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ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM

Founder Editor-in Chief G. P. Malalasekera, M. a. Ph. D., D. Litt., Professor Emeritus

Editor-in Chief W. G. Weeraratne, M. A., Ph. D.

2003 PUBLISHED BY HE G!"E#$ME$ !% S#I LA$&A

Printe' at he Go(t. Printin) De*t. Sri Lanka.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM EDITORIAL BOARD Dr. Ananda W. P. Gurug Hon. Consultant Editor Dr. N. A. !a"a#$%&ra'a( Professor Emeritus Hon. Editorial Advisor Pr)* ++)r Y. ,arunada+a Hon. Editorial Advisor Dr. W. G. W rara-n Editor-in-Chief Dr. ,. Aruna+$r$ Deputy Editor Mr+. Su.$'a/$ ,arunara-n Special Editorial Collaborator Mr. D. Sadd0a+ na Asst. Editor Mr. Ru#an Bandara Ad0$&ar$ Asst. Editor PANEL OF CONSULTANTS 1 n. Pr)*. ,a&&a2a//$" Anurudd0a T0 ra Y n. Pr)*. B0$&&0u D0a''a.$0ar$ 1 n. Pr)*. ,u'3uruga'u. 1a4$ra T0 ra Pr)*. Da.$d !. ,a/u2a0ana Pr)*. 5Mr+.6 L$/" d S$/.a Pr)*. C. W$-ana%0%0$ Pr)*. P. D. Pr 'a+$r$ Pr)*. C0andra W$%&ra'aga'ag

ABBRE1IATIONS F)r' r Ed$-)r+7$n7C0$ *

Dr. G. P. Ma/a/a+ & ra( Professor Emeritus Founder Editor-in-Chief Dr. O. H. D A. W$4 + & ra( Professor

Akanuma, + , &am-*a Shi.u A)on Gosho roku / he +om*arati(e

Dharmasam)raha, e'. %. Ma0 Muller an' H. Wen1el, !0for'. 2334 Di(5a(a'ana, e'. E. B. +o6ell an' #.

Kvyu ai. an! . i"et i. s# $. $A.

$%&. $C $. $dh vr. $dh vt. $"h. . /A(alokites7(ara)una8 $hv. ... Maha(amsa, e'. Gei)er /9ha*ters W.

0i

'ett A. '(A. ').

'rp. 'rs. 'yab . 'yap . *$. Pahc .". P%. P%*. PED. Pet. Phrd. P+m. P$,

...

$etti**akarana Attakatha e'. Wi'uru*ola Pi5atissa, SH%- I:, 2;<2.

Prat.

... PrStimoksasutra, e'. L. finot

&ha". = &ha" A. &hi". &hi". A. &hupv. &i!ap. &!". &$. &rins.. &SS. &&. &ur!)em . 0m is.. 0in

/C). /d. /dA. /dv". ... hera)Slha, e'. H. !l'en.er), P&S. 233>. 0a+su ... "a?rasu9i, e'. translate'8, S. &. /an'

0( 0i(

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM 1OLUME 1II

MIND , he 9on9e*t of min' in the Bu''hist tra'ition 9oul' .e (. S. I". *. Ill@ <;A @ $. l.*. >B2 >+M <CBC

more than .5 theoreti9al 9on9erns.

MI$D

<

MI$D

< Di"hani!aya I. *. <AC @ An"uttarani!aya ". *. ;> @ 'iddesa I. *. <C @ 'iddesa I. *. D< @ Samyuttani!aya I. *. C> @ Dhammapada >D2. 9onsi'ere' as somethin) to .e 9om*rehen'e' > 0innana is usuall5 A Di"hani!aya III. *. <A>. D III. *. <A> 4 $a++himani!dya I. *. <;4. M-2- P- <;4 D Samyuttani!aya I". *. 2>A. S.- I". *. 2>A C $a++himani!dya i. <>4 @ A3D @ 4BB @ Samyuttani!aya i. *. AD. $. I. P. <>4 @ 3 0inaya I. *. 2A @ 2D @ Di"hani!aya ii. *. >4. "in. I. 2A @ E8. II. *. >4. ; Samyuttani!aya i. *. 2<<. F. I. *. 2<< D. II. *. D> 2B. Di"hani!aya ii. *. D>. 22 Abhidharmadlpa 6ith 0ibhasaprabhavrtti- e'. P. S. Eaini /&ashi Prasa' Ea5as6al resear9h Institute, Patna, 2;4;8 *. CA f.

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>

MI$D

4. III. D. II. * >< 2A vedana- sanna- cetana- phasso- manasi!aro- idamvuccatavuso ndmamCattari ca mahabhiitani catunnanca malidbhuta nam upadaya rupam 24 0ihhane... satindmarupamhoti vinhanapaccayanamarupam- namarupe... sati vinnanam hoti ndmarupapaccayavinnanam. 1D. II. *. A>48. 2D $ahaniddesa II. *. A>4.
2<. 2>.

MI$D

MI$D

2C D. II. *. 4D. 23 'a sa!!a vinibbhu+itva vinibbhu+itva 2; D. I. *. 234. <B S. II. *. ;A f. <2 $. I. *. <4D. << Annatra paccaya natthi vinnanassa sambhavo 1ibid. <4C8. <>*. 'amarupa paccaya phasso 1D. I. *. 4D8.

MI$D

MI$D

<A (bid. II. *. D<. <4 M. I. *. 2<4. <D S. I. *. >;. <C 'aham bhi!!have afinam e!adhammampi samanupassami yam evam bhavitam mahato atthaya samvattati yathayidam bhi!!have cittam... 'aham bhi!2diave annam e!adhammampi samanupassami yam evam abhavitam mahato anatthaya samvattati yathayidam bhi!!have cittam 1A. (. p. 48.

MI$D

MI$D

*hiloso*hi9al a99ura95, .ut .5 the

/i)noran9e8. 'i varana are fi(efol'

<3 Pabhassaram idam bhi!!have cittam. &am ca !ho a"antu!ehi upa!!ilesehi upa!!ilittham /A. I. *. 2B8. <; Evam samahite citte parisuddhe pariyodate anan"ane vi"atupa!!ilese dnen+appatte mudubhute !ammaniye thite 1D. I. *. C;8.

MI$D

MI$D

the *ost-9ommemtarial A.hi'hamma treatises of the hera(a'a Bu''hist

avya!ata dhamma /neutral *henomena8. Citta is re*esente' as

>B %or 'etails see $5anatiloka Mahathera, ,uide throu"h the Abhidhamma Pita!a- /Bau''ha Sahit5a Sa.ha, +olom.o 2;4C8 *. 2; f.

MI$D

3;

MI$D

the i'ea of Ga(enues or *ath6a5s of thou)ht7 1cittavithi5. he 0isuddhima""a an' the Atthasaliniin almost i'enti9al manner *resent the un.roken su99ession of the

>2 0ibhan"attha!atha **. <4, <D. >4 >< 0isuddhima""a *.**. A43. Patthana ii. >A, 24;, 2DB, 2D;. >> p.pp. 344. >D $ilindapafiha 0isuddhima""a 678 - 674 9 >A >C %uddhist (bid. *. A4C. Psycholo"y of Perception- /+e5lon Uni(ersit5 Press, +olom.o, 2;438 *. 3B.

MI$D

2B

MI$D

>3 See %uddhist Phycholo"y of Perception- *. 3<-33. >; %or a 'is9ussion of the min' onl5 'o9trine of Bu''hism see Paul Williams, $ahayana %uddhism /#outle')e, Lon'on an' $e65ork, 2;3;8 +h. A. See D. E. &alu*ahana, A History of %uddhist Philosophy /Uni(ersit5 of AB Ha6aii Press, Honolulu, 2;;<8 +h. 0i0.

MI$D

22

MI$D

A2 See D. . Su1uki, &he an!dvatarasutra- /Lon'on, Geor)e #outle')e an' Sons, Lt'. 2;><8, Intro'u9tion. A< Paul Williams, $ahayana %uddhism *. ;3 f. A> (bid. *. 2BA.

MI$D

2<

MI#A+LES SA I,

MI$D%UL$ESS See SA IPA HA$A, SA EPA HA$A SU A

affirmation of a su.stratum of e0isten9e that ultimatel5, sur(i(e'. It 6as intereste' onl5 in the un'erstan'in) of the nature of

MI#A+LES ,

he Pali 6or' for

MI#A+LES

2>

MI#A+LES

he reason 6h5 6e ma5 inter*ret this term as referrin) to Gmira9le of instru9tion7 an' not mira9le in the literal sense is .e9ause of the Bu''ha7s uneHui(o9al 9on'emnation

into use after the <n' >r' 9oun9ils. hus the re9or's relatin) to the 'is*la5in) of mira9les 6hi9h stu' the te0ts here an' there, ma5 .elon) to a later stratum of the 9anon.

MI#A+LES

2A

MI#A+LES

housefather, to s*rea' his outer ro.e an' the floor of the (eran'ah an' to s9atter some )rass o(er it. hen he lo9ke' the 'oor of his 9ell an'

su*ernormal *o6ers e0ten'e' to rea'in) others7 min's 1cetopariyanana5 an' seein) other *eo*les karma an' its effe9ts - the

MI H#A, #AEE$D#ALALA 24 MI H#A, #AEE$D#ALALA

Some mira9les are mentione' in the $ahaparinibbana Sutta /D. II8 also, as ha(in) .een *erforme' .5 the Bu''ha.

stu'5in) an' unra(ellin) *ro.lems .earin) a Bu''hist stam* shoul' arrest our *arti9ular attention.

MI H#A, #AEE$D#ALALA 2D

MI

#a?en'ralala Mithra, in the, main, 6as an antiHuarian, 6ho 'e(ote' most of his time in 'e9i*herin) ins9ri*tions. hou)h his 6ritin)s 'o not .ear authoritati(e stam* to 'a5

in $e*al 6ere all the more im*ortant sin9e it o*ene' u* a ne6 (ista in that fiel' 6hi9h ha' not .een *ro*erl5 e0*lore' u* to that time. His 6ork, Sans!rit %uddhist iterature of 'epal

MI

2C

MI

frien' an' papa-mitta is a .a' frien' 6ho influen9e one to in'ul)e in un6holesome 'ea's.

IEust as monks, the 'a6n is the forerunner, the har.in)er, of the sun7s arisin), e(en so, frien'shi* 6ith 6hat is lo(el5 is the forerunner, the har.in)er of the arisin) of the

MI

23

MI

Another meta*hor for !alyanamittata is foun' in the Sutta 'ipata /(. >>38,

he follo6in) *assa)es also 'enote )oo' frien'shi* taken in the literal 6a5 , :Kalyanamittata munina lo!am

MI

2;

MI

In the Samyutta 'i!aya /S. I. *. >C8, the follo6in) 9harmin) stan1as are foun' ,

I!n four )roun's the frien' 6ho s5m*athises is to .e re9kone' as soun' at heart , he 'oes not re?oi9e o(er 5our misfortunes@ he re?oi9es o(er 5our *ros*erit5 @ he restrains

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <B M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

2 A99or'in) to the &hera"atha Attha!atha 1&ha"A. 2 "ol. II *. 2;>8 Sa..akami the most senior thera 6ho *arti9i*ate' at the Se9on' +oun9il, .efore his parinibbana instru9te' the Brahma issa /6ho 6oul' .e .orn as Mo))ali*uttatissa future8 to *urif5 the Sasana of the 9risis < $ormall5 in the Bu''hist literaturein 6e fin' sons are name' after the mothers @ Sari*utta, Mantani*utta issa, &unti*uttatissa et9. Here is a rare instan9e 6here the son 6as name' after the father.

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <2 M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

asa!!onto- !in nama bho pabba+ita idamti aha 10inA.

on7. But 5ester'a5 I 6as treate' 6ith the 6or's, GYour *ar'on Sir, )o on7 an' hen9e I s*oke in that manner, takin) into a99ount this a9t of 9ourtes5. he .rahmin refle9te' ,

*. >;8 an' aske' 6hat it 6as. he el'er re*lie' that it 6as a %uddha manta. When the 5outh sai' that he
I

l#ettha samaneranam vinayapariyapunanam carittam no hotiti thapetva vinayapita!am avasesam %uddhavacanam u""hanhapesiti tfsupi ,anthipadesupi6 0uttam. ;

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA << M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

IIt state' in 9ontinuin) all the three he is $ahavamsa the > Saratthadipani e'ite' .5 B. De(arakkhitha /Sinhala S9ri*t8 "i'5a.husan. +olom.o 2;2A *. 2B> A Press $on e0istant three 0inaya )lossaries in Sinhala Cula"anthipada /small )lossar58 $a++hima "anthipada /mi''lesi1e )lossar58 an' $aha"anthipada /)reat )lossar58 referre' to in Saratthadipani.

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <> M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

Mo))ali*uttatissa7s name is first mentione' alon) 6ith that of Em*eror Asoka, 6hen Asoka 6ante' to kno6 the e0tent of the Dhamma

in an un*re9e'ente' s9ale an' as a result hereti9s lost their )ains an' honour. he hereti9s 6ho lost their re(enue 'onne' the saffron ro.es

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <A M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

4 But the $ahavamsa 'oes not sa5 that the minister inHuire' from another minister a.out the 6a5s an' means of e0e9utin) the or'er )i(en .5 the Em*eror. D Saratthadipani e'ite' .5 B. De(arakkhita /Sinhala s9ri*ts8 "i'5'.husana Press +olom.o 2;2A.

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <4 M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

he Em*eror 6a'e' knee 'ee* in the ri(er to re9ei(e the thera. It is sai' that he stret9he' his han's for the thera to hol' an' 'isem.ark. he thera )ot hol' to the Em*eror7s ri)ht

Ho6e(er it is reasona.le to *resume that the 'e9ision 6hether a monk 6as )enuine or a hereti9 6as ma'e .5 the thera Mo))ali*uttatissa an' the e0*ulsion 6as ma'e .5 the

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <D M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

su**ress 6hate(er the issues that

San)amitta

to

Sri

Lanka.

he

C "in9ent A Smith, Aso!a the %uddhist Emperor of (ndia - Asian E'u9ational $e6 Delhi, 2;;C /re*rint8 3 Ser(i9es, Cambrid"e History of (ndia"ol.P. 2 AD. * A;3 ; Anan'a W. P. Guru)e Aso!a Definitive %io"raphy-Central +ultural %un', +olom.o, Sri Lanka, 2;;> *. >A< ff

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <C M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

of

Anan'a

thera,

the

*ersonal

the vinaya e0*onents. %rom arahant

2B "in9ent A Smith :Aso!a &he %uddhist Emperor of (ndia<- Asian Ser(i9es, $e6 Delhi, 2;;C /#e*rint8 *. A2. 22 E'u9ational (bid *. A4 %ootnote.

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <3 M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

of am.a*anni, learns the vinaya in am.a*anni itself an' tea9hes it in the islan' of am.a*anni, then in'ee' 6ill the roots of the Dis*ensation )o 'ee* enou)hJ

he Dipavamsa =Dpv. +h. "II >;, AB8 9alls him chalabhinfio /en'o6e' 6ith si0 su*ernormal *o6ers8 mahiddhi!o /*ossessin) )reat *s59hi9 *o6ers8 maha+utim /)reatl5

M!GGALIPU

A ISSA <; M!GGALIPU

A ISSA

Bi.lio)ra*h5 $ahavamsa E'. Wilhelm Gei)er, P S. Lon'on 2;43 AKaKia(an6aEn)lish translation Wilhelm Gei)er Dipavamsa e'. B. +. La6 - /+e5lon Histori9al Eournal8 Mahara)ama +e5lon 2;4; 0amsatthappa!asini- e' Malalasekera "ol. I P S. Samantapasadi!a- akakusu an' $a)ai P S. Lon'on 2;C4 (nception of Discipline and 0inaya 'idana $. A. Ea5a6i9krama P S. Lon'on 2;D< Saratthadipani /Sinhala S9ri*t8 E'. Bihal*ola Devara!!hita 0idayabhushana Press +olom.o 2;2A Aso!a-&he %uddhist Emperor"in9ent Smith - Asian E'u9ational Ser(i9e /#e*rint 2;;C8 Aso!a Definitive %io"raphy- Anan'a W. P. Guru)e /+entral +ultural %un'8 +olom.o 2;;>

MOHA

>B

MOHA

M!GGALLA$A MAHAM!GGALLA$A

See

$oha .e)ets misfortunes. It *ertur.es the min'. he stu*i' 'o not un'erstan' that moha is .om 6ithin. He 6ho is enmeshe' in moha sees no dhamma- kno6s not

M!H!

IWA

E GU$A$A$DA >2 M!H!

IWA

E GU$A$A$DA

M!H! IWA E GU$A$A$DA, a Sri Lankan .hikkhu 6ho *ossesse' )reat !ratori9al an' 'e.atin) talent an' 6ho *la5e' a ke5 role in the Bu''hist resur)ent mo(ement in Sri

tem*les .e9ame (i.rant 9entres of Bu''hist e'u9ation an' 9ultural a9ti(ities. In this *ro9ess se(eral *rominent Bu''hist e'u9ational Institutes 9ame into .ein), su9hL as

M!H!

IWA

E GU$A$A$DA >< M!H!

IWA

E GU$A$A$DA

Mohotti6atte Gunanan'a thera 6as a mature .hikkhu .5 this time. He ha' mastere' the art of *u.li9 s*eakin) an' 'e.atin), an' 6ith his )oo' kno6le')e of En)lish,

MO,,HA + 1IMUTTI

NIBBANA

M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES >> M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES

2. Eames Hastin)s, Encylopaedia of )eli"ion and Ethics. "olume "III, *. C;C. <. (bid*. C;C. >. 0in. II, *. 2AD Dr. Gunaratne Pana.okke, History of &he %uddhist San"ha (n (ndia And Sri an!a- **. <2, <<. 4+M <CBC

M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES >A M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES

A. Dr. Gunaratne Pana.okke, History of &he %uddhist San"ha (n (ndia Sri Dr. an!a**<<. Pana.okke, History of &he 4. 0in. I,And *. 2A>, Gunaratne D. Sukumar Dut, Early %uddhist $onachism- **. DC, D3. C. Patri9k !li(elle, &he *ri"in and &he Early Development of 3. Sukumar Dut, Early %uddhist $onachism- **. D;.

M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES >4 M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES

;. Prof. Eoti5a Dhirasekera, %uddhist $onastic Discipline- **. A3 @ $ai++himani!dya. 2, History 23B. of &he %uddhist Sah"ha (n 2B.AC, Dr. Gunaratne Pana.okke, 22. Dr. H. W. am.iah, Eournal, )AS /+e5lon8 "olume "III, Part 2, P. 2<. (bid- at *. 3>. 2>. (bid- at *. 3>.

M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES >D M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES

2A. B. Horner, &he %oo! of &he Discipline- "olume " 1Cullava""a 24,2-2D-28, *. I. <>;. 24. 2. B. Horner, &he %oo! of &he Discipline- "olume I" *. A>D, Dr. Gunaratne Pana.okke, History of &he %uddhist Sah"ha (n (ndia And Sri *. 2<3. 2D. I.an!aB. Homer, &he %oo! of &he Discipline- "olume I" *. >AC. 2C. Dr. Gunaratne Pana.okke, &he %uddhist Sah"ha (n (ndia And Sri an!a- *. 2<;.

M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES >C M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES

23. (bid. *. 2>2. 2;. (bid- **. 2>2. 2><. <B. (bid. 2><, Samantapasadi!a- *. DC; <2. (bid. 2>A, Epi"raphia >eylanica- "olume I", <<. Dr. Gunaratne Pana.okke, &he %uddhist <>. (bid- *. 2>D.

M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES >3 M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES

'e'i9ation to the Sah"ha as a 6hole, <A. . B. Dissana5ake an' A. B. +olin 'e So5sa, Kandyan a? And.%uddhist Ecclesiastical <4. (bid- *. <4C. a?. **. <44, <4D. <D. $ahava""a- "olume I, ><.2, $ahdva""a- "olume 2, >2, 3, .P. Dissana5ake an' A. B. +olin 'e So5sa Kandyan a? And %uddhist <C. (bid- *. <3<.

M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES >; M!$AS I+ P#!PE# IES

<3. . B. Dissana5ake an' A. B. +olin 'e So5sa. Kandyan a? And %uddhist Ecclesiastical a?. **.hera, <3A, >; <34. <;. Sumanatissa hera " Guneratne $e6 La6 >B. . B. Dissana5ake an' A. B. +olin 'e So5sa Kandyan a? >2. (bid- *. <34. ><. (bid- *. <3C, Gunanan'a Unnanse " De(arakkita Unnanse, <D >>. . B. Dissana5ake an' A. B. +olin 'e So5sa Kandyan a? >A. Dr. H. W. am.iah, 2ournal ). A. S. /+e5lon8 "olume "III, >4. (bid- *. ;D.

M!$G!LIA

AB

M!$G!LIA

he s9heme of the !r'inan9e is to make it a**li9a.le to all Bu''hist tem*les, unless es*e9iall5 e0em*te' >D. (bid- *. ;C.

Pha)a-*a, a i.etan Lama, a'(ise' him on matters of

M!$G!LIA

A2

M!!$S !$E

some other monks translate' the Bu''hist Sanskrit te0ts into i.etan. Pa'masam.ha(a 6as a .elie(er in &antric m5sti9ism 6ith its *ra5ers to (arious Bu''hist )o's an'

M!!$S !$E

A<

M!!$S !$E

a Ihalf moon sha*e' stone sla., *la9e' at the entran9e to a fli)ht of ste*sJ. he $ahavarnsa an' its 9ommentar5 0amsatthappa!asini as 6ell as Dhammapadattha!atha

.an's for ea9h .east, 6ith the e09e*tion of the .ull. he a.sen9e of the .ull is *ro.a.l5 'ue to the san9tit5 atta9he' to it in Hin'u .eliefs an' *ra9ti9es.

M!!$S !$E

A>

M! HE#H!!D

Motifs a**earin) in the .est e0am*les of the moonstone ha(e )i(en rise to inter*retations amon) s9holars an' ma5 .e summarise' as follo6s

herefore it is 9lear that the s5m.ols use' .5 the moonstone artists are asso9iate' 9hiefl5 6ith Bu''hism.

M! HE#H!!D

AA

M! HE#H!!D

the mother in the In'ian ra'ition *re'ates Bu''hism, for the mother 6as hel' in sin)ualr (eneration e(en 'urin) the time of the "e'as an' Brahman as. Bu''hism 9ontine' an'

IMonks, one 9an ne(er re*a5 t6o *ersons, I 'e9lare. What t6o M Mother an' father ...J /Gra'ual Sa5in)s I **. 4D-C8

M! HE#H!!D

A4

M! HE#H!!D

!n9e su**orte' .5 them, I 6ill no6 .e their su**ort @ I 6ill *erform 'uties in9um.ent on them @ I 6ill kee* u* the linea)e an' tra'ition of

fa9t that the5 )i(e .irth to /male8 6orl' rulers an' Bo'hisattas, it is 9ertainl5 true that the Bu''hist tra'ition 'i' take o(er somethin) of

M! HE#H!!D

AD

M! HE#H!!D

IEust as a mother 6oul' *rote9t her onl5 9hil' 6ith her life, e(en so let one 9ulti(ate a .oun'less lo(e to6ar's all .ein)s.J

IAn' he let his min' *er(a'e one Huarter of the 6orl' 6ith thou)hts of lo(e@ an' so the se9on' Huarter, an' so the thir', an' so the fourth. An' thus the 6hole 6i'e 6orl', a.o(e,

M! HE#H!!D

AC

M! HE#H!!D

2 0ide Ma'ihe Pannasiha Maha $a5aka hero, A country.s development9 the %uddhist standpoint and A plan for

A *oint of interest is ho6 the ima)e of the mother is sometimes *resente' in the te0ts. At S. 2.>C +ha*ter "I, 2ara 0a""a- the follo6in) stan1as o99ur,

MUDI A

A3

MUDI A %or instan9e, it is sai' in the &evi++a Sutta- :Ayam pi !ho 0asettha %rahmanam sahavyataya ma""o. J

I"eril5 this, "asettha, is the 6a5 to a state of 9om*anionshi* of

MUD#A

A;

MUD#A

Hastas an' mudrds usuall5 in'i9ate some a9tion 6hi9h the 'eit5 or his atten'ant is sho6n to .e en)a)e' in. he a9tion 9onsists in the e0*ression of an i'ea .5 means of a *arti9ular )esture. An attem*t

MUD#A

4B

MUD#A

An+ali is the name of a mudra6hi9h is also kno6n as Samputan+ali or Sarvara+endramudra. It has also other names su9h as vandani. It is usuall5 foun' in the han's of the 'e(otees or in those of

sutta )i(es a 9lear i'ea a.out the sittin) *osture of a yo"i in the follo6in) 6or's , / nisidati pallah!am abhu+itiva u+um !ayam panidhaya parimu!ham satim

MUD#A

42

MUD#A

/ he torHue, the .ra9elet, the sho6n in a num.er of forms of A(alokites(ara 6hi9h a**ear to ha(e ?e6el, the )ir'le, the .een influen9e' .5 i.etan art an' i9ono)ra*h5. his mudra is re*resente' 6ith the ri)ht arm .ent an' all fin)ers ere9t e09e*t either

MDLAPA#IYAYASU

A 4< M!LAPA#IYAYASU

MULAPA#IYAYASU A@ he $ulapariyaya Sutta is a 'is9ourse of the Bu''ha *la9e' as the first Sutta of the 9olle9tion of mi''le-len)th 'is9ourses of the Sutta Pita!a- the

an' annihilationism / ucchedavada 8. Both 'o)mati9 *ositions, etemalism an' annihilationism are i'entifie' as formin) the 9ore of 6ron) (ie6s / micchaditthi 8, at the root of 6hi9h

< ibid. *.;. E (bid.

M+LAPA#IYAYASU

A 4> M+LAPA#IYAYASU

of Bu''hism kno6n at that time. In 2 See Bhikkhu Bo'hi &he Descourse on he )oot of E@istence /Bu''hist Pu.li9ation So9iet5, &an'5, 2;;<8

It 9onnotes the *roliferation of thou)ht an' ima)ination in(ol(in)

Attha!ava""a em*hasi1es the ne9essit5 to 9om*rehen' sannaa an' to 9ulti(ate 'eta9hment to6ar's it. N

M+LAPA#IYAYASU

A 4A M+LAPA#IYAYASU

he 'is9ourses of the Bu''haSuttanipata CC; Sn. 3AC @ !.sessi(e thou)ht is 'ue to sannaa 1sanhanidan (bid. *.< $a++himani a hi papancasan!hd5 Sn. 3CA @ those !dya 0ol. 6ho )ras* sahna an' 'o)mati9 (ie6s (-p.AB8C /ditthi8 9ome D Di"hani!ay 847 into 9onfli9t 6ith the a. 0ol. 3p.3DEf.
A 7

; $ote that in the P S e'ition of the Sutta, the en'in) tarn has .een omitte' 6hereas the 9ommentarial e0*lanation of the 9orres*on'in) *assa)e s*e9ifi9all5 notes that it is to .e taken as parinna tantam an' not parinnatam. B.5 the time of the 9ommentaries the attri.ution of omnis9ien9e to the Bu''ha ha' .e9ome esta.lishe' i n the hera(a'a tra'ition. So the e0*lanation is in terms of the 'istin9tion .et6een the limite' kno6le')e of the or'inar5 Arahant an' the omnis9ien9e of the Ba''ha.

M+LAPA#IYAYASU

A 44 M+LAPA#IYAYASU

'eli)ht in them is the sour9e of sufferin) 1nandidu!!hassa mulanti iti viditva5. He has seen the relationshi* .et6een su9h hankerin) after thin)s an' the *ro9ess of

MULAYA A$A

4D

MULAYA A$A

MULAYA A$A, Mulas /or Mula5atanas8 6ere an9ient reli)ious foun'ations 'atin) from the Anura'ha*ura *erio' an' e(er5 bhi!!hu in the islan' a**ear to ha(e

9lassi9al te0t name' Pii+avaliya- it is state' that Uttaramula an' "a'ummula /"a'umula, "aha'umula, "aha'i*a-mula M8 6ere 9onstru9te' .5 &in) Ma na(amsha

MULAYA A$A

4C

MULAYA A$A

/224>-223D8 hel' a 9on(o9ation to *ur)e the sam"ha an' 9lean the Au)ean sta.les, it 6as *resi'e' o(er .5 Mahakassa*a-fKtera of Dim.ula)ala /P. U'u.ara)iri8. here

that he ke*t u* his *atrona)e of the Uttaramula $ika 5a. It is also state' that he )a(e o(er the 9usto'ianshi* of the ooth #eli9 to a monk of this fraternit5 name' Mo))allana /E. O.

MULAYA A$A

43

MULAYA A$A

these parivenas- 'ue to the *ersonal 'istin9tions of their hea's an' the en'o6ments 6hi9h the5 'is*ose' of, 6iel'e' )reat influen9e in the .o'5 *oliti9. A**ointments as hea's

Mahanetta*asa'amula, a99or'in) to the +ul(amsa, 6as foun'e' .5 A))a.o'hi /"8 /C<D-C><8 /!aretvana paricchedam

MULAYA A$A

4;

MULAYA A$A

inmates7 &a**ura-*ari(ena is mentione' in the Anura'ha*ura Sla. ins9ri*tion of &assa*a " /;<;- ;>;8. his institution is referre' to as &a**uramula 5atana in the rei)n of

Attha'assi hera a.out the 5ear 2<DC. If this information is 9orre9t, the author is un'ou.te'l5 the Pan9amula-*ari(ena'hi*a he %hesa++a $an+usa is also mentione' in a

MULAYA A$A

DB

MULAYA A$A

0uttamala of the rei)n of Parakrama.ahu " /2>AA-2>4;8 mentions the thera of Sena*atimula as resi'in) in the &in)'om at De'i)ama. he name of the

Dakkhina)iri8. It is likel5 that Dakkhina)iri an' Dakkhinamula 6ere rtames use' in'ifferentl5 for the same monaster5, referre' to in the &alu'i5a*okuna ins9ri*tion. As

MU$I

D2

MU$I

MU$I, he P&S Di9tionar5 'efines the 6or' as one 6ho has taken the (o6 of silen9e. Et5molo)i9all5, the 6or' is 9onne9te' to "e'i9 mu!a6hi9h means silent, 'um., an' form

%or that reason is a sa)e, He 6ho un'erstan's

MU$I

D<

MU$I

With re)ar' to these (erses, 2. "i'e Sukumar Dutt, Early %uddhist $onachism- Lon'on /2;<A8 2;3A **. AB ff. <, > A. A. Ma9'onell an' A. B. &eith, 0edic (nde@ of 'ames 6. Srini(asa I5en)ar, ife in the A"e of the $antras 4. G. +. Pan'e, Studies in the *ri"ins of %uddhism /Alaha.a' 2;4C8 Delhi 2;3> *. <D2

MU$I

D>

MU$I

6orl' forsakers e0istin) outsi'e he Bu''hist bhi!!u 6as not or)ani1e' so9iet5. he5 6ere 9alle' restri9te' to onl5 these four thou)h (ariousl5 Parvira+a!a%hi!!u- he 9oul' not 9om*lain if the four D +han'ima Wi?e.an'ara, Early %uddhism F (ts reli"ious and intellectual melien- +olom.o 2;;>.

MU$I :Sa +hanapasuto dhiro vanante ramilo siya +hayetha ru!!hamulasmim attanam abhitosayam<- (. CB;

DA

MU$I

I he

6ise

sa)e

'e(ote'

to

We 9an safel5 assume that the muni is meant as as9eti9 sa)e. he Bu''ha 6as also referre' to as Sak5amuni an' e(er56here 6e fin'

MU$I

D4

MU$I

:Patisallanam +hanam arincamano dhammesu niccam anudhammacari adinavam sammasita

C. A. &. War'er, In'ian Bu''hism, Delhi /2;CB8 *. <4D ilakaratne, 'irvana and 3. 2;;2 "i'e Asan)a ineffability- +olom.o, 2;;> *. ;;

MUSI+

DD

MUSI+

2. )amayana- ".0. >D-4B. <. 0in. e'. .5 H. !l'en.er), "ol. II, Lon'on, 233B, "I. ii.C @ "ol. I", >. Cullava""a. ". ii. D. A. Di"hani!aya. Bu''ha Ea5anti ri*itaka Granthamala, +olom.o, 4. Cullava""a. ibid. D. 0in. "ol. I" *. <DC. C &hG intn!n nr tMrKP nf the %uddha.s former births- e'. E.B. +o6ell, Lon'on, P S, 2;4C, "ol. II, Eataka $o. <A>.

MUSI+

DC

MUSI+

3. 'aiyasastra. 00i0. 223. ;. &he 2ata!a. "ol. 2B. &he +ata!a. "ol. "I, 22. &he 2ata!a. "ol. I, 2<. &he 2ata!a. "ol. I", 2>. &he 2ata!a. "ol. 2, 2ata!a $o. 4;.

MUSI+

D3

MUSI+

to him the 'ifferent elements the vina is ma'e of an' that it is throu)h 2A. $ahava""a. Bu''ha Ea5anthi ri*itaka Granthamala. +olom.o, 2;4C, I, *. A3B. 24. Samyutta-ni!aya. Bu''ha Ea5anti ri*itaka 2D. Di"hani!aya. BE G, +olom.o. 2;D<-CD, II, *. 4BA. sha*e' 6hi9h 6as 6i'er to6ar's the

MUSI+

D;

MUSI+

2C. Av add nasal a!a. e'. .5 P. L. "ai'5a, Dar.han)a, 2;43, A(a'ana $o. 2C. 23. alitavistara. e'. .5 Mitra, +al9utta, 23CC, *. 2C3. 2;. &atika(at-san)ara, e'. .5 D. B. Ea5atilaka <B. Chinese iterature. 2;4D, Part >, *. 2A;. <2. A record of the %uddhist reli"ion as practised in (ndia and $alay Archipela"o- tr. by 2. &a!a!usu. *@ford. A84D. pp. ADE +f.

MUSI+

CB

MUSI+

Bu''hism for a lon) time for

Dalai Lama is re)ar'e' an'

<3. L. Austin Wa''ell, he Bu''hism of i.et or Lamaism, $e6$ath Delhi, 2;;D,he *. histor5 A><. of Bu''hism, <;. Manmatha Satri, $e6 Delhi, 2;;D, *.<C2. >B. L. Austin Wa''ell, o*. 9it. *. 4B4.

MUSI+ he Pirit +hant ,

C2

MUSI+ purisadammasarathi devamanussanam bha"ava ti. sattha buddho

he sa9re' te0ts 9hante' at a pirit 9eremon5 are taken mainl5 from the Sutra Pitaka. here are three sutras 6hi9h form the nu9leus

he $o.le Attri.utes of the Dhamma


4.

MU IYA$GA$A

C<

MU IYA$GA$A

2. $ahiyan"anarn'a"adipamKalyanar+iPadalancanai+iDiva"uhat+i- Di"havapi Cetiyanca $utin"anarn- &issamahaviharanca%odhim $aricavattiyai+iSoonarnali $ahacetiyam &huparama 2etavanart@ Selacetiyayi &atha!dcara"ama!aniEtesolasa 3.%haya"irirn'ampotha E'. Soma*ala Ea5a6ar'ena, +olom.o 2;3D, /Sinhala >. ati5am Paii9asata.hikkhu *ari(aro a)ant(a Maha9eti5athane, hu*arama9eti5atthane, Maha.o'hi*atitthane 9a Muti5an)ana9eti5atthane 9a. Di)a(a*i9eti5atthane 9a, &al5ana9eti5atthane 9a niro'hasama*attim A Pu?a(ali5a a Sinhala Literar5 6ork of the 2>th 9entur5 'es9ri.es the *la9es san9tifie' .5 the Bu''ha on his thir' (isit to Lanka, .ut has not in9lu'e' Muti5an)ana as a *la9e san9ifite' .5 the Bu''ha. It is o.ser(e' that the san9tifie' *la9es mentione' in the Pu+avaliya are in or aroun' Anura'ha*ura onl5. /Pu?a(ali5a Li.rar5 Ser(i9es Boar' e'ition, +olom.o

MU IYA$GA$A

C>

MU IYA$GA$A

9ame u* /as the $hv. sa5s8 an' the5 4 Dharmapradipi!ava E'. Ba''e)ama "imala(amsa, +olom.o 2;DC, *. E'. <3>P. $. isera Lanka.hina(a "isruta D )a+aratna!arayaC Sinhala%odhivamsa- E'. D. P. #. Samarana5aka, +olom.o, 2;CB, *. ><;B>B

MU IYA$GA$A

CA

MU IYA$GA$A

3 SuluBo'hi(amsa5a, E'. Soma*ala Ea5a6ar'ena, +olom.o, 2;;2 ; Welimiti5a6e Dhammarakkhita - Sri Maha Bo'hi It7s histor5 an' 9ulture 9onne9te' /in Sinhala Lan)ua)e8, +olom.o <BBB, *. <;<-;> 2B A son of kin) Senarat, &in) of &an'5

MYS I+ISM

C4

MYS I+ISM

MYS I+ISM. Usuall5 m5sti9al 2;>D. **. >C2-<8 one of the earl5 e0*erien9e is 9onsi'ere' as a form 6riters to 'efine mQ sti9ism. of reli)ious e0*erien9e. In i'entifies four main 9hara9teristi9s *arti9ular in the Eu'eo-+hristian in m5sti9al e0*erien9e. he5 are

MYS I+ISM

CD

MYS I+ISM

9ommon to all reli)ions sta9e fin's that the nosoul 'o9trine / anatta-vada 8 in the Pali 9anon is Iin9onsistent 6ith the e0*erien9e of non-Bu''hist m5sti9sJ

9om*lian9e 6ith this )eneral 9hara9teri1ation, the *ath is 'es9ri.e' in the 'is9ourses as 9om*risin) a threefol' trainin),

MYS I+ISM

CC

MYS I+ISM

sta)es 9hara9teri1e' .5 )ra'uall5 in9reasin) aloofness from sensor5 e0*erien9e.. his is a9hie(e' .5 s5stemati9all5 6ith'ra6in)

these Bu''hists is essentiall5 an ethi9al one meanin) there.5 an e0*erien9e 9hara9teri1e' .5 *urit5 an' free'om that sur*ass an5thin)

MYS I+ISM

C3

MYS I+ISM

meta*h5si9al entit5. A99or'in) to some others, ho6e(er, the statement 9an .e inter*rete' 'ifferentl5. In their (ie6, it sim*l5 'es9ri.es

.e taken as in'i9atin) the nature of the arahant 6hi9h is 'iametri9all5 o**ose' to that of the or'inar5 6orl'lin).

$AGA

.C;

$AGA

$AGA, a term use' .oth in Pali an' Sanskrit to mean an ele*hant, a ser*ent an' also a semi-'i(ine .ein). It is also the name of an In'ian tri.e inha.itin) the Himala5a

either as ser*ents, half human an' half-ser*entine .ein)s or as or'inar5 human .ein)s. Ho6e(er, it is not Huite 9lear from these referen9es 6hether the 'a"as referre' to are

$AGA

3B

$AGA

R hese 'es9ri*tions, too, refle9t a ?um.le of .eliefs a.out a human tri.e resi'in) at the foot of the Himala5a an' the snakes 6ho freHuent 6ater5 o.o'es, trees an' ant-hills. < hier 9onne9iton 6ith 6ater ma5 .e 'ue to the fa9t that some of the ser*ents li(e' )i(es in or a near or in marsh5 )roun' 'ue to that >. Wa''el list6ater of fift5-si0 $a)a-kin)s as or foun' in the the fa9t i.etan (ersion of the $ahavyutpatti E#AS. 23;A *. ;2 ff8 A. his s*ell 6as first )i(en .5 a )aru'a to an as9eti9 6ho in turn )a(e it to a .rahman. See ALAMBAYA$A an' s. (. +PD 4. he )aru'as are a kin' of m5thi9al .ir's. his also su))ests a 9onne9tion .et6een the later 9on9e*tion of the $a)a 6ith the earl5 "e'i9 9on9e*tion 6herein the ser*ents meant are ser*ents of the 'ark ni)ht or .lak9 9lou's, the enemies of the solar 'eities, he )aru'as meanin) 'e(ourer re*resents thehe solar 'eities, *erha*s the all-9onsumin) *o6er of the sun7s D. .o6ls of the three *re(ious Bu''has of the *resent ka**ara5s. are also in C. the a.o'e his e*iso'e of $a)ain kin) 'e*i9te' &ala /E. atI.$a)ar?uni-kon'a *. CB8 an' in hailan' / he 6a5s of the Bu''ha, *. C; *is. 2;<8 In hailan' an' +am.o'ia as 6ell as in tem*les of Sri Lanka thisLe*iso'e often 3. his s9en9e is 'e*i9te' at Sani9u/see A.'e*i9te'. %ou9her, Bu''hist Art *i. ;, 28

$AGA

32

$AGA

;. his 6as the a.o'e of $a)a &in) Mahakala, 6here the .o6ls of the Bu''ha are 'e*osite'. 2B. hese also are (er5 ol' .eliefs 9ommon to man5 ra9es. he snakes li(in) in 9re(i9es of the earth are often i'entifie' 6ith 'e9ease' an9estors an' are re)ar'e' as )uar'ians of treasure .urie' in the earth 1E)E. "ol. II, *. A2< f.8 2 2. Some remarka.le re*resentations are foun' at #atna Prasas'a, Anura'ha*ura @ "ata'a)e at Polonnaru6a /for illustrations see D. . De(en'ra. &he symbol of the Sinhalese ,uardstones , Art A 00i >, <4; ff @ ,uardstone- *u.. Ar9haeiolo)i9al De*t. +olom.o,

$AGADIPA

3<

$AGADIPA

$AGADIPA. a *ro(in9e of Sri Lnaka, i'entifie' 6ith the mo'em Eaffna *eninsula an' the north-6est of the Islan'. he Bu''ha7s s99on' (isit to Sri Lanka 6as to $a)a'i*a.

lo'ara 6as her son. Maho'ara7s father ha' )i(en a s*len'i' throne of Ee6els to his 'au)hter on the o99asion of her marria)e. When she

$AGADIPA

3>

$AGADIPA

9orro.orates the $ahavamsa a99ount of the (isit of the Bu''ha to $a)a'i*a almost in e(er5 'etail. In this 6ork $a)a'i*a of the

6here kin) De(anam*it5atissa ha' alrea'5 )one to re9ei(e them an' 6aite' in a hut, 6hi9h later 6as kno6n as Samu''a*annasala/KWi(. 0i0, <> ff8. Seein) the shi* 9omin),

$AGADIPA

3A

$AGADIPA

+onsi'era.le li)ht on the limestone remains to the e0tent that i'entifi9ation of $a)a'i*a an' the nearl5 e(er5 '6ellin) 9om*oun' sites there sa9re' to the Bu''hists 5iel'e' some interestin) s*e9imen. hese in9lu'e se(eral fra)ments of 6as she' .5 Paul E. Peiris 6ho statues of the Bu''ha, *arts of stone

$AGADIPA

34

$AGADIPA

an' ere9te' a (ihara there. He also ere9te' the issamaha-(ihara an' the Pa9ina-(ihara at the same *ort. he ruins of a (ihara an' a da"aba

'o9ument 6hi9h 9learl5 *ro(es that $a)a'i*a 6as the name .5 6hi9h the Eaffna Peninsula 6as kno6n in
H. #. Perera .

$AGA#EU$A

3D

$AGA#EU$A

$AGA#EU$A , he foun'er of the Ma'h5amika S9hool of Bu''hism, li(e' in In'ia at the .e)innin) of the I+hristian EraJ an' is un'is*ute'l5 a99e*te' as one of the )reatest

s9ra**5 an' mostl5 fille' 6ith le)en's, It is a uni(ersal *henomena, more freHuent in In'ia an' surroun'in) 9ountries that le)en's m5ths )ro6 s*ontaneousl5

$AGA#EU$A

3C

$AGA#EU$A

Saraha ha(in) leamt the *li)ht of the .o5, an' sai' to ha(e a'(ise' him that if he 9oul' a.an'on the 6orl'l5 life an' enter monkhoo' he

his sear9h for te0ts let him to the sea an' o*ene' for him the reasur5 of the Se(en Ee6els 1Saptaratana!osa5 $a)ar?una rea' the 0aipulya

$AGA#EU$A

33 " .L -. A

$AGA#EU$A

*ro(i'e' foo' to the inmates of $alan'a 6ith the 6ealth thus a99rue'. his le)en' re(eals his kno6le')e of Al9hem5. But the

a99ounts further state that $a)ar?una .rou)ht 'is9i*line to $alan'a. He is sai' to ha(e *ai' )reat tri.ute to those mem.ers of the San)ha 6ho o.ser(e' the hree

$AGA#EU$A

3;

$AGA#EU$A

?e6els8. his kin) is re*orte' to ha(e .uilt a tem*le for $a)ar?una at Sri*ar(ata, 6here $a)ar?una is sai' to ha(e s*ent his last 'a5s. his kin) 9annot .e i'entifie' 6ith 9ertaint5.

a99ession of &anisha I, 6hose a99ession is )enerall5 a99e*te' as taken *la9e in C3 A. +. Ho6e(eer it is 'iffi9ult to as9ertain a 'efinite

$AGA#EU$A

;B

$AGA#EU$A

Nagar4una8+ D a-0 , here is not histori9al a99ount of his 'eath e0tant, thou)h historians infer that he 6oul' ha(e en?o5e' a fairl5 lon)

authorit5 an' san9tit5 for their i'eas. &alu*ahana<2 sees an atem*t to ele(ate $a)ai?una a.o(e the histori9al Bu''ha .5 later

$AGA#EU$A

;2

$AGA#EU$A

of the $adyama!a !ari!a is un'ou.te'l5 a99e*te'. Similarl5 his authorshi* of Suhrlle!ahis a'monition to his frien'

that $a)ar?una .rou)h Pra+naparamita Sutras from the $a)a realm "enkataramanan>> notes, Ialthou)h he is sia' to ha(e

$AGA#EU$A

;<

$AGA#EU$A attri.ute' /ii8 6ron)l5 attri.ute' /iii8 'u.ious. He 9ounts 2< treatises onl5 as )enuine $a)ara?una7s 6orks su9h as $ulamadhayami!a Kari!aSunyata saptati 0i"rhavyavartani0aidalya-pra!arana0yavaha rasiddhi- Hu!tisasti!a- Catuhstava)atnavaliPratityasamutapadahrdaya!ari!aSutra-samuccaya%odhicittavivaranayaSuhrlle!hd and %odhisamblu ra!a 1!a5. o the se9on' s*urious )rou* he *uts $ahapra+naparamitopadesaAbudhabodha!apra!arana,uhyasama+atantrati!aDvadasadvara!a Pra+ndparamita stotra and Svabhavatr- ayapravesa siddhi. he thir' )rou* of 'u.ious 6orks he 'e(i'es into t6o, *erha*s authenti9 an' most *ro.a.l5 not )enuine. He 9ounts $ahaya navim si!a%odhieittotpadavaidhiDvadasa!a ranaya-stotra%havasam!rdntiSalistamba!ari!aDdnapari!atha$ulasarvastivadisramanera!mri!a1$adhyama!a5 'iralambastava StutyattastavaCittava+rastava-

Dasabhuni!avibhasaShanti'e(a, $ahayanavimsati of a later author of the same name, /payahrdaya 6hi9h has har'l5 an5 .earin) to the *rin9i*al theme of o!apari!saHo"asata!aPra+nadanda )asavaisesi!asutra an' %hdvana!rama as *erha*s autheniti9. He re?e9ts the follo6in) as most *ro.a.l5 not )enuine , A!sarasata!a A!utobhaya 1$ulama

$AGA#EU$A

;>

$AGA#EU$A

lasastrati!a- Pra+napradipa- sIstra Kari!a- $ulamadhyami!a SastraSunyasaptadhi- $adhyantanu"amaSastra- Dasabhumi 0ibhasa Sa stra-

6ho 'e(elo*e' the Ma'h5amika s9hool of Bu''hism after him. Most eminent 'is9i*le of him 6as Ar5a'e(a /H.(.8 6ho 6as also kno6n as IDe(aJ 77&ana'e(aJ

$AGA#EU$A

;A

$AGA#EU$A :Sabban atthiti !ho !accayana ayam e!o anto- sabbam natthiti ayam dutiyo anto ete te ubho ante anupa"amma ma++hena tatha"ato dhammam deseti. Avi++a paccaya san!hara .... etc.

