.22.3; Bosworth 1995, 329 Ptol. 7.1.58 Strabo 15.1.26 Pliny, NH 6.94; Andr 1980, 124 Pliny, NH 6.76 PME 47, 48 Ptol. 6.21.2; AmmMarc 23.6.73; Fontaine 1977, 121 Ptol. 6.21.4 Ptol. 6.17.4 Ptol. 6.10.4 Ptol. 6.20.4 Ptol. 6.21.2 Ptol. 6.20.3 Ptol. 6.11.6 Ptol. 7.1.2, 28; Eggermont 1975, 87 Pliny, NH 6.95; Andr 1980, 124 Arrian 8.22.4; Eggermont 1975, 87 Ptol. 7.1.48; Tarn 1951, 250 Ptol. 6.11.6 Andr 1986, 277, 408 (n. 480) Andr 1986, 277 Pliny, NH 6.76 Pliny, NH 6.78 Pliny, NH 6.78 Arrian 8.21.11; Eggermont 1975, 219

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Name Saparankon Saranga Saranges fl. Sarmagana Satraidae Scythia Scythia Scythia Scythae/ Sagae/ Sacae Scythae Androphagi/ Casiri/ Komaroi/ Gamerae/ Kallatiai Sena Serae Sigal Sigara Sila L. Silai Silas/ Side fl. Sinai/ Thinai Sinaros fl. Sindimana Sires Sizyges Skordai Sodamus fl. Sondrae Sorofages Sot(e)ira Soudassana Souragana Phratou Sournis Sousikana Soxestra Stoura Sugambri Tambyzoi Taradastili Tarbakana Taua Thinai = Sinai Trybaktra Period R HR HR RL L R R R CHRL Probable Location 5th mouth of R. Indus, according to Ptolemy but confused with Saranga anchorage just E Karachi tributary of Ravi city in Ariana tribe at foot of Hindukush N Iaxartes Sinkiang and Tarim basin Indo-Scythia Scythians in general; frequently divided into European and Asian branches, on N and S banks of Iaxartes fl. OPers.: Sak Scythians in highlands of Pamirs References Ptol. 7.1.2, 28; Eggermont 1975, 86-87 Arrian 8.22.3; Eggermont 1975, 86-87 Arrian 8.4.8; Hinber 1985, 1099 Ptol. 6.17.4; AmmMarc 23.6.69; Fontaine 1977, 117 Andr 1986, 293 Ptol. 6.14.1 Ptol. 6.15.1, 7.2.1 PME 38, 48 Hdt. 7.64; Strabo 11.6.2, 11.8.2; Curtius 7.4.32; 7.7.1-3; Arrian 4.3.6, 8.7.2; Solinus 49.6; Martianus Capella 6.693; Andr 1980, 67-69; 1986, 398 (n. 378), 449 Hdt. 3.38; Pliny, NH 6.55; Ptol. 6.13.3, 7.2.16; Andr 1980, 73; Eggermont 1993, 54 Ptol. 6.10.3 Andr 1986, 143, 383 (n. 292) IsidChar 18 Ptol. 6.20.4 Pliny, NH 31.21; Andr 1986, 365 (n. 192) Arrian 8.6.2 DiodSic 2.37; Strabo 15.1.38, Pliny, NH 31.21; Arrian 8.6.2; Andr 1986, 365 (n. 192), 419-20 (n. 558) Ptol. 7.3.3, 8.24.2; Andr 1980, 80 Arrian 8.4.9 Strabo 15.1.33; Arrian 6.16.4; Eggermont 1975, 16 Pliny, NH 6.95; Andr 1980, 125 AmmMarc 23.6.66; Fontaine 1977, 112 Ptol. 6.11.6 Pliny, NH 6.94; Andr 1980, 124 Pliny, NH 6.78 Pliny, NH 6.77 Ptol. 6.17.7; AmmMarc 23.6.69; Fontaine 1977, 117 Ptol. 7.1.64 Ptol. 6.11.7; Tarn 1951, 223 Ptol. 7.1.64 Ptol. 7.1.58; Eggermont 1970, 78 Ptol. 6.21.5 Arrian 8.21.2; Chantraine 1952, 52 Andr 1986, 383 (n. 290) Ptol. 6.11.6; Singh 1972, 165-66 Pliny, NH 24.161; Andr 1986, 364 (n. 184) Ptol. 6.18.5 Ptol. 6.17.4 Ptol. 6.12.6