Catuhsata!a.

+han'rakiri follo6e' the IPrSsan)ika s9hool of the Ma'h5amikaJ *hiloso*h5. He is 'es9ri.e' as a 9ommentator an'

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$AGA#EU$A Bi.lio)ra*h5 Wallesser M. &he life of'a"ara+una from &ibetan and Chinese Sources 'A, Pu.lishers Delhi, 2;C;

hereti9al

(ie6s su9h as Sa..atthi(a'a /sarvastivada5 an' Pu))ala(a'a /*u')ala(S'a8 .5 9om*osin) the treatise IPoints of 9ontro(ers5J /&atha(atthu8 !ut of mo'em

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+hau'her5 B. $. %uddhist Centre in (ndia- +al9utta 2;D;

ramita Sutra of 2BB,BBB "athas "enkataramanan op. cit. *. <C

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=$. Dutt o.ser(es ?ust ass Bo'h Ga5a )re6 on the .ank of the $eran?ana as a (er5 earl5 9entre of Hina5ana an' a *la9e of *il)rima)e for earl5 Bu''hists as also 'i' Amara(ati /e0ten'in) to Ea))a55a*eta8 an' $a)ar?unakon'a on the .ank of #i(er &rishna /in9lu'in) its tri.utar5 Paler8 as a flourishin) 9entre of *roto Maha5ana an' Maha5ana in *re +hristian an' earl5 +hristian era an' a *la9e of *il)rima)e for later Bu''hists /in'ian Histori9al Suarterl5 C, ;>4 ff, +onfusion .et6een

< Lon)hurst P. H. %uddhist AntiJuities of 'a"ar+una!onda Delhi, Mana)er Pu.li9ations 2;>3 > Lo9. +it. A !*. 9it. *. 2;

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9o(ere' 6ith *laster from to* to

to the ins9ri*tion the hill 6as kno6n as ISmaller Dharma)iriJ 1Ksudra Dharma"iri8 on Sri

4 Dutt $. 'is*utes the re*ort that +e5lonese monks 9on(ertin) re)ions of In'ia su9h as &ashmir Gan'hara et9. He sa5s that it is unkno6n in the histor5 of Bu''hism, He offers a 'ifferent translation of the ins9ri*tion /$. Dutt o*. 9it *. D><8 D In the same ins9ri*tion a mention has also .een ma'e to a (ihara 9alle' &ulaha "ihara in a''ition to the Sihala "ihara. C In'ian Histori9al Suarterl5 C $adayami!a 'a"ra+una I &antric 'a"ra+una Dutt. *. D>< ff. 3 &anailal Harsha #o5al Patrons of Bu''ism, Delhi 2;3A, *. 2D4. $SGS#EU$A&!WA ;; $AGA#EU$A&!$SA

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.ee. His Po o mo lo !ili a**ears as

ri9e is taken out.

he Huantit5 of

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7Lon)hurst 9omments Lo9al tra'ition relates that the )reat Hin'u *hiloso*her an' tea9her Sankhara9ar5a of me'iae(al times 9ame to $a)ra?unakon'a 6ith a host of follo6ers an' 'estro5e' the Bu''hist monuments. Be this as it ma5, the fa9t remains that the 9ulti(ate' lan's in 6hi9hthe ruine' .uil'in)shis stan' re*resent a reli)ious )rant I the 6as (alle5 a.le to on 9on'u9t e09a(ations. Brahman *ontiff 6ho resi'es at Push*a)iri in the Guntur Distri9t, also o6ns the Srisaliam tem*le in the $allanmalais, 6hi9h no 'ou.t 6as a9Huire' in the same measure as it seems to ha(e .een a Bu''hist site ori)inall5 /Lon)hurst o*. 9it. *. ;8

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2B< $AGA#EU$A&!$DA P. ". Ba*ath 37BB year of %uddhism Pu.li9ations Di(ision Ministr5 of Information Go(t, of In'ia Delhi 2;3C Epi"raphia (ndica :: e'ite' .5 E. Ph. "o)el 2ournal of (ndian History "ol :L"III, Part II, Su)u'5, 2;CB, Serial $o. 2A>, $a)ra?unakon'a $ote on a ne6 #eferen9e from +hinese Sour9e .5 Ean Yun-Hua

It is not im*ossi.le that thou)h in ruine' an' a.an'one' state 5et

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$A&&HA A, a 9on?un9tion of the moon 6ith 'ifferent 9onstellations, a lunar mansion. his refers to the 9onstellations of the lunar 1o'ia9 6herein t6ent5-se(en su9h

'ealin) 6ith the nature an' influen9e of the hea(enl5 .o'ies in )eneral 6hile astrolo)5 'eals 6ith the influen9e of these .o'ies on human affairs, 6hi9h as*e9t has

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et5. He must ha(e use' this kno6le')e in the ma?or a9ti(ities of his 9areer. his is 9orro.orate' .5 the fa9t that he ma'e his )reat #enun9iation 'urin) the timelimit of

also maintain the fi0it5 of seasons an' other e(ents 'e*en'in) on the mo(ement of the hea(enl5 .o'ies.

2 ,esh des %uddhismus *. 24< < %er)usson Eames / (ndian and Eastern Architecture Lon'on 23CD *. 2>D8 9om*ares $alan'a 6ith IMonte 9asino, one of the )reatest inter*ro(in9ial un(ersities of Me'ieal Euro*e. %rom the e(i'en9e that is at han', 6e think 6e 9an assi)n it a still loftier *osition (i1. of an International Uni(ersit5 of $alan'a.J /Sankalia H. S. /niversity of 'alanda- *. 2;28 > Bu9hanan, Hamilton, e'. Martin Eastern (ndia (. 233>, **. ;4f Earliest Mo'ern A99ount of Bara)oan, the site of A Watters homas on Huan Ch?an".s &ravels in (ndia e'ite' .5 #h5s Da(i's, #e*rint $e6 Delhi, 2;D2, "ol.II *. 2DD. 4 aranatha7s History of (ndia E'. D. +hatto*a'ha5a5a, Motilal Banarsi'ass, Delhi, 2;;B, *. 2B2 $ALA$DA /28 2B4 $ALA$DA /28

D 'i!ayasan"rahaya /Sinhala s9ri*t8 *u.lishe' .5 Go(t. Printer H. #. +ottle, +olom.o, 2;<< *. 3. Le))e A, )ecord of %uddhist Kin"doms bein" an account of the Chinese mon! Fa-Hien of his travels in (ndia F +e5lon r. An' E'. !0for', 233D, * 32 3 Watters, "ol. I. <2D,<23, "ol. II. 2CB ; ife of Hiuen &san" .5 H6ui Li translate' .5 Samuel Beal-&e)an Paul ren9h ru.ner 9om*an5 Limite' L&on'on,

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2BD

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2;22, *. 22B ff

RB +ha(annes, (-tsin"#s $emoire Sur es )eli"ieu@ Eminents /Paris 23;A8, * 3A-4 2 Heras, H., &he )oyal Patrons of 'alanda 2%*)S. /2;<38 **. 2-<> 2< $ilakantha Sastri, I 'alandaJ, Eournal of the Ma'ras Uni(ersit5, "ol. 0iii, no. < *. 2AC ff

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2BC

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AE A6

Epi"raphia (ndica- ::, Eanuar5 2;<;, *. >C +ha(annes, (-tsin" $emoire sur les )ei"ieous Emints /Paris, 23;A8 *.34-3C

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2B3

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mists from the 6in'o6s one ma5

an' re9or'e' .5 I-tsin)2A ma5 hel*

24

(bid *. ;A-;D

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2B;

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%loorin), In the interior of the monaster5, 6i'e s*a9es of more than >B *a9es are *a(e' in .ri9k.

6here he e0*lains its *ur*ose, an' his 6ishful lon)in) for a similar institution in +hina,

D Archaeolo"ical Survey of (ndia )eport 2;24-2D Eastern circle- *. > C +ha(annes @ t-sin" $emories Sur es )eli"ieu@ Eminents- *. ;C an' n. I

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22B

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I o the 6est of the Ghall of the

of $alan'a 6as that it 6as a

2>

Sankalia H. D., /niversity of 'alanda2;>A-*. 2D3

2; But I-tsin) makes a 9ontra'i9tiar5 statement in this res*e9t. He sa5s / akakusu, /tr. A )ecord of the %uddhist )eli"ion , Lon'on, 2;;D *. 2B4-D8. I hese t6o )rou*s /Mana(a 6ho stu'ie' to .e9ome monks an' Brahma9arinis 6ho learne' the se9ular literature onl58 thou)h resi'in) in a monaster5 ha(e to su.sist at their o6n e0*ense.J As re)ar's I-tsin)7s statement, Sankali5a H. D., / /niversity of 'alanda *. 24;-2DB8 remarks thus II-tsin)7s statement ho6e(er is o**ose' to all that 6e kno6 a.out the Hin'u or Bu''hist s5stems of E'u9ation. $o6here in an5 Hin'u 6ork 'o 6e 9ome a9ross a sin)le referen9e that tell us that stu'ents ha' to *a5 for their o6n li(e lihoo'J. <B ife of hiuen &san" *. 22< <2 (bid << I /niversity< of 'alanda Mooker?ee #. &. 2%*)S. ::: Part II, 2;AA *. 24< <> Hieun san) sa5s Ithe stu'ent must ha(e $ALA$DA /28stu'ie' 'ee*l5 .oth ol' an' ne6 /.ooks8 .efore )ettin) $ALA$DA /28a'mission 222/at $a lan'a8. Hiuen san), .5 ol' an' ne6 .ooks8 e(i'entl5 refers to 6orks su9h as 0eda- /panisads- 6orks of 'ifferent s5stems Sank5a, "aisesika $5a5a an' all the 6orks of Maha5ana an' Hina5ana Bu''hism. hus 6e fin' the stu'ent 6as su**ose' to ha(e kno6le')e of these su.?e9ts .efore he sou)ht a'missionJ /II, 2C28. But his .io)ra*her Huui Li, a**arentl5 9ontra'i9ts him 6hen he sa5s Gstu'ents at $alan'a stu'5 the Gteat "ehi9le an' also /6orks .elon) to8 23 s9hools et9.J /Huote' .elo68. But Sankali5a /*. D48 6ho tries to re9on9ile the t6o statements of Hiuen san) an' his .io)ra*her H6ui Li e0*lains that the stri9t a'mission test 6as for the forei)n stu'ents 6ho 9ame to 9om*lete their e'u9ation at $alan'a. In the meantime $alan'a 6as essentiall5 a tea9hin) Uni(ersit5 .e9ause stu'ents 6ere instru9te' in all the (arie' .ran9hes of learnin) as tol' .5 H6ai Li.

<A ife- *. 2<, .5 H6ui Li translate' .5 Samuel, Beal &e)an Paul, %ren9h ri.ner +om*an5 Lt' Lon'on, 2;22, *. 2<, DBeal s., %uddhist )ecords of the Kestern Korld p. 2CD f

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22<

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<4

<4I$alan'a out )re6 the limit of a mere (ihara of Bu''hist learnin). he (ihara in the 9ourse of time tau)ht the tenets an' *rin9i*les not onl5 of Bu''hism .ut also man5 other faiths an' .esi'es all the se9ular s9ien9es unlike the Uni(ersit5 of Paris of Me'ie(al Euro*e, it 9oul' .oast of a me'i9al fa9ult5J /Sankali5a H. D. /niversity of 'alanda- *.<>;8.

<C Sankali5a 1/niversity of 'alanda *. <>; f.8 Huotes $e6man in this 9onte0t , I$alan'a 6as nothin), if not a resi'ential Uni(ersit5 *ar e09ellen9e.J At $alan'a multitu'es of 5oun) men, keen, o*en hearte', s5m*atheti9 an' o.ser(ant 9ome to)ether, freel5 mi0in) 6ith learnin) from one another, e(en if there .e none to tea9h them. he 9on(ersation of all 6as le9ture to ea9h. here the stu'ents sa6 the 6orl' on a small fiel' 6ith little trou.le. An' further .5 eliminatin) an' a'?ustin) at 6i'el5 'ifferent notions .5 a9tin) a99or'in) to the 9on(entional rules of the institution, the 6hole assem.la)e 6as moul'e' to)ether an' )a(e one tone an' one 9hara9terJ /Eohn Henr5 +ar'iner $e6man (dea of a university- *. 2AB-A2, ne6 e'ition 23;D, 2;2B <3Watters, 2 *. 2D< <;Mooker?i op. cit. *. 4DA-4D4 E-A ife- Pa)e 22< $ALA$DA /28 $ALA$DA /28 $op cit 22> ><Watters ibid >>"i'5a.husana. History of $edieval School of (ndian Lo)i9, +al9utta, 2;B;-*.C; >AMokker?ee, #. &. An9ient In'ian E'u9ation, Lon'on, 2;42, *. 4C2

2B-

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>D akakusu, *. 2CC >CUni(ersit5 of $alan'a, Moker?ee, 2%*)S. :::, *art II, 2;A2 - *. 2>2-><U >3 akakusu *. D4 >; *3D A<+ha(annes oc cit iEEpi"raphia (ndica 0(ii *a)e >2B - ><C $ALA$DA /28 22A $ALA$DA /28

IWatters, I, *. 2D<

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A4Watters, Huan Cha?an", (ol. ii ** 2DA-2D4 AD aranatha History of %uddhism ifi (ndia. r. Lama +him*a, Ala9a +hatto*a'h5a5a-motilal-Banarassi Das. 2;;B *. 2BD AAlbid 2<4 iSibid *. 2>2 64(nd. Ant. :"II, *. >BC->2< 4B ife- *. 2DB 4l$alan'a 6as somethin) more than a mere seat of uni(ersal learnin). he stu'ents flo9ke' to its *ortals, not onl5 from all the 9omers of In'ia, .ut also from 6hole of the then 9i(ili1e' 6orl', sa(e *erha*s from Gree9e an' #ome. It 6as a uni(ersit5 also in $ALA$DA /28the sense 224that it $ALA$DA /28attra9te' stu'ents from all *arts of the 6orl'. /Sankalia H. D. /niversity of 'alanda *. <>;8

GI akakusu, *. 2A4

732)AS. :II *. 44D EEpi"raphia (ndica 0(ii *. >2B f. 4AGei)er $hv. tr. Intro, 000i0 44Bala*utra'e(a7s e0am*le 6as follo6e' in the ele(enth 9entur5 .5 +hulamani "arman an' his son Mara(i?a5ottun)a(arman 6ho .uilt an' en'o6e' a s*len'i' vihara for the monks of Sailen'ra kin)'om at $a)a*attanam $ilakantha Sastri - IMa'ras Uni(ersit5 Eournal "ol. :III. $o.<, *. 2D; $ALA$DA /28 22D $ALA$DA /28

D Encyclopaedia of )eli"ion and Ethics- "ol. I: *. 2<C, 4C ife- *. 2DB S3 he sk5 flo6er 'o9trine is full5 e0*laine' in the Suran"ama sutra. It 6as e(i'entl5 a 'o9trine 'e(elo*e' in the $alan'a monaster5. he 'o9trine is sim*l5 that all o.?e9ti(e *henomena are onl5 Ilike sk5 flo6ersJ unreal an' (anishin) 4; Watters, II 2B>, 2CA an' 22B Dl(bid. 2B3 -; D<(bid. 2AC-; D>(bid. 24<- 44 $ALA$DA /28 $ALA$DA /28 22C

I akakusu, *. >C

M$ilakanta Sastri- :'alanda<- Ma'ras Uni(ersit5 Eournal :II *. 2;;

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223

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6ith the 9han)es in Maha5ana 6orshi*. Man5 ne6 'eities 9ame into e0iten9e to 9ater for the ne6

'es9ri.e' in i.etan 6orks of the 2Dth 9entur5. As re)ar's the a99e*tan9e of &ala9akra - 5ana

D4Bos9h %. D. &. *r!onde 0an het ,roote Klooster de 'alanda / i?'s9hrift (oor In'is9he - aal-@ and en vol!en!unde I:" 2;<4, **. 4B; -433 /translate' from Dut9h !ri)inal8

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22;

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ha' their e'u9ation or 9om*lete' their e'u9ation at $alan'a ha(e

later in Ea(a in the same or'er an' 6ith the same tem*o.J

DD ife *. 22B

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2<B

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en?o5e' .5 Hiuen san), that it 6as the norm 6hi9h *re(aile' at $alan'a for the re9e*tion an'

the Bu''ha7s first *rea9hin) of the dharma at the 'eer *ark of Sarath.

DCBemet - &em*ers, A. E., &he %ronNes of 'alanda and Hindu 2avanese Art , **. 2-33 /Bi?'ra)en &. I., Deel ;B, 2;>>8 D3"i'5a.hushana S. +. (ndian o"ic mediaeval School , +al9utta, 2;B;*. 42D D4History of (ndia- Elliot H. M., Lon'on 23D;, "ol. II. * >B4->D / a.akati $asiri8 ABA bid op cit C2Ghosa A., A "uide to 'alanda - Delhi, Mana)er of Pu.li9ations 2;AD /Su*erinten'ent of Ar9heolo)i9al Sur(e5 of In'ia8 *. 2D C< "i'h5a.hushana D. S. +. $ediaeval School of (ndian o"ic- +al9utta 2;B; *lAD $ALA$DA /28 2<2 $ALA$DA /28

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2<<

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Bi.lio)ra*h5

6ho *ai' him mu9h honour an' res*e9t. A .o'5 of no.les of the 9ourt looke' u*on the fa(ours 6hi9h sultan &ut.u-'-Din .esto6e' u*on him 6ith ?ealous5.

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$ALA$DA /<8 is a (illa)eK o6nshi* not far from #a?a)aha, 9onne9te' to the Bu''ha in se(erl 6a5s. A99or'in) to the Pali 'i!ayas- the Bu''ha 6as sta5in) at

sutta an' the Asibandha!a sutta. When the Bu''ha 6as sta5in) at the Pa(arikama.a(ana a househol'er .5 name &e(aTMia 9ame to the Bu''ha an' reHueste' him to a**oint a

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too at the Pa(arikam.a(a in $alan'a. It re9or's ho6 the t6o house hol'ers Di)hata*assi an' U*ali, follo6rs of $i)antfianatha*utta, 9ame to see the

%a-Hieun sa5s that he (isite' a

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2. he term o99urs in a num.er of Pali suttas 6hi9h ma5 .e 9onsi'ere' as .elon)in) to the earliest strata of Bu''hist literature / D.l., <<>, et9@ S. (. et9, II, <A, Sn. ((. 3C<,;B;,;4B,2B>D,22BB et9.8 It also o99urs asone of the t6el(e of the 9ausal formula / Paticcasamuppada9 <. /28 hefa9tors fi(e a))re)ates / !handha-s!andha 8, /<8 the si0vihhdnapaccayd .asi9 elements /dhatu8, />8 the t6el(e .ases of *er9e*tion 1ayatana5 /A8 the ei)hteen se9on'ar5 elements of *er9e*tions 1dhatu5 an' the elements 1dhamma O >. $ame-an' .o'5 1PED. 23D8, an' name-an'-form 1&he E@position. II, 4BB8 are the other eHui(alents use' in ranslations.

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is Huite in9ommensurate 6ith the Platoni9 1Chando"ya /panisad- :III. 2A8. he /panisads em*hasi1e the 'ifferen9e of 'ualism of Eidos an' Hyle from 6hi9h the Western .inomial A. Mar5la %alk, 'amarupa and Dharmarupa- Uni(ersit5 of +al9utta, **. If.

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that it is nama or the for immaterial it arises, ans6erin) to he a))re)ates that lea' to, an' a'a*t s*ontaneousl5 arisin) 9on9e*t. So, themsel(es in 'ifferent t5*es of 6hen feelin) arises, the name he5 a an' ten'en95 Gfeelin)7 ?ust arises, ans6erin) to D. he e0isten9e. '5in) thou)hts are ha(e threefol' are terme' !amma!amma-nimitta and "ati-nimatta /H.(. "ism >3C8

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Abh!0y. <A8. 6o saprati"hata on his .a9k an' the 9ri**le sho6in) ob+ects 9annot o99u*5 the same the 6a5 s*a9e simultaneousl5 1ibid. 4D8. 10imuttima""a*. >D@ 0ism................ C. In the *aintin)s 'e*i9tin) the .ha(a9akra, namarupa is re*resente' .5 a shi* 6ith four o99u*ants@ the shi* re*resentin) rupa 1ru pa!!handha5 an' the four men re*resnetin) natna 1four arupion !handha5. See En95. Bsm.

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2>B 2<;

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'imarApa an' the 9orres*on'in) IelementsJ of other 9ate)ories namel5 namarupa 10bhA. 2D;8.

S. II, AD, S. II, AD, AD@ PS. I, 23>8. he 'ettippa!arana a''s another *s59holo)i9al fa9tor, namel5, the min' 1citta5 an' makes name 9onsist of si0 *s59holo)i9al

In the same te0ts, rupa is i'entifie' 6ith *rimar5 1bhuta5 an' se9on'ar5 1upada5 elements of

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namarupa-paccaya phasso 1D. II. 4D.8. A99or'in) to these *assa)es, 0innana arises 'e*en'in) on namarii pa- namarupa /in tern8 arises 'e*en'in) on 0inndnam an' namarupa "ives rise either to salayatana or to phassa.

Poussin7 2. A. 2;B<, *. >l!f8. hus, ;. It is no less essential for the 9ontinuit5 of life /D. AA. >>3@ S. (ll- 2A>8. 2B. he Patisambhidama""a is one of the fifteen .ooks that .elon) to the Khudda!arti!aya of the Pali +annon. hou)h it has foun' its 6a5 to he Pali Sutta Pitaka, it is in fa9t a &heravada treatise 9om*lie' on the st5le of the te0ts of the Pali A.hi'hamma*itaka. It thus .elon)s to a later *erio' in

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0innana is 9ons9iousness 6hi9h al6a5s arises 6ith referren9e to an o.?e9t 6hi9h ma5 .e /28 material su9h as an o.?e9t of (ision / riipa8 or

It is e0termel5 si)nifi9ant that in the Payasi-sutta- 6hi9h 9learl5 refers to this Samsaric 0innana in the 9on9h-shell illustration, vinnana is ma'e analo)ous to man 1purisa5

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It is o.(ious no6 that this he Ho"dcara-0i+hanavddins ha(e samsaric vinnana 6hi9h is none inter*rete' the three use' as other the "andhaba s5non5ms the Pali suttas- namel5, 22. than "asu.an'hu sa5s 9onstitutes that Ala5a(i?nana is in 9alle' .ha(an)a .5 the amra*arl i5as, i.e., the &heravadins- mulavi+htina .5 the $ahasan"hi!asan' asamsari!a-vi+nana .5 the $ahisasa!as /Karmasiddhi-pra!arana ,trs. .5 E. Lamotte, Malan)es +hinois et Bou''hi)ues, *art i(, 2;>4-2;>D, *.

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9on9e*tion. he *hrase namariipassa ava!!anti- a99or'in) to Bh''ha)hosa, means 'es9ent of the *s59ho-*h5si9al elements / riipaariipa-dhamma5- a *henomenon

namarupa sta"e- the fetus un'er)oes 'e(elo*ment in the follo6in) fi(e sta)es@ namel5, /28 !alala- *la9enta, /<8 abbuda or arbuda- state of the fetus in the first t6o months, />8

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2>4

$AMA#UPA

*ossesses e5es. But, it is sai' that he same Huestion is *ut 2<. 0i+nfinam +anmanah asrayabhutah- Abh!. 2<. 2anmano betuh +ana!o pratisandhi+i+ah- Abhidharmadipa- P. 2<@ AbhK0y. *. 43. 0i+nfinena utpattisthanaprdpandt9 !armaparibhdvitena vi+hdena santdnena pravrttya cyutisthandt utpattislhdne punarbhavabi +abhataya

$AMA#UPA

2>D

$AMA#UPA

simultaneous. Here, no dharma transmi)rates from this 6orl' to the ne0t. #e.irth is a9tuate' .5 the for9e of !arma, a9tions, the *ro9ess is 9om*ara.le to the refle9tions of a

that a man 6alks, stan's or 'oes somethin)@ for it is nd marupa that is realit5 6alks@ an' 'oes thin)s. here is no man or in'i(i'ual or .ein) o(er an' a.o(e ndtnariipa

$AMA#UPA

2>C

$AMA#UPA

en(ironment, i. e. the e0ternal 6orl', an' its rele(an9e to Bu''hism as a s*iritual 'is9i*line 9annot .e *ro*erl5 un'erstoo' if the su.?e9t is 'i(or9e' from this

is him. He sees Ithe )oo'J in it an' 9onsi'ers sense- e0*erien9e as ha**iness 1Sn. (. ;B;@ SnA. II, 4DB@ Arya Salistambha Siitra , ** ; f@ $dhvr. 4D<f8.

$AMA#UPA

2>3

$AMA#UPA

o(er9ome an' its o**osite Hualit5, fire an' 6in'-*ass a6a5 lea(in) no 2>. 0innana in this 9onte0t refers .oth to the Ifinal 9ons9iousnessJ /carima!a-vinndna 8 an' the I*re*arin) 9ons9iousnessV /a.hisankharaDA. in II,this >;<f8. 2A.vinndnaF 0iiindna 9onte0t refers .oth to the Ifinal 9ons9iousnessJ /carima!a-vinndna5 an' the I*re*arin) 9ons9iousnessJ 1abhisan!hara0ihfiana , DA. II, >;<B-

$AMA#UPA

2>; $AISADASSA$A"ISUDDHI,

9onsi'ere' to .e a 'ifferentiation, or rather a manifestation, of the Brahman 6hi9h is the untimate realit5, 6hereas in Bu''hism the

He 6ho )ras*s the true nature of

$A$DAMAMA

2AB $A$-HAI- +HI-&UEI-+HA"A$

$A$DAMA$$A, a tantri9 Bu''hist tem*le in Pa)an in M5anmar. An ins9ri*tion set u* 6ithin the *re9in9ts of this tem*le itself states that it 6as .uilt at the

$A$-HAI- +HI-&UEI-+HA"A$ &he records of the (nner a? Sent %ac! From the South Sea- or in a sim*ler form the )ecords Sent %ac! from the South Sea , 6as 9om*ose'

$A$-HAI- +HI-&UEI-+HA"A$ 2A2 $A$-HAI- +HI-&UEI-+HA"A$

(i1. 9ha*ter on rules of 'e9orum in .athin) the Bu''ha7s Ima)e, et9. Man5 of the items ha(e 9onne9tions 6ith the a9ti(e 9omman'ments in the 0inayai.e. the !annas *res9ri.e' in the

himself, relatin) his (o5a)e to the West, his *il)rima)es an' stu'ies in In'ia an' his sta5 in Sri(a?a5a in his return ?oume5.

$A$-HAI-+HI-&UEI-+HA"A$ 2A< $A$-HAI-+HI-&UEI-+HA"A$

ho6 in the monasteries of amrali*ti in East In'ia as 6ell as $alan'a Monaster5 itself monks use' to ha(e rules esta.lishe' .5 the essem.l5 of

su#tra- Bharthuri7s -sastra 6hi9h 6as a 9ommentr5 of the +uri, the same author7s Be'a an' the 9ommentr5 on it .5 Dharma*ala. Bhartrhari 6as a 9ontem*orar5 of Dharma*ala. He

$A$-HAI-+HI-&UEI-+HA"A$ 2A> $A$-HAI-+HI-&UEI-+HA"A$

!f these, Dhramakirti an' Pra?nS*alita as reno(ators of the Hetu(i'5a, an' Guna*ra.ha as a re*ro*a)ator of Phe0inaya-pita!a6ere all s9holars of reno6n at that

*rohi.itions often )ot 9onfuse'. He ur)es the monks to follo6 their res*e9ti(e s5stems stri9tl5 an' a.i'e .5 their o6n re)ulations. He also o**oses the +hines "ina5a-

$ASI&

2AA

$ASI&

$A#A&A See HEA"E$ A$D HELL

$A#+! I+S See D#UGS

9onsiste' of a (eran'ah, 22 lK<ft. 0 A lK<ft. 6ith t6o *lain 9ells at the .a9k. he $ahayana Bu''hists of the si0th or se(enth 9entur5 ha(e turne' in into a shrine 6ith

$ASI&

2A4

$ASI&

the left *anel the 9haste 6ife 6ho, ins*ite of 9oer9ion an' for9e, remains faithful to her hus.an' an' is res9ue' .5 him, an' the fi)ht *anels the un9haste 6ife 6ho,

he ins9ri*tien en's 6ith the 6or's I.................................................

$ASI&

2AD

$ASI&

+a(e $o. 3 , In the .a9k 6all of the (eran'ah of this 9a(e is a oneline ins9ri*tion, 6hi9h 'es9ri.es the 9a(e as the meritorious )ift of Dasaka Mu)u'asa an' his famil5.

here are t6o more ins9ri*tions in the 9ourt of this 9a(e, .oth re)isterin) 'onations to the monaster5 on the rirasmi Mountain.

$ASI&

2AC

$ASI&

has a .a9k aisle s9reene' .5 t6o 9olumns of 6hi9h the ele*hants an' their ri'ers an' the thin sHuare mem.ers of the 9a*itals onl5 are finishe'. he shrine as a 6hole has

Another ins9ri*tion e(er the 'oor6a5 re9or's the )ift of the (illa)e of Dham.ika .5 the inha.itants of $asika.

$ASI&

2A3

$ASI&

+a(e $o. << , It is onl5 a 9ell 6ith an o*en 6eran'ah in front. he 9ell is ;ft. 3in. 'ee* an' 4ft. A in. .roa', 6ith a 'oor6a5 <ft. .roa'. he (eran'ah is 4ft. Cin. .roa' an' >ft.

suit the ne6 6orshi*. Similar ima)es are foun' in some of the H. #. Perera.

$A"ADHA#MA

2A;

$E&&HAMMA

$A APA#I$$A See PA#I$$A $A HAPU A See MAHA"I#A, $IGA$ HA$A HAPU A $A HIPA++AYA See PA++AYA

W S. &. $ana5akkara.

this in itself, 'oes not im*l5 'e*arture from househol'-life.

$E&&HAMMA

24B

$E&&HAMMA

in the 6orl' X citr*niQ are !Ima or lustful in themsel(es R'a te !amayani citrani lo!e. S$. 2.<<U. It is the lustful atta9hment to thin)s of

his alone makes sense in the Bu''hist s9heme of reli)ious 9luture. his 9han)e of 'ire9tion is 9losel5 su**orte' .5 the other t6o

$EPAL

242

$EPAL

$EPAL, 6hi9h lies in the Himala5an (alle5 6as o99u*ie' in *re-histori9 times .5 a *eo*le of i.etan ori)in. In the < n' +ent. A. +., the In'ian Li99ha(is foun'e' a '5nast5 there,

manus9ri*ts is e0tremel5 sli)ht. Amon) the im*ortant $e*ali manus9ri*ts of this 'ate are t6o Astasahasri!a Pra+ndparamita

$EPAL

24<

$EPAL

earth su**ortin) a Bu''hist stru9ture ha(e also .een foun' in 'ifferent *arts of the (alle5. Besi'es these there are miniature stupas-

num.er of 'e(otees 'urin) 6inter. he stupa is a 9entral shrine aroun' 6hi9h are the '6ellin) houses of the Lamas. he Stupa is en9lose' .5 a 6all. he .ase is of three su99essi(e

$E HE#LA$DS

24>

$E HE#LA$DS

L Whilst *art of the Dut9h East In'ies, a W. Eosias "an 'ienst, to)ether 6ith fello6 Euro*ean Bu''hists, starte' an I Asso9iation for the Pro*a)ation of Bu''hism in Ea(aJ in 2;<;, his ma5 6ell ha(e *ursue' a9ti(ities until the Ea*anese

.e9omin) a9ti(el5 in(ol(e'. %rom 2;D4 to 2;DC he 6as Se9retar5 General of the IBu''hist +ir9le of %rien'sJ an' o*enl5 a(o6e' his staun9h a'heren9e to the hera(a'a tra'ition. In 2;C2 he arran)e' for

$E HE#LA$DS

24A

$E HE#LA$DS

2 he onl5 other Dut9h monks kno6n to the autho- are, $5ana(i*ula /'ie' at Do'an'u6a, 2;C<8 !lan' A-nan'a /+olom.o, 2;C48 an'

Het %oeddhisme /Utre9ht, 2;CB8, E.W. De Eon)7s De Studie van het %oeddhisme /2;4D8 an' (on Glasna**7s %oeddhisme /2;C28. Pre'i9ta.l5, a num.er of .ooks on Oen an' me'itation ha(e .een

$E HE#LA$DS

244

$E HE#LA$DS

ranslate' e0tra9ts from the alitavistara 6ere in9lu'e' in t6o stu'ies on Boro.u'ur@ +.M. Ple5te7s Die %uddhale"ende in den S!ulpturen des &emples von %orobudur /Amster'am, 2;B28 an'

.5 t6o i.etan Lamas, Geshe sultim an' #e*ten. A*art from 9ontri.utin) *a*ers to a9a'emi9 ?ournals, in the ma?or 9entres of !riental stu'ies in Euro*e, he e'ite' the $i a )as Pa C )nam &har- the

2 Anan'a7s e0*ositions 1Subhasutta D. 2. *. <BA8 Sari*utta7s 1$ahavedalla 1$. I. *. <3<8, Dhamma'inna7s 1Culavedalla $. 2. *. <;;8

$E

IPPA&A#A$A

24D

$E

IPPA&A#A$A

$E IPPA&A#A$A 9anoni9al treatise

is a *ost tra'itionall5

Mahaka99ana. he *resent 'a5 s9holars are hesitant to a99e*t

< Bu''ha'atta. thinks, that as there is no mention of the Abhidammapita!a in the 'ettippa!araria- it 6oul' ha(e .een 9om*ose' > 'ettippa!arana- E'. Har'5 E., P S., Lon'on, 2;D2, Intro'u9tion :I:. A Peta!opadesa /Sinhala s9ri*t8, Bu''ha?a5anti E'ition 9ite' .5 Lankanan'a L., Intro'u9tion :II. 4 Wintemi1, M. History of (ndian iterature /En)lish translation .5 &etkaran' &ohn H.8, Uni(ersit5 of +al9utta, 2;>>. "ol. II. Peta!opadesa-%Nrua /P S8 *. III. $E IPPA&A#A$A 24C $E IPPA&A#A$A

*rior to the Abhidammapita!a /Bu''ha'atta A. P. Pali iterature /Sinhala s9ri*t8 +olom.o 2;DD *. 2>38 *. 23>8. C $anamoli translate' Hara as 9on(e5in) 'aya as )ui'e lines an' $ulapada as root terms. he si0teen Haras as &eachin"san (nvesti"ation- a Construin"- Footin"s- Characteristics- a Fourfold array- a Convertion- an Analysis- a )eversal- Synonyms- Descriptions- ?ay of Entry- a Clearin" up- &erms of e@pression )eJuisites- a co. ordination

$E

IPPA&A#A$A

243

$E

IPPA&A#A$A

Huttihara /the metho' of esta.lishin) 9onne9tion in )rou*s8, Padatthanahara /the metho' of tea9hin) 6ith referen9e to the fun'amentals8. a!!hanahara /the

A!usalas are , &an ha /thirst8, Avi++a /i)noran9e8, obha /9o(etousness8, Dosa /hatre'8, Moha /'elusion8, Subhasanna /false i'ea of *urit58, 'iccasahha /false i'ea of

3 ; 2B 22

Malalasekera, G. P. Pali iterature of Ceylon- +olom.o, 2;43 *. 23A. 'ettippa!arana- E'. Har'5, E. 1P&S5 Lon'on, 2;D2. Intro'u9tion, *. :I"-:". Bhikkha $anamoli. &he ,uide 1'ettippa!arma5 P S., Lon'on, 2;CC. Intro'u9tion *. I". 'ettippa!arana /Sinhala S9ri*t8, E'ite' Lankanan'a L., Intro'u9tion *. :".

$E

IPPA&A#A$A

24; $E

IPPA&A#A$A

All

these

aru)ments

an'

$IBBA$A

2DB

$IBBA$A

$IBBA$A, here is no 'ou.t the Pali Bu''hist term 'ibbana , as mu9h as its In'ian Sanskrit *arallel 'irvana- 'enotes in )eneral the hi)hest s*iritual attainment in

himself is sai' to ha(e 9laime', on .e9omin) the Bu''ha, that this is his last .irth an' that he is not )oin) to .e .orn a)ain / ayam antima +ati natthi dani punabbhavo

$IBBA$A

2D2

$IBBA$A

means that the Glam* )oes off or )ets .lo6n off7. Like6ise in the &heri"atha- 6e meet heri Pata9ara/not the mis-i'entifie' heir &isa)otami. See &heri"a tha (erses

a**rehen'in) 1vihnata5 to .e an5thin) more than the (er5 *ro9ess itself, then one 9eases to think in terms of here, there or an56here. his makes en' of sufferin).

$IBBA$A

2D<

$IBBA$A

6or' vanaiha in the )ras*in) sense of at 9ra(in) or sensor5 atta9hment in the follo6in) (erse in the "an)isa hera 9olle9tion,

life, lea'in) to 9ontinuan9e in Samsara@ 6e maintain that it 9annot .e sai' of a nibbanic in'i(i'ual, .e9ause upadana 6hi9h must in(aria.l5 lea' to another e0isten9e

$IBBA$A

2D>

$IBBA$A

the earlier an' more authenti9. While the 9lassifi9ation of the *rose se9tion ha' essentiall5 a Hualitati(e 'ifferentiation , the metri9al note stresses onl5 a tem*oral one, one of

*re(ents release from Samsara. Ho6 then 9an there .e an5 nibbanadhatu 6ith upadi Y sesa M

$IBBA$A

2DA

$IBBA$A

Whate(er or 6here(er .e its ori)in, this theme of Saupadisesa an' Anupadisesa is latterl5 seen to .e *o*ularl5 '6elt u*on an' ela.orate' in se(eral *la9es in the An"uttara 'i!aya.

to the re'u9tion of SaKnsara.uil'in) a9ti(it5 or !amma-!!haya an' that lea's to the termination of du!!ha or du!!a!!haay.

NIBBIDA

2D4

NIBBIDA

$IBBIDA A 6or' 6hi9h ranks hi)h in the reli)io- ethi9al s5stem of Bu''hist thinkin), as in(aria.l5 lea'in) a 'is9i*le to li.eration in $ir(ana. Literall5 it means Gnot o.tainin) 'eli)ht in /sensor5

hus a 6ise man shoul' refle9t 6ell on the 9ausal )enesis alone, namel5 that 'e*en'ent on one thin) another arises an' u*on the 9essation of the former, the latter 9eases to .e. $amel5 that the life-

NIBBIDA

2DD

NIBBIDA

IWith a totally unified mind- learn to fo9us attention on the un?holesome reality or the ?orld. Ma5 5ou ha(e an a6areness of 5our o6n *h5si9al .ein). %e thou constantly detached< 1asubhaya cittam bhavehi e!a""am susamahitam sati !aya"ata ty . atthu nibbida -bahulo bhava5.

$ote here the i'entities in the t6o sets of (erses , "ari)fsa , / hera)atha8 nimittam pariva++ehi subham ra"upasam hitarn (. 2<<A

$I+HI#E$

2DC $I+HI#E$SH!SHU

NICHIREN 6as .om in the 5ear 9<<< in A6a, lo9ate' in mo'em +hi.a Prefe9ture. At the a)e of si0teen, he 6as or'aine' into the *riesthoo' of the en'ai se9t at a tem*le 9alle' the &i5osumi'era,

2 Saratthadipani Samantapasadi!a ti!a E'. B. De(arakkhita +olom.o 2;2A, *. 3B-32 < S. Ill *. 2<, A. II ** A4, >;B, AB

$IDDESA

2D3

$IDDESA

$IDDESA , 'iddesa is the ele(enth .ook of the Khudda!a 'i!aya- the

he antiHuit5 of $i''esa , he hera(a'a tra'ition tra9e .a9k the

> A.ena5aka !li(er IA &e@tual and Historical Analysis of the Khudda!a 'i!aya< +olom.o 2;3A, *. ;; A $ahaniddesa I /P. . S.8 *. > 4 Sinhala 9hara9ters e'ition of Suman"ala vilasini has onl5 'iddesa. D Encyclopaedia of %uddhism "ol. I. *. DC C Encyclopaedia of %uddhism Lo9. +it.

$IDDESA

2D;

$IDDESA

3 ;

A.ena5aka o*. 9it. A.ena5aka o*. 9it.

$IDDESA

2CB

$IDDESA

earliest strata of the 9anon. Its

#e?99iin) Parivara

so

man5

/te0ts8 e0e)esis

$IG#!DHA EA A&A 2C2

$IG#!DHA#AMA

NIGRODHA !ATA,A /$o.AA48 A kin) name' Ma)a'ha, on9e rei)ne' in #a?a)aha. His son marrie' a ri9h mer9hant7s 'au)hter, .ut she, .e9ause she 6as .arren lost fa(our. hereu*on she *reten'e' to .e 6ith 9hil', an' 6hen her time 're6 near,

<>4,<AA@I".44,2B2,2DC,232,<D<,>2A8 . "arious Sak5ans /4.". >D;-C3, >;4C, AB>-A@ All.2;D@ III.<3A@

$IHILISM

2C<

$IHILISM

$IHILISM , he term .asi9all5 refers to a (ie6 9hara9teri1e' .5 the 'enial of moral, ethi9al an' so9ial (alues. It 'enotes a sense of ske*ti9ism on the *ossi.ilit5 of

formulatin) the Bu''hist res*onse to the emoti(ist 9laim first 6e ha(e lo a'mit that the Huestion as 'is9usse' .5 mo'em *hiloso*h5 is

$IHILISM

2C>

$I&AYA /<8

is .ase' on the (ie6 that theism is the onl5 form of (ali' reli)ion for, in

NI,AYA 526 %i(e-fol' 9lassifi9ation of the Sutta 9olle9tion

$I&AYA /<8

2CA

$I&AYA /<8

9ontent of the Bu''ha7s messa)e of li.eration, kno6n u* to that time .5 the 6or' dhamma. El'er Maha &assa*a7s ma?or 9on9ern at that assem.l5 of the %irst +oun9il 6as to

Ho6 an' 6h5 'i' this ha**enM What 6e are 9on9ene' here is a.out the s*linterin) into t6o )rou*s of the masters of the ol'er ni!aya tra'ition. %rom the unassaila.le

$I&AYA /<8

2C4

$I&AYA /<8

6e ha(e referre' earlier / eten eva upayena panca ni!a ye pucchi5. he Cullava""a kno6s of no Abhidhamma re9ital at the %irst

Khudd!a as the last. he first four are left inta9t. In or'er to in)eniousl5 fin' a *la9e to a99ommo'ate /in the a9ti(ities of the

$I&AYAS A$G #AH AY A 2CD $I&AYASASG#AHAYA

$I&AYASAI"G#AHAYA , G+om*en'ium of $ika 5a Histor57, also entitle' the Sasanavataraya GDes9ent of the Sasana7, .5 Ea5a.ahu Dharmakirti of the Ga'ala 'eni5a, tra9es the histor5 of the 'is*ensation

an' 9om*ose' 6himsi9al 9ommentariesJ. he hir' +oun9il of the heri5a se9t 6as hel' un'er the aus*i9es of Em*eror Asoka />r' +entur5.B.+.8 It is mentione' that

$I&AYASA$G#AHAYA 2CC

$IMI

.5 the Maha(ihara monks. Later, 'urin) the time of Silakala /423-4>2 A.+.8, the Eeta6ana se9t a99e*te' the "aitul5a(a'a. Durin) this time, a hera name' Eoti*ala 9ame from In'ia an' 6orste' the "aitula5a(a

While tra9in) the (i9issitu'es that the heri5a se9t un'er6ent in Sri Lanka, the author also 'eals 6ith the literar5 tra'itions. his 6ork .e9ame so im*ortant that the Sa''haramaratnakara5a in9lu'es its

$IMI

2C3

$IMI

he fa9t that *er9e*tions an' 9o)nitions o*erate .ase' on re9o)ni1in) su9h nimittas in the 6orl' aroun' us, ho6e(er, is not un*ro.lemati9. In or'er to .e a.le to

onl5 6hat is kno6nJ 1/d. 85. Within minutes of this instru9tion, %ahiya .e9ame an arahant. hat this instru9tion 6as in'ee' 9on9erne' 6ith the affe9ti(e in*ut *ro(i'e' .5

$IMI

2C; $ISSAGGIYA-PA+I

IYA

NIRAYA See HEA"E$ A$D HELL NIRMANA BUDDHA See DH A#M A A BUDDHA NIRMANA ,AYA See #I&AYA NIRODHANUPASSANAS A$UPASSA$A NIRODHASAMAPATTI See SA$$A "EDAYI A $I#!DHA NIRUTTTPATISAMBHIDA See PA ISAMBHIDA

2. A 9orrelation of the 9hara9teristi9 of im*ermanen9e 6ith the si)nless eman9i*ation 9an S. .e", foun' at ", Pads. <. At D. Ill, <2>@ DD@ S. 2B4.II, A3 an' 0ism. D4C. >. At D. Ill, <<D@ D. Ill, <A<@ D. Ill, <C;@ $. I, <A;@ $. 2,>B2@ M. Ill, 22<@ A. A. E.). at S. ", 242@ A. Ill, A<>@ an' &ha". 34.

$ISSAGGIYA-PA+I

IYA 23B $ISSAGGIYA-PA+I

IYA

'ele(ere' 'ire9t from *erson to *erson, 6ith no e0ternal interme'iar5 a)en95.

hese sikkaha*a'a are arran)e' in 'es9en'in) or'er of )ra(it5, startin) 6ith 2. the four Para+i!a 6hi9h are the most serious of all monasti9 offen9es, reHuirin) the mis9reants to

$ISSAYA /28

232

$ISSAYA /28

others 6ho are in nee'8. his (oluntar5 forfeiture 6hi9h is le)all5 reHuire' un'er monasti9 le)islation, of 6hat one has )ot into one7s han', is 'issa""iyam pacittiyam 1ida m me bhante civara m dasahati!!anta m nissa""iyam (maham ayasmantanamnissa++ami. 0in. III. 2;D f.8 he San)ha then a99e*ts it in his name an' re-allo9ates it to another 6ho is in ne' of one 1..(dam civaram itthannamasso bhi!!huno nissa""iya m Cfyasmantanam nissattham Hadi ayasamantanam pata!alla m ayasmanta ima m civara m itthaimInassa bhi!!un dadeyyun. ti loc cit.5.

ro.es 6ere '5e' ro.es. herefore the5 are !asayani vatthani. Also referre' to as .ein) kasa(a. /$ote , uses like !esamassum oharetva Kasayani vatthani accha detva 1D. I.

$ISSAYA /<8

23<

$ISSAYA /<8

Althou)h, a99or'in) to stri9t vinetum abhivinaye vineium5. All these referen9es o99ur at 0in. I. *. re)ulations, a monk or nun is to 'e*en' on these reHuisites, 5et some DA. allo6an9es are ma'e so that he or she 9oul' resort to su.stitutes. he monk /or the nun8 shoul' tr5, as lon)

$l A

HA F $EYYA

HA 23> $l A

HA F $EYYA

HA

&atha"ato e!apu""alo bhi!!have ti adina vadeyya. yasmapana tena vuttam tasma paramatthato atthi pu""alo ti "anhanto tam neyyattham suttantam nitattho suttanto ti dipet. J

$I A HA F $EYYA HA , 'ilatlha an' 'eyyattha are to t5*es of suttas sho6n in a short sutta in 2. $anorathapurani ti!a /un*u.lishe' Manus9ri*t of the $ational Museum +olom.o8 Manus9ri*t $o. A, %olio 234 (.

$l A

HA F $EYYA

HA 23A $l A

HA F $EYYA

HA

.e e0*laine' ha(in) 'ra6n /6or's him. he suta 9on9erne' in the e0am*les et9.8 from out si'e. He An"uttara ni!aya testif5 that from an ha(in) left out the term 'itattha earl5 *erio' of the Bu''hasasana, <. &aruna'asa Y. &he %uddhist &heory of Double &ruths- &al5ani "ol. Ill, 2;3A, *. <A

$r A

HA F $EYYA $l"A#A$A

HA 234 23D

$l"A#A$A

H$+-)r$%a/ d . $)2' n-7/$+-+ )* n$ (arana ,

IIt seems (er5 likel5 that this

Gra'ual

Sa5in)s

/ An"uttara

>. Sumana*ala Galman)o'a A'i Bau''ha Darsana5a /Sinhala8 IPrimiti(e Bu''histthe Philoso*h5J +olom.o 2;;A, *. 23A ff. !ri)inall5 term Pani?ika nivarana seems A. %odhicaryavatara Bi.liothe9a In'i9a, +al9utta 2;BA - 2;2A, *. 4. E')erton %, %uddhist Hybrid Dictionaty- !0for' Uni(ersit5 Press, to ha(e .een use' meta*hori9all5 Lon'on, 2;4>, *. >2B.

$l"A#A$A

23C

$I"A#A$A

It is e(i'ent that the first t6o nivarana- abhi++ha an' vyapada- are foun' in some form or another in all the 9ate)ories of *assions. hese t6o are other6ise kno6n as t6o of the three e(il mental a9tions. he last

.5 it .e9omes lethar)i9 an' hee'less as it is the o**osite of stri(in) for s*iritual *ro)ress 1PS. I, 2D>@Abhvt. <>- <2A8.

$I"A#A$A

233

$I"A#A$A

he An"uttara 'i!aya )i(es a 9ause for the arisin) of e(er5 hin'ran9e an' takes un6ise refle9tion as the 9ause of 'ou.t, the fifth hin'ran9e =A. 2,>ff8. he other four 9auses are, Aus*i9ious si)n

tor*or@ 9almness of min' / cetaso vupasama5 for the 'isa**earn9e of a)itation an' 6orr5@ an' 6ise refle9tion 1yoniso manasi!ara5 for the 'isa**earan9e of 'ou.t /A.I,>ff8.

$I"A#A$A

23;

$I"A#A$A 9

total 'estru9tion 1SnA. 8-4-Dhs A.E 72. see also vism. **. 223, 244, 43;8, 6hi9h takes *la9e 6hen the monk attains su*reme 6is'om 10ism.43;8.

su*ramun'ane *ath 1pathamama""a-nana8. I.e. the kno6le')e of the sotapanna- sense-'esire, ill-6ill an' 6orr5 are 'estro5e' .5 the thir' kno6le')e of the *ath

$IYAMA DHAMMA,

2;B $IYAMA DHAMMA,

It ma5 .e *ertinent, this are insu.?e9t 9onte0t, to mention that the fi(e hin'renses form one of the 9ate)ories of the thin)s of e0isten9e /dhamma5 to .e 9ontem*late' in the fourth .asis of min'fulness

to a 9ertain set *attern an' the re)ulate' re*etition of this *ro9ess in the 9ontinuit5 of a *arti9ular s*e9ies is the ma?or as*e9t of bi+aniyama. he s9ientifi9 theories of )enes an' 9ells, the .irth, )ro6th,

$IYAMA DHAMMA,

2;2

$IYAMA DHAMMA,

in'i(i'ual. his is a la6 of a9tion an' rea9tion that )o(erns the e0*en'in) or the fruition of the !ammic ener)5 store' in an in'i(i'ual sans an5 e0ternal inter(ention as )o' or an5

Hen9e, e(er5thin) in the uni(erse e0ists an' 9eases to e0ist on this theor5 of 9ause an' effe9t, 6hi9h has .een )enerali1e' here as a fi0e' la6, a niyamadhamma.

$!BLE EIGH -%!LD PA H 2;< $!BLE EIGH -%!LD PA H

fun9tion in 6aterti)ht 9om*artments .ut their fiel's of o*eration ine(ita.l5 en9roa9h u*on one another on, for instan9e, bi+aniyama 9annot

to M It lea's to the utter 9essation of 9ra(in), to *a9ifi9ation, to $i..ana /S.II.*.2BD8.

$!BLE EIGH -%!LD PA H 2;> $!BLE EIGH -%!LD PA H

this Path, namel5, the mun'ane, 6hi9h is 'es9ri.e' as tinte' 6ith inflo6s, in9line' to merit an' *ro'u9in) the su.stratum of re.irth@ an' the su*ramun'ane 6hi9h is

*ro'u9ti(e of the su.stratum of re.irth, .ea9use the attitu'es one 'e(elo*s in this le(el are 'one not throu)h 9om*lete un'erstan'in) of the true nature of thin)s.

$!BLE# EIGH -%!LD PA H 2;A $!BLE EIGH %!LD PA H

)eneral. But as a )eneral rule, if one en)a)es in an5 a9ti(it5 .5 6a5 of li(in), that 9auses har'shi* to an5 other .ein), it amounts to 6ron) li(in). hus in the An)uttara $ika5a

9ulti(atin) the *re9e'in) se(en sta)es of the Path, is the one *ointen'ness of min',7

$!BLE EIGH -%!LD PA H 2;4 $!BLE EIGH %!LD PA H

an en' to Samsara is .5 'e(elo*in) 6is'om, 6hi9h 6oul' hel* a man to ha(e insi)ht into the true nature of thin)s. he true nature of thin)s is 'es9ri.e' as im*ermanent7 or transitor5, an' hen9e unsatisfa9tor5

tea9hin)s he 'i' not *rea9h to them onl5 a.out the su.tleties of his 'hamma. !nl5 to the (er5 fe6 6ho 6ere keen an' intelli)ent enou)h to un'erstan' su9h 'o9trines 'i' he

$!#MA$, HA##Y +AMPBELL 2;D $!#MA$, HA##Y +AMPBELL

the mu' .eneath 6ater. Bein) nourishe' .5 the manure in the mu' an' 6ater the lotus .u' )ro6s

kno6le')e in Sanskrit .5 follo6in) the le9tures of Professor Eulius E))elin).

$!#MA$, HA##Y +AMPBELL 2;C

$YAYABI$DU

su99essful in o.tainin) li.eral )rants from the Mora5 resear9h %un' of E'in.ur)h Uni(ersit5 an' the Ma0 Muller Memorial %un' for the *ur*ose of 9olle9tin) the ne9essar5

NYAYABINDU is a Sanskrit reatise on Bu''hist Lo)i9 an' E*istemolo)5 .5 A9ar5a Dharmakirthi, 9ir9a Cth 9entur5 A. +., a follo6er of Dinna)a /Di)na)a8

$YAYABI$DU

2;3

$YAYABI$DU

is, in its turn follo6e' .5 a su99essful a9tion. +o)nition, 6hi9h lea's stra5, 6hi9h 'e9ei(es the sentient .ein)s in their e0*e9tations an' 'esires, is error or 6ron)

9o6s. his *er9e*tion is in'i(i'ual 6hereas inferen9e is )eneral kno6le')e. A99or'in) to the *ro0imit5 or remoteness of an o.?e9t, *er9e*tion of it (aries. hus

$YAYABI$DU

2;;

$YAYABI$DU

/.8

Effe9 / Karya 8 - Here there is fire .e9ause there is smoke.

;. $on *er9e*tion of the 9ause /!arananupalabdhi5

$YAYABI$DU

<BB

$YAYABI$DU

s9holars think that Lo)i9 a**eare' as a rea9tion a)ainst a s5stem of 6hole s9ale ske*ti9ism, 6hi9h 9on'emne' all human kno6le')e in )eneral as in(ol(e' in ho*eless 9ontra'i9tion.

he aim of this s9hool 6as to 'is9lose the 'ee* *hiloso*hi9 9ontents of the s5stem of Dinna)a an' Dharmakirti, re)ar'in) it as a 9riti9al s5stem of Lo)i9 an'

$YAYABI$DU

<B2

n5a5a*ra(eSa

or'inar5 *ersons. His 6orks 'i' not $YAYAP#A"ESA is a treatise on re9ei(e the a**re9iation of the Bu''hist Lo)i9 ori)inall5 6ritten in 2. "i'5a.hushan S. +., $ediaeval school of (ndian o"ic- +al9utta * 3;. <. Wintemit1, History 2;B; of (ndia iterature- "ol. II. *. >4B.

$YAYAP#A"ESA

<B<

$YAYAP#A"ESA

/i8 A thesis in9om*ati.le 6ith *er9e*tion 6u9h as Gsoun' is inau'i.le7. /ii8 A thesis in9om*ati.le 6ith inferen9e su9h as Ga *ot is eternal /reall5 Ga *ot is noneternal, .e9ause it is a *ro'u9t8. /iii8 A thesis in9om*ati.le 6ith *u.li9 o*inion su9h as , Gman7s hea' is *ure, .e9ause it is the lim. of an animate .ein). /i(8 A thesis in9om*ati.le 6ith one7s o6n .elief or 'o9trine, e. ). A "aisesika *hiloso*her sa5in) Gsoun' is eternal7. /(8 A thesis @in9om*ati.le 6ith one7s o6nL statement su9h as Gm5 mother is .arren7. /(i8 A thesis 6ith an unfamiliar minor term su9h as he Bu''hist s*eakin) to the Sam!hya #sound is perishable 7

/(iii8

A thesis 6ith .oth the terms unfamiliar su9h as the 0aisesi!a s*eakin) to the Bu''hists su9h as Gthe soul has feelin)s as *leasura.le

PLATE I

2C-

+M <CBC

P L A T

P L A T E

2 3 + M <

P L A T

P L A T E

he Stu*a site III at $alan'a. Courtesy F &he Kay of the %uddha- Pu.lishe' .5 the Pu.li9ations Di(ision of the Ministr5 of Information an' Broa'9astin), Go(t, of In'ia, 2;4D, *. 2C2

P L A T E

up-r ggtr^^Tirllili

Monaster5 I A.-$alan'a Courtesy F &he Kay of the %uddha, Pu.lishe' .5 the Pu.li9ations 'i(ision of the Ministr5 of Information an' Broa'9astin), Go(t, of In'ia, 2;4D, *. 2CB

P L A T E 1

he Monaster5 I B - $alan'a Courtesy F &he Kay of the %uddha , Pu.lishe' .5 the Pu.li9ations Di(ision of the Ministr5 of Information an' Broa'9astin), Go(t, of In'ia, 2;4D, *. 2CB

< S *H T

PLATE :

*% $$*$ 8#,S; "r =7 ZM . $W <ISaS$SS [\=M[

l= iM,i(T@(A]"ii( ra* ''$

P L A T E

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM

Founder Editor-in Chief G. P. MALALASE&E#A, M. a., Ph. D., D. Litt., Professor Emeritus

Editor-in Chief W. G. WEE#A#A $E, m. a., Ph. '.

200= PUBLISHED BY HE G!"E#$ME$ !% S#I LA$&A

+M >4CD-/<BBAKB28 Printe' at he Go(t. Printin) De*t. Sri Lanka.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM EDITORIAL BOARD Dr. Ananda W. P. Gurug

Hon. Consultant Editor

Dr. N. A. !a"a#$%&ra'a( Professor Emeritus Hon. Editorial Advisor

Dr. Y. ,arunada+a( Professor Emeritus Hon. Editorial Advisor Dr. W. G. W rara-n

Editor-in-Chief Pr)*. C. W$-ana%0%0$

Deputy Editor Dr. ,. Aruna+$r$

Deputy Editor Mr. Ru#an Bandara Ad0$&ar$

F)r' r Ed$-)r+7$n7C0$ *

Dr. G. P. Ma/a/a+ & ra( Professor Emeritus Founder Editor-in-Chief Dr. O. H. D A. W$4 + & ra( Professor Emeritus Dr. !)-$"a D0$ra+ & ra Mr.

ODANTAPURI

<B>

OGHA

!DA$ APU#I /(ar. U''an'a*uri8, a monaster5 9om*le0 kno6n as !'anta*uri (ihara lo9ate' in the an9ient kin)'om of

!GHA, literall5 means floo' 1S. i(, 2C4 Abhidhammatthavibhavini of Suman)ala, *. 2<<, e', .5 Pannanan'a, +olom.o, 23;3@ Abhsy.

!GHA

<BA !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

he referen9e to the four fol' floo' 6hi9h is mentione' (er5 freHuentl5 in the 9ommentaries, is first foun' in sutta *assa)es 6hi9h ma5 .elon) to a later *erio' 6hen the thin)s of e0isten9e / dhamma-

sotapattima""a# the floo' of sense*leasures 1!ama- o"ha5 is 9rosse' .5 insi)ht into the thir' sta)e of the trans9en'ental *ath 1and"amima""a5 an' the remainin) t6o floo's, i.e., 'esire for 9ontinue'

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <B4 !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

A*ril 23DB, he marrie' Mar5 E. his 9hief interest 9entre' roun' Mor)an of $e6 #o9helle, $e6 York, s*iritualism an' the stu'5 of reli)ions. It 6as an a)e 6hi9h sa6 .ut 6as later 'i(or9e' from her. man5 intelle9tuals turnin) to the stu'5 of oriental reli)ions. In 23C4,

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <BD !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

fort5 t6o 9ountries. o a9hie(e this )ro6th in num.ers, !l9ott un'ertook a 9easeless a9ti(it5 of le9ture tours. He also e'ite' the offi9ial or)an of the so9iet5 - &heosophist - an' 6rote t6o .ooks, &heosophy- )eli"ion an'

skill 'i' mu9h for the su99ess of the re(i(al mo(ement. Some .a9k)roun' information is ne9essar5 to make a *ro*er assessment of !l9ott7s im*a9t on the re(i(al of Bu''hism an' Bu''hist e'u9ation in Sri Lanka.

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <BC !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

hera an' "i'5alankara Piri(ena in &elani5a un'er the ste6ar'shi* of "en. #atmalan9 Sri Dhammaloka Maha hera. here 6ere a num.er of other s9holar monks in the islan' as

his same letter 6hi9h 6as a re*l5 to a letter from

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <B3 !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

When !l9ott arri(e' in Sri Lanka 6ith Ma'ame Bla(atsk5, this 6as the s9enario he en9ountere'.

Defense +ommittee to *rote9t their o6n interest an' to se9ure re'ress from the )larin) in?usti9es un'er 6hi9h the5 la.oure'. !ne of these )rie(an9es 6as that Bu''hists ha' to

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <B; !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

he fla) 6as intro'u9e' to Ea*an "i?a5a +olle)e in Matale an' Dharma*ala +olle)e in 233; .5 !l9ott an' Ana)arika in Panni*iti5a. Within a.out > Dharma*ala. Su.sHuentl5, it 6as 'e9a'es of settin) u* the %&S. 6ith a intro'u9e' to Burma /no6 (er5 effi9ient Boar' of Mana)ement, M5anmar8. It 6as Professor more than fort5 Bu''hist s9hools

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <2B !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

res*onsi.le for *u.lishin) a Bu''hist +ate9hism 6hi9h .e9ame (er5 *o*ular. It ha' .een *re*are' in 9onsultation 6ith "en. Hikka'u6e Sri Suman)ala hero, .ut not 6ithout a 'e.ate o(er

I he seems e'ition *resent se9on' .5 the

*o*ularit5 of this little 6ork un'iminishe', e'ition after .ein) 9alle' for. While the one 6as in the *ress, a German e'ition re-translate' learne' Dr. Eri9h Bis9hoff

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <22 !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

to ha(e 'one e(er5thin) Hikka'u6e 6ithin his *o6er to *rote9t Bu''hism, ha(in) seen that in Sri Lanka Bu''hism 6as .ein) threatene' 6ith 'estru9tion .5 the British +olonial re)ime an' the +hristian missionar5 a9ti(it5 it

Sri Suman)ala, "en. Waska'u6e Sri Su.huti, "en. Suri5a)o'a Sonuttara an' se(eral re*resentati(es of other Bu''hist 9ountries, .oth hera(a'a an' Maha5ana. It 6as a .e)innin) in the 'ire9tion of foun'in) a 6orl'

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <2< !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

statue 6as ere9te' in +olom.o on $orris +anal #oa', no6 re-name' !l9ott Ma6atha. Also in Galle, a statue 6as ere9te' .5 the +ultural De*artment.

Ste*hen Prothero, &he Khite %uddhistF &he Asian odyssey of Henry Steel *lcottP Bloomin)ton , In'iana Uni(ersit5 Press, 2;DD.

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <2> !L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL

/(i8

I)noran9e fosters the .elief that re.irth is a ne9essar5 thin). When i)noran9e is 'estro5e' the 6orthlessness of e(er5 su9h re.irth, 9onsi'ere' as an en' in itself is *er9ei(e', as 6ell as the

/0ii8

he uni(erse is su.?e9t to a natural 9ausation kno6n as !arma. he merits an' 'emerits of a .ein) in *ast e0isten9es 'etermine his 9on'ition in the

!L+!

, +!L. HE$#Y S EEL <2A

!M$IS+IE$+E

!M$IS+IE$+E, Durin) the Bu''ha7s time there 6ere man5 *hiloso*hers *ro*oun'in) (arious theories. Si0t5 t6o are 'es9ri.e' in the %rahma+ala sutta /D.I.8. hese

!M$IS+IE$+E

<24

!M$IS+IE$+E

thus 'o I re9olle9t 'i(ers former ha.itations in all their mo'es an' 'etails. An' I, "a99ha, 6hene(er I *lease, 6ith the *urifie' 'e(a-(ision sur*assin) that of men 1dibbena ca!!huna visuddhena ati!antama nusa!ena.. .8

6orl' of s*a9e an' time, of *er9e*tion, of i'eation, of lo)i9al reasonin) an' is therefore *s59hi9 in the full sense of the 6or'. It is not kno6le')e of 9om*osites .ut their

!M$IS+IE$+E

<2D

!M$IS+IE$+E

An"uttara 'i!aya /KA.".>>8 states the ten *o6ers of the Wa5farer / atha)ata8.

he *assa)e )oes on to ela.orate that this omnis9ien9e of the Bu''ha en9om*asses the *ast, future an' the *resent in their entiret5.

!M$IS+IE$+E

<2C

!M$IS+IE$+E

Sabbadassavi /All-seein)8, Dh.ammasa.mi /Lor' of the Do9trine8 Dhammapatisaram /#efu)e 6ith re)ar' to Dhamma )ui'an9e8.J

the )oal of nibbana .5 means of a s5stem of min' 9ulture that has as its main o.?e9ti(e the un'erstan'in) of realit5. It is not 9on9erne' 6ith omnis9ien9e for its o6n sake. he

!M$IS+IE$+E

<23

!M$IS+IE$+E

s*eak of mira9ulous su*ernormal attri.utes 6hi9h are not essential for the attainment of %odhi an' 'ibbana / See Samahnaphala sutta DA. an' Kevaddha sutta D. I.8

:0i"atamoha /'elusion )one8, ant"hassa 1 'e(oi' of ra)e8, Susamacittassa /e(en min'e'ness8, 0uddhasilassa /mature' in moralit58, Sadhupanhassa / of )oo' 6is'om8,

!M$IS+IE$+E

<2;

!PAPA I&A

!PAPA I&A, /Skt. aupapadu!a an' sometimes /'ee* kno6le')e8, Anuttarassa /mat9hless8, Anopamassa /*eerless8, apupadu!aF %HS.5- from upapatati %rahmapattassa /.rahma attaine'8 1%D.5 or upapatti from pad 1PED.5 an' Purindadassa /.reaker of a**aritional or s*ontaneous .irth@ 9ita'els8, Sa!!assa /Sakka8. he last one of the four mo'es of .irth 1D. Ill, <>B8, an' also the .est amon) them

!#AMBHAGIYA SAMY!EA$A <<B !#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$

them.

hus onl5 s*ontaneous .irth is *ossi.le in their 9ase 1ibid.5.

his 'oes not mean that the uddhambha"iya samyo+ana 'o not o.tain in the lo6er s*heres of the uni(erse@ it onl5 means that the orambhd"iya samyo+ana 'o not e0ist

!#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$ <<2 !#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$

the 9on9e*ts of ori)ination an' foun' in the A"amas. his 6as later 9essation, an' to see ho6 the5 .ear s5stemati1e' .5 the Abhidharma into u*on the life of in'i(i'uals. As it is the theor5 of the %our-fol' sai' that the Bu''ha left his home to 9hara9teristi9s i.e. .irth 1+ati5o(er9ome the sufferin)s of .irth, ol' *ersistin) state 1sthiti5- 9han)e or a)e, si9kness an' 'eath, Bu''hism

!#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$ <<< !#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$

is so .e9ause of the other7s e0isten9e. hus the e0isten9e is not a fi0e' entit5 e0istin) all .5 itself. A fi0e' entit5 is a self-e0istin) entit5 / svabhava8 6hi9h *ersists .e9ause it

'eath ha(e the same 9onstitution as the a.o(e, man 'oes not ha(e a selfi'entit5 at the time of .irth. He a9Huires that i'entit5 after the a9t of .irth has .een 9om*lete' an' thus he

!#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$ <<> !#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$

*er9e*tual i)noran9e 1avidya5. Ho6e(er, sin9e Avidya itself is an illusion, it 9an .e e0tin)uishe'. his fa9t is 9arrie' o(er as a 9on'ition for the e0tin9tion of e0isten9e an' thus,

'is*ositions of later life *ro9esses 1san!hara5an' 9ons9iousness 1vinnana5. #u*a 9onsists of 6hat is seen, i.e. the e0ternal 6orl' in9lu'in) one7s *h5si9al self. he

!#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$ <<A !#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$

a.le to o(er9ome it. It is 6hat )i(es su.stan9e to time 1!ala5 6hi9h a.sor.s e(er5thin). Ho6e(er, in Bu''hism, the 9on9e*t of a.solute time is not re9o)ni1e', i.e. time, in

*rin9i*le of 9onseHuent maturit5 / vipd!a8, i.e. )oo' 9ause materiali1es into ha**iness or .liss an' .a' 9ause materiali1es into sufferin). In a''ition, 9areful e0amination 6as ma'e 6ith res*e9t to su9h 'o9trines

!#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$ <<4 !#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$

9hara9teristi9s as realities fashion *o6ers of transformin) *henomena resi'e in the the 9reate' elements into their moments of e0isten9e, namel5, that likeness. his has .een a sour9e of !arman )i(es rise to the elements .ut 9onfli9t in the inter*retation of the su9h a rise is hi)hl5 sele9ti(e. In An)uttara-nika5a 'urin) the other 6or's, it is !arman 6hi9h

!#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$ <<D !#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$

is also 9onsi'ere' in this li)ht an' as a 9onseHuen9e, the 0t+hanavadin maintains .oth the Darstantika an' Sautmntika (ie6*oints.24

the 6orl' of non-*ro9ess, the realit5 of the latter 9han)es 6ith the 'ifferin) inter*retation of the former. %or e0am*le, the A"amas sa5 that the 6orl' of non*ro9ess e(ol(es

!#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$ <<C !#IGI$A I!$ A$D +ESSA I!$

nirvana from sanisara 1na relationshi* sanisdrasya nirvandt him cid asti vise sana ni- na nirvanasya san+sarat !iin cid asti visesanam 8.23 He )oes on to e0*lain nonori)ination an' none0tin9tion .asin) on the 9ele.rate'

.et6een the 6orl' of *ro9ess an' the 6orl' of thusness. he $ahayanasraddhotpada sutra is 9learer on this *oint. It states that the 6orl' of *ro9ess is illusor5 an' the 6orl' of non-*ro9ess is thusness.

!#ISSA

<<3

!#ISSA

A. I, *. 24<@ Yasomitra .s Abhidharma!osavya !hyd. *. 2C2. AB Abhidharma!osasastra- "ol. 4@ &aisho Shinshu DaiNo!yo- "ol.
;

re9ei(e' the ro5al *atrona)e of the *o6erful $ahame"havahdnas 6ho rei)ne' .et6een the lsl +entur5 B.+. an' lsl +entur5 A.+.

!#ISSA

<<;

!#ISSA

In his sou?ourn, Hiuen- san) metions that Bu''hism in Wu-t7u /!rissa8 6as in a flourishin) state 6ith more than 2BB monasteries, 6here multi'u'e of monks resi'e' / . Watte(e, on Huan Ch?an".s

At the turn of the 2Blh 9entur5 A.+. Bhaumakas 6ere su99ee'e' .5 the Soma(asis as the rulin) '5nast5. hou)h the5 6ere not Bu''hists, the5 tolerate' Bu''hism. Ho6e(er,

<>B PABBA!ANIYA ,AMMA

ORISSA

this monaster5 6as reno6ne' for the s*iritual ins*iration an' li(el5 *ursuit of the Kalacha!ra-tantra in the latter *art of the 2Bth 9entur5. he e09a(ations at the site unearthe' in9lu'e, amon) other thin)s, the remains of an

/Lalmani Eoshi, o*.9it, *. C28, most *ro.a.l5 an esta.lishment .elon)in) to "a?ra5ana. %rom Cth an' 3lh 9entur5 on6ar's, "a?ra5ana 6ith its offshoot &a la9hakra 5ana seems to

PABBAEEA

<>2

PABBAEEA

of monks to meet for9e 6ith for9e, if ne9essar5 /&ena hi tumhe Sariputta bahu!ehi bhi!!huhi sacldhim "acchatha. ti. loc. cit5. If an' 6hen the monks ha(e .eha(e' themsel(es *ro*erl5 un'er

If sear9h for sensual *leasures .e the )eneral nature of the 9ommon run .5 men an' 6omen, the 6orl'renoun9in) as9eti9 follo6s a 'ifferent 9ourse .e9ause he has intelle9tuall5 un'erstoo' that

PABBAEEA

<>< PABHASSA#A-+I

Sear9h for sensual *leasures in the )eneral nature of the 6orl', 5et the i'ea of pabba++a 9ame to some of those men 6ho 9ame to .e reall5 stirre' .5 the (i9issitu'es of life 6hi9h, in realit5, shoul' make an5

lo(e. Bu''hahoo', as the ultimate aim of paba++a- is the )reatest a9hie(ement *ossi.le for man in the fa9e of 6hi9h all other 6elfare measures *ale into insi)nifi9an9e.

PABHASSA#A-+I

A <>> PABHASSA#A-+I

he referen9es ^ ; an' ^2B at A. I. 2B 'o not 9arr5 a 9om*oun' as pabhassaracitta 6hi9h means a ra'iant min'. he Pali use' there *re'i9ati(el5 rea's as pabhassarah idah bhi!!have cit tail 6hi9h means

In these 6hat a**ear to .e 9ate)ori9al *hiloso*hi9al statements, it is im*ortant to ask a.out 6hose citta or min' are 6e s*eakin) at the moment. Are 6e s*eakin) of 2. the

PABHASSA#A-+I

A <>A PABHASSA#A-+I

In our o*inion, s*eakin) of a ra'iant min' for the humans 6hi9h is free from 'efilements, is a *ossi.ilit5 onl5 at the final sta)e of asava!!haya or termination of all

%rom 6hen9e the streams sto* flo6in),

PABHASSA#A-+I

A <>4 PABHASSA#A-+I

his statement in the Ala"addupama Sutta is in 9om*lete 9onsonan9e 6ith the Kevaddha Sutta referen9e to viiiiidtiamanidassanani Here 6e are Huite sure 6e are s*eakin) of the li.erate' *erson

We also like to refer to, .efore 6e 9on9lu'e to the interest sho6n in our te0t to *ositi(el5 assert the non6orl'liness of the 'irvanic state.

PABHASSA#A-+I

A <>D

PA++A"E&&HAIT

an' learn 6ith re)ar' to 'irvana is onl5 in terms of 0miiana on the one.han' as 6ell as nama an' rupa on the other.

PA++A"E&&HA$A - 1Pati Y Ave!!hana- S!.pratyave!sana 8 )i(es the meanin)s of lookin) at, 9onsi'eration, re)ar', attention, refle9tion, 9ontem*lation an' re(ie6in) et9., his term is often

PA++A"E&&HAI$A PA++AYA PA++A"E&&HA$A $A$" <>3 <>C PA++A"E&&HA2SA restin) *la9e 1senasana5 shoul' .e re(ie6e' ea9h time it is use' 1Senasanam pi paribho"e paribho"e paccave!!hitabbam - (bid5. De*en'en 9e 9on'ition

of m5 .eha(iour....Perha*s learne' fello6 9eli.ates .testin) me 'o not .lame me on a99ount of m5 he $a++hima 'i!aya 1$. l.*.2B8

PA++AYA

<>;

PA++AYA

the *h5si9al o.?e9t of si)ht 9onsistin) in 9olour an' li)ht is the ne9essar5 9on'ition an' the sine Jua non for the arisin) of Ca!!hu vinnana /e5e

to one another .5 9o-nas9en9e 9on'ition. At the moment of 9on9e*tion, mentalit5 an' materialit5 are mutuall5 relate' to one another .5 9o-nas9en9e 9on'ition 1Conditional

PA++AYA

<AB

PA++AYA

22.

Paccha+ata paccaya /Postnas9en9e 9on'ition8- he states *ost-nas9ent 9ons9iousness an' mental fa9tors are relate' to this *re-nas9ent .o'5 .5 the *ostnas9en9e 9on'ition 1(bid.*.38.

the matter *ro'u9e' there.5 .5 Path 9on'ition 1(bid.5.

PA++AYA

<A2

PA++AYA

soon as a bhi!!hu.s i)noran9e is a.an'one' an' 9lear (ision arisen, bhi!!hus- 6ith the fa'in) a6a5 of i)noran9e an' the arisin) of 9lear (ision he 'oes not form e(en formations of meritJ. - S.II.*.3<.

un6holesome karma-formations are the 9auses of future re.irth in an a**ro*riate s*here 1"ati5. he karmaformations of a *re(ious life, 9on'ition the .u''in) in the 6om. of a ne6 mother of a fresh *s59ho-

PA++AYA

<A< PA++E&ABUDDHA

/(isual im*ression et9.,8 a 9on'ition .5 6a5 of Su**ort 1nissaya5 an' Prenas9en99 / pure+ata 8, 6hereas the DV7, the Min'-Base /9ons9iousness8, is a 9on'ition for the Mental Im*ression .5 6a5 of +o-nas9en9e / saha+ata

PA++E&ABUDDHA <A> PA++E&ABUDDHA

A *a99eka.u''ha, as the 6or' itself im*lies, is Ga se*aratel5 enli)htene' one7EL his means that his enli)htenment is self-earne' an', as the Apadana of the Khuddha!a 'i!aya 'es9ri.es Iit is realise' a*art

an5thin) to it. hat o.ser(an9e 1vatta5 is, a99or'in)l5, terme' "atapaccd"ata-valta an' haranapaccaharaiia-v _.

PA++E&ABUDDHA <AA PA++E&ABUDDHA

the (er5 .asis of this trainin)@ so alone must one sit, 6alk, stan' an' slee*J2>

*a99eka.u''ha must ha(e a 9ause that is *arti9ular to him an' thus there 9oul' .e as man5 su9h 9auses as there are *a99eka.u''has. An' e(er5 *a99eka.u''ha shoul' ha(e a

PA++E&ABUDDHA <A4 PA++E&ABUDDHA

the5 ha(e arisen from their 6hether their *ros*e9ti(e 'onors ha(e enou)h me'itations, the *resi'ent of the faith an' a 9a*a9it5 to ser(e themAB. assem.l5 1saii"hatthera5 ?ould- for I his the5 'e9i'e after their the *leasure of all, Huestion the ne6 me'itations in the mornin) 6hen the5 *a99eka.u''ha as to the 9ause that sur(e5 the 6orl' 'ail5 in sear9h of le' to his o6n enli)htenment 6hi9h su9h *ersons.A2 When su9h a one has

PA++E&ABUDDHA <AD PA++E&ABUDDHA

#e9ei(in) alms from *ersons, that the5 ma5 there.5 'eri(e some merit, is ?ust one of the 6a5s in 6hi9h *a99eka.u''has sho6 9om*assion to *eo*le. At times, the5 a'(ise *ersons

rea'il5 harnesse' .5 a re9a*itulation of the names of *a99eka.u''has. An e0am*le of this is to .e foun' in the re9ital 'urin) paritta 9eremonies of the (si"ili Sutta.D3 6hi9h 9ontains-

PA++E&ABUDDHA

<AC PA++E&ABUDDHA

9onfesses that De(a'atta7s in9line', he makes an e9stati9 utteran9e an' in9itement of .ri)an's a)ainst him thereafter renoun9es his lifeC;. Su9h 6as merel5 the result of a sinful a9t is the a99ount )i(en of the *assin) in an earlier life 6hen as a 9hil' he a6a5 of the Ilast of the *la5full5 thre6 *otsher's on to the *a99eka.u''hasJ name' Matari)a. roa' in front of a *a99eka.u''haCI

PA++E&ABUDDHA

<A3 PA++E&ABUDDHA

the5 6ere so 9olle9te' in one sutta, the term !ha""avisa na!appa 6hi9h means Ilike a rhino9eros>3J 9ame to sta5 as the 'istin)uishin) e*ithet of a *a9eeka.u''ha.3 ; his fi)ure of

1(si"ili Sutta5 Methula

1Apadana Commentary5

PA++E&ABUDDHA <A; PA++E&ABUDDHA

$ames noti9e' else6here in literature,

$emi

&alu*akala

he 9on9e*t of *a99eka.u''ha 6as 9ommon to almost all the earl5 s9hools of Bu''hism. It ma5 ha(e ori)inate', as Poussin has state', in a 'esire to a99ommo'ate the *re-Bu''hist i'eal of solitar5 re9luseshi* 6ithin the

PA++E&ABUDDHA <4B - PA++E&ABUDDHA

#eferen9es

*a99eka.u''ha, ho6e(er, is far inferior to a samma sam.u''ha, thou)h there are man5 thin)s that the5 share in 9ommon. hese in9lu'e the assuran9es the5 .oth re9ei(e as as*irants, that the5 shall attain

PA++E&ABUDDHA <42 PA++E&ABUDDHA

<2

op. cit. *.<B4.

DC.

SA. I, *. >A;-4B.

PACCE,ABUDDHA
AB3

<4<

0.p.3E.

PADA,,IIINA>

2B>

AA. i(, *. 23C.

PADA&&III$A /P#ADA&SI$A8, he ritualisti9 *ra9ti9e of 9ir9umam.ulatin) or )oin) roun' a *erson or an o.?e9t 6ith the 'e(otee7s ri)ht si'e turne' to6ar's

PADHA$A

<4>

PADHA$A

PADHA$A he 6or' padhana 1from pra Y dlui- padahati5 means stri(in), *erse(eran9e, e0ertion. Padahati is often use' 6ith other (er.s e0*ressin) the i'ea of stri(in) in the

remaine' unfla))in) an' min'fulness 6as e(er *resent, the .o'5 6as tense an' not rela0e' as it 6as smitten 6ith *ainful stri(in) 1du!!happadlianena padhana

PADHA$A

<4A

PADHA$A

to the Bu''ha, Dhamma, San)ha an' the 9ourse of trainin) 1si!!ha5- an' 6hen one is irrita.le an' una.le to )et alon) 6ith fello6 monks one 9annot .en' one7s min' for

ho6 sufferin) )ra'uall5 6anes. In this 6a5 me'itati(e stri(in) .e9omes su99essful an' fruitful.

PADHA$A

<44

PADHA$A

the future *henomena, *erse(eran9e, ?o5, an' the *ast 1pacchdpuresahfii8, rela0ation, 9on9entration, an' re9konin) e0*erien9es of the future in terms of the *ast 1yatha pure tatha eHuanimit5. paccha8 an' (i9e (ersa. !ne stri(es seein) the .o'il5 im*urities from to*

PADHA$AGHA#A

<4D

PADHA$AGHA#A

PADHA$AGHA#A. he *ali term padhana"hara an' its Sinhalese eHui(alent piyan"al ha(e .een use' in an9ient re9or's to mean G a hall es*e9iall5 ma'e for me'itation. he

Amon) the manus9ri*ts re9o(ere' from Gil)it. the Posadhavastu of the $ulasarvdstivdda 0inaya Pita!a#6. 9ontains rules for the 9onstru9tion of a prahdi+asdld /9ham.er for nisadya i.e. sittin) in a lonel5 *la9e for

PADHA$AGHA#A PADHA$AGHA#A

<4C <43

PADHA$AGHA#A PADMAPA$I

un'erstoo' all the featuresthat 6hi9h +ittala*a..ataare a(aila.le at (ihara in south 6as an Anura'ha*ura. Sri heLanka remarka.le e0tensi(e 6hi9h a a.sen9e of monaster5, the entran9e *or9h ha' is the me'itation hall 6ithin its *remises most strikin). All these stru9tures or affiliate' to it. of .elon) to the lastSe(eral *hase tales of the

Padhana"haras, the ar9hite9tural remains of 6hi9h still e0ist, 9onform to one *arti9ular *lan of 9onstru9tion. he5 o99u*5 ro9k5 sites, fiattish out9ro*s of )ranite, 9om*arati(el5 le(el. he )rou*s of

PADMAPA$I

<4; PADMASAMBHA"A

Some of the .est e0am*les /s9ul*tures8 /of a.out the ;th +ent. A. +.8 are no6 in the Museum of %ine Arts, Boston. Stan'in) Pa'ma*ani /or A(alokites(ara 9o**er

PADMASAMBHA"A, Pa'masam.ha(a 6as a )reat a9ar5a in i.et 6hen antri9 Bu''hism 6as first *ro*a)ate' there, an' he 6as hi)hl5 esteeme' .5 the Bu''hists in i.et, 6ho 'esi)nate' him as :Sans-

PADMASAMBHA"A

<DB PADMASAMBHA"A

of the Mahasari)hika S9hool an' re9ei(e' his full or'ination. Un'er the instru9tion of Bu''ha?nana*a'a, he stu'ie' the 6hole te0t of the $ahapra+ha-paramita -satra an' o.taine' the .a*tism of all tantri9

month of Pausa in C4B A.+., he starte' his ?ourne5 to i.et. !n his 6a5 he *asse' $e*al, 6here he sta5e' for three months. !n lsl 'a5 of the month of Eesthah in the follo6in) 5ear /C42 A.+.8 lie left

PADMASAMBHA"A <D2 PADMASAMBHA"A

9onHuere' Dakini on three o99asions an' finall5 9on(erte' the kin) to Bu''hism. He in(ite' se(eral ri*itaka U*a'h5a5as from Ma)a'ha an' 9onstru9te' the three "iharas of "i'ha, Ar'ha an' Su'ha. In this

'.5aris, D*al-r5i 5e-ses, D*al-)5i seri-)e, "airo9ana, G5u-skra s-iii-*o Enana-kumara, #'o-r)e .'u'-h?oms, Ye-ses '.5aris. So)-*o Lha '*al , Sna-nam 5e-sLes, D*al-)5i '.ah-

PAGA$

<D<

PAGA$

/<8 aranatha , De-bshin-"se"s-pa thcims-cad-!yi "siul-rdo-r+ehi spnilpahi s!u o-r"yan-"yi slob-dpon chenpo padma-hbyml -"nas-!yi rnam-par thar-payid- ches-"sum-ldcin 1 ife of Padmasambhava5- S'e-')e e'ition

&o Yun)-hsin)

(QAA#centuryF &5an1ittha9a(e tem*le /sh6e1i)on8 /2B4;8, /enlar)e' 2B3A 222<8@ Anan'a

/2B3< - 2B;B8,$an*a5a, S9inn5et, the t6o P9tl9ik *a)o'as, an' the li.rar5 /Bi'a)at aik8@

PA&UDHA &A++AYA$A <D> PA&UDHA &A++AYA$A

PAIIA$APA#I$$A See PA#I$$A

A99or'in)

to

Paku'ha

PALA$E S#I "AEI#A$A$A <DA PALA$E S#I "AEI#A$A$A

PALA$E S#I "AEI#A$A$A, an eru'ite an' 'istin)uishe' .hikkhu of Sri lanka. Muhan'iram Don An'iris u'a6a Pan'itha Guna6ar'ena, a )reat Sinhala *oet an' )rammarian

in the *resent "a?irarama tem*le 6hi9h 6as then 9alle' the IDharmasala6aJ. Within a .rief s*a9e of time, Palane "a?ira)nana hera 6as a.le to 6in the (eneration

PALA$E S#I "AEI#A$A$A <D4

PALI

&.D.G. Wimalaratne. PALI,

In the 5ear 2;B4, on the *ro*osal of "en. Hikka'u6e Sri Suman)ala $a5aka hera an' se9on'e' .5 "en. Waska'u6e Sri Su.huti Mahana5aka hera, "en. "a?ira)nana 6as ele9te'

PALI

<DD

PALI

as referrin) to a 9olle9tion of Bu''ha7s sa5in)s> is ho6e(er of earl5 use as ma5 .e seen in su9h referen9es as tipeta!i- G(erse' in the hree Baskets7 /"KLKi.",*.>@ $iln.p.P8 et9.8. he 9olle9tion of

in Ma)a'han 9ities.4 It is to .e e0*e9te' that the re9itals of the tea9hin)s hel' in Ma)a'ha 6ere 9on'u9te' in the Ma)a'han lan)ua)e. %urthermore, the Mahasa

PALI

<DC

PALI

.e9ome 'ental s />8all K-soun's .e9ome 2 as 9hara9teristi9 of Eastern Prakrit 'iale9ts. !f these, 2 an' > are rather infreHuentl5 atteste' in Pali. he nominati(e sin)ular in -e is seen

literar5 Prakrits, Pali .ears the 9losest relationshi* to sauraseni . he lan)ua)e of the Bairat e'i9t of Asoka, 6hi9h 9losel5 resem.les Pali, 9an .e looke' u*on as an ol' form of

PALI

<D3

PALI

lan)ua)e .e9ame fi0e' .5 the finali1ation of the Pali +anon at the +oun9ils. %rom then on it )aine' the status of a literar5 lan)ua)e. In this *ro9ess it )aine' man5 a99retions, an'

(erifie' .5 makin) a 9om*arison of the lan)ua)e in the an9ient ins9ri*tions of Sri Lanka 'atin) *rior to the +hristian era 6ith Pali an' other ol' Prakrits. A 9om*arison

PALI

<D;

PALI

at the +oun9il 6ere rehearse' there 6as a'eHuate *ro(ision in the $ahdpadesa /H.(.8 the four )reat referen9es7 mentione' in the $ahaparinibba na-suttaF1D. ii, **.

e*istemolo)5 et9. +lassifi9ation7 anal5sis an' s5nthesis of 9lasses of *henomena .oth *s59holo)i9al an' *h5si9al are th c. forte of the

PALI

<CB

PALI

Quasi Canonical works

0(i. @vii.

.5 E.W. A'ikaram 1ibid.5. he .est kno6n amon) the an9ient GSinhala7 9ommentaries 'ettippa!arana1'ett5 6as the $aha 1o@ $il la5attha!athd. attri.ute' to Maha ka99ana8 his forme' the main sour9e of Peta!opadesa Bu''ha)hosa7s 9ommentaries thou)h

PALI

<C2

PALI

2ata!attha!athd 6as as9ri.9' to him in this manner. Bu''ha)hosa7s 9ontem*orar5 Bu''ha'atta /B'h'8 6rote the 0inayavinicchaya an' /ttaravinicchaya in metri9al Pali as

E*ilo)omena to "ol. I of the Critical Pali Dictionary+o*enha)en, 2;A3. I. Vinaya Pitaka

PALI

<C<

PALI

0isuddhima""amahdti!d 6hile a 'isHuisitions su.seHuent sannaya /inter-(er.al *ara*hrase in Sinhalese8 6as 6ritten .5 Parakrama.ahu II of Dam.a'en i5a /2<>D-2<CB A.+.8-

an' e0e)eti9al 6orks on the "ina5a .elon)in) to this *erio'24. he Suttapita!a re9ei(e' eHual attention.2D It 6as the A..i'hamma that re9ei(e' the hi)hest attention as

PALI

<C>

PALI

III

- Abhidhamma Pi{aka A. /a8 Atthasdlini-miilati !d 1Asmt5 .5 Anan'a

&i!as on 9ommentaries to 6orks in the Khudda!ani!aya


4.

/2B th +.8

PALI
1c5

<CA

PALI Ill - A.hi'hamma

Patthdnati !dvannand .5 iloka)uru

/'8

Patthdnasdradipani .5 Sa''hammalarika ra /2Dth +.8

2.

Abhidhammatthasah"aha .5 Anuru''ha an' its man5 9ommentaries .5 "imala.u''hi, Suman)ala, Ari5a(amsa

PALI

<C4

PALI

t is an in'e*en'ent 6ork .ase' on se(eral sour9es. It s o.ser(e' that ori)inall5 the Sinhalese 9hroni9le orme' a sort of intro'u9tion to the 9ommentar5 on he 9anon an' 'ealt

to 2;>4 .5 Ya)irala Pannanan'a an' the final *art so far to 2;AC 6hen Sri Lanka re)aine' in'e*en'en9e 6as 9om*lete' re9entl5.

PALI

<CD
3.

PALI Sd ratthavildsini. pahci!d-ti!d .5 San)harakkhita

"imala.u''hi. ra'ition ho6e(er, assi)ns all ei)ht 'i(isions of the A. $o""alldna-vyd!arana 6ith vutti an' panci!a

>.

$aud"alyayana-panci!apradipaya .5 ota)amu(e Sri #ahula /24th +.8

PALI

<CC

PALI

also liste' as .elon)in) to the same author, its navati!d 0acanattha+oti!d an' a se9on'ar5 ti!a on the ti !d .elon) to "e*ulla. here 6ere other 6orks su9h as Kavisara an' its ti !d Sududdasavi!asini- Chappaccayadi pa!a- vivarana- sannaya an' a

)rammar. A))a(amsa7s Saddani ti 6as intro'u9e' from M5anmar to Sri Lanka an' +ha*ata also kno6n as Sa''hamma?oti*ala from the same 9ountr5 6ho mastere' the

PALI

<C3

PALI

e0altin) the a9ts of *iet5 of *ious Bu''hists .ase' on earlier 6orks su9h as )asavahini. he latter is a short 0inaya tra9t .5 Ga *u*il of Bu(aneka.ahu thera7 'ealin) 6ith

Ka"aru Dhammasattha 6hi9h forme' the .asis of su.seHuent Dharmas.dstra literature in M5anmar. In the 2Cth 9entur5 the thera i*itakalarikara 6rote 2. 0i

PALI

<C;

PALI

3.

0inA. *. 2B< f.

<>.

G.P. Malalasekera, 0amsatthappa!asini- Pali e0t So9iet5, Lon'on, 2;>4, *. l(iii.

PALIB!DHA

<3B

PAMADA

PALIB!DHA , G!.sta9le7 or Ghin'ran9e7. his term is use' more as a te9hni9al term 6hen 'is9ussin) me'itation, in Bu''hism. 0isuddhima""a enumerates an'

sham*ooe', )arlan'e', s9ente', et9. All these are im*e'iments an' a man 9uts off his hair 6hen takin) to a reli)ious life 1$iln. 228

PAMADA

<32

PAMSU&ULA /28

arise an' the )oo' states 6ane /A.K.*.l 28. he monk 6ho is a6are of the 'an)er of ne)li)en9e an' 6ho o(er9omes it, a9hie(es the Goal 1nibbana -A. ((.p A*5.