99

RL/ R/ R/ R/ C R R R R R HR HR/ L R HR HR R L R R HR HR RL R R R R R HR R R R R R R

city in Margiana people between Indus and R. Jhelum royal (?) city in Indo-Scythia city in Arachosia in India people living on Silas fl. mythical river in Himalayas Pli: sd people in S China and Tibet? tributary of R. Jhelum? city on caravan route between Alor (in Sindh) and Kandahar tribe in Gedrosia? tribe in Alai Range people in Bactria, S Maroukaioi tributary of Kophen hillmen in hills of N Panjab tribe N Sibai in Panjab? city in Ariana? city in Indus valley city in Bactria, near upper Oxus fl. city in Indus valley city of Mousikanoi on R. Indus city in Gedrosia district in Indus delta, near sea (cf. Stobera) people in Gandhra? people in Bactria Skt.: Kamboja? people in India town in Paropamisadai city in Areia city in highlands of Sogdiana

100 Name Umbrae Umbritae Xarxiare Xoana Zodrake/ Sydros? Zotha L. Period HR HR R R R R

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS Probable Location tribe in Gujarat-Sindh confederation of 12 tribes in Panjab town in Drangiana town of Indo-Scythia, on Indus city of Sydrakai fed by R. Murghab References Pliny, NH 6.76; McCrindle 1926, 151 Pliny, NH 6.77 Ptol. 6.19.5; Eggermont 1993, 114 Ptol. 7.1.61 Ptol. 7.1.60-61 Pliny, NH 6.47

Bibliography
Allchin 1986 F.R. Allchin et al., Lewan and the Bannu basin, Oxford, 1986. Andr 1980 J. Andr and J. Filliozat, Pline lAncien, Livre VI, Paris, 1980. Andr 1986 J. Andr and J. Filliozat, LInde vue de Rome, Paris, 1986. Ball 1982 W. Ball, Archaeological gazetteer of Afghanistan, 2 vols., Paris, 1982. Bernard 1974 P. Bernard, Un problme de toponymie antique dans lAsie centrale: les noms anciens de Qandahar, Studia Iranica 3 (1974) 171-85. Berthelot 1930 A. Berthelot, LAsie ancienne centrale et sud-orientale daprs Ptolme, Paris, 1930. Bosworth 1980 A.B. Bosworth, A historical commentary on Arrians History of Alexander. Volume I: Commentary on books I-III, Oxford, 1980. Bosworth 1995 A.B. Bosworth, A historical commentary on Arrians History of Alexander. Volume II: Commentary on books IV-V, Oxford, 1995. Casson 1989 L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, Princeton, 1989. Chandra 1977 M. Chandra, Trade and trade routes in ancient India, Delhi, 1977. Chantraine 1952 P. Chantraine, Arrien, LInde, Paris, 1952. Cunningham 1871 A. Cunningham, The ancient geography of India, London, 1871. Eggermont 1966 P.H.L. Eggermont, The Murundas and the ancient trade-route from Taxila to Ujjain, Journal of the economic and social history of the Orient 9 (1966) 257-96. Eggermont 1970 P.H.L. Eggermont, Alexanders campaign in Gandhra and Ptolemys list of Indo-Scythian towns, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 1 (1970) 63-123. Eggermont 1975 P.H.L. Eggermont, Alexanders campaigns in Sind and Baluchistan and the siege of the Brahmin town of Harmatelia, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 3, Leuven, 1975. Eggermont 1984 P.H.L. Eggermont, Ptolemy, the geographer, and the people of the Dards, Orientalia Lovanensia Periodica 15 (1984) 191-233. Eggermont 1993 P.H.L. Eggermont, Alexanders campaign in southern Punjab, Orientalia Lovanensia Analecta 54, Leuven, 1993. Fontaine 1977 J. Fontaine, Ammien Marcellin. Histoire, Tome IV (Livres XXIII-XXV), 1re partie: Texte. 2me partie: Commentaire, Paris, 1977.