PAMSU&ULA /<8

<3< PA$+APPA&A#AtSA IHA&A HA

.e aestheti9all5 not (er5 a99e*ta.le in the e5es of the *u.li9. o a(oi'

PA$+APPA&A#A$A PIA&A HA , he

PANCAPPA,ARA<TMA,ATHA 2?3 PA N C A PPA ,ARA MTIH A , AT H A

Huestion as to 6h5 a )reat master Bu''ha)hosa the author of the A.hi'hamma like Bu''ha)hosa shoul' 9ite his 9ommentaries seem to ha(e ha' a o6n inter*retation )i(en in *rofoun' res*e9t for him for his 0isuddhima""a as a mere alternati(e (irtue, intelle9t an' s9holarshi*. He in Atthasalini if he ha' in fa9t .een Huestions, IWho else if not the )reat the author of the latter. It is also 9ommentator himself 6oul'

PA$+ASI&HA

<3A

PA$+ASI&HA

PA$+ASI&HA A hea(enl5 musi9ian / "andhabba8 6ho resi'e' in the +atummahara?ika realm /DA.II. *.DA;8. here is a sutta too assi)ne'

that his first en9ounter 6ith her 6as at the time of the Bu''ha7s sta5 un'er the A?a*ala -$i)ro'ha an' that she 6as then )oin) 6ith her father to

PA$+ASILA

<34

PA$+ASILA

(ali'it5 of fi(e items .ein) in this listin), .e9ause the fifth item of Sura.merayapa.na is not 'is9o(ere' in the listin) of si la in suttas like the Samahhaphala of the Di"ha 'i!aya

PA$+ASILA

<3D

PA$+ASILA

"ie6in) it from this 'o6n-to-earth an)le, pancasi la is also reli)iousl5 e(aluate' from a so9io-ethi9al an)le in the An"uttara 'i!aya from t6o 'ifferent *oints of (ie6, namel5 from

uni(erse has .een su.seHuentl5 9reate' .5 the same sour9e of *o6er 6ho 9reate' them.

PA$+ASILA

<3C

PA$+ASfLA

he 0eludvdreyya!a Sutta /S. (. >4> f.8 in like manner makes a 'eli)htful *resentation of this i'ea 6here it sa5s that those 6ho lo(e their o6n li(es an' 'o not 6ish their li(es to .e 'estro5e' shoul' not onl5

We ha(e it on re9or' that lar)e num.ers of teena)e )irls of 'i(erse nationalities in $orth Ameri9a, 'urin) the last 'e9a'e of the t6entieth 9entur5, 9ame for6ar'

PA$+ASiLA

<33

PA$+ASiLA

6hi9h the Bu''hists must )uar' themsel(es. he se9on' of su9h s*ee9h is slan'er or tale-tellin) 1pisuna vaca8, i. e. s*ee9h 6hi9h .rin)s a.out 'is9or' an' .reak u* amon) frien'l5 )rou*s. he thir'

nake'ness / R!opina-niddamsani5. All these are so9iall5 9orrosi(e in this (er5 life. Let ea9h so9iet5 6ith its 'ifferent 9ultural millieu, test their (era9it5 an' a**li9a.ilit5, an5 time an56here. 6o more (er5 re(ealin)

PA$+ASILA

<3;

PA$+A"AGGIYA

Whate(er it .e, the e0isten9e in the earl5 9enturies of the +hristian era of this true-to the-letter 'e*i9tion of the +ommentarial theme of the Si"ala Sutta- .eautifull5 9ar(e' out

s*e9ifi9all5 a**lies to the samsari9 9ontinuan9e of humans an' their a99om*an5in) mass of du!!ha.

PA$$A

<;B

PA$$A

2 Pa+andti pa+anatiti !ho avuso tasma pahhavati vuccati. - $a++himani!aya "ol. I, *. <;<. @ 0isuddhima""a +ha*ter :I", < Pahhdbhuminiddesa. he other fa9ulties mentione' 6ith pahha are saddha /faith or 9onfi'en9e8, viriya /effort8, sati- /min'fulness8 an' samadhi > Si la /6holesome *ra9ti9es8 an' samadhi /9om*osure8 are )i(en as the t6o kin's of trainin) that shoul' .e fulfille' .5 6a5 of *re*aration for the 9ulti(ation pahha. bhdvayam dtdpinipa!o bhi!!hu TAfSile patitthdya naro sapahho cittamof pahhanca so imam vi+ataye +atam Samyuttani!dya "ol. I, *. 2>. T-7 Pahhavantassa ayamdhammo ndyamdhammo duppahhassa. Di"hani!dya "ol. Ill, *. <3C.

PA$$A

<;2

PA$$A

D................................................................................................ his is e0em*lifie' .5 the usa)e ca!!huhca paticca casahhati uppa++ati ca!!huvihhanam C Sah+anati sah+anatiti !ho avusoriipe tasmd vuccati. Kihca sah+anati G 'ila!ampi sah+anati pita!ampi sah+anati ............................................................... 3 Su!hanti pi vi+anati du!!hanti pi vi+anati adu!!hamasu!hanti pi ; Di"hani!aya "ol. Ill, *. <2;. 2B. (bid. 22 Pahhaya tani dhammam pavicinati paricarati parmman@samdpa++ati. Samyuttani!aya "ol. "., *. D3. 2< Katamcun tasmim satnaye pahhidriyatn hoti G Hatasmim Samaye pahha pa+anand vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo salla!!hand upala!!hana paccupala!!hana paiidiccam !osallam nepuhham vebhavya cintd upapari!!ha bliurimedhd parinayi!a vipassana sampa+ahham patodo pahha pahhindriyani pahhabalam pahhdsattham pahhdpdsddo pahha-dlo!o

PA$$A

<;<

PA$$A

A %uddhist $annual of psycholo"ical Ethics- Dhammasan"aniranslate' .5 +. A. %. #h5s Da(i's /#o5al Asiati9 So9iet5, 2;BB8 *. 2C-23. 2ALon'on Esdhi bhi!!have parama ariyd pahha yadidam sabbadu!!ha!!haye hanam.Pahha (bid. "ol. Ill, .e *. <A4. 24 is to 'e(elo*e' or 9ulti(ate' an' Bu''hism 9on9ei(es of pahha as a *ro'u9t of s5stemati9 trainin). he *ro9ess of trainin) is 9alle' adhipahha si!!ha /trainin) in the hi)her pahha5 an' is to .e linke' 6ith adhisllasi!!ha an' adhicittasi!!ha /trainin) in hi)her moralit5 an' hi)her 9ons9iousness8. he 'istin9tion .et6een vihhdm an' pahha is 'ra6n .5 out thatpahha vihhdm must .e 9om*rehensi(el5 un'erstoo' /*erha*s 2D*ointin) ydyam ariyd !ilesam antara samyo+anam antara bandhanam sati!antati antara sampa!antati sampari!antati. I.i'. 2C he hin'ran9es i'entifie' in Bu''hism as sensuous 'esire, mali9iousness, flurr5 an' 6orr5, sloth an' tor*or an' *er*le0it5 are (ie6e' as mental states that 6eaken the 9a*a9it5 pahha+hdyato 1pahhaya dubbali!arane5. 23 Hada have patubhavanti dhamma of atapino brahmanassa athassa sahetudhammam. 0maya "ol. I, *. <

2>

PA$$A

<;>

PA$$A

Evamsamahite citte parisuddhe pariyoddte anati"ane vi"atupa!!ilese mudubhute <B I.i'. *. 2<A. U <2 Pannaparibhavitam cittam sammadeva asavehi vimuccati. Di"hani!aya "ol. 22, *. << Silaparidhota panna panna paridhotam silam yattha silam tattha panna yattha 3E &ayidam bhi!!have pa+anati ime ditlhitthdna evam"ahita evam paramatthd evam "ati!a bhavissanti evam abhisamparaya ti. I.i'. "ol. I, *. <A I.i'. "ol. II, *. <24. 3 - +M >4CD
A4

PA$$A

<;A

PA$$A

<4 /ssa!!itva ma""apatubhavampdpeti. 0isuddhima""a- Pannabhioniniddesa /+ha*ter :I"8 <D I.i'. <C I.i'. <3 Hdcdvusopanna yanca vinnanam ime dhamma sanisattha no visainsattha. 'a ca labbha imesam dhammanam vinibbhu+itva vinibbhu+itva nana!aranainpahhapetum. Ham hi dvuso pa+andti tain vi+anati- yam vi+anati <; 0isuddhima""a +h. :I", Panndbhiiminiddesa- translate' .5 Bhikkhu $anamoli, /#. Sema)e, +olom.o 2;4D8, *. A3B- A32. Also note that Bhikkhu $ana*onika translates sannd as *er9e*tion, vinnana as 9ons9iousness an' panna as un'erstan'in).

PA$$A

<;4

PA$$A

>B 'a heva saccani bahiini nana ahhatra sannaya niccani lo!e. Suttanipata- "erse >233D. E!am hi saccam na dutiyamatthi yasmim pa+dno vivade pa+dnam. I.i'. "erse ><33A. Pahhaya cassa disva asava pari!!hindhonti. $a++imani!aya "ol. I, *. 2DB. >> See E'6ar' +on1e, %uddhist &hou"ht in (ndia /Geor)e Allen an' Un6in Lt'., Lon'on 2;D<8 *art III, +ha*ter A@ Paul Williams, $ahayana %uddhism /#outle')e, Lon'on 2;3;8 *. A<f.

PA$$ASIHA, MADIHE <;D PA$$ASIHA, MADIHE

'o9trine of em*tiness in the later Maha5ana sour9es. Bo'hisatt(as su9h as Man?usri an' A(alokites(ara ha(e .een 9onsi'ere' as manifestations of pra+na.

.rin)in) u* her 9hil'ren a99or'in) to the Bu''hist 6a5 of life.

PA$$A SIHA, MADIHE <;C PA$$A SIHA, MADIHE

At "a?irarama, A fe6 months after+olom.o at that time, ha' 9alle' on the a M.M.+. his or'ination, "en7.le Palane Siri Maha $a5aka hera in'i(i'uall5 an' "a?ira)nana Maha $a5aka thera ha' after 9onferrin) their )oo' 6ishes (isite' his Guru to *a5 his *erio'i9al ha' ma'e a reHuest, 6hi9h has 9ome res*e9ts an' fin'in) a samanera an' to effe9t an' that 6as to unite all

PA$$ASIHA, MADIHE <;3 PA$$A SIHA, MADIHE

Pro*a)ation of Bu''hism

hurunu Sa(i5a

PAPA$+A

<;;

PAPA$+A

he Maha $a5aka hera 6as a *o*ular *rea9her an' also a *rolifi9 6riter 6ho has enli)htene' man5 hearts. He has man5 *u.li9ations an' arti9les 6hi9h are thou)ht *ro(okin)

hin'ran9e, illusion, hin'ran9e to s*iritual *ro)ress, an' o.session.2 he term is 9ons*i9uousl5 a.sent in the A.hi'hamma literature. he numerous uses of the term papahca

PAPA$+A

>BB

PAPA$+A

a**ro(al of the Bu''ha, to un'erstan' the *s59holo)i9al si)nifi9an9e of the 9on9e*t of papanca in the Bu''ha7s tea9hin). Mahaka99ana7s anal5sis is as

he Bu''ha 'es9ri.es in the Sa!!apanha Sutta a seHuen9e of e(ents similar to that mentione' in the $adhupindi!a Sutta e09e*t that the relationshi* .et6een vita!!a an'

PAPA$+A

>B2

PAPA$+A

an' 'is*utes / !alahd vivada5lamentations an' sorro6s 1parideva so!a5 miserliness / macchara8, *ri'e an' 9on9eit / manatimana8, an' slan'erin) 1pesuna8 to the likes or

Bu''hist *ath. Persons 6ho 'eli)ht in e09essi(e 6ork / !ammaramd8, in e09essi(e talk / bhassdrdma8, e09essi(e slee* / nidddrama8, e09essi(e 9om*an5

PAPA$+A

>B<

PAPA$+A

is 9har)e' 6ith un6holesome emotions 9hara9teri1e' .5 9ra(in), 9on9eit an' 'o)matism. Papahca or'inaril5 means e0*ansion or 'iffusion of thou)ht an' its o(ert

a series of su9h thou)hts of e)o assertion are mentione'. he5 are thou)hts su9h as GI am7 / asmi8, G his am I7 1ayam aham asmi5- GI shall .e7 1bhavissam5- GI shall not .e7 1na bhavissam5. Gem.o'ie' shall I .e7

PAPA$+ASUDA$I

>B>

PAPA$+ASLDA$f

nusayanani .. .pati"hhiusayhiam .. dittanusaya nam.. vici!tcchdnusayanani.. mandnusaya nam.. bhavara"a nusaymam ... avi++musaymam ...dat+daddna... satthddana... !alaha-vi""aha- vivdda-pesuhhamusdvdsaimm (bid.

ha(e .een a 'ifferent *ersonalit5 from the hera referre' to in the Samantapasadi!a.

PAPA$+AS+DA$f

>BA

PA#AEI&A

6ish to e0*lain a)ain. !ne shoul' 9om.ine the 9ommentar5 / Papahca.sud.ani5 6ith the 0isuddhima""a to un'erstan' the meanin)s of the $a++himani!aya. his statement is ma'e in the

PA#AEI&A , he four ma?or offen9es in Bu''hist monasti9 'is9i*line in(ol(in) Defeat. In Bu''hist monasti9 'is9i*line, the Para+i!d rank amon) the most

PA#AEI&A

>B4

PA#AEI&A

nee' mu9h tutorin) to e'u9ate .oth Bu''hist as 6ell as non-Bu''hist stu'ents of Bu''hism a.out the (ital an' inte)ral relationshi* .et6een these items of 'o6n-to-earth moral

It is 6ith 9onsi'era.le 'isma5 that 6e .rin) to li)ht a fe6 'istorte' attem*ts at assessin) or re-assessin) the role an' relati(e *osition of Pdrd+i!as in Bu''hist monasti9 life,

PA#A.EI&A

>BD

PA#AEI&A

We totall5 'isa)ree 6ith Miss Horner on this. In an attem*t to re)ar' the fourth Pcira+i!a as su*remel5 im*ortant in her o*inion, it is har'l5 *ossi.le to 9onsi'er the

Sinhala translation )i(en for cittanampatetabbam an' Ho pateyya is killin) of oneself, i.e. sui9i'e alma "hdtanayci in Sinhala8. %urther international resear9hes 9arrie' out

PA#AMA

HADiPA$I >BC PA#AMA

HADIPA$i

Paramatthadi pani nama /dana attha!atha Paramatthadi pani nama 0imanavatthu attha!atha Paramatthadi pani nama Petavatthu attha!atha Paramatthadi pani nama (tiviutta!a attha!atha Paramatthadi pani nama Cariyapita!a attha!atha

Anura'ha*ura *erio' /i.e. circa ninth to the ele(enth 9enturies8.

PA#AMA

HADIPA$i >B3 PA#AMA

HADIPA$i

Maha(ihara tra'ition. Possi.l5 he ha' the o**ortunit5 to stu'5 the 9ommentaries maintaine' at Maha(ihara. He has an immense

I he5 ha(e (er5 similar (ie6s, the5 a**eal to the same authorities, the5 ha(e the same metho' of e0e)esis, the5 ha(e rea9he' the same sta)e in *hilolo)i9al an'

PA#AMA

HA E ! I&A >B; PA#AMA

HAE! I&A

2 But in the mentione' that he Dhammarakkhita an' he Dhammasoka "ihara5a

in

'ettippa!aranattha!athaDhamma*ala has 9om*ose' it on the in(itation of "en. 9om*ose' it 6hile he 6as resi'in) at the $a)a*attana.

PA#AMA I&A , A s*e9ial HAE! 6or' is nee'e' for the Paramattha+oti!a of the 9ommentar5 of /Illuminator the &hera"atha Hi)hest Meanin)8 is the 9ommon :Paramatthadi pani nama name )i(en Attha!atha.#. to t6o 9ommentaries of &hera"atha At *resent the tha an' the &hera Khudda!apa &heri ,athas are 9onsi'ere' as Suttanipatat6o of the fifteen t6o se*arate .ooks. But te0ts the

Paramattha?otika the 9ommentar5 of the &hu''aka*atha, he Khudda!apatha as the (er5 name im*lies is a small 6ork inten'e' as a han' .ook for the no(i9es to .e use' .5 them 'urin) the *erio' of

PA#AMA

HAE! I&A >2B PA#AMA

HAE! I&A

'ee* 'o9trine 'iffi9ult to 9om*rehen'. It 9ontains .asi9 thin)s no(i9es shoul' learn at the (er5 .e)innin). %urther Bu''ha)hosa is 'es9ri.e' at the en' of all his

the fifth .ook of the Khudda!ani!aya /as *er the Bu''ha)hosa7s list8 9onsists of fi(e va""as as /ra"a- Cilia- $ahaAttha!a- an' Parayana. !ut of 6hi9h

PA#AMA

HAE! I&A >22 PA#AMA

HAMA$EUSA

pita!as8 'i' not 9ontain the 9omments on the last t6o (erses of the Ko!ali!a sutta. hou)h the 9ommentator 'oes not sa5 an5thin) further, it is 9lear that the5 are

ori)inatne' in the Si haladipa or &ambapanni dipa /Sri Lanka8. Amon) su9h stories of Sri Lanka ori)in is the stor5 of a 5oun) no(i9e an' a female no(i9e. As the stor5 )oes 'urin) the 9onse9ration of the

PA#AMI A

>2<

PA#AMI A

he Paramatthaman+usa is a (oluminous 6ork, 'ou.le the si1e of the 0isuddhima""a on 6hi9h it 9omments. It is state' in the .ook that it 9ontains 33 %hanavaras

he5 )i(e aPms1dana5 to all .ein)s 6ithout 'is9riminatin) their 6orthiness so that the5 ma5 .e ha**5 , /<8 In or'er to a(oi' 'oin) harm to all .ein)s 1tesam upa"hatam

PA#AMI A

>2>

PA#AMI A

'iffi9ult )ifts than material )oo's to fulfil the hi)hest form of *erfe9tion of )enerosit5. A %odhisatta must freel5 )i(e, his 9hil'ren, his 6ife an' e(en the *arts of his .o'5.

he thir' paramita is ne!!hamma /renun9iation8. Herein the renun9iation is t6ofol' i.e. renun9iation of 6orl'l5 *leasures .5 a'o*tin) the as9eti9 life an' the

PARAYANAVAGGA

314

PARAYANAVAGGA

D.Saddhasena

from ser(i9e to the kin) an' .e9ame an as9eti9 alon) 6ith his 2D *u*ils an' 6as li(in) in the kin)7s Park. After6ar's 'esirous of solitu'e the5 mi)rate' south6ar's. he kin) ma'e

PARAYANAVAGGA 315 PARAYANAVAGGA

ya &i!anipata Devaduta va""a- the Bu''ha is re*orte' to ha(e referre' to his o6n tea9hin)s in the Pdrdyana va""a.

vibhasa an' "ina5a $ati!a. %ra)ments of the Sanskrit (ersion of Attha!a an' Parayanava""as ha(e .een foun' in Eastern urkestan. All these e(i'en9e 9onfirm that the ori)in of the Attha!a an' Pdrdyana

PA#E$ S #eferen9e

>2D

PA#E$ S

2 Bu''ha)hosa has e0*laine' the Parayana as IDhamma that lea's to $i..ana, the thither shoreJ.

mother an' father are 6orshi**e' in the home are ranke' 6ith tea9hers of ol'. hese families 6here mother an' father are 6orshi**e' in the home are ranke' 6ith the devas of

PA#E$ S

>2C

PA#IBBAEA&A

In Bu''hist literature PA#IBBAEA&A there are 1pariVSvra+8 )i(es the numerous e*iso'es that illustrate the of a 6an'erin) men'i9ant, 9hil'ren7s lo(e an' res*e9t to their has renoun9e' househol' *arents. he *otter of $atikara 6as 9eli.ate an' is *ursuin) his one 6ho maintains his *arents / $. )oal assi'uousl5.

meanin) one 6ho life, is reli)ious

PA#IBBAEA&A

>23

PA#IBBAEA&A

an' so*hists 6ho s*en' ei)ht or nine months of e(er5 5ear 6an'erin) a.out *re9isel5 6ith the o.?e9t of en)a)in) in 9on(ersational 'is9ussion on matters of ethi9s, *hiloso*h5, nature-lore an'

an a**ro0imate 9hronolo)5 6ere nee'e'8 to a 9lass of men ans6erin) to the Brahmanas in Ar5an so9iet5 6ho 6ent a.out in a missionar5 s*irit, 'ealin) in *hiloso*hi9

PA#IBBAEA&A

>2;

PA#IBBAEA&A

informants amon) the paribbd+a!a1s 8 an' that 6hen the5 returne' after in(esti)atin) a 'istri9t the5 6oul' *resent their re*orts from 6hi9h the kin) forme' his

Man5 paribbd+a!a1 s8 are mentione' in the Bu''hist te0ts su9h as Bha))a(a)otta, $iro'ha, +un'a, "a99ha)otta, im.aruka, Sus ma, Moli5a-Si(aka, Eam.ukha'aka,

PA#IBBAEA&A

><B

PA#I&&HA#A

Culasihanddasutta as .. anavattidhammo tasma lo!a ,J an' the fourth is an arahant.

PA#I&&HA#A , /Sk .paris!drd5 )i(es the meanin)s reHuisite, Suvimalee Karunaratna D.Saddhasena

PA#I$$A

><2

PA#I

PA#I$$A - a99urate or e0a9t kno6le')e, 9om*rehension, full un'erstan'in) or full 9om*rehension. A99or'in) to the 0isuddhima""a 10sm.p.DBD5 there are three kin's of mun'ane full

PA#I

><<

PA#I

then en?oins that monks shoul' *ra9tise metta to6ar's all 9lans of snakes an' suffuse themsel(es 6ith .ene(olent thou)hts for the sake of self-*rote9tion / atta-parittaya 8J /Lil5

Hualities of the %uddha- Dhamma an' the San"ha- the asse(eration of 6hi9h .5 itself .rin)s the .lessin) reHuire'. he $ahamari"ala Sutta /4K2.AD8 6hi9h too is in9lu'e'

PA#I

><>

PA#I

A99or'in) to this sutta /ori)inall5 from the Di"ha 'i!aya- D.III. 2;Af.8 "essa(ana, the kin) of the ya!!has informs the Bu''ha that there are ya!!has 6ho .elon) to the hi)her, mi''le an' the lo6er ranks 6ho are

'isa)reement 6ith the )eneral ethos of the suttas of the paritta 9olle9tion.

PA#I

><A

PA#I

he a.o(e 'is9ussions *oint to t6o 'istin9t *hases in the e(olution of the paritta ritual in Bu''hism. he first *hase seems to ha(e 9onsiste' of the sim*le re*la9ement of the non-

e(il 9ame to .e re*la9e' 6ith the *erforman9e of a ritual 6here 9hantin) a num.er of s*e9ifie' suttas 6as 'eeme' 9a*a.le of 'eli(erin) the )oo's. !n9e the ritual

PA#I

><4

PA#I

first of these is )enerall5 *erforme' he se9on', in three, fi(e or se(en sessions, ea9h lastin) a**ro0imatel5 one hour, there .ein) t6o sessions ea9h 'a5, mornin) an' e(enin). he ritual 9an start either 6ith a mornin) or an

6hi9h is the paritta threa', is a threestran' threa', 6ra**e' roun' the *ani9le of an are9anut flo6er an' is 9onne9te' to the paritta 9or' at some *oint near the 9ano*5. It is taken out of the *a(ilion an' is *asse' roun'

PA#I

><D

PA#I"ASA /28

Bu''hism too ha' to make similar a99ommo'ations for sur(i(al a)ainst su9h a .a9k)roun'. An' it 6as the Bu''hist 9ommentators 6ho ans6ere' the 9all. he5 foun'

PA#I"ASA /<8

><C

PA#I"ASA /<8

A99or'in) to the Cullava""a a monk 6ho is )uilt5 of 9on9ealin) a Sah"hadisesa offen9e, 6hi9h he has 9ommitte', must )o .efore the San)ha an' 9onfess to them his error. He must then reHuest the

he Bu''ha also makes it 9lear that in the 9ase of s*e9ial a**li9ants a.out 6hose tem*eraments an' a*titu'es ar9 a'eHuatel5 an'

PA#IYA

><3

PA#IYA

PA#IYA I. /%rom pariVS dp i.e. pariydpunati.5 It means a'eHua95, a99om*lishment, suffi9ien95, 9a*a.ilit5 an' 9om*eten95. It is 6ith its se9on' meanin) that 6e are

I Herein a monk is (irtuous, *erfe9t in the o.li)ations, restraine' 6ith the restraint of the o.li)ations, *erfe9t in the *ra9ti9e of ri)ht .eha(iour, seein) 'an)er in the

PA#IYA

><;

PA#IYU EHA$A

Another a99ount relates ansu9h as suttani- "eyyam veyya!arananis9ri*tures ane9'ote 9on9ernin) the El'er "a tha- udanain- itivutta!am- +dta!anP Maha-$a)a 6ho li(e' at abbhutadhammani- vedella. nor the &aruli5a)iri 6ho *ut asi'e the *erson 6ho s*en's the 6hole 'a5 in s9ri*tures for ei)hteen 5ears an' that master5 of the dhamma

PA#IYUELEHA$A

>>B

PA#IYU EHA$A

.5 sloth - an' - tor*or, freHuent lo')in)s in forestJ /9f.

or .eset him, .ut, at other times, he is 'isso9iate' from *assions / $A. Ill, 2AA8. A**arentl5 the hereti9s .elie(e' that an infant is free from *assions.

PA#IYU EHA$A

>>2

PASADA#!PA

in this 9ase. herefore sanusaya 9annot .e a viprayu!ta sans!ara 1vibhdsaprabhdvrtti on !ari!a <D2 of the Abhidharmadi pa5.

U*ali &arunaratne

%a9e'

6ith

this

'ilemma the

PASADA#UPA

>><

PASADA#tPA

6ere intent on sense-or)ans are 'eli9ate matter. the fa9t that Dhammasan"ani-

sho6in) that the of (er5 su.tle an' his is .om out .5 a99or'in) to the the5 9annot .e

fannin) him. It is not .i))er in si1e than the hea' of a louse. he or)an of hearin) / sotappasada8 is situate' in the interior of the 9om*oun' or)an of ear 1sasambha ra- sot a 8 at a

PASADA#!PA

>>>

PASADA#!PA

sense-or)ans are 'istin9t from their *eri*heral seats. he Mimamsakas maintain that the sense-or)ans 9onsist in the fa9ult5 or *oten95 1sa!ti8 a.i'in) in the so9kets. he

e09ess @ like6ise, in the 9ase of the or)ans of hearin) smell an' taste, air earth an' 6ater are in e09ess. An', as for the or)an of tou9h, there is no 'ifferen9e .et6een the su**ortin) *rimar5 elements. A99or'in) to the

PASSADDHI

>>A

PASSADDHI

H9n9e Bu''ha)hosa7s refutation of the t6o theories. His o6n e0*lanation re*eate' .5 his su99essors, too - as to the 'ifferen9e .et6een the sense or)ans is .ase' on

su!hatthaya5 an' the .liss is for the *ur*ose of +on9entration 1samddhatthdya5. A99or'in)l5 9on9entration is... 9orre9t kno6le')e an' (ision 1yathdbhutarianadassanatthaya 8.

PASSADDHI

>>4

PA A+A#A

1samadhi sambo++han"a5 an' EHuanimit5 1upe!!ha sambo++han"a 8 ar9 in9lu'e' in #i)ht +on9entration 1samma samddhi5-0sm. 422-42<. When a *erson .rin)s %ormations to min' as *ainful an' ha(in) )reat

*.B!. ranHuilit5 *re*ares the entr5 into the ?hani9 9ons9iousness of rupdvacara /%orm8 s*here .ein) a *rior 9on'ition for the %a9tors of A.sor*tion IEo5J 1su!ha5 an' G9on9entration7 1citte!a""ata5.

PA A+A#A

>>D

PA A+A#A

of the 9anoni9al te0ts as more authenti9 an' trust6orth5 an' as .ein) nearer to the histori9al situations in the Sasana than the 6or's of 9om*ilers of le)en's of

samddhemi assambhadram Wva +dniyam5. Her sal(ation e(i'entl5 6as not a lon) 6a5 off. As she rea9he' her 9ell an' trie' to lie 'o6n on her .e' to slee*, she 'i**e' the

PATACARA

>>C

PATACARA

(t t ham sudam Kisa"otami theri "at hay o abhasi- 1#&heri"atha. ( <<> f8

he Dhammapadattha!atha 1DhpA. 2.<DB- <C4 an' DhpA. III.

/the 9anoni9al te0t8 it is &isa)otami an' not Pata9ara 6ho is the (i9tim of this intense multi*le tra)e'5 of losin) her t6o infant 9hil'ren, her hus.an', her mother an' father an' her .rother, all on one sin)le

PA ALIPU

>>3

PA ALIPU

PA ALIPU A, Patali*utta2 6as the 9a*ital of the Ma)a'ha kin)'om of an9ient In'ia an' later the 9a*ital of the mi)ht5 Ma5ura Em*ire. It is also 9alle' &usuma*ura an' Push*a*ura. It 6as amon) the si0 )reat 9ities of

9it5 of Eam.u'i*a, an' there 6oul' .e a 'an)er from fire, 6ater an' 'issension to the 9it5.

PA ALIPU

>>;

PA ALIPU

'e*osite' in the 9it5 of Patali*utta. he $ahavamsa sa5s /9h. (. (erse 2<<8 the El'er Sonaka the *re9e*tor of El'er Si))a(a, the *re9e*tor of the El'er +an'a(a??i, the tea9her of

on this an' Puranas 9all him &alasoka &aka(arnin. %rom the rei)n of &alasoka, a99or'in) to Sri Lanka tra'ition Patali*utta remaine' the 9a*ital of $an'as, Maur5as,

PA ALIPU

>AB

PA ALIPU

amilakam on amil Lan'.< Un'er Asoka Patali*utra not onl5 .e9ame the 9entre of e9onomi9 a9ti(ities su9h as tra'e .ut also a 9entre of s*iritual a9ti(it5. A99or'in) to the

he +hinese re9or's too she' some li)ht on Pa tali*utta. %a-hian /4lh 9entur5 A.+.8 9alls it Pa-lin-%u an' he i'entifie' it as the to6n 6here Asoka rule'.

PA ALIPU

>A2

PA H!M +HEDI

PA H!M +HEDI, he ro5al monaster5 of Pra >.Hiuen san) is 6ron) at this Pathom +he'i at $akon Pathom is instan9e. It 6as name' for its to6erin) 2<B metre not Asoka 6ho shifte' the 9a*ital 9eti5a 6hi9h, 9o(ere' 6ith )la1e' from #a?a)aha tile of li)ht oran)e, 'ominates the to Patali*utta. He has 9onfuse' lan's9a*e for miles aroun'. It is the

PA I++ASAMUPPADA PA H!M +HEDI /28 >A> PA I++ASAMUPPADA >A< PA I++ASAMUPPADA /28 /28

stru9ture 9olla*se' 'urin) a hea(5 rainstorm. he se9on' attem*t, .e)un in 23DB, 6as su99essful@ .ut the 6ork 6as not 9om*lete' until 23CB, t6o 5ears after the kin)7s 'eath. hereafter kin)

rou)hl5 sHuare *ark, lo9ate' in 6hat is thou)ht to ha(e .een the 9entre of the ol' D(ara(ati 9a*ital.

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /28 >AA PA I++ASAMUPPADA /28

immoral

a9tion, i.e. the a.o(e mentione' (olitional a9ti(ities, or ALarKnaformations, as either 9ausin) results in the *resent life or .ein) the 9auses of future 'estin5 an' re.irth. hus

<. !hrou"h the karma# $ormations is conditioned consciousness% 1san!hdra-paccaya vinna nam5. his *ro*osition tea9hes that the 6holesome an' un6holesome !arma-formations are

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /28 >A4 PA I++ASAMUPPADA /28

.e un'erstoo' the K9oK(na-resultant /vipa!a5 mental *henomena, su9h as feelin) 1vedana5- *er9e*tion 1sahna5(olition / cetanaF non-karmi9al (olition is here meant8, 9ons9iousness-im*ression 1phassa5-

.ases, or sense-or)ans, there 9an .e no sense-im*ressions@ an' 6ithout the DV2 .ase, or 9ons9iousness, there 9an .e no mental im*ression.

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /28 >AD PA I++ASAMUPPADA /28

re.irth-*ro9ess / upapatti-bhava8 9om*rises the 4 `aKCM?/<-results /s. >-C of the 'ia)ram8.

from one life to the ne0t. I$o .ein) an' no li(in) soul *asse' from the former life to this life, an' 5et this *resent em.r5o 9oul' not ha(e entere' into e0isten9e 6ithout the *re9e'in) 9ausesJ 10ism. :"II8.

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8 >AC PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8

A99or'in) to Bu''hism, e(er5thin) mental or *h5si9al ha**ens in a99or'an9e 6ith la6s an' 9on'itions@ an' if it 6ere other6ise, 9haos an' .lin' 9han9e 6oul' rei)n. But su9h a thin) is im*ossi.le an'

ydva "ambhiro ca. yam bhante paticcasamuppado "ambirdvabhaso ca- .5 Anan'a an' ,ambhiro ca.yam Ananda paticcasamuppado "ambirdvabhaso ca- .5 the Bu''ha.

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8 >A3 PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8

In the $ahahattipadopama Suita Huote' a.o(e, Sari*utta a''s his o6n o.ser(ation a.out 6hat he 9onsi'ers to .e paticcasamuppanna dhamma. He firml5 sa5s that the5 are none

hus 6e see that the earl5 Bu''hist, as refle9te' in the $ahanidana Sutta- sa6 life 6ith its ramifi9ations or du!!ha an' the *ossi.ilit5 of re'em*tion therefrom or nirodha as s*annin) throu)h

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8 >A; PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8

In res*onse to a totall5 mis'ire9te' Huestion from M'ra, the E(il one /re*resentati(e of 9urrent an' 9ontem*orar5 errati9 thinkin) of the time8, as to the )enesis an' 9ontinuan9e of a .ein) ...

While it is a'mitte' that the fo9us of these t6o theories is 'istin9tl5 'ifferent, one also feels the nee' to make use of Huite a num.er of 9ate)ories of the more 'etaile'

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8 >4B PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8

%rom this *oint of a**er9e*tion /or sahna5 on6ar's, it is our .elief that the *ersonali1e' ma?or 9ontent of vinnana as life-9arrier or the samvattani!a- vinnam /as o**ose' to vihhdna-bhd"a or se)mente'

fa9et an' in the other, it is the &inally 'rocessed total vihhdm itself 1vihhanam yah ca sah!hatam5. %urther the *ast-*arti9i*ial form sah!hatam as a)ainst re)ular

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8 >42 PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8

vinnana in Bu''hism, from its earliest .e)innin)s, to .e a multi'imensional multifun9tional 9on9e*t. It is to .e seriousl5 stu'ie' .oth in relation to the li(in) *ro9ess of e(er5 human from .irth to 'eath

*s59hi9 for9es like 9ra(in), )ras*in) an' hol'in) on to, )enerate' in one7s li(in) *ro9ess. he total num.er of se*arate 9on'itions 6hi9h are .rou)ht un'er 'is9ussion here are onl5 nine in num.er /as a)ainst

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8 >4< PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8

he first a''ition of these t6o items at the hea' of the list seems to satisf5 a *hiloso*hi9al 9uriosit5, to kno6 the *resent /of a sentient li(in) .ein), i.e. savihha na!a and samana!a 6ho is in our mi'st8 in

an' the *s59hi9al *ro9esses in(ol(e' in it. here is no 'en5in) that Mah' &otthita7s first Huestion to Sari*utta starts 6ith the kno6n an' (isi.l5 a(aila.le fa9tor of 'e9a5 an' 'eath 1+ard- marana5 to 6hi9h man is

PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8 >4> PA I++ASAMUPPADA /<8 vattati itthattam panhdpanaya yadidam nama-rupam saha vihridnena. D. II. D>f8. heir 9on9urrent 9essation takes *la9e finall5 onl5 in nibbana 1Ettha naman ca rupaii ca asesam uparu++hati 0ihhdnassa nirodhena etth . etam uparu++hati. D. I. <<>8 It is also interestin) to 'is9o(er our Bu''hist te0ts inte)ratin) this t6el(e-link Paticcasamuppada into their e0*lanation of other ma?or *oints of Bu''hist tea9hin)s. An"uttara 'i!aya $aha 0a""a /KI. I. 2CC8 uses this in its e(olutionar5 as*e9t of paccaya ... paccaya to e0*lain the )enesis of du!!ha or du!!ha- samudayam =Katanian ca bhi!!have du!!ha- samudayam ariyasaccam M Avi++a- paccaya sah!ha ra ...+ati- paccaya +ara- maranam. (dam vuccati bhi!!have du!!hasamudayam ariya- saccam. loc.cit.5. In the same 6a5, in its re(erse or'er as nirodhd ... nirodho this same series is use' to 'efine the 9essation of du!!ha or du!!ha- nirodha =Katamah ca bhi!!have du!!ha- nirodham ariya- saccam G Avi++a ya tv . eva asesa- vira"a- nirodhd saii!haranirodho ... Evam etassa !evalassa du!!ha!!handhassa nirodho hoti. (dam vuccati bhi!!have du!!hanirodham ariya- saccam5.

Dhammavihari

PA IGHA - SA$$A PATIDESANIYA

>44 3@=

PA IMA PAT9GHA

!ne tnu!ha /fa9e8 - 2> 0i 1an"ul5 in9hes or units

1apaya5 is eliminate' in the *ath of stream-entr5 /. sotapattima""a8@ its )ross as*e9t in the *ath to on9ereturnin) / sa!ada"amima""a8 an' its su.tle as*e9t in the *ath to non-

A99or'in) to the Dhammasan"anipati"ha means hatre' one har.ors a)ainst another 6ho has 'one, or is 'oin), a 6ron) u*on oneself, or u*on one7s frien's. It also is the hatre' one 'e(elo*s a)ainst another

PA IMA PALEIMA

>4C >4D

PA IMA PAE2MA

Ima"es in "eneral)

Seated ima"es o$ the (uddha)

Com'arison with other canons

in9hes8. It has to .e stresse' that onl5 a fe6 of the measurements )i(en are use' in the 9ase of smaller ima)es. All the minute 'etails are ne9essar5 onl5 in the 9ase of 9olossal statues.

i.

he ti* of the nose, the thum. an' the heel must .e (isi.le to the e5e of the ima)e.

PA IMAGHA#A

>43

PA IMAGHA#A

PA IMAGHA#A, Skt. Pratima)rha P. Patima)hara, Patima)ara are terms 6hi9h ha(e .een in use to 'enote ima)e-houses .uilt for *ur*oses of 2<-+M housin)>4CD ima)es of reli)ious

/AD>-AC; A.+.8 ha' a shrine ere9te' for the &alaseia ima)e / !ala-sela *andasena +udiyanse means .la9k stone-h9n9e the refeien9e is *ro.a.l5 to the ima)e at A(ukana8. In the ima)e house of the

PA IMAGHA#A

>4;

PA IMAGHA#A

Loft5 shrines 6ere .uilt for he roof is (aulte'. he !ala-pasada 6as .uilt in installation of stan'in) ima)es 6hile the $an'ana )ro(e .5 &in) seate' ima)es 6ere *la9e' 6ithin De(anam*i5atissa />BC-<DC those of mo'erate hei)ht. In natural 9a(es like Pi'ura)ala an' Dam.ulla,

PA IMAGHA#A

>DB

PA IMA"IHA#A

here are man5 Bu''hist shrines 6hi9h are kno6n as "adi-"e he .est *reser(e' e0am*le is the .ri9k .uilt stru9ture name' hu*arama at

to6ar's the en' of the &an'5 *erio', it .e9ame a (er5 ela.orate feature.

PA IMA"IHA#A

>D2

PAEIMA"IHA#A

Patitthapeti !atvana %uddham tattha silamayam $ahanta namamsapahno iddhihi viya nimmitam

Patima(ihara In &ana)ama /he .uilt8 hos*itals for the .lin' an' si9k an' an ima)e

)ot esta.lishe' an' .e9ame a s5non5m for Ari5akara (ih'ra. Dhammakitti the author of the se9on' *art of the Maha(amsa uses .oth names. When he 'es9ri.es the

PA IMA"IHA#A

>D<

PA IMA"IHA#A

6ho as9en'e' the throne of Anura'h*ura .ut rei)ne'

'ama)e' it after6ar's.4 he 'ama)e .5 the treasure hunters a**ears to ha(e .een 'one in 2;A3. he re9or's of an inHuir5 hel' .5 the Go(ernment A)ent in 2;A3 on the

PA IM!&&HA

>D>

PA IM!&&HA

#eferen9es

he use of the alrea'5 lai' 'o6n si!!hapada for re9ital at the fortni)htl5 meetin)s is sai' to ha(e .een re9ommen'e' .5 the Bu''ha himself. In the 0inaya $ahava""a

PA IM!&&HA

>DA

PA IM!&&HA

Evam satta-visadhi!dni dve si!!hapadasatani $ahdvibhan"o Wti !ittetvathapesum

he5 a'' here the 6or' satta /a se(en8 to 6hat 6e .elie(e is the

the re*ort of Bu''ha)hosa is a.out se(en or ei)ht 9enturies after the e(ent. his 9learl5 *oints to the earl5 e0isten9e of the 0inaya rules to)ether 6ith their a99om*an5in) 'etails 6ith re)ar' to the a**li9ation

PA IM!&&HA

>D4 PA IM!&&HUDDESA

the >BA si!!hapada of the %hi!!hunivibhaii"a. he num.er of si!!hapada in ea9h )rou* of the %hi!!hunivibhari"a sho6s a note6orth5 in9rease.

PA IM!&&HUDDES A >DD PA IM!&&HUDDESA the 'is9o(er5 of an5 offen9e 9ommitte' .5 a .hikkhu in terms of the si!!hapada re9ite' - tasmih ce bhahhamdne hoti bhi!!hussa dpatti hoti bhi!!hussa viti!!amo.

nam si!!hapadam paiiiiattam5. He has aiso en?oine' on them the re9ital of the Pdtimo!!ha 1pdtimo!!ham uddittham5. We 6ho li(e in a s*e9ifie' (illa)e, all of us meet to)ether on the /posatha 'a5 an'

PATIPADA 7 NANADASSANA 3AB

PATIPATTI

nupassandhana H.(.8 /38 in eHuanimit5 re)ar'in) all formations of e0isten9e 1saii!lidrupe!!hahdnaH.(.8 /;8 an' the kno6le')e that a'a*ts itself 1saccanulomi!a or anuloma-hana5 to the *re9e'in) ei)ht

PA IPA

>D3

PA IPA

atthi... panna atthi...atthupapari!!ha atthi... dhamma nudhammapatipattiatthi... appamado atthi !usalesu dhammesu- tassa ya ratti va divaso va a"acchati vuddhi yeva pati!an!ha !usalesu dhammesu no parihani.< 1A.0. 2<D8

2.

+on9entration of intention /chanda-samadhi5 a99om*anie' .5 effort of 6ill.

<.

+on9entration of ener)5 / viriya8 a99om*anie' .5 effort of 6ill.

+on9entration of 9ons9iousness /citta-s5


>.

+on9entration /vimamsa-s8
A.

of

in(esti)ation

Panca balani in9lu'e faith / saddha8,

PA IPA

>D;

PA IPA

:Katamahca bhi!!have brahmacariyam Ayam eva ariyo atthari"i!o ma""o seyyathidam samma ditt hi... samma samadhi. (dam vuccati bhi!!have brahmacariyan0 1S. " <D /2B8.

It 6ill .e remem.ere' that 6hen the Bu''ha 'eli(ere' his first 'is9ourse to his former as9eti9 9om*anions, the pahcava""iya .hikkhus, &on'anna, 6as the first amon) them to un'erstan' the

PA ISAMBHIDA

>CB

PA ISAMBHIDA

PA ISAMBHIDA, 1pratisamvidF Sanskrit8, 'is9riminatin) kno6le')e, a te9hni9al term use' in Bu''hism in 9onne9tion 6ith four kin's of kno6le')e 6hi9h, taken as a 6hole, mean *o6ers of 9om*rehension an'

.5 Ganal5sis7. But it must he note' that it is Gkno6le')e7 that suits the 9onte0t .etter than Ganal5sis7 in man5 a *assa)e in 6hi9h the patisambhidas are 'is9usse'.

PAHSAMBHIDA

>C2

PA ISAMBHIDA

he 0ibhari"a has a t6ofol' e0*lanation of patisambhidd F the suttanta e0*lanation an' the abhidhamma e0*lanation. A99or'in) to the former, atthapatisambhida is the anal5sis of *henomena 1dhamma8

househol'er U*ali, the la56oman 'e(otee &hu??uttar' an' others, 9ome into the 9ate)or5 of the trainee7s *lane.

PA ISAMBHIDA

>C<

PA ISAMBHIDA

6ho attain to this fourfol' kno6le')e .e9ome either faithli.erate' 1saddhdvimutta5 .5 6a5 of the s*iritual fa9ult5 of faith /saddhindriya5- or a .o'il5 6itness 1!a yasa!!hi8 .5 6a5 of the s*iritual

as a *rea9her. he Dasabhilmi!a Sutra 'istin9tl5 asso9iates pratisamvid 6ith a .o'hisatt(a7s a9ti(it5 as a tea9her. I he .o'hisatt(a 6ho is esta.lishe' in this bhiimi 9alle' sadhumati a9ts as a

PA ISAMBHIDAMAGGA >C> PA ISAMBHIDAMAGGA

PALnSAMBHEDAMAGGA, Patisambhidama""a- the I*ath to anal5ti9al insi)htJ is the 2<lh .ook /B.+. La6 9ounts it as the 2>th8 of the Khudda!a 'i!aya- the 4lh 9olle9tion of the Suttapita!a of the hera(a'a s9hool of Bu''hism.

im*ortant in the *resent 9onte0t. It is state' that Dhi "habana!a hel' the (ie6 that at the %irst +oun9il the heras rehearse' 'iddesaPatisambhidama""aSuttanipata-

PA ISAMBHIDAMAGGA >CA PA ISAMBHIDAMAGGA

Su'inna refuse' to a99e*t /as authenti9 Bu''ha7s tea9hin)s8 Patisambhidama""a is also in9lu'e'. It shoul' .e 9lear that from the earl5 'a5s authenti9it5 of

a later *erio' 6hen the Bu''ha 6as )ra'uall5 attri.ute' 6ith su*erhuman Hualities.

PAHSARANIYA 7 ,AMMA 3B@ W W from his area of resi'en9e, a.uses la5men an' 'isru*ts the unit5 in the la5 9ommunit5 1"ihlnam alabhaya parisa!!ati "ithinam anatthaya parisa!!ati "ihlnam avasaya parisa!!ati PATI1EDHA "ihl a!!osati- paribhasati "ihi "ihlhi bhedeti. loc. cit.5.

PA I"EDHA

>CD

PA I"EDHA

he humanisti9 foun'ation of the Bu''ha7s enli)htenment 'ra6s our attention to the fa9t that his Huest 6as a (er5 *ra)mati9 one, the ori)in an' 9essation of human sufferin).

he Bu''ha re*lies to Posala that he, the ath' )ata thorou)hl5 9om*rehen'in) all su**orts of 9ons9iousness kno6s him 6ho remains /6ith 'is*ositions8 an' kno6s 6hen li.erate' an' 6hen

PA I"EDHA

>CC

PA I"EDHA

IIt is throu)h not un'erstan'in), throu)h not *enetratin) the Ar5an (irtue, monks, the Ar5an 9on9entration, the Ar5an 6is'om, it is throu)h not un'erstan'in), not *enetratin), the Ar5an release that

In the same 6a5 it is not seein) 1adassana8 the aforementione' > a))re)ates of e0isten9e in terms of the %our $o.le ruths, not 9om*rehen'in) / ananubodha5- not

PA I"EDHA

>C3 PA

A$I&&UEEA$A&AMMA

E(en so, sire, 6hosoe(er, are those 6ho are 6eak in 6is'om, stu*i' 'ri(ellers, 9onfuse' an' slothful, if the5 )o forth in the 'is*ensation of the 9onHueror, .ein) in9a*a.le of

PA

A$I&&UEEA$A&AMMA >C; PA

A$I&&UEEA$A&AMMA

"a''ha7s .o6l u*si'e 'o6n, let it im*ose noneatin)

!r'er li(in) 6ithin the .oun'ar5 ha(e to assem.le, .rin)in) the lea(e of a.sen9e of those 6ho 9annot atten' for a (er5 (ali' le)itimate reason. Also all atten'in) ha(e to .e G*ure7 in the sense that the5 shoul'

PATTANI,,U!!ANA,AMMA >3B

PATTHANA

In the 9ase of the Li99ha(i "a''ha, he 6ent to the Bu''ha an' aske' for *ar'on. He sai',

6as turne' u*si'e 'o6n .5 the !r'er, I am not eatin) 6ith the !r'er. But I, honoure' sirs, am 9on'u9tin) m5self *ro*erl5, I am su.'ue', I am men'in) m5 6a5s an' I ask the !r'er for the settin)

PA

HA$A

>32

PA

HA$A

It ha' .een .elie(e' from (er5 an9ient times that there are unseen *o6ers that 9oul' fulfill ho*es of .ein)s on earth. Durin) earl5 #)(e'i9 times *eo*le .elie(e' that there 6ere *resi'in) 'eities o(er

Bu''hism re9o)nises the im*ortan9e of a fer(ent ho*e in the li(es of human .ein)s. $ormall5 after *erformin) a )oo' 'ee' Bu''hist 'e(otees utter a stan1a to this effe9t, GB5 the for9e of this

PA

IDA$A

>3<

PA

IDA$A

the merit the5 ha(e )aine' .5 'eli(erin) a sermon on the dhamma

PA

IDA$A

>3>

PA

IDA$A

PunnaF he 6or' patti- as sho6n a.o(e, has 9ome to .e use' in the sense of merit )ifte' to others, onl5 in later Bu''hist 6ritin)s. he 6or' use' in earl5 6orks in the sense of meritorious a9tion, (irtuous a9tion as

im*urit5 'e*en's on one7s o6n a9tions, an' no outsi'er 9an *urif5 a *erson.2C here is no 9on9e*t of a (i9arious sal(ation in earl5 Bu''hism. !ne7s eman9i*ation has to .e 6orke' out .5 one7s o6n

PA

IDA$A

>3A

PA

IDA$A

he i'ea of the *ossi.ilit5 no.lest of one7s amon) the )ift-6orth5. Yet Bu''hism merit .enefitin) another, es*e9iall5 a ne(er trie' to limit the ri)ht for 'e*arte' *erson, 6as one of the da!!hina to its reli)ieu0. Generall5 9ontro(ersial Huestions 'is9usse' in all re9luses an' .rahamans are the KathdvatthuPX IDo the5 /the re9o)ni1e' as )ift-6orth5 in 'e*arte'8 su.sist on 6hat is )i(en

PA

IDA$A

>34

PA

IDA$A

"en. Sari*utta an' 'e'i9ate /adiseyyasi5 the da!!hina to him. She fe' the monks as reHueste' an' at the en' of the meal tells "en. Sari*utta ISir, let all the merit 1punnanihitam8 of this 'onation .e

In the Petavatthu- s*e9iali1in) in stories re)ar'in) the 'ea', es*e9iall5 those 'ealin) 6ith the alle(iation of the sufferin) of those re.orn in the Pettivisaya- it is the da!!hina or dana )ifte' to (irtuous *ersons that is use'

PA

IDA$A

>3D

PA

IDA$A

his kno6le')e or e0*e9tation an' he looke' for its 9ause after he o.ser(e' the enhan9ement of his *ros*erit5.A2 We ma5 ha(e to look for an ans6er for this in *re-Bu''hist reli)ious .eliefs.

furnishe' 6ith )armentsJ4B, sa5s one peta. Man5 su9h instan9es 9oul' .e foun' from the petavatthu. his is not mu9h 'ifferent from the a.o(e mentione' "e'i9 .elief. Possi.l5 Bu''hists at first .elie(e' 6ith

PA

IDA$A

>3C

PA

IDA$A

Anumo'ana, he se9on' 9om*onent of the t6in- ritual mentione' at the .e)innin) 6as pattanumodana translate' Ia**ro(al of a meritorious a9tJ or as un'erstoo' .5 some Ire?oi9in) in the meritJ 9onferre' .5

a**re9iatin) another7s meritorious 'ee' e(en 6ithout an5 in(itation from the a)ent. his is sai' 6ith s*e9ial referen9e to human .ein)s 6ho 9oul' 'eri(e some .enefit to themsel(es .5 su9h an a**ro(al. %or

PA

IDA$A

>33

PA

IDA$A

ones 9oul' en?o5 its 9onseHuen9es / vipa!am anubhavanti5. he Huestion also is raise' 6hether the 9onseHuen9es /vipa!a8 of an e(il a9t also 9oul' rea9h the 'e*arte' ones. But the $ilindapariha ne)ates it. !nl5 merit

sa!!a saha a!atena ananumatena saha papam !ammam samvibha+itum5. he author seems to inten' that these 9on'itions, es*e9iall5 a**ro(al, is not nee'e' in the 9ase of )oo' a9ts. We ha(e

PA

IDA$A

>3;

PA

IDA$A

'e*arte' ones re9ei(e as a 9onseHuen9e of su9h a9ts. Ho6e(er, it is 9lear that the 9on9e*t of hel*in) the 'ea' throu)h su9h a9ts has un'er)one 9han)e. his ne6 thinkin) is the .asis of Bu''hist

stupa an' 'isallo6e' an5 one to 6ork at its 9onstm9tion 6ithout remuneration.C4 Goin) on the $ahavamsa statement one 9oul' 'ou.t the histori9it5 of the

PA

IDA$A

>;B

PA

IDA$A

A99or'in) to the /pdsa!a+ana.lan!a.ra- a 2<th 9entur5 Pali 6ork 6ritten in Sri Lanka, pattidana is not the e0ternal a9t of )iftin) merit .ut sim*l5 the 'esire to

hera(a'a s9hools. A99or'in)l5 the5 *ointe' out that .5 a**ro(in) another7s )ift or other forms of )oo' a9tion 6ith *ure intention, one 9an rea* some .enefit from them. +ertain 9ate)ories of 'e*arte'

PA

IDA$A

>;2

PA

IDA$A

'd. I. ;B puiinam vuccati yam !ind tedhatu!am


8

!usalabliisan!hdram apunnam vuccatisabbam a!usalam *. 2; danasilddhippabhedam sucaritam !usala!ammam


4

4. I. ;C punhdni paralo!assa patittha honti


AB

A<

)"veda 0. 2A.3 Arthur A. Ma9'onell, A vedic )eader for students!0for' Uni(ersit5 Press, Ma'ras <, 2;DB

PA

I$I

>;<

PA

I$I

CA Y7

i.i'. i. <CB hu*(. E'. Dhammaratana hera Sa99asamu99a5a *ress *.3> !evalam pana mahacetiye !ammam aiiiiesam apatti!am

festi(als hel' in honour of the )o''ess of +hastit5, is mentione' in the *oem@ an' a99or'in) to the a99e*te' (ie6 of Sri Lankan S9holars his rei)n .e)an in 2C2 A.+.

PA

I$I

>;>

PA

I$I

kno6n as ammavarun"e leda /mothers7 Diseases su9h as mum*s, 9hiken-*o0 an' measles. In some areas deyyanne leda /)o's7 'iseases8 is the term use' for this )rou* of 'iseases an' here 6e note the

te0ts, 6hi9h shoul' .e *erforme' in a ritual in honour of Pattini. hese te0ts are 9alle' Pan tis !olmura an' the5 .elon) to (arious *erio's startin) from the 24th 9entur5. he thirt5-fi(e Kol $ura te0ts are as

PA

I$I

>;A

PA"A#A$A

6hen their shi* 6as 6re9ke' on the hi)h seas, arri(e' at "era)o'a in Sini)ama in the South West 9oast of the islan'. he Devol Devale is still a hi)hl5 (enerate' *la9e of 6orshi* .5

PA"A#A$A

>;4

PE A&!PADESA

h 9entur5 A.+. In one of the authorities. A 'ettippa!aram


4,

.oth these 9ommentaries Peta!opadesa is 9ite' as mention of the Peta!opadesa is foun' in the 9ommentar5 of Dhamma*ala

a. .ein) a)reea.le to an' tolerant of one anotherannamanndnulomatd.

a In 9anoni9al the 6or's te0t of alon) Prof. E. 6ith Har'52 the 'ettippa!arana .oth 'ettippa!aranaan' an' the $ilindapanha. are Peta!opadesa he still tra'ition floatin) has attri.ute' onthe 'ateless theauthorshi* o9ean of of In'ian the Peta!opadesa Literature. It is reasona.le as 6ell toas assume the

PE A&!PADESA

>;D

PE A&!PADESA

/*attern of the Dis*ensation8. he Peta!opadesa is 'i(i'e' into ei)ht 9ha*ters Ariyasaccapa!asana /Dis*la5 of the $o.le ruths8, Sasanapatthana /Pattern of the

*ara)ra*h or a se9tion .e)ins or en's, its unti'5 an'

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A >;C PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A

#eferen9es

Most of the mo'ern s9holars are almost unanimous that man5 of the .ooks in9lu'e' un'er the Khudda!a 'i!aya are of late ori)in. !f the *resent t6o 6orks #h5s Da(i's sa5s,

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A >;3 PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A

offerin) flo6ers to the Bu''ha7s stu*a at #a?a)aha. In the same stor5, Sakka, &in) of )o's, re9ommen's to his follo6in) the honourin) the Bu''ha7s reli9s. hese are 9lear

an' the Petavatthu 'urin) the time of AsokaJD. But he 'ou.ts 6hether these t6o te0ts 6ere kno6n to the em*eror or e(en to Arahant Mahin'a, 6ho a99or'in) to the

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A >;; PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A

he ar)ument that the i'ea of vimanas in Asokan e'i9ts 9oul' ha(e .een taken from e*i9 Sanskrit an' "e'i9 literature, for s*e9ulation a.out )o's an' their 9elestial a.o'es is not Bu''histi9 .ut Brahmani9,

of re*etitions in the *oems 6ith the same stan1as re*eate' a'. li.. here is no homo)eneit5 in the su.?e9t matter or the arran)ement of the *oems. While the ma?orit5 of them 'eal 6ith the *ainful e0*erien9es of

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A ABB PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A

the me'ium of a (irtuous *erson or *ersons 6ho 9oul' .e a (irtuous Bu''hist monk or e(en a la5man. Ho6e(er the .est to *la5 this role is a s*irituall5 *erfe9te' arahant or the Bu''hist san"ha- the 9ommunit5 of

*oems. %rom the .e)innin) to the en' of the 9olle9tion the *oems 'eal 6ith a set of ha**5 'i(ine .ein)s, o99u*5in) 9elestial mansions 1vimanas5- sometimes ren'ere' into

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A AB2 PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A=

he (ie6, IIn 6hi9he(er 6a5 that man 'oes a 'ee' in some 6a5 he 6ill e0*erien9e /its result8J, is re?e9te' in earl5 Bu''hism 1A. 2, <A;8. he same 'is9ourse also states that an insi)nifi9ant e(il a9tion 'one .5 a

6reathe' .eautifull5 6ith flo6ers. his 6as the result of his one-'a5 'istri.utin) some flo6ers amon) the (illa)e .o5s 1Pvu- SH%- 2<2ff8. A Bu''hist monk 6ho 6as 9urse' 6ith a foul mouth 6as re.orn a peta 6ith a

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A AB<

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A

renoun9e home life. he5 ele9te' to remain home '6ellers en?o5in) the *leasures of the senses an' often reHueste' the Bu''ha to )i(e them a tea9hin) to make a su99ess of the

rituals, e09e*t the Stu*a 6orshi* mentione' e(en in the $aha Parinibbdma Sutta 1D. II. 2D28, that 9ame to .e ta9ke' on to Bu''hism in later times. In fa9t .oth the te0ts are

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A AB> PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A=

stin)5 an' unrestraine' manJ 1ibid. 2DC8 6as the as9ri*tion of !n its on6ar' mar9h into (arious nooks an' 9orners In'ia the 9om*assionate messa)e of the Bu''ha

a.o(e this is ma'e 9lear e(en from *assa)es in the earl5 'is9ourses an' the vinaya te0ts. he &heri"atha an' the %hi!!huni Apaddna sho6 that 'ominant monks 9oul' not i)nore the females as the5 forme' a *rominent

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A AB> PE A"A

HU, "IMA$A=

a stin)5 an' unrestraine' manJ 1ibid. 2DC8 6as the 'es9ri*tion of !n its on6ar' mar9h into (arious nooks an' 9omers in In'ia the 9om*assionate messa)e of the Bu''ha

a.o(e this is ma'e 9lear e(en from *assa)es in the earl5 'is9ourses an' the vinaya te0ts. he &heri"atha an' the %hi!!huni Apadcina sho6 that 'ominant monks 9oul' not i)nore the females as the5 forme' a *rominent

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM 1)/u' 1II( Fa+%$%/ 3

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM

Founder Editor-in Chief G. P. MALALASE&E#A, M. A., Ph. D., D. Litt., Professor Emeritus y*

Editor-in Chief W. G. WEE#A#A $E, m. a., Ph. '.

200@ PUBLISHED BY HE G!"E#$ME$ !% S#I LA$&A

Pu.lishe' .5 the De*artment of Bu''hist Affairs, Ministr5 of Bu''hasasana, Sri Lanka.

Printe' at he Go(t. Printin) De*t. Sri Lanka.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM EDITORIAL BOARD

Dr. Anan'a W. P. Guru)e

Hon. Consultant Editor

Dr. $. A. Ea5a6i9krama, Professor Emeritus Hon. Editorial Advisor

Dr. Y. &aruna'asa, Professor Emeritus Hon. Editorial Advisor

Dr. W. G. Weeraratne

Editor-in-Chief

Dr. &. Arunasiri

F)r' r Ed$-)r+7$n7C0$ *

Dr. G. P. Ma/a/a+ & ra( Professor Emeritus Founder Editor-in-Chief. Dr. O. H. D A. W$4 + & ra( Professor Emeritus

PE A"A

HU, "IMA$AB AB> PE A"A

HU, "IMA$AB

a stin)5 an' unrestraine' manJ =ibid. 2DC8 6as the 'es9ri*tion of !n its on6ar' mar9h into (arious nooks an' 9omers in In'ia the 9om*assionate messa)e of the Bu''ha

a.o(e this is ma'e 9lear e(en from *assa)es in the earl5 'is9ourses an' the vinaya te0ts. he &heri"atha an' the %hi!!huni Apadana sho6 that 'ominant monks 9oul' not i)nore the females as the5 forme' a *rominent

PE

I"ISAYA

ABA

PE

I"ISAYA

P,!!IVISA-A. Sometimes also Pittivisaya- Ithe #ealm of the %athersJ is the thir' of the fi(e 'estinies after 'eath 1panca"ati5 o*en to an5 uneman9i*ate' .ein) a99or'in) to Pali sour9es. In later

them in hell or re6ar' them in the 9it5 of Yama, 6hi9h seems to .e the same as the former G6orl' of the fathers7. he 'isem.o'ie' soul, of the 'ea' ?ourne5s to the seat of Yama in a preta-body 9reate' .5 9onsumin)

PE

I"ISAYA

AB4

PE

I"ISAYA

'ifferent in'i(i'uals. he $aha 'arada Kassapa 2ata!a2D refers to the t6o 'o)s Sa.ala an' Sama 6ho atta9k the 'ea' 6ith their iron teeth. hese 9ertainl5 are the t6o .rin'le' 'o)s-Sa.alau Suanau of Yama

meet the t6o kin)s, )o' "aruna an' Yama en?o5in) the offerin)s ma'e to the 'ea'<<. he5 also ha(e the o**ortunit5 of tra(ellin) in the same 9ar 6ith )o' In'ra an' other )o's<>. In the "e'i9 h5mns fathers are a

PETTI1ISAYA C

=0A

PETTI1ISAYA

to the "e'i9 9on9e*tion shoul' .e the same as Pitrlo!a. In later Hin'u 6orks the 'ea' rea9h Yama onl5 6hen their petahood is 'estro5e' an' not .efore that. heir petahood is onl5 an interme'iate state .et6een

pettivis ay i!a- the term use' to 'esi)nate the '6ellers of the pettivisaya. In these earl5 'is9ourses there is no tra9e of an5 9on9e*t of a petalo!a or petavisaya i'enti9al or se*arate from the pettivisaya.

PE

I"ISAYA

ABC

PE

I"ISAYA

Peta an' Pu..a*eta, he 6or' peta use' in the Pali 'is9ourses is sometimes *refi0e' .5 another term pubba /Skt. purva8 thus formin) the term pubbapeta /9*. #(. purve pitaro5. !n9e, it is sai', 'is9ussin)

hea(ens, amon) animals an' petas of four kin's, 6hi9h last 9ate)or5 re*la9in) the pettivisayi!a in the Bu''ha7s re*l5. $a)asena also omits those re.orn amon) human .ein)s from his list. But 6hat is im*ortant

PE

I"ISAYA

AB3

PE

I"ISAYA

But in the Petavatthu the term ya!!ha is a**lie' mostl5 to the 9lass of petas 9alle' peta mahiddhi!a an' not to the misera.le t5*es.

as Hualif5in) peta- 6hi9h he ren'ers Wpeta-folk7. Ma5 .e he 6as influen9e' .5 the use of the 6or' in su9h 6orks as the Petavatthu. He has also taken the li.ert5 to sa5 that the Peta-folk li(e in the south4;. In

PE

I"ISAYA

AB;

PE

I"ISAYA

9omforta.le *osture for them. Ho6e(er fas9inatin) this alternati(e e0*lanation is, it is unlikel5 that it is the real meanin) of the term petaseyya. Bu''ha)hosa is a**arentl5 *a5in) 'eferen9e to a *o*ular (ie6

9or*se. he 9ommentator a)rees .ut e0*an's on it. He e0*lains, Ihere those .om in pittivisaya- those 6ho, after 'eath, are .om on the same .o'5 an' also devas su9h as the +atummahara?ka are all 9ounte'

PE

I"ISAYA

A2B

PE

I"ISAYA

'ea'7. he 'ea', here too, shoul' refer to the 'ea' .o'ies, lifeless an' 9ast out, forlorn an' refu)eless, in9a*a.le of 'oin) an5thin) an' a.an'one' in a 9emeter5, rather than Gthe 'ea'7 6ho are al6a5s, Huite

6or'@ Ipetas meanJ sa5s he, Ithose from 6hom life, 6armth an' 9ons9iousness ha(e )one outC3J. his also is the inter*retation )i(en to a 'ea' .o'5 .5 "en. Sari*utta in the $ahavedalla SuttaA4.

PE

I"ISAYA

A22

PE

I"ISAYA

a.o(e 9ommentarial (ie6 9oul' .e a later 9on9e*t not refle9tin) the ol'er (ie6.

li(e' in a s*len'i' mansion *ro(i'e' 6ith all *leasures, .ut one. She 6as not fortunate enou)h to en?o5 the 9om*an5 of a male. In t6o stories .5 the same name;> 6e meet 6ith t6o vimana petas 6ho en?o5 throu)hout

PE

I"ISAYA

A2<

PE

I"ISAYA

lor' of men an' sa5s, II am a ya!!ha of )reat *o6er, no man is eHual in *o6er to me;3 he 'anda!a storyA4 an' the Ambapeta story#BB s*eak of t6o petas en?o5in) the results of

the unha**5 e0*erien9es the5 ha'. But 5et the5 all, a99or'in) to the Petavatthu 9on9e*tion, are petas.

PE

I"ISAYA

A2>

PE

I"ISAYA

E(olution of the +on9e*t Petti(isa5a K Petaloka,

of

three )enerations of fathers, (i1. father, )ran'father an' )reat-)ran' father. It is (er5 rarel5, in the $aha pitrya+iia that three more )enerations are fe' in this manner. When a ne6 )eneration is a''e' to the host of

PE

I"ISAYA

A2A

PE

I"ISAYA

ultimate anal5sis, 6ere a )rou* of petas in the sense of Gthe 'ea' in )eneral7, the earl5 9anoni9al 'is9ourses ne(er 'es9ri.e' them as roamin) the 'ark 9omers of the earth. If .5 this he meant the misera.le

.ehel' a 'e*arte' one 1peta5 of terri.le a**earan9e, hun9h.a9ke' an' fleshless, 6ith hair ere9t, 'irt5 an' senses 'is9om*ose' .5 hun)er an' thirstJ. his 'es9ri*tion of the preta tallies e0a9tl5 6ith that of the

PE

I"ISAYA

A24

PE

I"ISAYA

to sta5 in the .o'5 or ho(erin) aroun' it for a fe6 'a5s .efore it reali1es that it 9annot re-enter the .o'5. he 'is*osal of the .o'5 6as also 9onsi'ere' essential to in'u9e the 'e9ease' to lea(e on its ?ourne5

are sho6n tra(ellin) to)ether on the same *ath223. A99or'in) to the 9ommentar5 the ha**5 petas here are terrestrial devas 1bhumma-deva8 )oin) to an assem.l5 of ya!!has an' the t6o misera.le ones 6ere follo6in) them.

PE

I"ISAYA

A2D

PE

I"ISAYA

the mental .o'5 /on the Bas'o*lane8. But the most si)nifi9ant thin) is that Bu''hists ha(e not, e(en in this late sta)e, a.an'one' the ethi9al fa9tor so im*ortant in earl5

*ainful / du!!ha-bahula8. Ho6 9oul' one a99ommo'ate 'e(a-like .ein)s in su9h a 9on'itionM In most of the Petavatthu stories e(en the misera.le petas 6hose life is transforme' .5 )ifts 'e'i9ate' to them are 'es9ri.e'

32. >A nirayamtiracchanayonimyamalo!amupapa++are 4 II. 3.<.

PE

I"ISAYA

A2C

PE

I"ISAYA

2CKM(. 0. A6- Av. I. 23 attheva deva

3.2.;. pitaro ca atthi lo!o paro atthi +ano yama.hu.

)i(en in this 6orl' on .ehalf of the petas 9oul' 9han)e their misera.le life entirel5 ?ust short of )rantin) a ne6 .irth in a 9elestial *lane of e0isten9e. Miser5 in the life of a peta is re*la9e' .5 ha**iness, 6ant .5

#4Sn. apretin>2B. 2B *asses ibid 2.<.;. a6a5 6ith a .elie(in) heart, an' is re.orn amon) the *o6erful pretas, the pretamahrddhi!as. In another stor5 a preta *asses a6a5 6ith a .elie(in) heart in the Bu''ha an' 6as re.orn

AA2. A. Pubbapete ca arabbha

PE
3Y

I"ISAYA

A23

PE

I"ISAYA

$A II. >4 f. su!ham parittam !adaci!arahaci anubha v it abb am hoti.

A;II. <4Aff.

A4 6D <3 6Y

TATA. III. III. 2BAff. 2BB, I". 2<C. paralo!a"ata-natl. PvA.Hl. pubbe !ecipitaro.
A;

La6, $. I. B.+., C4. %uddhist Conception of spirits, Lu1a9

44`].III. 2;A ff.

D2 Pv. I. 4. D-C.

7D

ibid. 2;C ff. yena peta pavuccanti pisuna b pittimarnsa!a pamtipatino luddha corane!ati!a +ana ito sd itinamvuccati+ano. da!!hinddisa

7Y

DA. II. ;DA.petanama !ala!ata. &eyena disabha"ena c nihariyatuti vuccanti.

78

DA. ibid. Sabbepi te da!!himdvarena mhantva da!!himto na"arassa dayhantu va chi++hantu va hanantu vati evam vuccanti.

74

Dialo"ues of the %uddha. "ol. III. *. 2;2. ibid.

DB

D<II. <AA.

D> AA. III. <23.

3<I". <D;.

83

AA. ". 4C. Khelasih"hani!adivasena.

;D2bid. III. <.

;4 ibid. ,radual II. <. Sayin"s. II. <A;. n. A. D. II. <D. addasa !ho bhi!!have 0ipassi 3> P(. Kumaro 2.4.D. DA D7

petam Kala!atam

2BBAbid. I". 2<.

/BPv. I". 2.

2B2

ibid. I" >.23-2;.

PILG#IMAGE

A2;

PILG#IMAGE

222

Gom.ri9h, 2;C2, ibid.

i. Here the /Lum.ini8

atha)ata 6as .om

PILG#IMAGE

A<B

PILG#IMAGE

natural 'an)ers su9h as storms. At times mere e0haustion an' illness .rou)ht a.out their 'eath on the 6a5. In the fa9e of these multifarious 'an)ers there 6ere man5 6ho either

6herea.outs untra9ea.le. he su.seHuent Muslim in(ations seale' u* their 'isa**earan9e in toto .

PILG#IMAGE

A<2

PIYA$GUDIPA

E(en *rior to the Bu''ha7s final *assin) a6a5, 'e(otees ha' .e)un the ha.it of (isitin) the *la9es 9onne9te' 6ith im*ortant e(ents in the Bu''ha7s life as *il)rims. he stor5 of the Anan'a Bo'hi is a )oo'

*atroni1e' .5 the 'e(otees. A *rominent instan9e for this is the Bu''ha7s foot*rint on the Sri Pa'a Mountain in Sri Lanka, *arallele' .5 the Sa99a.ha''a Mountain in hailan'.

PIYA$GUDIPA

A<<

PIYA$GUDIPA

that the *eo*le 9oul' see. his in9i'ent is su**ose' to ha(e ha**ene' in Eam.u'i*a /Patali*utta8 an' it is the onl5 instan9e 6here Eam.u'i*a is mentione' in 9onne9tion 6ith Pi5ari)u'i*a, rest of

an e0am*le to sho6 that if an arahant resol(es the fire ma5 not harm him. He es9a*es unhurt.

PIYANGUDIPA

423 PIYARATANATISSA

hera, Mali5amaha'e(a hera, Mahana)a hera, Si ha.o'hi hera an' &utum.ika*uttatissa are o.ser(e'. here are no instan9es of monks )oin) on alms roun's in Pi5ari)u'i*a. he5 al6a5s 9ame to

PIYARATANATISSA( DODANDUWE. "en. Do'an'u6e Pi5aratanatissa Maha hera 6as .om on 2<lh De9em.er 23<D at Do'an'u6a to the Weerasuri5a famil5. His father 6as Don Daniel

PIYA#A A$A ISSA A<A PIYA#A A$A ISSA

*la5e' a lea'in) role in the 9ultural renaissan9e of the re9ent *ast. !n <3th Ma5 23D;, the "en. thera, after a *rolon)e' 9on(in9in) ar)ument 6ith +omelis Al6is, a lea'in) +hristian

"en.

Pi5aratanatissa

6as

an

,.D.G. W$'a/ara-n

P!LA$D

A<4

P!LA$D

POLAND( , $ot until the nineteenth 9entur5 ha' Polan' an5 a9Huaintan9e 6ith relia.le a99ounts of the In'ian reli)ious s5stems an' e(en these a99ounts 9ame mainl5 throu)h *u.li9ations in other Euro*ean

/Ultima hule Pu.lishin) House, Warsa6, 2;2<8, Mi9halski7s translation of the Dhammapada un'er the name ScieN!a Pra?dy /Po'sta65 Moralnos9i Bu''5?skie?8 t6i9e /first .5 the same *u.lishin) House an' a

P!LA$D

A<D

P!L!$$A#UWA

earlier. he 9ountr5 is almost entirel5 #oman +atholi9 an' *erha*s in'i(i'ual *eo*le merel5 took to the a9a'emi9 stu'5 of Bu''hism. Ho6e(er, a Bu''hist "ihara is stron)l5 .elie(e' to ha(e .een in use

re)ion there are no remains 'ata.le to this *erio' of Sri Lankan histor5. At the .e)innin) of the 22th 9entur5, the an9ient 9it5 of Anura'ha*ura 6as 'estro5e' .5 the +olas of South

P!L!$$A#UWA

A<C

P!L!$$A#UWA

lion. It su**orte' the kin)7s throne. It is no6 in the +olom.o Museum. Man5 of the *illars in this .uil'in) 9ontain ins9ri*tions in'i9atin) the *la9es reser(e' /0i8 +M 4<CA

/(i8

T0u2ara'aD A'?oinin) the Hin'u shrine name' a.o(e to the north is an artifi9iall5 raise' Hua'ran)ular terra9e. Here one noti9es a )rou* of .uil'in)s,

P!L!$$A#UWA

A<3

P!L!$$A#UWA

/0ii8

Ran&)-7. 0 raD %urther north, the first monument of note is the #ankot-(ehera. It is the lar)est, 9om*lete' stu*a to .e seen at Polonnaru6a. Ins9ri*tions at the site *ro9laim it to .e a 6ork of

H$+-)r$%a/D Polonnaru6a / P. Pulatthina)ara8 is first mentione' in the Ciilavanisa in 9onne9tion 6ith the en'o6ment of a monaster5 in the rei)n of A))a.o'hi

P!L!$$A#UWA

A<;

P!L!$$A#UWA

in 2BBC, 9a*ture' Mahin'a " /2BB2 -2B2C8 ali(e. he lan' .e9ame a *re5 to *illa)e an' (iolen9e of e(er5 kin'. Eananatha*ura /as Polonnaru6a 6as 9alle' .5 the +olas8 .e9ame their *ro(in9ial 9a*ital. he ne6

He 6as su99ee'e' .5 his .rother #a?en'ra II /2B4<- DA8 6ho ha' to 9on9entrate more a.out the risin) +aluk5a *o6er than else6here. he +olas still hel' the nothem *art of Sri Lanka, from 6hi9h, a 5ear or t6o

P!L!$$A#UWA

A>B

P!L!$$A#UWA

learnin) Sri an' 6as himself (erse' in me'i9al +aluk5a kin) "ikrama'it5a "I. herefore Lanka 6as of less im*ortan9e to the s9ien9e. Un'er the )ui'an9e of Maha hera, a s5stemati9 +olas, .e9ause .5 this time the lon) &assa*a 9om*ilation of the su.9ommentaries term maritime *oli95 of #a?en'ra I took *la9e. Man5 6orks 6ere 6as almost for)otten. 9om*ose' in Pali an' Sinhala 'urin)

P!L!$$A#UWA

A>2

P!L!$$A#UWA

hall 6ith four entran9es an' man5 lar)e rooms. It 6as for the *ur*ose of a )reat alms )i(in) in 6hi9h e(er5thin) nee'ful 6as to .e ha' for those 6ho ke*t the *re9e*ts of the moral 'is9i*line. E(er5 5ear he use'

i(amka house for the i(amka ima)e. he Alahana *ari(ena 6as also a .eautiful .uil'in) 6hi9h 6as 9ause' to .e 9onstru9te' .5 him. Su.ha''a- 9eti5a an' #u*a(ati9eti5a are also stu*as 6hi9h 6ere

P!L!$$A#UWA

A><

P!L!$$A#UWA

$issankamalla /2 23C-22;D8 6as the )reatest monar9h of Polonnaru(a after Parakrama.ahu I. He has left a lar)e num.er of ins9ri*tions 6hi9h )i(e suffi9ient information a.out the

Dam.a'eni5a. hus 6ith Ma)ha, the series of kin)s of Polonnaru6a 9omes to an en'. he 9enter of *oliti9s mo(e' to6ar's the South in the su.seHuent *erio'.

P!L!$$A#UWA

A>>

P!L!$$A#UWA

in man5 res*e9ts. he5 are 9onstru9te' entirel5 of .ri9k masonr5. he $a!ara .ra9kets, frie1es of hainsas an' animals in relief, the 'ormer 6in'o6s, the flankin) stelae surmounte' 6ith fi)ures of animals

most 'e(elo*e' e0am*le of this t5*e. he Hata'a)e, the shrine .uilt .5 $issankamalla for the ooth #eli9 is note6orth5. Its 6alls ha(e .een .uilt of stone to the hei)ht of the u**er

P!L!$$A#UWA

A>A

P!L!$$A#UWA

ele*hants, runnin) roun' the lo6ermost tier of the *a(ilion to the east of the ro5al *ala9e, is an e0am*le of ar9hite9tural em.ellishment as its *ur*ose. he attitu'e of ea9h ele*hant is 'ifferent

kin)7s life stor5. ime has not s*are' an5 of these no6a'a5s. Some of the *aintin)s of reli)ious e'ifi9es ha(e .een *reser(e', onl5 in fra)mentar5 state. he Lankatilaka .ears tra9es of 6al 2 *aintin)s on the e0terior as

P!#A$A

A>4

P!#A$A

PORANA. A Pali term o99urrin) in earl5 Bu''hist literature of Sri Lanka, mainl5, the 0isuddhima""athe Pali 9ommentaries of Bu''ha)hosa an' other 9ommentators, an' in the

It is Huite e(i'ent that the Porana 6ere im*ortant sour9es of the Pali 9ommentaries. he $ahavan@sa 1$hv. i. <8 states that the $ahavamsa 6hi9h 6as 9om*ile' .5 the an9ients 1poranehi5 6as here too lon) 'ra6n

P!#A$A

A>D

P!#A$A

E.W. A'ikaram /op. cit. **. <<f.8 on the other han' 'isa)rees 6ith Malalasekera7s o*inion. He *oints out that in the Papancasudani, Bu''ha)hosa remarks a.out an e0*lanation left out .5 the Porana.

hoar5 mists of antiHuit5. Some of them .elon)e' *ro.a.l5 to In'ia, others 9ertainl5 to +e5lon. he5 6ere 9onsi'ere' to .e arahants, an', therefore, infalli.le. his, *erha*s,

PORmmiAICATIIA 437

POSITIVISM

Bu''ha)hosa, 9ommentin) on a *hrase in the $ulapariydya- sutta sa5s that the Porana ha(e not 'is9usse' this .ut the 9omment is his o6n. Here, A'ikaram =op. cit. *. <<8

oral tra'ition, some times 6ith mnemoni9 (erses to hel* the memor5 an' that Bu''ha)hosa refer to su9h tra'itional e0*lanations as the anon5mous Porana. Hermann !l'en.er)> i'entifies Poranas 6ith

P!SI I"ISM

A>3

P!SI I"ISM

stemme' from the 6ork of the "ienna +ir9le an' 6as *rofoun'l5 influen9e' .5 Witt)enstein7s &ractatus o"ico- philosophicus.

an o.ser(a.le 9ausal *attern of re)ular seHuen9e or 9on9omitan9e. 6o e(ents A an' B are sai' to .e 9ausall5 relate' if I6hene(er A ha**ens B ha**ensJ 1asmin sati idam hoti5 an' I6hene(er A 'oes not

P!SI I"ISM

A>;

P!SI I"ISM

humanism of the Bu''hist ethi9 is a .5*ro'u9t of its (ie6 of life. Ea9h man shoul' seek the )oal of 'irvana for himself .ut he 9an *ro)ress s*irituall5 onl5 if he has a lo(in) 9on9ern for the 6ell-.ein) of others

them ma5 .e mentione' the attem*t to tra9e some meta*h5si9al 9on9e*ts like Gsoul7 an' Gsu.stan9e7 to a lin)uisti9 ori)in, the s9ientifi9 (ie6 of the 6orl' as a 9ausal s5stem of e(ents, the a99e*tan9e of (erifia.ilit5

P#AGMA ISM

AAB

P#AGMA ISM

PRAGMATISM. Pra)matism is the *hiloso*hi9al (ie6 that meanin) of truth of a 9on9e*t 'e*en's on its *ra9ti9al 9onseHuen9es. he *hiloso*hi9al (ie6 arti9ulate' first .5 +harles S. Peir9e of the Unite'

he 6hole *oint is that kno6in) ans6ers either affirmati(el5 or ne)ati(el5 to these Huestions 6oul' not make a 'ifferen9e insofar as one7s sufferin), the 9ru9ial e0istential

P#AGMA ISM

AA2

P#AE$APA#AMI A

true...J 1(bid. *. 24A8 an' su**orte' the .elief in Go' on the )roun' that to .elie(e so 6oul' *ro(e to .e useful. As 6ill .e seen from the 'is9ussion .elo6 the Bu''hist stan'*oint makes a 9lear 'istin9tion

G6hat is a'(anta)eous7 .ut in the sense of G6hat is morall5 )oo' in the sense of .ein) useful for the attainment of the )oal of $ir(ana7. It must .e sai', not onl5 the term

P#AE$DPA#AMI A

AA<

P#AE$APT#AMI A

<.

he

Path

lea'in)

to

the

/i8 A Pra+na in its or'inar5 meanin) of kno6le')e an' learnin). +ertain Maha5ana te0ts like the alitavistara sometimes

kno6le')e of arts an' s9ien9es. But this ori)inal meanin) of pra+na has not foun' fa(our 6ith Bu''hist *hiloso*h5.

P#AE$DPA#AMI A

AA>

P#AE$DPA#AMI A

he 6or' 2 paramita7 has .een anal51e' .5 some s9holars as G param7 /the o**osite .ank, the further shore8 Y Wita . /)one8, .ein) the *ast *assi(e *arti9i*le from the root /to )o8 an' 4 +M 4<CA

!ne as*irin) to .e a Bo'hisatt(a must *ra9tise ea9h of these Perfe9tions in ea9h of his initial sta)es, namel5, Pramudita / sta)e of Eo58, 0imald /Imma9ulate sta)e8, Prabha!ari /Illuminatin) sta)e8,

P#AE$APA#AMI A

AAA

P#AE$APA#AMI A

an' natural inter*retation that are *asse' alon) from one )eneration to the other. So 6e are not a.le to 9om*rehen' full5 an' *ro*erl5 the true nature of the *henomenal 6orl', an' also our o6n nature, 6hi9h are

s5non5m for the fulfillment of the si0 *erfe9tions. In 9onseHuen9e, 6hen the Perfe9tion of Wis'om is *ro9laime', all the si0 *erfe9tions are *ro9laime'. Em.o'ie' in the Perfe9tion of Wis'om the fi(e

P#AE$DPA#AMI A

AA4

P#AE$APA#AMI A

ramita. he remainin) fi(e are ne6 9on9e*ts *e9uliar to the hera(a'a. he 9om*lete list of dasa-paramitd a99or'in) to the hera(a'a tra'ition ma5, therefore, .e )i(en as follo6s,

Sandhinirmocana-siitra an' the a'herents of the 'e(otional s9hools on the Su!havati -vyiiha -siitra an' theAmitayurdhyana. At the same time ea9h s9hool a99e*ts the

P#AE$APA#AMI A

AAD

P#AE$APA#AMI A

he +ommentarial Literature, here are t6el(e 6orks 9ommentin) on the Abhisamaydlah!dra in 9onne9tion 6ith the Pra+hapdramita-sutras. he full title of this 6ork as9ri.e' to
>.

alarmin) *ro*ortions makin) their stu'5 un6iel'5 that it .e9ame ne9essar5 to re'u9e them to mana)ea.le si1es. But this re'u9tion too 6ent on .e5on' limits that a 6hole siitra 9oul' .e re'u9e' to ?ust

P#AE$DPA#AMI A

AAC

P#AE$DPA#AMI A

of Perfe9t Wis'om, atha)atasu9hness, em*tiness 1sunyata5- upaya !ausalya- trainin) in Perfe9t Wis'om an' E0isten9e, $on-e0isten9e an' Perfe9t Wis'om.

/i8

he )reater interest in the a.solute an' the 9on9e*ts su9h as &atha"ata-tathata 1&athd "ata-su9hness8

P#AE$APA#AMI A

AA3

P#AE$APA#AMI A

6o of the most 9ele.rate' of these a.ri')e' sii tras are the Hrdaya-siitra /Heart Sutra8 an' the 0a+racchedi!d-pra+hapdramita -siitra or the Diamon'- 9utter -siitra *o*ularl5 kno6n as the Diamon'

u* to the to* 6ith reli9s of the atha)ata, an' if, on the other han' , 5ou 9oul' share a 6ritten 9o*5 of the Perfe9tion of Wis'om, 6hat 6oul' 5ou 9hoose .et6een the t6o MJ

P#AE$DPA#AMI A

AA;

PUBBA#AMA

the se(enth 9entur5 A.+., asserts that P#APA$+A See PAPA$+A the *ra9ti9e of enshrinin) dharmadhatu /hol5 s9ri*ture in lieu of reli9s8 in the .o'5 of a caitya 6as 9urrent amon) the Maha5anists in Sri Lanka an' that the earliest caityas .uilt in

PUGGALA

A4B

PUGGALA

Basi9all5, as Bu''hism tea9hes that all e0isten9e, .oth or)ani9 an' inor)ani9, is su.?e9t to 9han)e, 'e9a5, 'eath, 'estru9tion an' then a)ain re.irth an' re)eneration, it

A99or'in)l5, 6hen the pu""ala is referre' to as IIJ, I5ouJ, IheJ, I)o'J, ImanJ et9 these are all e0*ressions 1sanha5- 'esi)nations 1nirutti5- usa)es 1vohdra5 an' 9on9e*tuali1ations 1pahhatti5 of the 6orl' 1lo!a5 6hi9h

PUGGALA

A42 PUGGALAPA$$A

$o other (ie6 other than this is 9orre9t 10ism. +h. 0i08 Bu''hist te0ts enumerate t6ent5 (arieties of .elief in an e)o. hese im*l5 normal 'a5 -to-'a5 situations in 6hi9h *eo*le

PUGGALAPA$$A I, Pu""alapannatti /Desi)nation of Human 5*es8 is the fourth .ook of the Abhidhammapita!a of the hera(a'a S9hool of Bu''hism. It is

PUEA

A4<

PUEA "aru!aroti-

neti /e.). I sa!!arotimaneti- pu+eti,J at $.

>>D@ $. II. 2DD@ et9.8. All four 6or's in the 9om.ination, it must .e note', ha(e similar meanin)s
I.

PUEA

A4>

PUEA

lai' 'o6n ritual *ro9e'ure. It ma5 also .e note' here that the earliest form of reli)ious a9ti(it5 6hi9h reHuire' 9ommunit5 *arti9i*ation or in other 6or's the reli)ious a9ti(it5

0inayapita!a6. When the Bu''ha 6as in(ite' for dana .5 la5 follo6ers the in(itation normall5 rea' as follo6s, I Adhivasetu !ira bhavam ,otamo ... svatanaya bhattamTsaddhim bhi!!hus ah "henati7; /Ma5 the Blesse' one

PUEA

A4A

PUEA

!arma, Ithe flo6er ritualJ, 6hen9e Sanskrit pu+a. Earl +har*entier su))este' another 'eri(ation, from a Dra(i'ian root pusu or pucu- Ito smearJ, anointment 6ith san'al-*aste or(ermillion or .loo' .ein),

&alin)a 6hi9h ma'e a turnin) *oint in his 9areer a99or'in) to Sri Lankan histori9al sour9es, the *oliti9al sta.ilit5 a9hie(e' .5 Asoka o.(iate' the nee' for further militar5 efforts to anne0 the remainin) tri.al

PUEA

A44

PUEA

tales *ut to)ether form a senseless, into Hin'uism the 6orshi* of the 'ilamata 'a"a of &ashmir, also in9onsistent, 9haoti9 massL remin' oursel(es of ho6 the na"a 6as institute' roun' Si(a7s ne9k to .e9ome his )arlan', in or'er to 6in o(er the 'a"a tri.es, it is not 'iffi9ult

PU$ABBHA"A

A4D

PU$ABBHA"A

of his la5 9ommunit5, *ositione' to *ro(i'e )ui'an9e for their s*iritual as 6ell as mun'ane 6elfare.

Samsara or 959li9al 9ontinuan9e of life from .irth to 'eath an' to .irth an' 'eath, a)ain an' a)ain.

PU$ABBHA"A

A4C

PU$$A

sambhavesi ti ca imesam suttapaddnam atthamayoniso "ahetvd atthi yeva antarabhavo ti vadanti.... 1/dana Atth!atha /dA. *. ;< K SH%. *. DIf8.

*ro9ess 6ithin the human, startin) 6ith vedanapaccayd tanha tanhapaccaya upaddnam upadana-paccaya bhavo- 9annot .e (ie6e', as the or'inar5 la5man 6oul' e0*e9t, in terms of len)th an' .rea'th. It 9an

he meanin) in En)lish of the

PU$$A

A43

PU$$A

*erformer of the sa9rifi9e .oth throu)h the sa9rifi9e 6hi9h 6as offere' .5 the Brahmin *riest on his .ehalf an' also throu)h the ser(i9es ren'ere' to the sa9rifi9in) *riest .5

is e0*erien9e' in the ne0t in9arnation, then 6e are referrin) to the material or the Pud"alic as*e9t ofpunya. hat is, punya is a ten'en95 as 6ell as a *otentialit5. Here ten'en95 means a9ti(it5 an'

PU$$A PU$$A

A4; ADB

PU$$A PU$$A

While in the Brahmani9 reli)ion it 6as the Brahmin *riest 6ho me'iate' on .ehalf of a 9lient to offer the sa9rifi9e there.5 .e9omin) the a)ent 6ho e0e9ute' the punya )eneratin) a9ti(it5 for the 9lient, in D - +M 4<CA

'is*ensation, reHuests him to )i(e u* the hi)her life, en?o5 the ri9hes an' also make merit 1Ehi tvam tata )atthapala- si!!ham pacca!!haya hi nay.avattitvd bho"e bhuh+assu

PU$$A

AD2

PU$$A

Besi'es these, there are other a9ti(ities 6hi9h are *ro'u9ti(e of Puhna a99or'in) to the 9anoni9al te0ts, hese in9lu'e a9ts of so9ial 6elfare, su9h as *lantin) of *leasure )ro(es an' forests, makin) of

Papa- *ersonal atta9hment@ /228 Dvesa Papa- ill-6ill or hatre' to6ar's an5thin)@ /2< 5Kles#a PapaHuarrelsomeness@ /2> 5 Abhya!hyana Papa- s*rea'in) false rumours or

PU$$A

AD<

PU$$A

An"uttara 'i!aya- the fool is sai' to )enerate mu9h 'emerit / balo bahum apuhham pasavati5A-6 throu)h his foolish a9tions, 6hile the 6ise )enerate mu9h merit =punna5. In the % ha nda"ama 0a""a of the same

)oo', 9onsistin) of the three-fol' *h5si9al an' the four-fol' (er.al dhammacariya an' samacariya6hi9h as 6e ha(e alrea'5 seen is also e0*laine' as the puhham ca

PU$$A

AD>

PU$$A

:puhhani !ayiratha su!.havaha.niA4 an' the Padhana Sutta (erse 6hi9h rea's, :Pahutam ciyate puhham a""ihuttam ca +uhatoAD,4 .oth seem .etter un'erstoo' as referrin) to

I e'es9o maintains that the Sanskrit !us#ala is a Mi''le In'ie 'e(elo*ment of three !l' In'ie 6or's, su!rta /6ell-ma'e8, su!rta /a )oo' 'ee'8 an' suht /'oin) )oo'8. He su))ests this 'e(elo*ment,

PU$$A

ADA

PU$$A

hus, it is in the Bu''hist literature that !usala is foun' in 'is9ussions on moral 'is9ourse. A99or'in) to the Sammaditthi Sutta of the $a++hima 'a!aya there are ten

'i!dya literature, althou)h there is e(i'en9e of some o(erla**in). In the 9onte0t of an anal5sis of the 9on9e*ts of !usala an' a!usala .5 Anan'a, one of the 9hief 'is9i*les4C

PU$$A

AD4

PU$$A

+anoni9al e(i'en9e sho6s that the *ath of puhha in9lu'es 6ithin it se(eral 6a5s of rea9hin) the ni..ani9 )oal. !ne is the *ath throu)h the *ra9ti9e of the se(en norms of 9on'u9t 'etaile' in the

there is no 9ons9iousness of moral, aestheti9al or lo)i9al 'istin9tion. he relati(e i'eas, therefore of )oo' an' e(il, *leasure an' *ain, a)reea.leness an' 'isa)reea.leness, ri)ht an' 6ron) are all annihilate' to

PU$$A

ADD

PU$$A

term is 9oine' in or'er to 'istin)uish the *ost-9anoni9al Bu''hism, of the $i..ani9 9ons9iousness from the 9ourse 'ue to a multi*li9it5 of 9ons9iousness that arises as a result 9ontri.utor5 fa9tors as 6e shall see. of !arma 1O vipa!a-cittd5P .e9ause, as mentione' a.o(e, .oth are abya!ata

PU$$A

ADC

PU$$A

In the Cula!ammavibhah"a SuttaC3 of the $a++hima 'i!aya- it is sai' that one 6ho lea's a life )i(en to 'estru9tion of life 1pandtipata8 6ill, 6hen re.om as a human .ein), ha(e

he Pali term for &armi99orres*on'en9e is !amma- sari!!hata 6hi9h is e0*laine' .5 the PaliEn)lish Ditionar5 as, Ilikeness .et6een 'ee' an' resultJ Huotin) the ,opala!aputtavatthu of the

PU$$A

AD3

PU$$A

.ut 6ith a .oar7s mouth /P(.>8. A *oor tailor 'i' not )i(e to those 6ho aske', .ut he 'i' *oint out the 6a5 to a )enerous man7s house, so he is re.om as a misera.le peta .ut 6ith a hone5 9o(erin) on the han' he use'

of the 9urse. %or instan9e, one man /P( <3-<;8 6ho *ut a 9urse on a 'onor, that 6hat he )a(e to monks mi)ht .e9ome .loo' to him in the ne0t 6orl', has to suffer that (er5 9urse himself, for he is re.om as a

PU$$A

AD;

PU$$A

I he Bu''hist a'a*tation of the transfer of *o6er motif in9lu'e' makin) puhna the main *o6er 6hi9h is transfera.le, )ettin) a6a5 from the materialisti9 notion that talke' of a transfer of a 9ertain *ortion of

reHuests that the 'onation of 9lothin) .e )i(en to a la5 'is9i*le of the Bu''ha on her .ehalf an' the )ift 'e'i9ate' to her. +om*l5in) a9tion .rin)s her the 9lothin) imme'iatel5;;. hus, a99or'in) to

PU$$A

ACB

PU$$A

9on9lu'in) reli)ious a9ti(it5 of the ritual dana an' usuall5 9onsiste' of a short 'is9ourse on the dhamma. he %rahmayu Sutta of the $a++ihima 'i!aya la5s 'o6n the *ro9e'ure that shoul' .e follo6e' in )i(in) the

an' th e Avadana to the 9on9e*t ofpuhha seems limite' to efforts ma'e throu)h their innumera.le narrati(es to the *o*ularisation of puhha-mN!m" as a re6ar'in)

PU$$A

AC2

PU$$A

*henomenon. Similarl5 puhna in(ol(e' a mental state. Another *oint 6hi9h is e0*laine' is that the arahant 'oes not a99umulate 1upacayoZpuhna5. I hose 6ho o**ose' this ar)ue' that the arahan

onl5 6ere the monasti9 9ommunit5 9ommitte' to the *reser(ation of the ori)inal tea9hin)s of the Bu''ha as 9ontaine' in the Pali te0ts, the5 6ere, thus, 9ommitte' to the *ra9ti9e of the tea9hin), 6ith all earnestness.