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS

101

Foucher 1947 A. Foucher, La vieille route de lInde de Bactres Taxila, vol. 2, Paris, 1947. Fraser 1996 P.M. Fraser, Cities of Alexander the Great, Oxford, 1996. Frumkin 1970 G. Frumkin, Archaeology in Soviet Central Asia, Handbuch der Orientalistik VII/3, Leiden, 1970. Goukowsky 1976 P. Goukowsky (tr.), Diodore de Sicile: Bibliothque historique. Livre XVII, Paris, 1976. Harmatta 1992 J. Harmatta, The emergence of the Indo-Iranians: the Indo-Iranian languages, in A.H. Dani and V.M. Masson (eds.), History of civilizations of central Asia, pp. 357-78, Paris, 1992. Hinber 1985 O. von Hinber and G. Wirth (eds.), Arrian: der Alexanderzug. Indische Geschichte, Berlin, 1985. How 1912 W.W. How and J. Wells, A commentary on Herodotus, 2 vols., London, 1912. Janvier 1982 Y. Janvier, La gographie dOrose, Paris, 1982. Lambrick 1964 H.T. Lambrick, Sind. A general introduction, Hyderabad, 1964. Law 1943 B.C. Law, Tribes in ancient India, Poona, 1943. Law 1976 B.C. Law, Historical geography of ancient India, Delhi, 1976. Majumdar 1951 R.C. Majumdar and A.D. Pusalker (eds.), The age of imperial unity, History and culture of the Indian people, vol. 2, Delhi, 1951. Majumdar 1960 R.C. Majumdar, The classical accounts of India, Calcutta, 1960. Marshall 1951 J.H. Marshall, Taxila: an illustrated account of archaeological excavations carried out at Taxila under the orders of the Government of India between the years 1913 and 1934, Cambridge, 1951.

McCrindle 1926 J.W. McCrindle, Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian, Calcutta, 1926. Mughal 1967 M.R. Mughal, The excavations at Tulamba, West Pakistan, PA 4 (1967) 11-152. Raschke 1978 M.G. Raschke, New studies in Roman commerce with the East, ANRW II.9.2, 604-1361. Renou 1925 L. Renou, La gographie de Ptolme: LInde (VII, 1-49), Paris, 1925. Ronca 1971 I. Ronca, Ptolemaios, Geographie 6.9-21. Ostiran und Zentralasien. Teil 1, IsMEO Reports and Memoirs No. 15, Rome, 1971. Schwartzberg 1992 J.E. Schwartzberg (ed.), A historical atlas of South Asia, 2nd ed., Oxford and New York, 1992. Singh 1972 M.A. Singh, Geographical data in the early Puranas: a critical study, Calcutta, 1972. Sircar 1971 D.C. Sircar, Studies in the geography of ancient and mediaeval India, Delhi, 1971. Staviskij 1986 B.J. Staviskij, La Bactriane sous les Kushans. Problmes dhistoire et de culture, Paris, 1986. Tarn 1951 W.W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge, 1951. Tucci 1977 G. Tucci, On Swat, the Dards and connected problems, East and West 27 (1977) 9-103. Turner 1989 P.J. Turner, Roman coins from India, Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 22, London, 1989. Vogel 1948 J.P. Vogel, Notes on Ptolemy, BSOAS 12 (1947-48) 122-23. Vogel 1950 J.P. Vogel, Notes on Ptolemy, BSOAS 13 (1949-50) 146-53. Vogel 1952 J.P. Vogel, Notes on Ptolemy, BSOAS 14 (1952) 78-86.

102

MAP 6 ASIA ORIENTALIS

Vogel 1952a J.P. Vogel, Ptolemys topography of India: his sources, in G.C. Miles (ed.), Archaeologica orientalia in memoriam Ernst Herzfeld, pp. 226-34, New York, 1952. Vogel 1955 J.P. Vogel, Ujjhn-Ujjihna-Ozoana, JRAS (1955) 25-28. Wheeler 1951 R.E.M. Wheeler, Roman contact with India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, in W.F. Grimes (ed.), Aspects of archaeology in Britain and beyond: essays presented to O.G.S. Crawford, pp. 345-81, London, 1951.

Wilhelmy 1968 H. Wilhelmy, Indusdelta und Rann of Kutch, Erdkunde 22 (1968) 177-91. Wilhelmy 1968a H. Wilhelmy, Verschollene Stdte im Indusdelta, Geographische Zeitschrift 56 (1968) 256-94. Wilhelmy 1969 H. Wilhelmy, Das Urstromtal am Ostrand der Indusebene und das Sarasvati-Problem, Zeitschrift fr Geomorphologie Suppl. 8 (1969) 76-93. Witzel 1987 M. Witzel, On the localisation of Vedic texts and schools, in G. Pollet (ed.), India and the ancient world. History, trade and culture before AD 650, pp. 173-213, Leuven, 1987.

Оценить