PU$$A

AC<

PU$$A

Bu''hism an' ha' restore' Bu''hism ea9h time the rule of the amils or human ne)li)en9e threatene' it.

*oints to a *arallel 'e(elo*ment. I here is somethin) e(en more *re9ious than a .o'hisatt(a7s 6ealth, lim.s, 6i(es an' 9hil'ren, an' that is his Merit =punya8. He shoul' )i(e it for the )oo' of all .ein)s. he

PU$$A

AC>
3B.

PU$$A Aramaropa vanaropa ye +ana setu!ara!apapahca udapanahcaye dadanti upassayamdiva ca rattoca sada puhhampavaddhati- dhammattha si lasampanna te +ana sa""a"amino4.2.>@P.D. Premasiri, :(nterpretation of t?o Principal Ethical &erms in Early %uddhismJ, Eournal of the Humanities, "ol. <,2, Eunel;CD,D3. :Puhhaniparalo!asmimpatittha honti paninanH-

3A.

authenti9it5, 9ame to o6n in'i(i'ual forms of ritual for their maintenan9e. he *erforman9e of the puhna )eneratin) a9ti(ities 9ontri.ute' immensel5 to so9ial 9ohesion 6hi9h 6as 6ell un'erstoo' .5 the

PU$$A

ACA

PU$$A

A2.

SL.". >4D.

D<.

A. 22.2<;.

475
8E.

PURANA,ASSAPA pattam"ahetva anumodanatthaya attharrsu DhA. 2C<@ !atabhatta!icco onitapattapanim tassanumodanam!atva pa!!ami0vA. 223K Pamyadane anumodanam vatva a"amamu0vA.6B9 evamhotuti vatva anumodanama!asi- PvA . <C4@ %hatta!iccam !atva anumodanam !aronto ima"atha abhasi- PvA. 2C@ &assa cittam sampahansento anumodanam !atva pa!!ami- PvA. AC@et9.

0imanavatthu- DC3, /posathe ca. ham "antva mala"andhavilepanam &hupasmim abiropesim pasanna sehipat+ihi@ Also, ibid. PUNNA DC2,;DD@et9.

A - +M 4<CA

PU#A$A&ASSAPA

ACD

PU HUEEA$A

"ani- "amcariyo5- 6ell kno6n / nato56ith a )oo' re*utation 1yasassi5re9o)nise' as a (irtuous tea9her .5 man5 /sadhusammato bahu+anassa56ho ha' renoun9e' 6orl'l5

PU HUEEA$A

ACC

PU HUEEA$A

he puthu++ana .elon)s to this latter 9ate)or5 6ho run a.out helterskelter in the samsaric 6il'erness. Also, it is from this 9ommon run of men an' 6omen that the minorit5 ariyas 'o emer)e 6hen the

o the thir' 9ate)or5 .elon) those .om 6ith t6o of the a.o(e 6holesome root 9on'itions an' hen9e referre' to as dvi-hetu 1dviOt6o8 patisandhi an' to the fourth 9ate)or5 .elon) those .om

#AGA

AC3

#AGA

the entire )amut of the puthu++ana so9iet5. he lotus flo6er in its 'ifferent sta)es of )ro6th an' .loomin) in its ?ourne5 to6ar's li)ht an' free'om Huite a*tl5 re*resents the 'i(erse 9ate)ories an'

he *resen9e of sensual *assion 1!amara"a5 in the min' lea's moreo(er to for)etfulness, makin) it 'iffi9ult to kee* thin)s in min' e(en thou)h the5 ha(e .een re*eate'l5

"d

#AGA

AC;

#AGA

<>C, niramisa niramisataram A minute ins*e9tion of the su!ham5. his ma5 not an' seem 6a5 o.(ious Bu''ha7s .eha(iour of at first si)ht, sin9e from a9tin), un'ertaken .5 a 6orl'l5 5oun) *ers*e9ti(e man%rahmayu mi)ht ima)ine .rahmin in a the Suttaha**iness in to .e foun' in sta5in) in a resulte' the follo6in) tellin)

he ima)e of .ein) .oun' re9urs a)ain 6ith the four t5*es of G.on's7 1cattaro yo"a5- 6here ra"a un'erlies three out of alto)ether four su9h .on's 1A.

#AGA

A3B

#AGA

these instan9es are formulate' seems to allo6 for t6o e0*lanations, takin) dhammara"a to .e either the fa9tor that has *re(ente' the full era'i9ation of the influ0es, or else to

unattra9ti(e nature of its *arts 1A. Ill, ><>8. A''itional 9ounter strate)ies are to 'e(elo* restraint of the senses, 9ontentment 6ith foo', 6akefulness an' min'fulness to)ether 6ith 9lear

#AGA

A32 R * r n% +

#AHULA /28

as lust or *assion. hese t6o senses of vira"a 9an to some e0tent .e relate' to ea9h other, sin9e 9ontem*latin) the Gfa'in) a6a57 an' there6ith the im*ermanent nature of

2 he similarit5 in meanin) of these terms 9an .e

#AHULA /28

A3<

#AHULA /28

9onsi'erin) the o99asion as the first o99urren9e, the Bu''ha allo6e' the monks to or'ain no(i9es .5 makin) them to take refu)e in the Bu''ha, the Dhamma an' the San)ha /anu+anami bhi!!have tihi

)ahulovada sutta to #ahula 6hen he 6as onl5 se(en 5ears ol', sho6in) the em*tiness an' (oi'ness of the re9luseshi* of a *erson 6ho 'oes not shrink from 'eli.erate l5in). %urther the Bu''ha aske' him to *ra9tise

#AHULA /28

A3>

#AHULA /<8

Bo'hisattaLs son in numerous 2ata!as su9h as /ra"a- Kapi- Kumbha!araKhandahalaCulla-SutasomaDaddara- %andhana"ara- ma!!ata$a!hadeva$aha+ana!a$ahasudassana0idhurapandita0essantara- Siha!otthu!a andSonala.

D. Sa''hasena.

9ankers7. here the Bu''ha 'emonstrate' .5 means of Huestion an' ans6er that all thin)s are im*ermanent. he Bu''ha im*resse' on #ahula the manner in 6hi9h the Ari5an Dis9i*le shoul' make an

#AHULA /<8

A3A

#AHULA /<8

the author of the Panci!alan!ara- a ti!a on the $o""allana-vya!arana that 6as also the .asis for t6o e0e)eti9al 6orks of Sri #ahula.

a s*e9ialist in o99ult s9ien9es an' the author of the first %ali ritual te0t in Sinhala, the )atnalam!araya.

#AHULA /<8

A34

#AHULA /<8

Hamsa sandeSaya- the former 6ritten *ro.a.l5 .5 a *u*il of Sri #ahula e0tollin) #ahula7s eminen9e an' that of the "i?a5a.a Pari(ena an' the latter makin) some 9riti9al remarks

Ei)hteen Puranas /of the Hin'us8 as erroneous tea9hin)s. He also re?e9ts the su.lime state assi)ne' to *oeti9s an' 'ramati9s an' 9laims that his learnin) is not 'elimite' to the

#AHULA /<8

A3D

#AHULA /<8

In the Perevi-sandeSaya /Kalariivsandesa8 a 'o(e 9arries a messa)e from &otte to )o' U*ul(an at De(inu(ara *ra5in) him for a suita.le hus.an' for Prin9ess

$annurutuna5a, the hus.an' of the *rin9ess. he 'istan9e 9o(ere' .5 the sterlin) is onl5 si0 miles from &otte to the shrine of "i.hisana at &elani5a. After a short 'es9ri*tion of

#AHULA /<8

A3C

#AI$ S#E #E A

*arallels in the Astadhyayi of Panini the $ahabhasya of Patan?ali an' the 0a!yapadrya of Bhartrhari there.5 ele(atin) it to the more *resti)ious Sanskrit )rammar. he te0ts thus *ro(i'e a 6a5 for Pali s9holars to

#AI$S #E #EA

A33

#AI$ S#E #E A

*erio' of seasonal rains, the In'ians 6oul' .e loathe to 6alk aroun' on lan' 6here ne6 see'lin)s 6oul' .e sus*e9te' to .e s*routin) into life 1...cari!am carissanti haritani tinani sammaddanta e!indriyam +lvam

most amon) them, shall .e)in. He shall, seate' 9rou9hin) on he )roun', hum.l5 a''ress the 9on)re)ation an' 9all u*on its mem.ershi* / sah"ham bhante pavaremi8 to make kno6n an5 )uilt of his the5 ha(e seen, hear' of

#AEADHAMMA, DASA A3; #AEADHAMMA, DASA

RA!ADHAMMA( DASAD he tenfol' ethi9al 9o'e of a kin) or a )o(ernment. In the e(olution of human so9iet5, as s5m.oli9all5 *ortra5e' in the A""an na Sutta /D. Ill 3B f.8, there 9omes a *arti9ular

As a *ream.le it shoul' .e state' here that the i'eal s5stem of )o(ernan9e fa(oure' .5 Bu''hism is also that of the 6elfare state in a 'emo9rati9 set u*. hese ten reHuirements 'o 9onstitute the a'(i9e

#AEADHAMMA, DASA A;B

#AEAGAHA

aim of lea'ers. Su9h a *oli95 stan's as the .est $e0t 9omes a++ava or *ersonal inte)rit5 6hi9h im*lies that a true anti'ote to the s9our)e of terrorism, lea'er shoul' al6a5s a9t 6ithout 6hi9h is )ri**in) the entire 6orl' resortin) to 6hat Bu''hist so9ial to'a5 as one of the 6orst torments of ethi9s has i'entifie' as the four mankin'. in9orre9t 9ourses of a9tion in *u.li9

#AEAGAHA

A;2

#AEAGAHA

2. Gi??akuta, the hill resi'en9e of the Bu''ha, <. he an9ient caitya9alle' GMani5ar Math7 in the 9entre of the (alle5, >. a*o'a $a'i or the hot 6ater s*rin)s, 3 +M 4<CA

Sa--a2ann$ %a. , his famous 9a(e no6 kno6n as GSona.han'ar7 is situate' on the inner slo*es of the "e.hara hill 6hi9h stan's to the ri)ht as one 9omes to the mi''le of the .asin en9lose' .5 the hills. he roa'

#AEAGAHA

A;<

#AEAGAHA

9on(i9ts 9oul' .e tie' 6as foun' at the site, is also *ala9e an' the mansions of the no.ilit5. Both these 6alls are ma'e e(i'en9e of the i'entifi9ation of the of massi(e stone .oul'ers .ut the5 ruins. are in a state of e0treme 'e9a5. he thi9kness of the 6all e0tant is 2A ft. ; ins 6hile the hei)ht at *la9es is 22

#AEAGAHA

A;>

#AEAGAHA

At the time of %a-Hien7s (isit, the ol' 9it5 ha' .een almost 9om*letel5 a.an'one'. His a99ount is )i(en .elo6,

%o, .ein) in front of the stone house, 6as *assin) from the east to the 6est. hiao tha,2< stan'in) on the stee* e')e to6ar's the north of the mountain, thre6 'o6n a stone 6hi9h 6oun'e' %o on the toe. his

#AEAGAHA

A;A

#AEAGAHA

*ass@ on the north there is a *assa)e throu)h the mountains. he to6n is e0ten'e' from east to 6est an' narro6 from north to south. It is a.out 24B li in 9ir9uit. he remainin)

When atha)ata ha' )ui'e' the 6orl' for some fift5 5ears, he '6elt mu9h on this mountain an' 'eli(ere' the e09ellent la6 in its 'e(elo*e' form /&6an)8. Bim.isara-ra?a,

#AEAGAHA

A;4

#AEAGAHA

o the east of the &aran'a(enu(ana is a stupa 6hi9h 6as .uilt .5 A?atasattura?a. After the $ir(ana of the atha)ata, the kin)s 'i(i'e' the reli9s /she-li8@ kin) A?atasattu returne' then 6ith his

9ommon folk to .e seen, .ut onl5 Brahmins to the num.er of a thousan' families.

#AEAGAHA

A;D

#AMA$$ADESA

hera, the kin) )athere' at #a?a)aha se(en donas of the Bu''ha7s reli9s 6hi9h ha' .een 'e*osite' in (arious *la9es@ a lar)e stupa 6as ere9te' o(er them. It 6as

#AMA$$ADESA. he #amanna'esa is the an9ient name of lo6er Burma 6hi9h 6as an in'e*en'ent kin)'om in the *ast. he u**er Burma 6as 9alle' ImarammaJ an' the term IBurmaJ is

#AMA$$ADESA

A;C

#AMA$$ADESA

surmise that Bu''hism foun' its 6a5 to #amanna e(en .efore, *erha*s lon) .efore, the fifth 9entur5 A.+. As from 4th 9entur5 A.+. there are 'efinite e(i'en9e to *ro(e not onl5 the e0isten9e .ut also the flourishin)

han'in) o(er of either sons or 'au)hters to the tea9her .efore )i(in) them in marria)e.

#AMA$$ADESA

A;3

#AMA$$ADESA

*resents an' )ot 'o6n (irtuous an' eru'ite monks from #amanna for the *ur*ose.A

Dala esta.lishe' the Sihala Sah)ha at #amanna. he esta.lishment of the Sihala Sah)ha at #amanna is 9al9ulate' from this 'ate. Sari*utta alias Dhamma(ilasa is also re)ar'e' as the first literar5 *ersona)e from

#AMA$$ADESA

A;;

#AMA$$ADESA

Dhamma9eti took ne9essar5 ste*s to 'is*at9h a mission to Sri Lanka 6ith 9ostl5 *resents to the rei)nin) kin) Bhu(aneka.ahu "I /2ACB-C; a.9.8 an' to the $ahasan"ha. he mission a99om*an5in) << monks, the

*res9ri.e 9eremonials for the 9onse9ration of a (ali' slma.. %urther the ins9ri*tions 'es9ri.e the 9onferment of upasampada in the &al5ani ri(er in Sri Lanka for the #amanna monks on the reHuest of

#AMA$$ADESA

4BB

#AMA$$ADESA

>- Epochs of the

ConJueror- - $.A. Ea5a6i9krama P S. Lon'on 2;D3.

it is *ossi.le that he 9ame to Lanka after sta5in) at #amanna.

from > 3 Pali Sambhasha the iterature British of inCeylon/Maha.o'hi 2;AC. GP. he 'istin9tion Malalasekara +entenar5 #amanna "olume, +olom.o, an' Maramma Ministr5 **l;4 or lo6er f.of an' E'u9ation u**er Burma an' 'oes Hi)her not e0ist E'u9ation an5 more. "ol. I $o he5 <. 2;;2 are 'istin)uisha.le /Arti9les from .5 their Prof. .rethren $.A.

C- $ahavamsa /Culavamsa8 #ei)n of "i?a5a.ahu I an' Parakrama.ahu I.

RAM ANN ANI ,AYA

@09

RA1I ANN ANI,AYA

/Arti9les .5 Dr. $.A. Ea5a6i9krame I he Sinhala San)ha in South-East Asia8.

the en' of the 2Dth 9entur5, 'ue to mutual ri(alries that e0iste' amon) the lo9al rulers. In the 5ears that follo6e' +hristianit5 s*rea' 6ith the hel* of the s6or', an' *erse9ution of the Bu''hists .5 the Portu)uese as

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

4B<

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

9onsi'ere' as the reli)ion of heathens. Bu''hists 6ere ashame' to a'mit in *u.li9 that the5 6ere Bu''hists. Bu''hism fell into su9h a *atheti9 state that Eames De Al6is, a Sinhala +hristian, a re9o)ni1e'

Am.a)aha6atta / ota)o'a .ein) the *resent name of the (illa)e8. His *arents 6ere Mathes De Sil(a Ma'ana5aka #alaham5 an' Lenoham5 #atna5aka of I'i6ala Wala66a. His la5 name 6as

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

4B>

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

Eourne5 to #amanna'esa /Lo6er Burma8. He

as Bentara Attha'assi, Mali)as*e Dharmakirthi Man)ala, Walane Si''hartha an' Parakum.ure "i*assi, on a raft in the &elani ri(er. e0*resse' his no.le o.?e9ti(e to Bhikkhu Saranankara 6as amon) *ro9ee' to #amann a'esa an' .rin) those 6ho re9ei(e' upasampada in

#AMA$$A$I&AYA i

4BA

#AMAMA$I&AYA

it 6as not Bhikkhu Saranankara 6ho re9ei(e' the upasampada first. As "en. Di*e)o'a Silakkhan'ha an' "en. Pel*ola Dhamma'assi 6ere senior, he reHueste' that the5 .e 9onferre' 6ith the upasampada first

saile' 'o6n the ri(er an' rea9he' #an)oon 6here the5 .6ere re9ei(e' .5 the kin)7s am.assa'ors an' the British )o(ernor. hen the *art5 .oar'e' a steamer from the #an)oon har.our an' arri(e' in Ma'ras in

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

4B4

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

9onferre' /pasampada to "en. In'asa.ha(aran anasami. It 6as 2>lh Eul5 23D> e(enin). "en. Am.a)aha6atte In'asa.ha(araiianasami, "en.Di*e)o'a Sa''hamma(ara?oti*ala

ne6 or'er of monks stri9tl5 as s*e9ifie' in the vinaya, minimal 6ants / appicchata8 an' austere li(in) 6ere a**re9iate' .5 the *eo*le an' the $ika5a .e9ame (er5 *o*ular. hou)h esta.lishe' in Galle,

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

4BD

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

Most "en. Sasana'ha?a Sri Sllakkhan'ha Sa''hamma(ara Eoti*ala Dee*e)o'a +an'a(imala Maha hera 2;DD-CD,

to han'le matters *ertainin) to the $ika5a. It 6as 9haire' .5 the se9on' Mahana5aka hera Dee*e)o'a Sllakkhan'ha hera an' the mem.ers 9om*rise' of "en. U'u)almote

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

4BC

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

6ith Anuvi++a!as ele9te' at the Di(isional le(el. $e0t 'is*utes are referre' to the Senior #e9on9iliation +ommittee 12yestha Anuvi++a!a $andalaya8 forme' 6ith <2 Anuvi++a!as sele9te' from the Di(isional #e9on9iliation

.een effe9te' in the 5ear 2;<A /B.E. <AD38. $e0t it has .een amen'e' in 2;A4 /B.E. <A3;8, .ut *rinte' an' *u.lishe' in 2;4B. !n9e more amen'ments ha(e .een effe9te' in the 5ear 2;DA /B.E. <4B38 an'

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

4B3

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

the others - 6hile a'ministerin) &isarana an' the Pan caslla at the en' of the I &isaranaJ the5 'e9lare ItisaranaJ is 9on9lu'e' /sarana"amanam sampunnam5. his *ra9ti9e is not foun' either in the

its unit5. While the other $ika5as are s*lit into more than one su. 'i(isions #amanna $ika5a still 9ontinues to fun9tion un'er the a'ministration of one Mahana5aka thera.

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

4B;

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

Bu''hist E'u9ation in Sri Lanka, lan'e' in Galle on 233B Ma5 2Cth an' .e9ame a Bu''hist, takin) &isarana an' Pancasila from "en. Akmlmana Dhammarama, a #amanna $ika5a monk, at "i? a5

Dhamma'uta Ser(i9e, E(en in the Dhamma'uta 6ork /S*rea'in) of the Bu''ha7s Messa)e in other 9ountries8 #amanna $ika5a has earne' a name. Ana)arika Dhamma*ala the Bu''hist #e(i(alist

#AMA$$A$I&AYA

42B

#ASA

At the same time #amanna $ika5a monks ha(e enri9he' the literar5 fiel' .5 6ritin) a lar)e num.er of .ooks o(er the 5ears. "en. Hen*ita)e'ara $anasiha, A'hikarana $a5aka hera an' "en. Ba''e)ama Wimala6ansa

Ma5 an' there are others 6ho sa5 it 6as on the 2Cth Ma5 6hi9h is more *ro.a.le. A99or'in) to re9or's Mal6atta upasampada ha' .een on 24th Ma5. If so, it is not *ossi.le to

#ASA"AHI$f

422 #AS #APALAPA#IP#++HA

essen9e / asara5- .ut as nourishin) an' *rolon)in) samsari9 e0isten9e, .e9ause it 9onstitutes one of the fi(e kin's of sensual atta9hment 1pahca!ama-"una8 the stran'e that .in' li(in) .ein)s to sensual *leasure.

#AS #APALAPA#IP#++HA, also 9alle' )astrapala Sutra 1si!s. *. 24>8 an' )astrapalo!ta- "atha 1si!s. *. <B>8, an im*ortant Maha5ana sutra 'ealin) mainl5 6ith the .o'hisatt(a 'o9trine. his 6ork is

#AS #APALAPA#IP#++HA 42< # AS # APAL APA#EP#++ H A

/yathavadi - tatha!arita5. hen the Bu''ha enumerates four Hualities that im*arts life to a .o'hisatt(a. 1asvasapratilabha dharma8. he5 are, i an' ii re9e*ti(it5 of dharanis an' )oo' frien's, iii. re9e*ti(it5 of

'ishonora.leness / a"auravata8, ii. un)ratefulness 1a!rtahhata5 an' asso9iation 6ith 'ishonest *eo*le 1sathyasevanata5- iii. 'esire to o.tain )ain an' honour /labhasat!aradhyavasanam8, an' i(.

#A A$A SU

42>

#A A$A

AYA

he se9on' *art .e)ins 6ith an enumeration of numerous faults foun' e(en amon) those 6ho follo6 the *ath of the .o'hisatt(a. It also lists ei)ht 9auses that o.stru9t the attainment or Enli)htenment. he5

1DPP'- S. "8. his e(ent further marks Ithe first paritta ritual. he im*ortant ritualisti9 features o.ser(a.le here are the ritual 6ater, the 'e9orate' hall *ro(i'e' 6ith a

#A A$A

AYA

42A

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AYA

9hantin) 9ertain stan1as e(er5 mornin) an' e(enin) an' 6hen offerin) dana .efore noon, s5m.oli9all5 to the Bu''ha, features *rominentl5 in the 'a5 to 'a5 reli)ious *ra9ti9e of Bu''hists,

Ma5 the "en. Sir, )rant me *ermission out of 9om*assion to )o forth /into the homeless life8. WAham bhante pabba++am yacami Dutiyampi- Aham

#A A$A

AYA

424

#A A$A

AYA

:/ttamah"ena vande.ham- pada pamsum varuttamm %uddho yo !halito doso- buddho !hamatu tam mamarp ;

some6hat ela.orate o(er the 5ears. It is 9lear that the formula for seekin) refu)e in the )atanattaya as a *ass6or', so to s*eak, 9onfirms

IWith m5 .ro6 I hum.l5 6orshi*, the .lest 'ust on

#A A$A

AYA

42D

#A A$A

AYA

<)a"avira"a mane+amaso!am Dhamm amasa h!ata m appati! ulam $adhuramimam pa"unam suvibhattam Dhammamimam saranattham-upemi ;

Salutation to the San)ha is as follo6s, :Supatipanno bha"avato sava!a sah"hou+upatipanno bha"avato sava!a sah"hohayapatipanno

#A A$A

AYA

42C
3.

#A A$A

AYA

:2ayanto bodhiya mulesa!!yanam nandhivaddhano

Evam mayham+ayo hotu-+ayassu +ayamah"alarp#T

IWe .ein)s here assem.le', 6hether terrestrial or 9elestial, salute the a99om*lishe' Bu''ha, honoure' .5 )o's an' men. Ma5 there .e ha**inessRJ

#A A$A

AYA

423 #A HA"IM A SU

IWhate(er 'i(erse *re9ious Ee6els there .e in this uni(erse there is no Ee6el eHual to the Dhamma. B5 this truth let me .e *ros*erous.J

Ma5 all .lessin)s .e to me. Ma5 all )o's *rote9t me. B5 the *o6er of all the Dhammas ma5 ha**iness e(er .e mineJ
A6.

%havatu sabbamah"alam-

#A HA"I$I A SU

A 42; #A HA"I$l A SU

he )athavinita Sutta takes its si)nifi9an9e from these se(en sta)es of *urifi9ation, 6hi9h form the s9affol'in) for the 0isuddhima""a- a 6ork of almost *ara'i)mati9

Sutta 1A. II, 2;48. A99or'in) to this 'is9ourse, to un'ertake the *re9e*ts 9orres*on's to G*urit5 of moralit57, to 'e(elo* the four +hanas to G*urit5 of the min'7, insi)ht into the four

#A HA"I$I A SU

A 4<B #A $AGI#I "IHA#A

9ulmination 1adinava5 of su9h attainments an' in *oint of the *ro9ess of *urifi9ation tenns of 6hat )oes .e5on' has .een rea9he'. his s9heme of nine *urifi9ations 9oul' 6ell .e at /nissarana8 them. the .a9k)roun' of Sariputta#s Huestions in the )athavinita Sutta-

#EBI# H

4<2

#EBI# H

he main stupa is enli)htenment 9om*letel5 im*lies that the li.eration he 6as 'ila*i'ate' an' .elie(e' to .e .urie' seekin) 6as from sufferin) that ha' un'er the 'e.ris of stru9tural stu*as. .een 9ontinuousl5 re*ro'u9e' in a Lo9ate' to its ri)ht is the stupa <, 959li9 *ro9ess of re.irth into 6hi9h 5iel' fi(e terra9otta *laHues 9ountless li(es 1ane!a+atisamsaram5A. As state' in the Bu''hist s9ri*tures,

#EBI# H

4<<

#EBI# H

taken root in In'ian reli)ious thou)ht .5 the time of the rise of Bu''hism. A99or'in) to !l'en.er) it is one of the 'o)mas inherite' .5 Bu''hism from the earlier Brahmani9al

of re.irth or totall5 'enie' its *ossi.ilit5. he materialist s9hool of In'ian thou)ht 'enie' re.irthLon e*istemolo)i9al )roun's ./ Ske*ti9s 'i' not 6ish to 9ommit themsel(es

#EBI# H

4<>

#EBI# H

A. Earl5 Bu''hist +osmolo)5 an' the #e.irth Do9trine

trainin) of the min' resultin) in the attainment of intense min'fulness, eHuanimit5 an' mental 9om*osure a9Huires the a.ilit5 to 'ire9t the min' for the *ur*ose of attainin) an 2B-+M 4<CA

In earl5 Bu''hism *re-e0isten9e an' sur(i(al are not 9on9ei(e'

#EBI# H

4<A

#EBI# H

are re.orn. "i(i' 'es9ri*tions trans9en' all these su*er9ons9iousness states of 9ons9iousness 6hi9h .rin) a.out of the *leasures in the su*erhuman some kin' of bhava an' the former is hea(enl5 6orl's 1sa""a5 as 6ell as therefore 9onsi'ere' as su*ra- the *ains in the lo6er 6oeful states mun'ane 1lo!uttara5. As lon) as of e0isten9e 1niraya5 are )i(en in the .e9omin) in an5 form takes *la9e,

#EBI# H

4<4

#EBI# H

of re.irth. he $ahatanhasah!haya Sutta of the $a.++himani!a.ya[ is one of the most si)nifi9ant amon) them. It states that the 9on9e*tion of a life in a mother7s 6om. takes *la9e

Su**osin) 9ons9iousness 6ere to 'es9en' into the mother7s 6om. an' 'e*art from it,6oul' the *s59ho*h5si9al unit .e .orn into this re)ular form of e0isten9eM

#EBI# H

4<D

#EBI# H

*h5si9al unit8, salayatana /the si0 sense s*heres8, phassa /sense im*ression8, vedana /feelin)8, tanha /9ra(in)8 an' upadana / 9lin)in)8 .elon) to the *resent life@ bhava

non-in?urious 1abyaba++ha5 nature in relation to the in'i(i'ual 9on9erne', 6ho )enerates them. he5 are also 9onsi'ere' from an e(aluati(e *oint of (ie6 as .ein) either )oo' 1!usalaCpunna5 or .a' 1a!usalaCapun

#EBI# H
D. #e.irth tea9hin).

4<C

#EBI# H

an'

the

no-self

the a.sen9e of a *ermanent self. he Bu''ha imme'iatel5 'ismisses the Huestion as arisin) out of a serious A 'istin9ti(e feature of the misun'erstan'in) of his hera(a'a theor5 of re.irth is its tea9hin).<B he 9anoni9al tea9hin)s

#EBI# H

4<3

#EBI# H

an' namarupa5. Eust as an5 inanimate o.?e9t retains its i'entit5 as an in'i(i'uate' o.?e9t .5 maintainin) its or)ani9 unit5 6ithin 9han)es that o99ur in its 9onstituent

9reate the 9on(i9tion amon) the la5 Bu''hists that moral *ro)ression is not limite' to ?ust one life@ one 9oul' )ra'uall5 *erfe9t oneself until one attains 9om*lete li.eration as a full5

#EBI# H

4<;

#EBI# H

(irtue su9h as the m em.ers of the Bu''hist 9ommunit5 of re9luses 1sah"ha5 an' sharin) the merit a9Huire' .5 su9h a9ts 6ith them is .elie(e' to .e effi9a9ious in

*ersistin) eternal soul. Bu''hism re?e9ts .oth the a.o(e *ositions an' 5et a'mits re.irth. A99or'in) to the Bu''hist theor5 there is no sin)le, sim*le entit5 that *ersists throu)h

#EBI# H

4>B

#EBI# H

re9on9ilin) the notion of *ersonal i'entit5 6ith the 'o9trine of no-self. $a)asena maintains in the $ilindapanha that a *erson or a .ein) 'oes not e0ist in the ultimate

It is state' in the $ilindapanha that in 'ee* slee* the min' 1citta5 enters the bhavah"a state, an' althou)h the .o'5 sta5s ali(e, the min' sto*s fun9tionin) 1cittam appavattam

#EBI# H

4>2

#EBI# H

sin)le entit5 that flo6s alon) the 'ifferent streams retainin) their i'entit5 an' *ro(i'in) i'entit5 to them, it is onl5 un.roken su99ession that *ro(i'es i'entit5 to ea9h one of

in )reat 'etail as a .o'5 of esoteri9 'o9trines the interme'iate state of e0isten9e 1antarabhava5 a99e*te' .5 non- hera(a'a s9hools of Bu''hism .01 A99or'in) to this 6ork, I he inter(al .et6een the t6o states

10 Paccudavattati !ho idam vinnanam namarupamha- namarupam "acchati. Di"hani!aya "ol. II, *. ><. l6Purisassa viniiana sotam pa+anati ubhayato abbhocchinnam idhalo!e patittliitaiicaparalo!e patitthitanca.1(bid. "ol. Ill, *. 2B4.

#EBI# H

4><
A3. A4

#EBI# H Hatha. 0edana.hisanna. ah"asambhara cetana. phasso hoti manasi!aro saddo ratho iti idam Evamvuccatavuso !handhesu namam. hoti santesu Cattari sattoti ca sammuti. mahabhutani catnnanca mahabhutanam upadaya ru pam. (dam vuccatavuso rupam. 1$ai+ himani!aya "ol. 2. *. 4>8

23 he Sahn!haruppatti *ro9ess of re.irth an' 6ishes. I.i'. "ol.III. *. 33Atanatiyaya Sutta-

Sutta sa5s that a *erson 9an (olitionall5 9ontrol the 'etermine his future e0isten9e a99or'in) to his ;;f. Di"hani!aya.

he ske*ti9s as re*resente' in the earl5 Bu''hist

0isuddhima""a Samyuttani!aya /P"ol. S8 "ol. II, *.Ill, D4.. *. 4AA. 36 'amanca rupanca idhatthi Sam5uttanika5a saccato -nehettha "ol. satttoti 2. *. 2>4. manu+o ca vi++ati. (bid. p. 4;4.
24 <>

#ELI+S

4>>

#ELI+S

#ELI+S,

:dhopana ; /6ashin)8. Suman"alavilasini 1DA. I. *. 3A8 e0*lains this as a reli9 9ult. A99or'in)l5 it is sai' that the *eo*le 'o not 9remate the .o'ies of their

#ELI+S

4>A

#ELI+S

9om*are' to a useless lo) of 6oo' 1nirattham.va !alih"aram5. he Bu''ha 'isa**ro(es "en. "akkali7s )a1in) at the Bu''ha7s .eautiful .o'5. he Bu''ha a'(ise' "akkali to

*erson. hus it is 9lear that the reli9 9ult follo6e' in the "e'i9 tra'ition has .een a'o*te' to Bu''hism 6ith a ne6 meanin). he $ahaparinibbanasutta further states

#ELI+S

4>4

#ELI+S

Bu''ha7s .o'5. As in'i9ate' to "en. Anan'a *rior to the parinibbana .5 the Bu''ha, his .o'5 6as 6ra**e' 6ith fi(e hun're' ne6 9lothes inters*erse' 6ith fi(e hun're' la5ers

pu+esum8. herefore it a**ears that there has .een a 9ustom in the so9iet5 to honour the reli9s 6ith 'an9es musi9 et9. after the 9remation an' the Bu''hists too follo6e' the

#ELI+S

4>D

#ELI+S

Bu''ha)hosa in his 9ommentar5 Suman"alavilasini 1DA II *. D248 has (er5 9learl5 i'entifie' those fi(e stan1as as uttere' .5 the heras of am.a*anni. 1Atthadonam

9anine teeth 6hile he 6as measurin). He 6aite' for an o**ortunit5 an' 9on9eale' the ri)ht 9anine tooth in his tur.an. Sakka sa6 it an' snat9he' it from him 6ithout his kno6le')e

#ELI+S

4>C

#ELI+S

the ro.e an' the .o6l 1pattadanda8 at Mathura, the inner ro.e 1nivasana8 at &usinara, the .e's*rea' at &a*ila /&a*ila(atthu8, the .elt at Patali*utta, the nisidana

&in) Duttha)amani .uilt the .i))est &hupa at the time, the Mahathu*a or #u6an(elise5a. It is re9or'e' that the share of reli9s )i(en to the &oli5as of #ama)ama

#ELI+S

4>3

#ELI+S

ultimatel5 it .e9ame the s5m.ol of kin)shi*. Whoe(er 6ho 6as in the *ossession of the ooth #eli9 6as Hualifie' to .e the kin). herefore the ooth reli9 6as ke*t in a shrine

the master is no more. He has attaine' parinibbana an' he is not 9omin) .a9k. But this situation 'oes not satisf5 the sentiments of the or'inar5 man. he or'inar5 man 6ants someone to *ra5 to, *ra5 for

#ELI+S

4>;

#HYS DA"IDS, +.A.%.

<

he 9ommentator Bu''ha)hosa in this 9onte0t

22 - +M 4<CA

#HYS DA"IDS, +. A. %. 4AB

#HYS DA"IDS, .W.

Prof. #h5s Da(i's an' sin9e then she 9ame to .e kno6n as GMrs. #h5s Da(i's7. hou)h she assiste' an' 9olla.orate' in her hus.an'7s a9a'emi9 *ursuits, she 6as a s9holar

on Bu''hist themes ha(e .een *u.lishe' *osthumousl5, in a 9olle9tion title' Kayfarers Kords.

#HYS DA"IDS, . W. 4A2

#HYS DA"IDS, . W.

hou)h there 6ere some Euro*ean s9holars alrea'5 en)a)e' in Pali stu'ies at that time, it 6as #h5s Da(i's, 6ho *a(e' the 6a5 to or)ani1e Pali stu'ies in the 6est, so

eminent an' 9om*etent s9holars to translate a lar)e num.er of these te0ts into En)lish.

#HYS DA"IDS, . W. 4A< #IGH S A$D !BLIGA I!$S

23;D title', %uddhismF (ts History and iterature. In 23;; he (isite' Bu''ha)a5a an' se(eral other Bu''hist sites. As its out9ome he *ro'u9e' M%uddhist (ndia /2;B>8, a

6ill al6a5s .e remem.ere' as that of a most enthusiasti9 an' 'e(ote' s9holar@ .ut those 6ho ha(e ha' the )oo' fortune to kno6 him *ersonall5 6ill al6a5s 9herish his memor5 as that of a kin' an' lo(a.le man, of a

#IGH S A$D !BLIGA I!$S 4A> #IGH S A$D !BLIGA I!$S

Be)innin) 6ith the %i(e Pre9e*ts /pancasila8, the .asi9 moral *re9e*ts in Bu''hism, one 9an follo6 this line of thou)ht throu)h the $ah"alaParabhava- 0asala an' 0ya""hapa++a

the Bu''hist 9on9e*t is the fa9t that ri)hts of man are thus ne(er en's in themsel(es an' also the5 are re9i*ro9al at all times. A99or'in)l5 one *erson7s ri)ht turns to .e an

#IGH S A$D !BLIGA I!$S 4AA #IGH S A$D !BLIGA I!$S

his 9ele.rate' 'is9ourse 6i'el5 *o*ular an' e0tremel5 instru9ti(e 6ith its full Huote of lessons on Bu''hist ethi9s, kno6n as the Si"alovada Sutta /s.(8, 9an in realit5

in the name of fair *la5 in the a'ministration of ?usti9e .5 'ra6in) the line of 'emar9ation at the *ro*er *oint.

#IGH S A$D !BLIGA I!$S 4A4 #IGH S A$D !BLIGA I!$S

an' o.li)ations of si0 9ate)ories of in'i(i'uals that make u* human so9iet5 as its .asi9 an' main 9om*onents. hese 9om*rise the *arents as the east, tea9hers as the

her .5 *resentin) to her ?e6eller5 an' ornaments. he 6ife shoul' in return fulfill her o.li)ations .5 *erformin) her 'uties 6ell an' trul5, .5 .ein) hos*ita.le to the famil5

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 4AD #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

ethi9s as *er the *ro.lem un'er 'is9ussion is Huite 9om*rehensi(e as )i(en e(en in this sin)le Si)ala 'is9ourse.

Ma0 Glu9kman 6ho 'oes not 'isa)ree 6ith Goo'5 thinks that reli)ious ritual shoul' 9o(er a9tions an' .eliefs a''resse' to s*iritual .ein)s or some ultimate (ie6 of 'estin5 as in Bu''hism. hus for

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 4AC #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

Sin9e all *rimiti(e .elief s5stems he Pur*ose an' the %un9tion of #ituals, Man is an', later, the ma?or reli)ions, 9onsi'ere' it their 'ut5 to ensure the material an' s*iritual 6ell .ein) of their follo6ers an' the 6orl' in )eneral the5 all 9ame to *ossess a

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 4A3 #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

<.

It is a''resse' to a m5sti9al 9onte0t one 9annot *ossi.l5 fin' a *o6er, *ersonal or .asis for ritual in Earl5 Bu''hism. %or as seen a.o(e rituals are utili1e' to seek the inter(ention of outsi'e m5sti9al *o6ers an' .ein)s to hel*

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 4A; #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

a rule lai' 'o6n .5 the Bu''ha restri9tin) his 'is9i*les from trea'in) on 9loths s*rea' on the )roun' for them to 6alk on. he Bu''ha an' the San)ha 6ere on9e in(ite' .5 a *rin9e name' Bo'hi to a

here are some other referen9es in 9anoni9al te0ts 6here the Bu''ha has re?e9te' the Brahmani9al ritualisti9 *ra9ti9es. It is sai' that the .rahmans of the 6estern re)ions, 6ho are I*urifiers .5 6ater, fire-

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 44B #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

natural, as it is the home-'6eller lea'in) a familie' life 6ho has to fa9e the numerous *ro.lems affe9tin) the smooth runnin) of one7s home an' famil5 life. he Bu''ha

an' trainin) in a 9raft at the earl5 9hil'hoo'. hus one .5 one 'uties of homelife an' the life of a homelea(er are enumerate' until one rea9hes the four $o.le ruths an'

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 442 #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

1sedava!!hitta5. Suita.le form of 6orl'l5 a9ti(ities .ase' on moral 'is9i*line shoul' .e the ans6er in this 9ase.

In the list of moral *re9e*ts 1sila5 foun' in the Slla!!handhava""a of the Di"ha 'i!aya- (arious ritualisti9 *ra9ti9es follo6e' .5 the Bu''ha7s 9ontem*orar5 .rahamans an' re9luses are sai' to ha(e .een

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 44< #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

*erforme' to a'mit a 9an'i'ate as a full mem.er of the or'er. he full 9ommunit5 of monks is here re*resente' .5 a 9ha*ter of ten or more 'emar9ate' .5 a le)all5 esta.lishe' .oun'ar5 1sima5.. he

)uar'ian 'eities as in Si)ala7s ritual, here the in'i(i'ual *erforms one7s 'uties .5 ea9h )rou*. he5 re9i*ro9ate .5 .esto6in) 9om*assion on him .5 *erformin) their o6n 'uties .5 him. hus ea9h Huarter is

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 44> #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

that he neither *raises sa9rifi9es nor 'oes he not *raise all sa9rifi9es 1A. II A<, A>8. In the As .valayana ,rhya Sutra is a referen9e to fi(e o.lations 1panca bali5#3 en?oine' on the

for alms as no 'isres*e9t or 'is9ourtes5 is sho6n to them there. %rom that *oint on6ar's the 6or' yanna is use' in the 'is9ourse to ea9h ste* on the *ath to the reali1ation of $i..ana 6hi9h is

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 44A #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

ser(in) the fire for a hun're' 5ears. He also 'ra6s attention to the fa9t that in other Bu''hist s9hools 1'i!ayantare5 ahavaniya is use' an' that it has the same meanin) as ahuneyya 10ism. <2;8.

em*hasi1e the ethi9al si)nifi9an9e )i(en to these Hualities in Bu''hism. hus on9e a)ain 6e o.ser(e the ethi9al re-inter*retation of Brahmani9 ritualisti9 9on9e*ts in Bu''hism.

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 444 #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

At the earliest sta)es of the !r'er of monks one is sai' to ha(e re9ei(e' upasampada at the (er5 a'mission to the !r'er as a monk. So "en. Suneeta 1&ha". D<48 sa5s, I+ome !L .hikkhu7, /the Bu''ha8 9alle' me@ that 6as m5

e(entuall5 to .e9ome sadhus o.ser(e it at least si0 times a month. %or t6ent5 four hours the5 a.stain from foo', 6ater, fruits, se0, a'ornin) their .o'ies 6ith ornaments, )arlan's of flo6ers, anointin) the

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 44D

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

si)nifi9antl5 .rin)s us to an interestin) *arallelism. he Bu''hists 6ere *erha*s Huite keen to sho6 that their uposatha 6as su*erior to .oth the Eaina an'

!r'er 6ere thro6n o*en man5 6ere the in'i(i'uals of (er5 *oor 9ali.er 6ho sou)ht a'mission to it. Possi.l5 not (er5 man5 of them 9oul' 9om*letel5 )i(e u* the reli)ious

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 44C #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

heAtharva 0eda )i(es in9antations an' 9harms to 'rasti9all5 su**ress harmful snakes23. he Paras!ara ,rhya Sutra )i(es the Sarvana 9eremon5 6here sa9rifi9es are ma'e to kee*

to )uar' a)ainst su9h an e(entualit5 "essa(ana 6ante' to )i(e the Bu''ha a *rote9ti(e 1ra!!ha5 to .e tau)ht to his 'is9i*les for their se9urit5. It is a 'es9ri*tion of the four Great &in)s 1cattaro mahara+ano5 affirmin) that

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 443 #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

in Bu''hism. In the earl5 'i!ayas 6e fin' onl5 rare referen9es to this *ra9ti9e in Bu''hism. &he A n"iilimala Sutta re9or's ho6 the Bu''ha instru9te' Arahant An)ulimala to use the truth of his

Mithra. he 6or' mira in A(estan means a 9ontra9t. Go' /Ahura8 Mira 6as re)ar'e' as the )uar'ian of 9ontra9ts. He re6ar's those 6ho honour 9ontra9ts an' 'eals se(erel5 6ith those 6ho .etra5 them. In the

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 44; #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

it 6as a(erre' that the merit )enerate' .5 6hat is 'onate' to the Sah)ha 9oul' .e transferre' to the 'ea'. Presentl5 Bu''hists 6ho are stron)l5 atta9he' to this notion

!f these four *la9es the *la9e of the Bu''ha7s 'emise at &usinara 6as *ro.a.l5 at first the most im*ortant. here 6as a stu*a enshrinin) the reli9s of the Bu''ha at this *la9e an' it .e9ame the first s5m.oli9

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 4DB #I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

of .o'il5 in In'ia. Sri Lankan Bu''hists 9laim reli9s is 'ire9tl5 9onne9te' 6ith the that the alms .o6l of the Bu''ha li(in) Bu''ha7s .o'5 6hile an arti9le an' a .ran9h of the Bo'hi tree un'er use' .5 him 1paribho"i!a5 has 9ome 6hi9h he )aine' enli)htenment 6ere in 'ire9t 9onta9t 6ith his .o'5. But .rou)ht to Sri Lanka. Ho6e(er of all an ima)e or a *aintin) 'oes not ha(e these onl5 the Bo'hi tree in Sri an5 of these Hualifi9ations. It is

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES 4D2

#I ES A$D +E#EM!$IES

All Bu''hist rituals in Sri Lanka, an' other hera(a'a 9ountries .e)in 6ith the formula of homa)e to the Bu''ha, II salute the Blesse' !ne, the Worth5 !ne, the Perfe9tl5 Enli)htene' !ne,J re*eate' thri9e,

offi9iatin) monk. his is the )eneral *attern the 'ail5 ritual 6oul' take in its sim*lest form.. !n s*e9ial o99asions, es*e9iall5 at tem*les, the same ritual 6oul' take a more

1/ Williams, Monier, Sans!rit -En"lish Dictionary-

RITES AND CEREMONIES @A2

RCIPA

Bu''hist lan's the5 9annot in an5 s.(. *rahu manner eHual the *o*ularit5 of rituals in Maha5ana an' "a?ra5ana so9ieties.

24 r. Hume, &hirteen Principal

Ernest

#o.er,

#!PA

4D>

#+PA

his stu'5 has )i(en rise to 9ontro(ersies as to 6hat in fa9t 9onstitutes rupa.

hus, althou)h the "atsi*utri5a Sammiti5as an' the "i.hasikas 'iffer in their inter*retation of Kayavi+hapti- .oth a)ree on the *oint that Kayavi+hapti 9omes un'er

#!PA

4DA

#!PA

Se9on'l5, if fi)ure is a real rupa Glittle7 6ith referen9e to 6hi9h a then it has to .e 9on9e'e' that there )reater thin) is G.i)7 1DhsA. *. >2C8. shoul' .e a *luralit5 of rupas in one an' the same lo9us. In a (arie)ate' 9ar*et, for instan9e, there are a lar)e num.er of fi)ures. If fi)ure is a real

#+PABHA"A

4D4

#+PABHA"A

All s9hools a)ree 6ith the suttas in 'es9ri.in) rupa as im*ermanent 1anicca5 an' as .ein) 'e(oi' of a.'in) essen9e 1asara5- .ut as nourishin) an' *rolon)in) samsari9 e0isten9e@ .e9ause it 9onstitutes one

)upa-bhava refers to that *lane of e0isten9e 6here the min' is 9hara9teri1e' .5 9ons9iousness of matter, an' therefore 'eri(ati(el5 of resistan9e an' of 'i(ersit5, .5 (irtue of its .ein) free from the

#!PABHA"A

4DD

#USSIA

hose 6ho ha(e attaine' to the se9on' an' the thir' +hana are re.orn in one of the three 'e(a-6orl's kno6n as Abhassara- Parittabha an' Appamanabha 1.D. II, D;@ DA. II, 42B8. hese three 'e(a-6orl's

sudassi an' a!anittha9 the5 are 9olle9ti(el5 9alle' the *ure-a.o'es 1suddhavasa5. hose 6ho are .orn there 6ill not 9ome .a9k, .ut attain arahantshi* an' parinibbana in those hea(ens themsel(es. he Bu''ha

SABBASA"A SU

4DC SABBASA"A SU

atten' some Bu''hist reli)ious 9ele.rations in the U.S.S.#. It 6as follo6e' .5 another 'ele)ation of Sri Lankan Bu''hists in 2;D;, sent at the in(itation of the "en. E.D. Gam.o( Ban'i'a, Hum.o Lama of

is also use' to si)nif5 the festerin) *assions that a99umulate in our min's. E(il thou)hts .e)in to flo6 throu)h the sense 'oors, e5e, ear, et9. It is 6hen the sense 'oors are

SABBASA"A SU

4D3

SABBASA"A SU

that 6e *ro'u9e for oursel(es is the 'e(elo*ment of 6ise refle9tion. he Bu''ha *ro*oses in this Sutta se(en *ra9ti9al 6a5s in 6hi9h the effe9t of the asava on our min's 9an .e 9he9ke'. he *ro*ose' 6a5s )i(e

in the *resent, 'o I not e0ist in the *resent, 6hat am I in the *resent, ho6 am I in the *resent, 6hen9e 'i' this .ein) 9ome an' 6here in'ee' 6ill he )oMJ are su9h mo'es of thinkin). All su9h thinkin) *atterns

SABBASA"A SU

4D;

SABBASA"A SU

e0tent. herefore 6ith re)ar' to the *ro(oke one7s e(il ten'en9ies. E0*osin) oneself stimuli that enter throu)h ea9h sense 9ons9iousl5 to su9h situations is not fa9ult5 it is reHuire' to e0er9ise at all a 6ise thin) to 'o. It is *ossi.le restraint in su9h a 6a5 that one7s to a(oi' e0*osin) oneself to min' 'oes not .e9ome e0*ose' to unne9essar5 'an)er su9h as mo(in) the me9hani9al influ0 of into an en(ironment 6here one 9oul'

SABBA

HI"ADA

4CB

SABBA

HI"ADA

an' o(er9omin) of the *s59holo)i9al fetters that .in' a *erson to sufferin). he5 ha(e the 9hara9teristi9 of .ein) (er5 *ra9ti9al *s59holo)i9al metho's of 'ealin) 6ith a *erson7s emotional life in

s9hools of the hera(a'a 1S!t. Stha(ira(a'a8 fa9tion, is not full5 9onfirme' .5 the sour9es of the other Bu''hist tra'itions. he i.etan historian aranatha has *resente' us 6ith the (ie6s of the

SABBA

HI"ADA

4C2

SABBA

HI"ADA

u* of the Bu''hist Sah)ha into ei)hteen s9hools, as for instan9e the 6ritin)s of Bha(5a, 6hi9h )i(e us a sam*le of the 9onfuse' state of the histor5, e(en the list of names, of the ei)hteen s9hools. Man5 mo'em s9holars 6ho ha(e trie' to unra(el

ami'st mountains an' (alle5s. Asoka, later reali1e' his fault, re*ente' an' .uilt fi(e hun're' monasteries for them an' )a(e the 6hole of &ashmir to them. Watters 2 states that a99or'in) to the $ahavibhasha

SABBA

HI"ADA

4C<

SABBA

HI"ADA

of the esta.lishment of the Sar(asti(a'a, a99or'in) to the Samayabhed- oparacanaca!ra 6oul' .e on the Sar(asti(a'a 9al9ulations, aroun' the first half of the <n' 9entur5 B.+. he 'ate of the

)reat monaster5 6ill .e esta.lishe' on the Mt. Urumun'a .5 t6o .rothers name' $ata an' Bhata. $ame' after the t6o of them, it 6oul' .e a *la9e )reatl5 9on'u9i(e for me'itation. A )reat tea9her monk

SABBA

HI"ADA

4C>

SABBA

HI"ADA

Bu''hist +oun9il. In it "en. Anan'a 6as first e09lu'e' from the +oun9il .e9ause he 6as not an Arahant. Later he 6as 9hosen as the 4BBth *arti9i*ant in (ie6 of his eru'ition an' kno6le')e of the Dhamma.

monaster5 at Ealan'hara. A99or'in) to the i.etan a99ount 4BB Arahants, 4BB Bo'hisatt(as an' 4BB 9ommon pandits *arti9i*ate'. But aranatha sa5s, a99or'in) to the Sra(aka tra'ition, 6hi9h is more relia.le as

SABBA

HI"ADA

4CA

SABBA

HI"ADA

"asumitra 6ho took *art in the +oun9il 6as the author of the t6o A.i'harma te0ts Pra!aranapada an' Dhatu!ayapada. He further sa5s that a ma?orit5 of the *arti9i*ants 6ere

2nanaprasthana in the <n' 9entur5 B.+. /He, ho6e(er, in an earlier 6ork00 sa5s that the Abhidharma 'o9trines of the Sar(asti(a'ins 6ere )i(en a 'efinite form in the 2nanaprasthana Sastra aroun' the

SABBA

HI"ADA

4C4

SABBA

HI"ADA

Dharmatrata 'enie' the realit5 of caitasi!a a*art from citta. Dharmatrata hel' all caitta is su.suma.le un'er cetana. Dharmatrata hel' a!asa is unreal 6hile others hel' all asams!rtas to

Sar(asti(a'in masters outsi'e &ashmir in )eneral .ut not to an5 su9h )rou*s outsi'e &ashmir. he5 6ere 9entre' roun' Gan'hara an' Parthia 6ith Gan'hara as the main 9entre. In the Abhidhrma!osabhasya

SABBA

HI"ADA

4CD

SABBA

HI"ADA

fi(e a"amas of the Sutra Pita!a.ein) 9olle9tions of the 'is9ourses of the Bu''ha, more or less, 9oul' ha(e .een 9ommon to all the s9hools of Bu''hism in In'ia at the time. Whether the Sutra Pita!a- in its

Sar(asti(a'a re9ension of the 0inaya- translate' into i.etan .5 a &ashmirian of the "ai.hashika S9hool. he manus9ri*t foun' has a *i9ture of the Bu''ha 6ith Sari*utra an' #ahula on either si'e. +hinese

SABBA

HI"ADA

4CC

SABBA

HI"ADA

While mo'em s9holars ha(e trie' to arran)e the se(en te0ts in some 9hronolo)i9al or'er, no unanimit5 has .een rea9he' on the su.?e9t u* to no6. he )reatest set.a9k in arri(in) at a 'e9ision is that e(en

Hsiien-tsan)7s re9or's sho6 that Sar(asti(a'a 6as *o*ular in &arashar /A)ni8, urfan an' &u9ha /3 on the northern route a9ross the arim Basin. Sar(asti(a'a 6as also

SABBA

HI"ADA

4C3

SABBA

HI"ADA

In'ia an' in the islan's of the Southern Sea the5 s*eak of the four 'i!ayas .ut the num.er of (otaries in ea9h s9hool is uneHual in 'ifferent *la9es. In Ma)a'ha /+entral In'ia8

lan)ua)e of the hi)her 9lass an' therefore, re*resents the foun'ation for other se9ts. %or this reason the5 are 9alle' Mula-Sar(asti(a'ins. But 6hat &alu*ahana tries to *ro(e is that Bu''ha)hosa, in his Pali

SABBA

HI"ADA

4C;

SABBA

HI"ADA

of a stati9 moment / thiti-!!hana5. hus, a99or'in) to him, A.ha5a)iri(asins ha' a99e*te' Sautrantika (ie6s. Yet &alu*ahana7s (ie6s a.out the *hiloso*hi9al affiliations of A.ha5a)iri an'

Dhamma?oti, Bhikkhu Lam*ur, Sarvastiva

&uala

SABB#AHMA+A#I

43B

SABB#AHMA+A#I

AG. ibid. *. <3<-<3>.

>;. A<.

Dhamma?oti, ibid. ;;. <BB< , 4Dff.

of the no.le reli)ious life, brahmacariya- is a sabrahmacari of the other mem.ers, .oth male an' female, of the !r'er.

SABB#AHMA+A#I

432

SABB#AHMA+A#I

6hi9h 9oul' lea' him to Eman9i*ation, 6ent first to Alara &alama an' then to U''aka #ama*utta, he sou)ht their *ermission to lea' the brahmacariya

%rom the 'is9ussions in the Sandha!a Sutta- as sho6n a.o(e, Bu''hists 6ere not a)reea.le to 'esi)nate, 9ertain t5*es of reli)ious li(es brahmacariya if the 'estin5

SABB#AHMA+A#I

43<

SABB#AHMA+A#I

senses in 6hi9h the term has .een use'. A99or'in) to Prof. Eoti5a Dhlrasekera<, all these senses 9olle9te' .5 the 9ommentator ma5 not .e Bu''hist. But the 6or' in all

In se(eral of his 'is9ourses the Bu''ha s*eaks of si0 thin)s that shoul' .e store' in the min' 1saraniya dhamma5 6hi9h, 6hen *ra9tise', lea' to affe9tion an' res*e9t an' are 9on'u9i(e to

SABB#AHMA+A#I

43>

SABB#AHMA+A#I

Amon) the ne)ati(e Hualities stresse' .5 the Bu''ha is in9lu'e' the ten'en95 of a monk to .e an)r5 an' 'is*lease' 6ith one7s fello6s in the no.le life. he min's of su9h *ersons 'o not in9line to ar'our, to

re)ar' to the *ra9ti9e an', that the5 ha(e reali1e' an' a.i'e in the nine +hanic sta)es. he Bu''ha *raise' them *rofusel5 an' their fame is sai' to ha(e risen u* to the (er5 6orl' of Brahma 1$. 2. <B4 ff8.

1 . $iddle en"th Sayin"s- III, 22Af.

SABB#AHMA+A#I

43A

SA++A

6as the foremost amon)st them. M. !n <. %uddhist $onastic Disciplineone D. o99asion 6hen a )rou* Gunasena an' +o. /*rinters8of monks, 6ere 2;3<, to lea(e for the Lt'.6ho +olom.o, *. <D. 6estern re)ions, sa6 the Bu''ha, he E $iddle en"th Sayin"s- III, 22Af. instru9te' them to 9onsult Sari*utta

SA++A /trueKtruth8. he fun'amental Gkno6le')e an' (ision7 /nana-dassana8 a.out e0isten9e that the Bu''ha )aine' .5 .e9omin) the %ull5 Enli)htene' !ne / samma-

SA++A

434

SA++A

Althou)h the i'ea of ariya-sacca 'ominates the earl5 Bu''hist 'is9ussion of truth the 9on9e*t of truth .5 no means is-9onfine' to that alone. %or instan9e, in the

as an essential as*e9t of human life. What one nee's to 'o a.out it is to 9om*rehen' it. In fa9t the intelle9tual an' *ra9ti9al as*e9ts of this *ro9ess of reali1ation ha(e .een

SA++A

43D

SA++A

to a 'efinite 9on9lusion that I!nl5 this is true@ an5thin) else is 6ron)J /natveva tava nittham "acchati idameva saccam mo"ham ahhamti 8. What one 9an *ro*erl5 'o at this sta)e is sim*l5 to sa5 that su9h an'

his a99ount of truth in earl5 'is9ourses )i(es us some i'ea a.out the 9on9e*t of truth a99e*te' in earl5 Bu''hism. When truth is s*oken of as real, not unreal an' not other6ise 6hat it in'i9ates is that truth has

SA++A

43C

SA++A

to realit5 has .een use' as the 9riterion of truth in man5 instan9es in9lu'in) the four no.le truths, 9oheren95 too has .een use' as a ma?or 9riterion in 9ertain other 9onte0ts. !ne 9oul' ar)ue that a *ro.lem of truth 'oes not arise 6ith

As this e0*lanation re(eals, there is a stron) *ra)mati9 element in the tea9hin) of the Bu''ha. $e(ertheless, this 'oes not ne9essaril5 mean that the Bu''ha took usefulnessKrele(an9e as a

SA++A

433

SA++A

Bu''hist tra'ition. At the first )lan9e it e(en looks like )oin) a)ainst the i'ea a'(o9ate' in 'is9ourses that truth is one an' there is no se9on' 1e!am hi sacca? na dutiyam. atthi 4n.33A8. he 9ommentarial

In 9allin) these 9ate)ories truths the 9ommentarial tra'ition seems to assume an i'ea of stan'*oints. What is su))este' is that .oth truths are (ali' 'e*en'in) on the stan'*oint from 6hi9h one makes the

SA++A

43;

SA++A&I#IYA

ananubodha appativedha evam idam di"ham addhanam sandhavitam samsaritam mamanceva tumha!anca...1S. " *.A>28.

.oth truths are 9om*lementar5 an' one nee's .oth for the *ro*er e0*osition an' un'erstan'in) of the Dhamma. he o(erall im*li9ation is that in or'er to un'erstan' an5 )i(en statement in the Dhamma one must

he statement tra9es the root 9ause of samsari9 e0isten9e to la9k of

SA++A&I#IYA

4;B

SA++A&I#IYA

Su9h an a9t of truth 9an refer either to a *ersonal matter or to a )eneral one. As for e0am*le if the maker of an5 statement stan's su.?e9t to sus*i9iousl5 an5 other *art5 or *arties, the 'e9larant 9an assert

.o6l floate' u*stream *ro*hes5in) there.5 the fulfilment of the 6ish.

SA+#I%I+E

4;2

SA+#I%I+E

9annot mo(e for 6alkin), M5 *arents ha(e forsaken me, ma5 this fire retar'R $o sooner than he ma'e this solemn sacca!iriya the fire 6hi9h 6as ra)in) for6ar' mena9in)l5 9ame to a su''en halt

in the 9on9e*t of the fi(e Gran' Sa9rifi9es 1mahaya+n a5 in Brahmanism, brahma-ya+iia is 'efine' as the re9itation of *ortions of the "e'as an' other sa9re' te0ts as a *arti9ular sa9rifi9ial ritual 6hile

SA+#I%I+E

4;<

SA+#I%I+E

(arious *s59hi9 *o6ers / iddhividha5turnin) one7s min' to the reali1ation of the 'i(ine ear, / dibbaya sotadhatuya5- turnin) one7s min' to the kno6le')e of *enetration of another7s min' 6ith one7s min'

there. he horse sa9rifi9e 1as .va medha5 is 'es9ri.e' at )reat len)th. Goats, .ulls, .uffaloes, 9o6s an' rams 6ere also sa9rifi9e' to (arious )o's like in'ra an' Pushan an' A)ni. What the "e'i9 Ar5ans e0*e9te' in

SA+#I%I+E

4;>

SA+#I%I+E

the te0t as anu!ula. Anu!ula yanna is inter*rete' .5 thePali-En)lish Di9tionar5 as G*ro*itiati(e sa9rifi9e7. In the (er5 ne0t 'is9ourse 1A. II. A>f8 the Bu''ha )i(es more 'etails a.out the Hualities of the

immolation of animals. But 6hen the kin), on the instru9tion of his 9ha*lain, remo(e' the slau)hter of animals an' a num.er of other o.no0ious features from his sa9rifi9e it 6as still 9alle' a )ran' Sa9rifi9e.

SA+#I%I+E

4;A

SA+#I%I+E

he sa9rifi9e in 6hi9h a man is sa9rifi9e' is 9alle' Purisamedha. Like in the horse sa9rifi9e a )ift of e(er5 thin) in9lu'in) lan' is offere' at this sa9rifi9e. Amon) the (i9tims

0a+apeyya is so 9alle' .e9ause here the5 'rink va+a 1va+am ettha pivanti ti va+apeyyo5. In it se(enteen (i9tims are immolate' at a beluva 6oo' Sa9rifi9ial Post. In Sanskrit va+a means stren)th, (i)our, ener)5,

SA+#I%I+E

4;4

SA+#I%I+E

Bu''ha 9alls it a form of tormentin) self an' tormentin) others an' re?e9ts it as a non-.enefi9ial reli)ious *ra9ti9e. $ormall5 anointe' kin)s an' .rahamins of ri9h families *ra9ti9e it.

IIt is 6ron)J the5 5elle' in horror

SA+#I%I+E

4;D

SA+#I%I+E

the )rain ta0 of one tenth of the !ne 6ho inten's *erfonnin) a har(est of )rain e0tra9te' from the Gran' Sa9rifi9e first 9on9ei(9s in his framers. B5 this nine tenths of the min' that so man5 animals of har(este' )rain is left for the 'ifferent kin's shoul' .e immolate'. *ro'u9er. It is sai' to 'emonstrate his is the thou)ht s6or'. hen he

SA+#I%I+E

4;C

SA+#I%I+E

.5 some of his 9ontem*orar5 reli)ious tea9hers 1$.

Almsman most (irtuous, an' 6ith heart 6ell

SA+#I%I+E

4;3

SA+#I%I+E

o.lation 1havyam !atva yatharaham5one makes a )ift in the )oo' fiel' /of merit8 of those 6ho lea' the no.le reli)ious life / brahma Carisu5. his 6elloffere' / suhuta8, 6ell-

the list of (irtues attri.ute' often to the 9ommunit5 of the 'is9i*les of the Bu''ha 1%ha"avato sava!asan"ho5. hree of them sa5 that the 'is9i*les of the Bu''ha, the ei)ht in'i(i'uals

SA+#I%I+E

4;;

SA+#I%I+E

/'d. II 4<>8 inter*rets yanna as deyyadhamma- Gsomethin) fit to .e )ifte'7 1yanno vuccati deyyadhammo5. %ourteen o.?e9ts are enumerate' in 'etailin) out the

re.orn in hea(en throu)h the .loo'less sa9rifi9e re9ommen'e' .5 the 9ha*lain of &in) Maha(i?ita. Ho6e(er, he then )oes on to 'esi)nate ea9h *ro)ressi(e ste* on the

DBB

SADDANITI

SADDANITI

SADDA$I I. he Saddaniti or ILa6s of the Lan)ua)eJ is a Pali )rammati9al 6ork 6ritten in Burma /M5anmar8 .5 "en. A))a(amsa 6ho 6as *o*ularl5 kno6n as A))a*an'ita III. he .ook 6as 6ritten in 224A

It 6as after the 9onHuest of #amanna, the Lo6er Burma, .5 the kin) Aniru''ha /Anorata 2BAA-CC8 an' 9arr5in) a6a5 of s9ri*tures, learne' monks, reli9s et9. for9i.l5 to Pa)an, the 9a*ital of u**er Burma

SADDHA

DB2

SADDHA

*ro.a.l5 'ue to the a(aila.ilit5 of other )rammati9al 6orks. Ho6e(er the Catalo"ue of Palm leaf $anuscripts sho6s that there are fift5 manus9ri*ts in the tem*le li.raries, 6hi9h sho6s its a99e*tan9e

treate' to)ether 6ith little re)ar' for the histori9al *ers*e9ti(e .%0 Ea5atilleke *oints out that there are at least, t6o histori9al la5ers in the Bu''hist 9anon.

SADDHA

DB<

SADDHA

An im*ortant anal5sis of the 6or'7s meanin) is that it has se(eral as*e9ts, affe9ti(e, 9onnati(e an' 9o)niti(e. his (ie6 is su**orte' .5 Dutt 2 6ho 'is9erns t6o 'istin9ti(e meanin)s in saddha. 1 . faith / pasada8

In the 0imamsa!a Sutta 1$. AC8, the Bu''ha tells the .hikkhus that he5 shoul' in(esti)ate the atha )ata in res*e9t of t6o kin's of states 9o)nisa.le throu)h the e5e an' throu)h the ear, states su9h as

SADDHA

DB>

SADDHA

In the Puran+asa Sutta 1S. II **. 2BA-48, the Bu''ha 'ra6s a *arallel .et6een his 'is9o(er5 of the $o.le Ei)htfol' Path to $i..ana an' a tra(eller 6an'erin) throu)h a forest 24+M 4<CA

-vita!!a- ditthi ni++hana!!hanti5. hese means of kno6le')e are falli.le .e9ause somethin) ma5 .e a99e*te' on faith .ut ma5 *ro(e to .e 6ron) e(entuall5. In the same 6a5,

SADDHA

DBA

SADDHA

tea9hin) is 9orre9t an' true his ans6er a)ain refle9ts the lli.eral s*irit of inHuir5. His a'(i9e 6as,

+onsi'erin) this 9harter for the free'om of thou)ht 6hen 'e9i'in) for oneself the truthfulness an' 9orre9tness of a reli)ious tea9hin), one 9annot a99e*t Saddha to mean

SADDHA

DB4 SADDHAMMAPAEE! I&A

one is full5 enli)htene', the dhamma is 6ell *ro9laime' .5 the Blesse' one, the Sah)ha is *ra9tisin) the )oo' 6a5.J hus it is onl5 after 9om*letin) the *ra9ti9e of the *ath an' rea9hin) sammaiiana

SADDHAMMAPAEE! I&A. he Saddhamma pa++oti!a is the 9ommentar5 6ritten for the 'iddesaone of the fifteen te0ts of the Khudda!a 'i!aya of the hera(a'a s9hool of Bu''hism. hou)h the

SADDHAMMAPAEE! I&A DBD SADDHAMMAPAEE! I&A

A ttadanda suttanam sammaparibba+amya sutta vannanayam vuttanayam . eva samannato uppatti veditabbati

a''s that e(en after the 'eath of the kin) it is *ossi.le that the5 ha(e use' his re)nal 5ears, 'ue to the trou.lesome *erio' that follo6e' Mahanama7s rei)n in the 9ountr5.

2 D + M 4

+oun9il +ham.er of &in) $issankamalla of Polonnaru6a, Courtesy , M. W. E. &amnaratne

P L A E : II

Pala9e of &in) Parakkrama.ahu of Polonnaru6a. Courtesy , M. W. E. &arunaratne

P L A E : III

he #o5al Pa(ilian of Polonnaru6a. Courtesy , M. W. E.

P L A E :I "

P L A E : "

hu*arama in Polonnaru6a. Courtesy F M. W. E.

P L A E : " I

he "ata'a)e in Polonnaru6a. Courtesy , M. W. E.

P L A E : " II

P L A E : " II I

PLA E :I:

Si(a'e(ala$o. B< of Polonnaru6a. Courtesy , M. W. E.

P L A E : :

Lankatilleka-&iri(ehera in Polonnaru6a. Courtesy , M. W. E.

P L A E : : I

Gal(ihara in Polonnaru6a. Courtesy , M. W. E.

P L A E : : II

PLA E ::III

Courtesy , M. W. E. &arunaratne

PLA E ::I"

Courtesy F M. W. E. &arunaratne

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM 1)/u' 1II( Fa+%$%/ =

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM

Founder Editor-in Chief G. P. MALALASE&E#A, M. A., Ph. D., D. Litt., Professor Emeritus

Editor-in Chief W. G. WEE#A#A $E, m. a., Ph. '.

"!LUME "II FASCICLE =D Sadd0a''a22a&a+$n$ 7 Sa+ana.a'+a

<BBD

Pu.lishe' .5 the De*artment of Bu''hist Affairs, Ministr5 of #eli)ious Affairs, Sri Lanka.

+M 4;D3-/B>K<BBD8 Printe' at he Go(t. Printin) De*t. Sri Lanka.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF BUDDHISM EDITORIAL BOARD Dr. Anan'a W. P. Guru)e

Hon. Consultant Editor

Dr. $. A. Ea5a6i9krama, Professor Emeritus Hon. Editorial Advisor

Dr. Y. &aruna'asa, Professor Emeritus Hon. Editorial Advisor Dr. W. G. Weeraratne

Editor-in-Chief Dr. &. Arunasiri

Deputy Editor Professor +. Witana9h9hi

Deputy Editor Mr. #u6an Ban'ara A'hikari

Asst. Editor

% ormer E'itors-in-+hief Dr. G. P. Malalasekera, Professor Emeritus Founder Editor-in-Chief. Dr. !. H. De A. Wi?esekera, Professor Emeritus Dr. Eoti5a Dhirasekera Mr. Ban'ula Ea5a6ar'hana

SADDHAMMAPPA&ASI$I DBC SADDHAMMAPPA&ASI$I

IIt is fairl5 a lon) 6ork, .ut 'istin9tl5 inferior to the a9hie(ements of Dhamma*ala or Bu''ha)hosa. he author 6as merel5 retranslatin) into Pali 6hat he foun' in +e5lon 9ommentaries

too is )enerall5 as9ri.e' to him. As state' a.o(e Saddhammappa!asini has .een 9om*ose' three 5ears after the 'eath of kin) Dhatusena7s son Mo))allana. he $ahavamsa sa5s that kin) Dhatusena ha' to fi)ht for

SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A DB3 SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A SU #A 7 = SU #A


A. 3. E. 6. 7. D. Y. 8.

Astasahasri!a-pra+naparamita ,andavyuha Dasabh umlsvara Samadhira+a an!avatara &atha"ata-"uyha!a alitavistara. an' Suvarnaprabhasa.

SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A DB; SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A SU #A = = SU #A

6ere later e0*an'e' into a re)ular *rose (ersion at a time 6hen the *oeti9al form for the e0*osition of reli)ious matters ha' .e9ome o.solete or more or less im*ra9ti9a.le. hese *rose *assa)es,

his MS 9ontains <C 9ha*ters. his is the translation 6hi9h runs *arallel to the *resent te0t of the Saddharma- pundari!asutra.

SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A D2B SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A SU #A L 7 SU #A

rest, all of a su''en a ra5 of li)ht emitte' from 6ithin the 9ir9le of hair .et6een his e5e-.ro6s. It e0ten'e' o(er 23,BBBBB Bu''ha-lan's an' lai' .are all the 6orl's 6ith their inha.itants. he Bo'hisatt(a

>. Aupamya-parivarta. he Bu''ha *ro*hesies that Sari*utra in a future .irth 6ill .e9ome a atha)ata name' Pa'ma*ra.ha an' that, after ha(in) announ9e' the future 'estin5 of the Bo'hisatt(a

SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A D22 SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A SU #A 7 7 SU #A

D. 0y a!arana-parivarta. In this parivarta the atha)ata *ro*hesies the future 'estinies of "en. Mahakas5a*a, Su.huti, Mahakat5a5ana an' Mahamau')al5a5ana res*e9ti(el5. he5

.e a future Bu''ha kno6n as De(ara?a. he 9ha*ter en's 6ith the stor5 of the 5oun) 'au)hter of Sa)ara, $a)a kin), 6ho on a99ount of her stron) 'etermination to attain su*reme enli)htenment, is

SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A D2< SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A SU #A L SU #A L

<4. Subliavy uhap urvara+ayo"a23. Dharmabhana!anisamsaparivarta. his parivarta sets parivarta. his parivarta relates the a'(anta)es, 6orl'l5 an' s*iritual, of stor5 of &in) Subhavyuha 6ho 6as li(in) at the time of the Bu''ha .ein) a reli)ious *rea9her. Eala'hara)ar?ita)hosasus(aranaksatra - ra?asankusumita.hi?na .e9ame a

SADDHA#MAPU$DA#I&A D2> SU #A

SADDHI"IHA#I&A

SADDHI"IHA#I&A, Saddhivihari!a /also after attainin) the *erfe9t 'irvma. Sak5amuni7s m5sti9 *o6er, the Saddhiviharin an'.. viharini5- Bu''hist *o6er of the Bo'hisatt(as as 6ell as H5.ri' the *o6er an' effi9a95 of dharanis or talismani9 formulas are some of

SADDHI"IHA#I&A

D2A

SADDHI"IHA#I&A

Ha(in) assem.le' the monks an' re.uke' those 6ho mis.eha(e' an', )i(in) a reasone' talk on 6hat is fittin) an' .e9omin), he ma'e the announ9ement, IMonks, I allo6 a *re9e*torJ / anu+anami bhi!!have

is e0amine' .efore the 9ha*ter *rior to )rantin) his reHuest. !ne of the Huestions *ut to him is 6hether he has a *re9e*tor an', if so, to name him 1ibid. ;>8. he im*ortan9e atta9he' to the *re9e*tor 9o-resi'ent

SADDHI"IHA#I&A

D24

SADDHI"IHA#I&A

en'. If 9alle' for, a 'rink of 6ater shoul' .e *ro(i'e' after the .ath.

also has the ri)ht an' *ri(ile)e to .rin) his o6n *re9e*tor .efore the San)ha to )i(e him an o**ortunit5 to 9leanse himself of the e99lesiasti9al offen9es he has 9ommitte'. hus if

>-+M B4;D3

SADDHI"IHA#I&A

D2D

SAGALI&A

Pre9e*tor7s Duties to6ar's the +oresi'ent, A

+.

Witana9h9hi

#eferen9es

SAG ALI&A

D2C

SAG ALI&A

se9e'e' /from the heri5as8 in the islan' of Lanka. $either the $ahavamsa nor the D(pavamsa )i(es an5 reason or the 9ourse of e(ents 6hi9h le' to the formation of the Sa)alika se9t. o kno6 some of

same, he took a.out three hun're' of his follo6ers an' 6ent o(er to the Dakkhina)iri "ihara an' took u* resi'en9e there se9e'in) from the Dharmaru9i se9t. !ne monk amon) them name' Sa)ala starte' to

SAGALI&A

D23

SAGALI&A

6ork 9alle' the 0uttamala. he institution is mentione' for the last time in a )rant .elon)in) to the rei)n of Bu(aneka.au "II /24<2-24428. #.A.L.H. Guna6ar'hane, in his )obe and. the Plou"h- states that,

&urun'a9ullaka *iri(ena of Eeta(ana an' the other from the &olam.ahalaka *iri(ena, ha(e left 9ertain 6ritten re9or's statin) that the Maha(ihara monks se9e'e' 1patiye!!a+atati5takin) the

SAGALI&A

D2;

SAGALI&A

Guna6ar'hane7s inter*retation 9annot .e a99e*te'. Affiliations of the &olam.ahalaka monks are not (er5 9lear.

Dhammadhatu festi(al an' its 9onne9tion 6ith the Eeta(ana monaster5. he 'i!ayasan"raha / also 9ate)ori9all5 states that the Sa)alikas 6ho ha' settle' 'o6n in the Eeta(ana vihara a'o*te' "aitul5a(a'a

SAGALI&A

D<B

SAGALI&A

sin9e he has 6ell *enetrate' the Dhamma Element / dhammadhalu8, an ans6er to an5 Huestion *ut to him 6oul' *rom*tl5 s*rin) to his min'. !6in) to the same reason the Bu''ha 9oul' 'es9ri.e in 'etail all

6hat is terme' Gthe 9ree' of Bu''hism7 .5 some mo'ern s9holars. +o**er *laHues ins9ri.e' 6ith this stan1a in Pali ha(e .een foun' enshrine', for instan9e, in the

SAGALI&A

D<2

SAGALI&A

But the most im*ortant ar9haeolo)i9al 'is9o(er5 in Sri Lanka *ointin) to the Dharma-dhatu 9ult, is from the ruins of the Eeta(ana "ihara itself, the ori)inal 9entre of the 6orshi* of Dharma-

ke*t it in a s*len'i' tem*le .uilt at the 9entre of the 9it5 an' 9ause' a festi(al *ro9ession hel' in its honour. 1$hv. 4<.A4-4D8. Mahin'a I" /;4D-;C< A.+.8 restore' the Dhammasah"ani House at the 9entre

SAGALI&A

D<<

SAGALI&A

D. E. &alu*ahana 11 6ho has sho6n 6ith the internal e(i'en9e 9olle9te' from the Pali 9ommentaries, su. 9ommentaries, Sinhala translations of some of these et9. that the Sar(asti(a'a an' the Sautrantika

In the a.sen9e of the Simhala 9ommentaries 6hi9h Bu''ha)hosa, Dhamma*ala an' others are sai' to ha(e translate' into Pali, the Pali translations left .5 these s9holars are )enerall5 re)ar'e' as re*resentin)

SAGALI&A

D<>

SAGALI&A

o.ser(e' a.o(e that a99or'in) to the 0isuddhima""a 9ommentator the A.ha5a)iri monks ha' in a9tual fa9t a99e*te' this (ie6.

of th t Abhidhammavatara / %.$. 2. 2>C8 he sa5s that he is 6ritin) it roote' in the Maha(ihara tra'ition unmi0e' 6ith the (ie6s of 'issentient s9hools. If so Sari*utta

SAGALI&A

D<A SAHASSA"A

HUPPA&A#A$A

D e). Bu-ston, &he Sri Sat)uru

History of %uddhism in (ndia I &ibet- tr. E. !.ermiller, Pu.li9ations, Delhi-In'ia, 2;;;, *. ;;

e0*elle' man5 hun're's of e(il monks from the !r'er an' unifie' the three fraternities into a sin)le fraternit5, a task 6hi9h 9oul' not .e a9hie(e' .5 *ast kin)s at times 6hen there 6ere e(en Arahants en'o6e'

SAGGA See HEA"E$ A$D HELL

SAI+H!

D<4

SAI+H!

Suranimalassa- ,o thayimbaraSaliyara+a !umaraPhussadevatherassaDhammaso!a $ahara+aKavirapattana.

$an'asena Mu'i5anse

B5 an' .5 Sai9ho 6as a.le to attra9t more an' more 'is9i*les an' .enefa9tors to his tem*le at the Mt. Hiei. In the meantime, he stu'ie' s9ri*tures of the +hinese iantai se9t an' 'eli(ere' le9tures on its

SAI+H!

D<D

SA&ADAGAMI

he en'ai S9hool foun'e' .5 Sai9ho *rea9he' that the fun'amental 'o9trine of Bu''hism 6as to .e foun' in the Saddharmapundari!a Sutra. He em*hasise' that the Bu''ha nature

autonom5 to the en'ai se9t in 3<< A.+. se(en 'a5s after his 'eath.

SA&ADAGAMI

D<C

SA&ADAGAMI

as im*ermanent, unsatisfa9tor5 an' 'e(oi' of a self 1S. III. 2D38. !ne 6ho takes an5 formation to .e *ermanent or satisfa9tor5, or else an5 *henomena to .e a self, or else 'oes not look on 'ibbana as

A99or'in) to the 9ommentarial e0*lanation /MA. II, D28, $ahanama 6as a on9e-retumer an' the e0*ression G*leasure aloof from sensualit57 refers to the *leasure of +hana attainment. !n the

SA&ADAGAMI

D<3

SA&&A

9ommentarial tra'ition the5 also fall into fi(e 9lasses relate' to their *ro)ress in 'ifferent s*heres of re.irth 1$A. I, 2D>8. 6o su9h t5*es of on9e-returners are those 6ho ha(e attaine' on9e-return in the human

he )ain of on9e-return is one of the su*reme fruits of li(in) the 9eli.ate life 1S. ", <D8 an' it is for the sake of su9h su.lime attainments that the hol5 life is to .e li(e' un'er the Bu''ha 1D. 2,24D8. A monk 6ho

SA&&A

D<;

SA&&A

mem.er of the "e'i9 *antheon. His *h5si9al features su9h as the .o'5, hea', .ear' are s*e9iall5 mentione'. He is ta6n5 / hari5 in 9olor an' also ta6n5 haire' an' .ear'e'. He is a''i9te' to the soma 'rink, the

e*ithet for In'ra 6hereas in Pali Literature it has .e9ome the *ersonal name of the )o'. At the same time the *ersonal name In'ra of the "e'i9 )o' is )i(en the meanin) 9hiefKkin)

SA&&A

D>B

SA&&A

/Brethren Sakka the kin) of )o's has not )ot ri' of his lust, an)er, an' illusion, is timi', )i(en to *ani9, to fri)ht, to runnin) a6a5 4.2. <2;8

Kula?a!a 2ata!a /2. I. <B>8. !n9e Sakka 6as fleein), after .ein) 'efeate' .5 Asuras, his enemies. In the 9ourse of his s*ee'5 retreat, the .ir' nests 6ere 'ama)e'. When Sakka sa6 this he imme'iatel5

SA&&A

D>2

SA&&A

Sakra8 has .een a**lie' to "e'i9 In'ra 'ue to his 9a*a9it5 to hel* his 6orshi**ers. But the Bu''hist et5molo)ist in the Samyutta 'i!aya sa5s that he )ot the e*ithet .e9ause he )a(e alms 6ell *re*are' 1devanam (ndo pubbe manussa bhuto

of formal )reetin)s, as if .et6een t6o frien's alrea'5 kno6n to ea9h other.

\ SA&&A D>< SA&&A

he other im*ortant information )i(en 6ith re)ar' to Sakka is his attainment to the *osition of a :SotapannaAt the 9on9lusion of the Sutta it is sai' 6hile elu9i'ation 6as

It is ri'i9ulous to state that a Bu''ha7s 'is9i*le 6ent to Deva 6orl's .5 *assin) the Bu''ha to )et an ans6er to a Huestion of that nature. But a**arentl5 the i'ea .ehin' this e*iso'e is to hi)hli)ht

SA&&A

D>>

SA&&A

he Sutta further a''s that "en. Mo))allana 6ho ha**ene' to .e seate' not far from the *la9e 6here the Bu''ha 6as seate' entertaine' a 'ou.t 6hether Sakka 2 un'erstoo' 6hat the Bu''ha sai'. It is *ossi.le

hinkin) so "en. Mo))allana 6ith his *s59hi9 *o6er ma'e the "e?a5anta *ala9e trem.le, shake an' Huake usin) his .i) toe / p$ari""uttha!ena5. Seein) the mira9le the De(as in9lu'in) Sakka

SA&&A

D>A

SA&&A

Se(eral Suttas 'eal 6ith the 6ar .et6een Suras /)o's8 an' Asurastheir enemies. he Suras hea'e' .5 Sakka are re)ar'e' as ri)hteous an' Asuras hea'e' .5 "e*a9itti as non ri)hteous. A99or'in) to the Susima

the thera 6hether 6hat he *rea9he' 6as his o6n 'o9trines or that of the Bu''ha. he thera re*lie' that 6hat he 6as *rea9hin) 6as that of the Bu''ha. At the en' Sakka 9ame out 6ith the truth that on9e the Bu''ha

SA&&A

D>4

SA&&A

6hen the Eatilas 6ere an0ious to kno6 the (isitor 6ho 9ame the *re(ious ni)ht, the Bu''ha re(eale' that it 6as Sakka the kin) of )o's. $ahava""a further states 1ibid. *. <38 6hile the Bu''ha 6as still 6ith

Hea(en, as a result of his )oo' 'ee's in his *re(ious li(es. He ha**ene' to meet the Bu''ha an' .e9ame a )reat a'mirer of the Bu''ha an' his tea9hin)s. He often (isite' the Bu''ha at ni)ht 6ith his

SA&&A

D>D

SA&&A

the human But Sakka 9oul' not stan' Mara realm. !n .ehalf of Sakka the four the E(il !ne, 6hen Mara 9ame 6ith )reat kin)s 1Cattaro $ahara+ano5 all his for9es to o.stru9t the (isit the human 6orl' takin) 6ith Bo'hisatt(a 6ho 6as a.out to attain them a )ol'en sheet an' (ermilion. he5 are su**ose' to (isit (illa)es Enli)htenment an' fle' alon) 6ith the others to the .oun'ar5 of the an' to6ns on full moon 'a5s an'

SA&&A

D>C

SA&&A

Su!hasamanera 0atthu 1DhA. III. ;D8 )ohini!hattiya!annaya 0atthu 1DhA. III. <;38. Cii lasubhaddavatthu 1DhA. III. AD48 et9.

Sakka ests "irtues of others , Sakka sometimes

IDe(ana)ara is 2B.BBB lea)ues in len)th, its )ol'en streets si0t5 thousan' lea)ues lon). "e?a5anta Mansion is thousan' lea)ues. Su'hammahall is of fi(e hun're' lea)ues.......J

SA&&A

D>3

SA&&A

)et a *ro.lem re)ar'in) the Dhamma sol(e'. hat also not (er5 often. He has no 9onne9tion 6ith the or'inar5 human .ein)s, thou)h it is sai' that he honours (irtuous men, .ut not in their *resen9e. As seen in

Sakka 6ho 6as there, to *rote9t "i?a5a an' his retinue 6ho 6oul' .e lan'in) in the islan' of Lanka on the same 'a5, as his sasana 6oul' .e esta.lishe' in Sri Lanka,

SA&&A

D>;

SA&&A

!n the 'a5 of the reli9 enshrinement of the Maha hu*a Sakka 6as there 6ith his 9on9h shell fille' 6ith 6ater 1$hv. 000i (erse C38. He further )ot "issakamma to

+on9lusion, he le)en' of Sakka 6as not 9om*ose' 'urin) a s*e9ifi9 *erio' of time .5 a sin)le *erson. It is a *ro'u9t of a lon) *erio' of time e0ten'in) to se(eral 9enturies. In

SA&&A

DAB

SA&&A

he et5molo)5 of the term is 'ou.tful .ut a**ear to ha(e 9onne9te' to Iin'uJ 'ro* of rain.

Here "en. Mo))allana su**ose' to ha(e referre'

is

SA&&AYADI IHI

DA2

SA&&AYADmm

SA,,AYADITnTHI. Is usuall5 translate' as G*ersonalit5 (ie67. he term sa!!aya is ma'e u* of sat Ge0istin)7 an' !aya- G.o'57. Ka5Sa in the *resent 9onte0t has a more )eneral sense an' )oes .e5on' its

else .5 *resumin) the a))re)ate to .e *art of the self, or else .5 takin) the self to .e 6ithin the a))re)ate /M I, >BB8. his t6ent5-fol' matri0 sets the *ara'i)m for 6hate(er

SA&&AYADI *n

DA<

SA&&AYADI *n

these three 6a5s is ho6e(er untena.le, e0*erien9e is nothin)in an5 .ut of a 9on(ention. Yet, the a.o(e e0am*le the Bu''ha *ointe' out, as all from the $ahapunnama Sutta sho6s *er9e*tions arise an' *ass a6a5. that 'is9losin) the merel5 9on(entional nature of GI7 notions 9an lea' to misun'erstan'in)s. In

SA&&AYADI !n

DA>

SA&&AYADI

HI

E(en thou)h from aena9tin) Bu''hist the *ers*e9ti(e Sa!!ayadittlii is 9ertainl5 in9orre9t, as lon) as its *ra9ti9al im*li9ations are to en9oura)e moral an' 6holesome 9on'u9t, Sa!!ayadittlii 6ill not ha(e the same

reassurin) illusion GI am7. Su9h GI am7 notions are .ut erroneous su*erim*ositions on e0*erien9e, 9on(e5in) the sense of an autonomous an' in'e*en'ent su.?e9t

SA&&AYADI

HI

DAA

SA&YA

!n one o99asion the Bu''ha humorousl5 in(ite' his monks to 9lin) to a self 'o9trine, if the5 6ere a.le to fin' a self 'o9trine 6hi9h 6oul' not result in the arisin) of du!!ha 1$. I, 2>C8. Sin9e ho6e(er

See also A$A A ADl lHI, UPADA$A

A, A MA$, A A"ADA, Analayo

SA&YA

DA4

SA&YA

In 5et another *la9e the Bu''ha sa5s that Sak5as hel' themsel(es to .e (assals of Pesena'i &osala / D.

In Pali 9anoni9al te0ts are referen9es to a num.er of Sak5a settlements, (i1. &a*ila(atthu, De(a'aha, &homa'ussa, +atuma, Sama)ama, Sila(ati, $a)araka, Me'atalum*a, Sakkhara, an'

SA&YA

DAD

SA&YA

Sakya System o$ Administration

'a5, 'e9i'e' to ?oin the Bu''hist Sah)ha the5 han'e' o(er all their ornaments an' (alua.les to their .ar.er name' U*ali, 6ho 6as also 6ith them, to take them .a9k to his home. But after a 6hile U*ali

he sak5a territor5 seems to ha(e ha' a re*u.li9an form of a'ministration 9arrie' out 6ith the *arti9i*ation of .oth the el'ers an'

SA&YA

DAC

SA&YA

Su''ho'ana 6ho is 9alle' a kin) of the Sak5as .5 later 6orks. He 6as the son of the Sak5a la'5 &ali)o'ha //d. 2;8 6ho is 9alle' a Sak5aHueen of the Sak5as .5 the 9ommentator / sa!iyauam Sa!!ara+a- devi /dA. 2D28. If so his father

*la9e 6here the 6eakest 9oul' o(er9ome e(en the stron)est. &a*ila is also sai' to .e the Bu''ha in a former life. He )a(e his lan' to the *rin9es to .uil' their 9it5 an' mo(e' to a s*ot near .5. he 9it5 6as

SA&YA

DA3

SA&YA

.5 im*alin). o his tea9her 6ho 9ame to him Gautama 'e9lare' his inno9en9e an' ma'e an asse(eration of truth that the tea9her7s 'ark-hue' .o'5 shoul' turn )ol'en in 9olour if he is inno9ent. his 9ame to *ass

sta)es of 'e(elo*ments .ut 5et retaine' some of the salient *oints in the ori)inal (ersions. An5ho6 it is not eas5 to 'is9ern ho6 mu9h histor5 9an .e 'e'u9e' from them. It is 9lear that Bu''hists ha(e trie'

SA&YA

DA;

SA&YA

C.

4itanachchi 5e$erences

)reat 9ities )i(en .5 Anan'a as fittin) *la9es for the *assin) a6a5 of the Bu''ha, &a*ila(atthu is not in9lu'e'. / D. II. 2AD8. Yet sometimes, in ol'er te0ts, &a*ila(atthu is 9alle' a *ros*erous

SALIS HAMBHASU #A D4B

SAMADHI

$o.le ruths .e9ause the former is the 'etaile' e0*lanation of the latter in a )eneral sense. Ho6e(er in the Salisthamba Siitra this main tea9hin) is )i(en a sli)htl5 'ifferent treatment in that the 'o9trine of

SAMADHI

D42

SAMADHI

or to 9ontem*latin) the arisin) an' *assin) a6a5 of the fi(e a))re)ates 1A. II. A48. A *assa)e from the An"uttara 'i!aya treats e(en the four satipatt!anas as a form of

his interme'iate le(el a.sor*tion has foun' its 6a5 into Abhidhammic s9heme for listin) +hanas- 6hi9h treats this le(el samadhi as se9on' +hana an'

of the the of the

SAMADHI

D4<

SAMADHI

'istin9tion7. time. he Pali Abhidhamma /9f. e.). Abhs. II. <8 )oes a ste* further .5 su))estin) that unifi9ation /e!a""ata5 of the min' .elon)s to those se(en mental fa9tors *resent

he fourth t5*e of samadhi- then, *ertains to the 'e(elo*ment of insi)ht, 6hen on emer)in) from a +hana one 'e(elo*s 'eta9hment in re)ar' to it.

SAMADHI

D4>

SAMADHI

that o(ereatin) 6ill 9ause 'ro6siness / bhattasamimda5 an' there.5 o.stru9t 9on9entration 1S. ", DA8.

se9lusion. he stan'ar' 'es9ri*tions of the t5*e of en(ironment 9on'u9i(e to the 'e(elo*ment of samilhi re9ommen' *la9es su9h as the root of a tree or an em*t5 *la9e. he relationshi* .et6een se9lusion

SAMADHI

D4A

SAMADHI

the immaterial attainments 9omes into (ie6, refine' mental e0*erien9es that em*lo5 the 9on9entrati(e stren)th )aine' 6ith the fourth +hana to 'e(elo* in9reasin)l5 su.tle t5*es of

hese ran)e from 9leanliness an' a(oi'in) 'istra9te' *eo*le, to kno6in) the ri)ht time for in9itin), restrainin), )la''enin) an' not interferin) 6ith the min'. In a''ition to these, the 0isuddhima""a

SAMADHI

D44

SAMADHI

9on9entration to .e9ome Gri)ht7 9on9entration, it nee's to .e 'e(elo*e' as *art of the no.le ei)htfol' *ath.

he same seems to a**l5 to the realisation of on9e- return. !n9ereturners are so 9alle' .e9ause the5 6ill .e re.orn onl5 on9e a)ain in Gthis 6orl'7 /i.e. the !amalo!a5. !n

SAMADHI#AEASU #A D4D SAMADHI#AEASU #A

5e$erences

'o9toral thesis 6hi9h 6as su.mitte' to the Uni(ersit5 of Warsa6 in 2;>D. he same fi(efol' *resentation re9urs at D. Ill, <CA@ $. Ill, 2D<@ S. I", >DB@ S. I", >D> an' A. I", >BB.

SAMADHI#AEASU #A D4C

SAMA$

E.

W. Marasin)he.

SAMAN 5-0 G)d )* Ada'8+ P a&6. In the

In this sutra the 6or' samadhi 'enotes Gthe su.?e9t of 9on9entration7, a (er.al formula to .e me'itate' u*on as a dharani. his sutra is one of the most authoritati(e te0ts of the Ma'h5amikas, an' not

SAMA$A

D43

SAMA$A

6hi9h /a99or'in) to tra'ition8 6as .uilt on the initiati(e of Go' Saman. here are also se(eral other shrines asso9iate' 6ith this 'eit5 in less im*ortant reli)ious 9enters. In man5 Bu''hist tem*les, the ima)e of

he samanas ha' their ori)in in *re-Ari5an times. heir roots ha(e .een tra9e' to the In'us (alle5 9i(ili1ation e(i'en9e' .5 a miniature seal foun' in the re)ion

SAMA$A

D4;

SAMA$A

:Seyyathapi bhopuriso a""arasaparititto na ann esarh hmanamrasmampiheti- evam eva !ho bho vato yato tassa bhoto ,otamassa dhammam sunati yadi suttaso yadi "eyyaso yadi veyya!aranaso yadi abhutadhammaso tato tato na annesam puthusamanabraiimanappavadmarn piheti < 1A III *. <>C8

Bu''ha Ihaunts the lonel5 an' remote re9esses of the forest, 6here noise, 6here soun' there har'l5 is, 6here the .ree1es from the *astures .lo6, 5et 6hi9h are hi''en from the

SAMA$A

DDB

SAMA$A

: Paribba+upa"atabhavena samana +atiya brahmana lo!ena va samanatibrahmanati ca. Evam sammata;.

A99or'in) to this e0*lanation,

han' hel' that eman9i*ation 9oul' .e attaine' onl5 .5 a 9om*lete se*aration from la5 life, that is, *ra9tisin) life lon) as9eti9ism, not merel5 9onfinin) re9luseshi* to the e(enin) of one7s life. herefore,

SAMA$A.

DD2

SAMA$A

A A

)ames an' here also a 'etaile' list is su**lie'. %urther, a.stinen9es in9lu'e the use of lu0urious 9ou9hes, e0*ensi(e 9o(erlets, ru)s, 9ar*ets, et9., an' Su.$'a/ ,arunara-na

SAMA$A A A. Samanattata is one of the four San"ahavatthus /B'st. Skt. Saii"rahavastu5 mentione' in Bu''hist literature as re9ommen'e' .5 the Bu''ha for

SAMA$A

A A

DD<

SAMA$A

A A

But 6hat 'oes Samanattata si)nif5 as an arti9le of attra9tion in the Bu''ha7s tea9hin)sM In one of the 'is9ourses of the Ah"uttara 'i!aya /I". >DAB the Bu''ha refers to the hi)hest manifestation of these four arti9les. Gift of the Dhamma is the hi)hest )ift 1dana8@ tea9hin) the Dhamma re*eate'l5 to the )oo' an' attenti(e is the most *leasin) of 6or's 1peyya- va++a5P in9itin), instillin), esta.lishin) 9onfi'en9e in one 6ho la9ks 9onfi'en9e, 'is9i*line in the un'is9i*line', )enerosit5 in the miserl5 an' 6is'om in those 6ho la9ks in 6is'om, is the .est of useful a9ti(ities 1atthacariya5. But the .est of eHualit5 is the eHualit5 of one stream-6inner 6ith another stream- 6inner, that of one !n9e #eturner 6ith another, that of one $on-#eturner 6ith another an' of one Arahant 6ith another Arahant. his a**ears to .e an attem*t at su.limation an' )i(in) a s*iritual inter*retation to the four arti9les 6ith a mun'ane a**li9a.ilit5. Yet, it 'oes not *ro(i'e us 6ith the 9larifi9ation of the meanin) of the term samanattata.

househol'er, eHual in .irth, an' in the 9ase of a home- lea(er 1pabba++ita5 eHual in (irtue 1sila5- he shoul' .e a99or'e' su9h eHualit5 in treatment. 1AA. III. D48. So 6hat Bu''ha)hosa has taken as dhammas

SAMA$A

A A

DD>

SAMA$A

A A

his *hrase samana\su!hadu!!ha use' in Bu''ha)hosa7s e0*lanation of the term samanattata is also foun' use' in the Sin"alovada Sutta 1D. III. 23C8 use' to 'esi)nate one of the four t5*es of

)i(en. Mo'ern s9holars 6ho translate' the Pali te0ts into En)lish an' others 6ho ha(e 6ritten on the four Sah"aha-vatthus seem to ha(e misse' the real si)nifi9an9e of the

SAMA$E#A

DDA

SAMA$E#A

follo6in) it is al6a5s 'one on the .asis of these four arti9les.

to atten' on / upatthapetabbo5. He has a *re9e*tor or a s*iritual tea9her /upa++haya8 too. he 1acariya5 is onl5 the 'e*ut5 or su.stitute of the upa++haya. Althou)h the terms

SAMA$E#A

DD4 SAMA$$APHALA SU

#ahula to "enera.le Sari*utta to .e or'aine' as a samanera 10in. 2.3<8.

sainaneras. Also *ersons 6ith serious moral 'efe9ts /*atri9i'es, matri9i'es, mur'erers of arahants, *ersons )uilt5 of ra*in) 6omen et9.8 6ere also not re9ruite' as sainaneras 10in. 2. C>f8. It is *rohi.ite' to a'mit

SAMA$$APHALA SU

A DDD SAMA$$APHALA SU

that there is not e(il in killin), Makkhali Gosala tellin) the kin) that there is no 9ause for the moral *urit5 or im*urit5 of .ein)s, A?ita &esakam.ali e0*lainin) that there is no retri.ution for )oo' an' .a'

6hom the kin) ha' *ose' his Huestion. he (arious (ersions of this 'is9ourse 'o ho6e(er 'iffer in re)ar' to the *ositions assume' .5 these tea9hers>. In relation to the a99ount foun' in the Pali (ersion of

SAMA$ A&U A

DDC

SAMA$ A&U A

Des*ite these 'ifferen9es, the )eneral *i9ture to .e )aine' from an e0amination of these (arious *hiloso*hi9al *ro*ositions re9or'e' in the Samahnaphala Sutta remains the same, namel5 that at the time of

in the nei)h.orhoo' of A'am7s Peak *ro'u9e )ems su9h as ru.ies, sa**hires an' emeral's et9. herefore the an9ient a**ellation G#atna'(i*a7 is ?ustifia.le.

SAMA$ A&U A

DD3

SAMA$ A&U A

Samanta!uta- vannana /H.(.8 6as 9om*ose' .5 an El'er name' "e'eha-thera. It is of (er5 little im*ortan9e to a stu'ent of histor5 of reli)ions .e9ause it 'eals more 6ith

sent in 2A2B A.+. .5 the first Min) Em*eror Yun) Lo to the Bu''hist tem*le on the mountain of Sri Lanka.

SAMA$ A&UE""A$$A$A DD; SAMA$ APASADI&A

SAMA$ A&U A-"A$$T$A his is a *oem in Pali, the authorshi* of 6hi9h has .een attri.ute' to one "e'eha-thera. It 6as 9om*ose' in a99or'an9e 6ith a reHuest ma'e .5 #ahula- thera of the forest '6ellin) se9t / arahna-

<<

am!aya dutiya"amanani /((.44>-4;A8 Se9on' (isit to Lamka

SAMA$ APASADI&A DCB SAMA$ APASADI&A

hus the Samantapas$i!a is .5 no means an ori)inal e0e)esis, .ut a restatement of the materials a(aila.le to him in the Si halaattha!athas- for, in his o6n 6or's it is I 'avasaii"ahita 0annana - re-

trou.les in the 9ountr5 .6 As he has sai' so more than on9e i.e. at the en' of the %hi!!huni 0ibhah"a e0e)esis, at the en' of the $ahava""a e0e)esis, at the en' of the Cullava""a e0e)esis an' at the

SAMA$ APASADI&A DC2 SAMA$ APASADI&A

Ea5a6i9krama su))ests, IIf this information in these t6o sour9es is 9orre9t, there is no alternati(e inferen9e .ut to sa5 that Bu''ha)hosa 6orke' at se(eral

Bu''ha)hosa7s relian9e on the $ahapaccariya is o.ser(e' in the e0e)esis of the Para+i!a!anda of the 0inayapita!a foun' in the Samantapas$i!a too. But 6hen it 9omes to the Khandha!as /the

SAMA$ APASADI&A DC< SAMA$ APASADI&A

+oun9il, 'is*at9h of the nine Bu''hist missions to *ro*a)ate Bu''hism in the .or'er *ro(in9es, esta.lishment of Bu''hism in the islan' of Lanka .5 the hera Maha Mahin'a, .rin)in) of the Bo'hi

6hole ni!aya to .e a I bhana!aJ of that 'i!as.a an' one 9oul' .e9ome a bhana!a if he kno6s the *res9ri.e' *art of it. Mu9h more su9h information is foun' in the

S AMA HA-"IPASS A$ A DC> SAMA HA-"IPASSA$A

> A.P. Bu''ha'atta iterature /9om*lete

Pali

GHuiet7, Gone-*ointe'7 an' G9on9entrate' 7.1 As the Bu''ha em*hati9all5 e0*laine', those 6ho '6ell in se9lusion an' 'e(elo* samatha are in'ee' li(in) in a99or'an9e 6ith the Dhamma 1A. Ill,

SAMA HA-"IPASSA$A

DCA

SAMA HA-"IPASSA$A

re*resent t6o 'ifferent *aths lea'in) to t6o 'ifferent )oals. In fa9t, a99or'in) to the same *assa)e in the An"uttara 'i!aya samatha an' vipassana are .oth 9on'u9i(e to kno6le')e 1yi++abha"iya5. Another

In fa9t, 6hen one sur(e5s o99urren9es of the terms samatha an' vipassana in the 'is9ourses, 6hat is rather strikin) is that the5 sel'om o99ur alone, .ut most often

SAMMTI IHI

DC4

SAMMADI 2HI

+on9ernin) "IPASSA$A see also ABHI$$A, A$UPASSA$A, BHA"A$A, MEDI A I!$, I$SIGH , I$ #!SPE+ I!$, I$ UI I!$, SA IPA HA$A, SU&&HA"IPASSA&A.

realm or in hell /A. 2,DB8. Eust as all )ro6th ori)inatin) from a .itter see' 6ill .e of a .itter nature, the Bu''ha *ointe' out, so 6hate(er 'ee's, 6or's, thou)hts, intentions an' as*irations ori)inate from

SAMMADI IHI

DCD

SAMMADI 2HI

a99or'in) to 6hi9h 9uttin) off someone7s hea' shoul' not .e 9onsi'ere' Gkillin)7 , .ut shoul' .e re9kone' onl5 as an insertin) of a .la'e in the s*a9e .et6een 'ifferent material

In the 'is9ourse to the Kalamas has the Bu''ha ma'e a some6hat similar *oint, 9onten'in) that the 6holesome results of the .asi9 *remises of 6holesome ethi9al

SAMMADIT**//

DCC

SAMMADI EHI

Alon) the same lines, 'i(ision the of Culavedalla Sutta *la9es ri)ht (ie6 amon) the a))re)ate of 6is'om / $. 2,>B28. his is remarka.le, sin9e in this 6a5 the seHuen9e of the no.le

thou)hts into 6holesome an' un6holesome t5*es. his 'i(ision of thou)hts 6as un'ertaken .5 the Bu''ha as *art of his *re-a6akenin) 9ulti(ation of the min' an' *a(e'

SAMMADI 2HI

DC3

SAMMADI

HI

Sutta an' its 9ommentar5 in this 6a5 hi)hli)ht the e(olutionar5 *ro9ess takin) *la9e 6ithin the *ath fa9tor of ri)ht (ie6.

insi)ht into the four no.le troths. Eust as the foot*rints of all animals fit into the foot*rint of an ele*hant. So the four no.le truths ha(e a *ara'i)mati9 role in the tea9hin) of

SAMMADI

HI

DC;

SAMMAEI"A

A""ivaccha"otta Sutta the Bu''ha e0*laine' that he ha' *ut a6a5 G(ie6s7, ha(in) Gseen7 the im*ermanent nature of the fi(e a))re)ates3. he 6or' *la5 in these *assa)es on the (arious 'eri(ati(es

o**osite 'ire9tion, in the 'ire9tion of 'is*assion an' lettin) )o of 'esire an' atta9hment.

SAMMA?t"A

D3B

SAMMAEI"A

*leasures are to 'e*en' on the )enerosit5 an' )oo'6ill of their 'e(ote' la5 su**orters for their sustenan9e. he5 are not e0*e9te' to en)a)e in a)ri9ulture, tra'e,

an' their kith an' kin an' also to *erform their so9ial 'uties to man5 others aroun' them. But in tra'e the ri)ht li(in) lait5 shoul' a(oi' tra'e in fi(e thin)s /A.

SAMM!HA"I$!DA$I D32 SAMM!HA"I$!DA$I /, moha5.

A *erson thus li(in) an' ha(e a(oi'e' all shoul' then 9ulti(ate relationshi*s 6ith all

ri)hteousl5 e(il 6a5s 6holesome those 6ho

name Bu''ha)hosa, in the 9ase of the Sammohavinodani. It is note' that the *ream.le of the Sammohavinodani titters from the same foun' in the 9ommentaries 6here Bu''ha)hosa7s authorshi* is

SAMM!HA"I$!DA$I D3<

SAMPAEA$$A

an e0am*le to sho6 that one 9oul' es9a*e from the result of an un6holesome !amma as a result of .ein) .om .eautiful. / upadhisamapatti8.

SAMPAEA$$A an' the eHui(alent a'?e9ti(e sampa+ana re*resent the mental Hualit5 of G9lear 9om*rehension7. Su9h 9lear 9om*rehension has a *rominent role to fulfil in the 9onte0t of the

SAMPAEA$$A

D3>

SAMY!EA$A

an' 'e?e9tion in re)ar' to the 6orl' / vineyya lo!e abhi++hadomanassa5. he same *resen9e of 9om*rehension 'urin) min'fulness me'itation also un'erlies the e0*ression Ghe kno6s7

o 'e(elo* G9lear 9om*rehension7 9an .e taken to re*resent the 9on9e*tual in*ut nee'e' for takin) 9lear 9o)nisan9e of the o.ser(e' *henomena, .ase' on min'ful

SAMY!EA$A

D3A

SAMYU& AGAMA

e0isten9e / *rambha"iya sarnyo+anmi5 an' the last fi(e are 9alle' Gfetters that .in' .ein)s to the hi)her or su*erior realms of e0isten9e / uddhambha"iya

stream an' attain Enli)htenment in this e0isten9e itself or in a su.seHuent e0isten9e 1niyato sambodhiparayano -DA. 24D8.

SAMYU& TGAMA

D34

SAMYU& TGAMA

the In'ian monk Guna.ha'ra aroun' AAB A.+. !n the .asis of its 'o9trinal slant an' e(i'en9e from 0inaya sour9es, it is usuall5 attri.ute' to the $ulasarvastivada.

Both 9olle9tions are hi)hl5 stru9ture'. In S' the suttas are )rou*e' themati9all5 into 4D samyuttas- for e0am*le 'idanasamyutta 1suttas 'ealin) 6ith 9ausation8 an' Salayatana-samyutta

SAWU& AGAMA

D3D

SAMYU& AGAMA

earl5 time, fas9i9les 2< an' 2> 6ere a99i'entall5 inter9han)e', the seHuen9e 6as formerl5 22, 2>, 2<,

u* unshare' samyu!tas 'o ha(e Pali 9ounter*arts, .ut often in ni!ayas other than S'.

SAMYU& iGAMA

D3C SAMYU

A $I&AYA

SA also 'iffers from S' in the 6a5 9ertain samyuttas are 'istri.ute' amon) the fi(e share' var"as. Most nota.le is the %hi!su-samyu!ta. In 4C" this is in 'idana- va""a@ .ut in SA it is in Sa"atha-var"a- the more

SA is of )reat im*ortan9e for resear9h into earl5 Bu''hism /Yinshun 2;3>, intro, **. 2-CA8. +om*arin) SA 6ith S'- sutra .5 sutra re(eals o(erall a)reement .ut also some tellin) 'is9re*an9ies

SAMYU

A$I&AYA D33 SAMYU

A $I& 8-A

hera(a'a Bu''hist tra'ition. his 9olle9tion has also .een ke*t an' use' in the &ipita!as of other earl5 s9hools. he &sa-a-han / ;;8 of the +hinese &ipita!a is a translation of

!handhas- the Salayatana-va""a or the *art e0*lainin) the si0 sense fa9ulties 6ith their o.?e9ts, an' the $ahava""a or the Great Di(ision. hese fi(e 0a""as- a99or'in) to the Burmese tra'ition, 9onsist of fift5-

SAMYU

A $I&AYA D3;

SAMYU

A $I&AYA

a se*arate 9ha*ter 9alle' a Samyutta. Bu''ha)hosa 6rote his 9ommentar5 to the It must .e note' that in 9ertain Samyuttani!ayathe Samyuttas su9h as the $atu"ama Saratthappa!asini- he 9ommente' on samyutta /6omen8 an' the 'a"a the same suttas that 6e ha(e in the Samyutta /$a)as8, there are *assa)es 9urrent e'itions. herefore, the that ha(e no 'ire9t relationshi* to *ossi.ilit5 is that the tra'ition that

SAMYU

A $I&AYA D;B

SASf+HI

&hera"atha- &heri"atha- Suttanipata an' Dhammapada. he 9ontents of the Sa"atha\va""a 9onsists of mainl5 6ith sim*le ethi9al an' moral tea9hin)s 'ealin) 6ith the Bu''hist i'eal of life.

into the $a++hima ni!aya- the Cittasamyutta- for e0am*le, relates 'ifferent e(ents in the life of the househol'er +itta 6ho 6as a la5 follo6er of the Bu''ha for >B 5ears.

SA$+HI

D;2

SA$+HI

<. Stu*a in 6hi9h the reli9s of Sari*utta an' Mo))allana 6ere 'is9o(ere' /marke' $o. >8.

one time, the stu*a as 6ell as the railin)s 6ere 9oloure'. he 'iameter of the stu*a is 2<B feet 6hile the hei)ht is 4D feet. he 'estru9tion of this stu*a is attri.ute' to Pus5amitra

SA$+HI

D;<

SA$+HI

%i)ures of animals su9h as *ea9o9k, lion, horse, ele*hant, .ull, 9amel an' of se(eral t5*es of .ir's as 6ell as 'eli)htful floral 'esi)ns a'' to the 6ealth of the 'e9orations. he *resen9e of the )ra*e(ine amon) the

here is no marke' 'ifferen9e .et6een this an' the one *re(iousl5 'es9ri.e', either in si1e or in 9onstru9tion. his one ho6e(er has no )ate6a5. he .alustra'e is 6ell *reser(e' an' has numerous reliefs

SA$+HI

D;>

SA$+HI

it must Asoka *illar an' other that *illars, At San9hi there seems to ha(e .een a 9onsi'era.le num.er of *illars unlike at other Bu''hist sites. E(en at *resent there are no less than four *illars of (ar5in) im*ortan9e

ha(e .een a hi)hl5 im*osin) e'ifi9e. he tem*le seems to ha(e .een mo'elle' after the caitya 9a(es of A?anta an' &arli, for in the a*se, there is the in(aria.le stu*a. E09e*t for the foun'ations an' the si'e

SA$+HI

D;A SA$DHI$I#M!+A$AS+ #A

SA$DA&ADAPAHA$A M!!$S !$E SA$DHI$I#M!+A$A he

See SU #A.

Histor5 of San9hi, here is no mention in Bu''hist literature that Lor' Bu''ha e(er (isite' San9hi or its nei)h.orhoo', an' 9onseHuentl5, it is not kno6n 6hether the Bu''hists 9onsi'ere' it a reli)ious

SA$DHI$I#M!+A$AS! #A D;4 SA$DHI$I#M!+A$AS+ #A

6ork, an' the se9on' 9ha*ter I!n the As*e9ts of Su*reme ruthJ to)ether 6ith the ensuin) si0 9ha*ters 9onstitutes the main te0t of the sutra. hese se(en 9ha*ters or the main te0t ma5 .e 9lassifie' into

nature that is to esta.lish the three theories of naturelessness .ase' on the three self-natures of ima)ination, 'e*en'en9e an' 9om*lete *erfe9tion. he nature of ima)ination is .ase' on false names,

SANDHINIRMOCANASCTRA AEA SANGAHA1ATTHU( CATU

/38 he +ha*ter on the A9hie(ements of the atha)ata. It 'e*i9ts the *erfe9t merits of the Dharma!aya an' Sambho"a!aya of the atha)ata, so as to elu9i'ate the *erfe9t an' 9om*lete 'o9trine on the

hh"rel-pa- 6hi9h is Yiian-ta7 e7 s /Wen-tshe)8 commentary translate' into the i.etan lan)ua)e .5 +hos)ru. in C4 fas9i9les. he last fas9i9le of Yuan-ta7 e7s ori)inal 6ork in +hinese is missin) in the

SA$G AS A#A$A

D;C

SA$GAS A#A$A

in Bu''hist te0ts. In th I An"uttara 'i!aya the Bu''ha sa5s, ILi.eralit5 1dana5- *leasant an' truthful s*ee9h 1peyyavacca5 so9ial 6elfare 6ork / atthacariya5 an' im*artialit5 / samanattata5 are the four 6a5s of

he 'ate of 9om*ilation of the 6ork is not 'efinite. It ma5 .elon) to the *erio' .et6een 224B-2<4B A.+ .9

SA$G AS A#A$A

D;3

SA$GASA#A$A

he remainin) 9ha*ters of the Sah"asarana like6ise relate in .rief the (irtues of the monks mentione' in the hea'in) of ea9h stor5. Sometimes man5 stories are re(eale' to illustrate the same (irtue. hese

on foot an' sometimes the5 'i' not ha(e an5thin) to eat. #eferen9e has .een ma'e to *erio's of famine.

SA$GHA

D;;

SA$GHA

>

he Sinhala ,ranthavamsaya )i(es a list of sour9es as follo6s, Suttas su9h as $ahabrahmaQ alaCullahatthipadopama-

ruler. !ther6ise it ma5 also mean the )eneral assem.l5 of "a?? ian rulers 6ho *ro.a.l5 ha' the *rero)ati(e of remittin) a 'eath senten9e im*ose' .5 a ruler.

SA$GHA

CBB

SA$GHA

*resent 1ibid 22.2AC8. Anatha*in'ika use' the same 'e'i9ator5 formula 6hen he 'onate' his ne6l5 .uilt Eeta(ana monaster5 near Sa(atthi 1ibid. 2DA8. his 6as *ro.a.l5

*arents an' a .rother sufferin) as petas. At their o6n reHuest, he )ifte' a ra)- ro.e se6n .5 him, a leaf5 hut, an' a 9u* of 6ater, an' a *air of sli**ers to the !r'er of the four

SA$GHA

CB2

SAPf9HA

reasons for this a9tion of the Bu''ha. B5 the first he su))ests that his intention 6as to enhan9e the return .enefits to the 'onor .5 first offerin) it to the Bu''ha an' then a

!r'er, he starte' to 'e(ol(e *o6er to the *eri*her5. he *o6er of re9ruitment of ne6 mem.ers to the !r'er, a *rero)ati(e at first hel' .5 the Master, 6as first e0ten'e' to the

SA$GHA

CB<

SA$GHA

a9tions are ma'e .5 the San"ha 6ithin the .oun'ar5. Ho6e(er there are a minimum num.er of mem.ers s*e9ifie' for a full San"ha in ea9h of these formal a9ts. here are fi(e

Makin) the or'er unite' re?oi9es in hea(en for an aeon.

he

SA$GHA

CB>

SA$GHA

Paiimo!!iia shoul' not .e re9ite' in an assem.l5 6here a s9hismati9 is *resent 1ibid.AED5 an' in(itation / pavarana5 shoul' not .e *erforme' 6ith a s9hismati9 in the assem.l5

to in the 'is9ourses 6hen he sai', no t6o of them 9an hol' 'ifferent (ie6s on the thirt5 se(en fa9tors of the Dhamma 6hi9h he enun9iate' as ha(in) reali1e' .5 him throu)h

SA$GHA

CBA

SA$GHA&AMMA

are sai' to 'o it in emulatin) the life of Arahants 6ho are full5 eman9i*ate' .5 follo6in) the Path, /s.P./posatha5. It is use' as a su.?e9t in'u9in) s*iritual )ro6th. Ho6e(er

un*leasant 'reams@ ma5 the5 all 9ome to nau)ht .5 the *o6er of the Sah"ha;7. hus the Ariya Sah"halike the Bu''ha an' the Dhammahas .een 9on(erte' into a (irtual

SA$GHA&AMMA

CB4

SA$GHA&AMMA

he 9olle9ti(e authorit5 6as 9on9ei(e' as inherent in the 6hole Sah"ha- in the 9or*orati(e .o'5 in its entiret5 an' not 9a*a.le of .ein) 'ele)ate' to or re*resente' .5 a

ne(er )i(en@ in fa9t, the %oun'er e0*ressl5 refuse' to )i(e su9h 'ire9tions. But he 9ertainl5 ma'e su))estions for a ne6 orientation in the !r'er on t6o o99asions, 6hi9h

SA$GHA&AMMA

CBD

SA$GHA&AMMA

In the first *la9e@ the i'ea of *ersonal hea'shi* 6as a.an'one' .5 the !r'er after the %oun'er7s 'e9ease@ in the se9on' *la9e, the Gassem.l5 s5stem7, re9ommen'e' .5

inten'e' for the rain-retreat, .e9ame resi'ential 9on)re)ations2<. When it 'i', ho6e(er, the G Sah"ha of the %our Suarters7 no lon)er remaine' a realit5, .ut .e9ame onl5 an i'eal

SA$GHA&AMMA

CBC

SA$GHA&AMMA

*resu**ose'. %irst, su9h meetin)s of Bhikkhus 6ere re)ulari1e', the5 .e9ame Gassem.liesL an' their *ro9ee'in)s 6ere in(este' 6ith a formal an' 9onstitutional 9hara9ter.

/ii8 !ther a9ts, in(ol(in) a 'is*ute, 6here 9onsensus 9oul' not .e *resume'. Un'er this 9ate)or5 6oul' 9ome /a8 all matters of 'is9i*line arisin) out of .rea9hes of

SA$GHA&AMMA

CB3

SA$GHA&AMMA

*ut .efore the 6hole assem.l5, ILet matter is 'e9i'e' .5 a (ali' a9t, it 6hen the this /the matter 'efine'8 .e 'oneJ. .e9omes res +udicata an' the hen 9omes its formal reo*enin) of it 6oul' amount to a announ9ement an' *ro9lamation to Pacittiya offen9e /$o. D>8.<2 the assem.l5. he in(ersion of this or'er 6oul' in(ali'ate the

SA$GHA&AMMA

CB;

SA$GHA&AMMA

Patimo!!ha +o'e<>. Its *ur*ose 6as to *re(ent, as e0*laine' in the Sama"ama Sutta /of the $a++hima 'i!aya5- 'isru*ti(e ten'en9ies in the Sah"ha.

/iii8

Apattadhi!aranaDis*ites re)ar'in) s*e9ifie' kin's of offen9es alle)e' a)ainst a monk. his 6oul' lea' to the a'o*tion of 'is9i*linar5 *ro9ee'in)s.

SA teHA&AMMA

C2B

SA$GHA&AMMA

*ro9e'ure 6oul' .e a'o*te' in that 9ase, 6ith in(esti)ation an' interro)atories *re9e'in) the 'atti an' )o(ernin) the form of the 'atti. he 9ase of /vSta /'es9ri.e' in Cullava""a'-II8 is a )oo' illustration in *oint. he

he theor5 re9ei(es no 'ou.t a measure of su**ort from the I "a??i in9i'entJ re*orte' in the $aliaparinibbana Suttanta- Huote' earlier, an' the Bu''ha7s

SA$GHA&AMMA

C22

SA$GHA&AMMA

S.Dutt.

#eferen9es

e.). $ahaPSa""a 2,<4,< IManussa /*eo*le8 sa5 this, that the Sa!yaputtiya Samanas 'o su9h an' su9h thin)s.J
<.

SA$GHA&AMMA

C2<

SA$GHAMI

2A.

See ibid.- **.;<-;>.

not *ossess the upasampada not .e )i(en the hi)her or'ination@ if he alrea'5 has upasampada he shoul' .e e0*elle' /from the or'er8.

SA$GHAMI

C2>

SA$GHAMI

W.G. Weeraratne

information it 9oul' .e assume' that the .irth of San)hamitta has taken *la9e <BD 5ears after the parinibbma of the Bu''ha.

SA$GHAMI

C2A

SA$GHAMI

A Sinhala literar5 6ork the Pu+avaliya of the 2>I7 9entur5 in the 9onte0t of Mahin'a hera7s arri(al in Lanka sa5s the )rou* that a99om*anie' the hera in9lu'e' San)hamitta7s son samanera Sumana

the kin) Asoka, after he .e9ame a Bu''hist *atroni1e' Bu''hism in an un*re9e'ente' le(el. He 9onstru9te' <A,BBB viharas throu)hout his em*ire an' *ro(i'e' alms for DB,BBB monks 'ail5. After6ar's he

SA$GHAMI

C24

SA$GHAMI

De(anam*i5atissa7s 5oun)er .rother Mahana)a7s 6ife Anula alon) 6ith 4BB 6omen 6ante' to enter the or'er, 6hi9h the kin) intimate' to Mahin'a hera. he hera7s re*l5 6as I!hR &in) 6e are not *ermitte'

a)ree 6ith his 'au)hter7s /San)hamitta heri7s8 reHuest for the *ermission to *ro9ee' to Lanka. he em*eror is su**ose' to ha(e e0*laine' that his son Mahin'a hera, )ran'son no(i9e Sumana 6ho

SA$GHAMI

C2D

SA$GHAMI

here is a thir' list of bhi!hunis in the 9ha*ter :"III of the Dipavamsa (erses 22-2<. he list 6hi9h runs as San)hamitta, Uttara, Hema, Pasa'a*ala, A))imitta, Dasika, Phe))u, Pa..ata, Matta, Malla,

tra'es su9h as 6ea(ers, 9ar*enters, .la9ksmiths, *otters, tailors, 9ooks, florists, ?e6elers, musi9ians et9. hou)h 'is9re*an9ies are seen in the lists *ro(i'e' in the $ahavamsa- the Samantapasadi!athe $aha

SA$GHAMI

C2C

SA$GHAMI

*re9e*ts e0*e9tin) San)hamitta heri7s arri(al, *rior to their or'ination8. he $ahavamsa /9h. :I: (erse :; f8 'es9ri.es ho6 the heri 9ause' to 9re9t t6el(e .uil'in)s / in the *remises out of

'i', *erha*s to a(oi' the immnent o.?e9tion from the mother for her 'e*arture to Lanka.

SA$GHAMI

C23

SA$GHAMI

a'mitte' to the *riesthoo' an' sainthoo' *erha*s, for the first time, outsi'e Eam.u'i*a. Womenfolk of Lanka 6ere .esto6e' 6ith su9h a .lessin) in9re'i.le to .elie(e in the 9onte0t of the remote *erio' of human 9i(ili1ation, 'ue to

1]e!unasatthivassa5 6hi9h in'i9ates the 5ears she li(e' after her upasampada. When <B 5ears, her a)e at the time of re9ei(in) upasampada is a''e' to the num.er of rain5 seasons she s*ent after

SA$GHAMI

C2;

SA$GHAMI

as ille)al 9hil'ren of Asoka, ha(in) re?e9te' the Asoka7s marria)e to "i'isa'e(i foun' in the Pali te0ts. "in9ent

<

!l'en.er) an' "in9ent Smith / Dipavamsa - An Ancient Historical )ecordLon'on 23C; an' Aso!a the %uddhist Emperor

SA$GHA#A&&HI A C<B

SA$GI I

SA$GHA#A&&HI A. Sari)harakkhita Mahasami /9ir9a 22D4-2<4D A.+.8 6as a *u*il of "en. Sari*utta, the first San)hara?a an' an author 6ho 9ontri.ute' to the literar5 an' reli)ious re(i(al of the Polonnaru6a

Khuddasi!!ha &i!a re(eals that San)harakkhita Mahasami ha' a *u*il name' U'um.ara)iri Me'hankara. Bi.lio)ra*h5,

SA$Gi I

C<2

SA$GI I

*ointin) out to them the Hualifi9ations of a )oo' reli)ious tea9her, his o6n Hualifi9ations, an' the e09ellent Hualities of the Dhamma. hen he )oes on to a'monish them, I6herefore, +un'a,

1aviruddha-vacanehi5. here shoul' .e no 'is*utin) or Huarrelin) re)ar'in) either letter or s*irit 1atthe va vyan+ane vana viv$o !atabbo DA. III. 2;CA8. In the 9onte0t of the Pasadi!a Sutta- he 9omments on the

SA$GI I

C<<

SA$GI I

he *resentl5 *o*ular term San"ayana is not foun' use' as a su.stanti(e in 9anoni9al or *ost9anoni9al Pali 6orks. It is al6a5s foun' use' as a (er.al form in these Pali 6orks, e.). Maha &as5a*a, after

of this &anishkan +oun9il, the northern sour9es are silent on the thir' 9oun9il re9or'e' in the Pali 9hroni9les.

SA$Gi I

C<>

SA$Gi I

ma5 .e so .e9ause most of these Pali te0ts 'i' not a**ear in this *resent form all at the same time. he5 must ha(e un'er)one man5 e'itions .efore the final te0ts 6ere fi0e'. !l'en.ur) also refers to the

minor omissions an' 9ommissions 6hile he 6as 5et a trainee 1se!ha5. He )a(e an e0*lanation for ea9h of these alle)e' offen9es, .ut 6ithout *lea'in) inno9ent, he, out of res*e9t for the assem.l5 of el'ers, 9onfesse'

SA$GI I

C<A

SA$GI I

'e9i'e' to .e a)ainst the 0inaya rules .5 a 9ommittee of ei)ht, 6ith four ea9h to re*resent the eastern an' 6estern /*a(e55aka8 monks. he 0inaya a99ount en's 6ith this 'e9ision an' 'oes not mention an5

)ether ei)hteen s9hools in the se9on' 9entur5 1Dpv. 4.4>@ $hv. 4.2B-228. Some other 'issentient s9hools, in9lu'in) t6o in Sri Lanka arose su.seHuentl5 1$hv. ibid. 222>@ Dpv. ibid. 4A8. hese t6o

SA$GI I

C<4

SA$GI I

use' ma5 im*l5 it. he 9ommentator Bu''ha)hosa e0*li9itl5 states that the Dhamma an' the 0inaya 6ere rehearse' / saii"ayimsu8 .5 these one thousan' arahants. In 'oin) so, he sa5s, all im*urities in the tea9hin)s

soil 6ere meant to rea9h a 9onsensus amon) the mem.ers of the or'er either on the te0ts of the 9anon an' or their 9ommentaries, or else on solutions rea9he' re)ar'in) 9ertain 'is*ute' *oints on the 'o9trines or

SA$GI I

C<D

SA$GI I

/<;-2C B.+.8. Ho6e(er .oth the Dipavamsa /<<.<B- <28 an' the $ahavamsa />>.2BB-2B28 in t6o i'enti9al (erses, )i(e the .riefest *ossi.le a99ount of this )atherin) of monks meant for the 6ritin) 'o6n

the *ro(in9es of the kin)'om. %irst he 'ealt 6ith the task of *urif5in) the Maha(ihara San)ha. S*eakin) a.out this the $ahavamsa states, I He ha' the sin)le *oints in 'is*ute as the5 arose settle' .5 the .hikkhus

SA$Gi I

C<C

SA$Gi I

re9itation an' the re9or'in) on mar.le sla.s 9ontinue' for fi(e months. Alto)ether se(en hun're' an' t6ent5 nine sla.s 6ere use' for the *ur*ose. %rom the a(aila.le information this a**ears to .e a )enuine saii"iti in the true sense of

9ele.ration, the kin) 9on'u9te' a )reat festi(al of honour .5 makin) fort5 )reat El'ers (erse' in the three pita!as hea'e' .5 the 9hief *relate of the Maha.o'harama to re9ite the te0ts of the 9anon / 2ina!. *. 2248.

S A$ E AYABELL A 2HIPU

A C<3

SA$EAYABELLA

fflPm A

; . e'. Ba*at, P.". Go(ernment of

37BB Hears of %uddhism- Pu.li9ations Di(ision, Ministr5 of Information an' Broa'9astin). In'ia, 2;4C,

. *. tr. AAff. Beal, Samuel, Chinese Accounts of (ndia- Susil Gu*ta /In'ia8 Lt', +al9utta, 2;43 "ol. >, *. >C;.

(. #ahula, Wal*ola. History of %uddhism in Ceylon- he Bu''hist +ultural +entre, Dehi6ala, Sri Lanka, 2;;> *. 4>f.

2B.

A'ikaram , E.W., Early History of %uddhism in Ceylon- Bu''hist +ultural +entre, Dehi6ala, Sri Lanka, 2;;A, *. C;

Both the Pali an' the Bu''hist Sanskrit tra'itions a)ree that the t6o future Bu''hist El'ers, after their 9on(ersion to Bu''hism, in(ite' their tea9her Saii?a5a or

SA$EAYABELLAI2HIPU2 A C<; SAE"EAYABELLA 2HIPU

6hen one 'a5 he (isite' San?a5a Bellatthi*utta an' inHuire' from him a.out imme'iate /in this (er5 life8 a'(anta)es of re9luseshi* /sanditthi!am samann aphalam56ithout )i(in) a strai)ht ans6er he

'o not sa5 no, I 'en5 the 'enialsJ /i.e. 'oes not sa5 Gno, no78. All this stems from the fa9t that the5 'o not un'erstan' it, as it reall5 is 6hat is )oo' or e(il. hus .ein) su9h, the5
I

SA$EAYABELLA ttDPU

A C>B SA$EAYABELLA 2HIPU

lR is the fourth s9hool of s9e*ti9s that is 'es9ri.e' in i'enti9al lan)ua)e use' in 'es9ri.in) the (ie6s of Safi?a5,, Bellatthi*utta. herefore he 9oul' ha(e .een either a lea'er of the s9hool or e(en the

ha(e re)ar'e' him as .ein) more 'elu'e' than the other s9e*ti9s 6ho, 'es*ite their theoreti9al sk9e*ti9ism, ha' )oo' sense to 9ulti(ate the tranHuilit5 of min' 6hi9h 6as hi)hl5 (alue' in Bu''hism as 6ell.

SA$&HA - PADMA

C>2

SA$&HA - PADMA

SA$&HA A$D PADMA, here are se(eral )uar'stones amon) the numerous ar9haeolo)i9al remains of Sri Lanka, *arti9ularl5 at Anura'ha*ura 6hi9h re*resent )o'lin)s or bhutas. 6o su9h

In *o*ular reli)ion of Sinhala *eo*le. Pa'ma an' Sahkha *la5 no *art. heir master &u(era is in(oke' in ma)i9al 9eremonies un'er the name of &in) "esamuni /Sk.

S A$&HA - PADMA

C><

SA$&HA#A

the outer *ortal of A.ha5a)iri stu*a at Anura'ha*ura. he5 are *o*ularl5 9alle' bahiravas. Peo*le of Anura'ha*ura an' its en(irons are in the ha.it of *a5in) homa)e to them, .5 a**l5in) lime on these ima)es in

SA$&HA#A 9an .e 'eri(e' from the noun !ara /Skt. !r5 an' the *refi0 sam- so that the literal sense of san!hara is Lto)ether makin)7. his literal sense of a Gto)ether makin)7 o99urs for e0am*le in the

SA$&HA#A

C>>

SA$&HA#A

'e*en'ent on 9onta9t, ?ust as the a))re)ates of feel in) an' *er9e*tion /M. Ill, 2C8. In the 9ase of feelin) su9h 9onta9t is relate' to the sense-'oors. 6hile the

he Sampasadaniya Sutta re*orts ho6 someone 6ith tele*athi9 *o6ers is a.le to re9o)ni1e the o*eration of the san!haras in another7s min' /`]. Ill, 2BA8. A99or'in) to this *assa)e,

SA$&HA#A

C>A

SA$&HA#A

ma'e to)ether7 ma5 ha(e the 9hoi9e e0er9ise of (olition an' mental of the sari!hara a))re)ate as a as*iration /9f. A. I, ><8. hat is, in the 9onte0t of 'e*en'ent ori)ination hea'in) for those mental fa9tors. the sari!haras are the 9reati(e *rin9i*le of human e0isten9e. his

SA$&HA#A

C>4

SA$&HA#A

A99or'in) to the Saii"iti Sutta- su9h an as*iration for a fa(oura.le re.irth 9an also .e9ome effe9ti(e if it is .ase' on the meritorious 'ee' of )i(in) to re9luses an' .rahmins / D.

has .een era'i9ate' these three t5*es of sah!hai-as are also a.an'one'.

SA$&HA#A

C>D

SA$&HA#A

9ulminates 6ith the 'estru9tion of the taints, at 6hi9h *oint /the sari!haras of8 hate, )ree' an' 'elusion also 9ease.

S*eakin) of $ara- out of the 'ifferent t5*es of $ara 'istin)uishe' in the 9ommentarial literature, one is similarl5 relate' to sari!haras. his is the

SA$&HA#A

C>C

SA$$A

he e0*ression mental attainments.

Gim*ertur.a.le7 in the 'is9ourses usuall5 refers to the e0*erien9es of the fourth +hana an' the immaterial

attention to the fa9t that the s*len'our an' immense 6ealth *ossesse' .5 himself in a former life as a kin) ha' all 9han)e' an' *asse' a6a5. he 6or' use' .5 him in this 9onte0t to refer to the former

forms a 'e9isi(e sta)e in the SA$$A. Sannais one of .uil' the u* of me'itati(e insi)ht lea'in) u* *rin9i*al terms use' in Bu''hism to to the to e(ent a6akenin) 10ism. refer a of *arti9ular mo'e of D4;8. 9o)niti(e a9ti(it5. he term is 'eri(e' from the (er.al root +na /to

SA$$A

C>3

SA$$A

*re9e'e' .5 vedana /sensation8 an' follo6e' .5 vita!!a /ratio9ination8<. In the hera(a'a Abhidhamma anal5sis of the 'ifferent t5*es of min' in terms of their 6holesomeness, un6holesomseness

o.?e9t in terms of its 'istin9tion in terms of .lue et9. 1n/adhibedam arammanam san+anatitisanna57. he 9ommentator has also retaine' the meanin) that sarin a in(ol(es

SA$$A

C>;

SA$$A

itself, .lit it is G*er9ei(e' as7 'e*en'in) on 9ertain 9ontin)ent 9on'itions. Su9h 9on'itions ma5 in9lu'e the interests of the *er9ei(er in his mo(ement to6ar's a

Sanna also seems to ha(e .een (ie6e' as a 6a5 of seein) the o.?e9ts of the 6orl' from a *ers*e9ti(e that 6oul' *ra9ti9all5 ai' the *erson 6ho intera9ts 6ith the

SA$$A

CAB

SA$$A

1si!!ha5 as the 9ausal e0*lanation for the 9essation of one *arti9ular saiina an' the arisin) of another 1si!!ha e!a saniia uppa++ati si!!ha e!a sanna niru++hati5.

of the *erson in su9h a 6a5 that min'fulness an' eHuanimit5 .e9ome the most *rominent features of the min' in the fourth le(el of +hanic a.sor*tion.

SA$$A

CA2

SA$$A

'ra6n .5 the *ersons 9on9erne' 9annot .e mutuall5 9om*ati.le. he im*li9ation of this referen9e is that neither of these 9onstru9tions 9an .e 9onsi'ere' as re(ealin) the a.solute

one feels one percePves1san+anati5-- 6hat one *er9ei(es, one reasons a.out@ 6hat one reasons a.out, one turns into #papanca.

SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA CA< SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA

#eferen9es

$a++himani!aya 1P&S5 "ol. I, *. 4>


A. 3.

(bid. *. 2B3

means in 6hi9h 9ase the 9ontem*lator after risin) from it 'estro5s 9ankers 1asava!!haya5 or a9hie(es the hi)hest fruition / arahattaphala5 .5 seein) throu)h his 6is'om an' as a )oal in 6hi9h

SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA CA> SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA

a**earan9e is similar to that of a 'ea' *erson. A stor5 in the $a++hima 'i!aya 1$. I. >>>-A8 illustrates this,

*er9e*tion of nothin)ness@ 6ith the ninth, that is, 6ith the 9essation, .oth the *er9e*tion an' the feelin) 1sahhavedayitanirodham samapannassa sanna ca vedana ca

SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA CAA SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA

he fa9tor of *er9e*tion is also a 9om*le0it5. All form an' formless attainments, elements an' 'eli(eran9es e09e*t the 9essation 9onsist of *er9e*tion. Per9e*tion is an essential element throu)hout the

enters u*on the s*here of the infinit5 of 9ons9iousness 1vinnanaficayatana5 an' emer)es from it an' in the same 6a5 he (ie6s the a9ti(ities there. Like6ise ha(in) entere' u*on the s*here of

SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA CA4 SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA

Who 9oul' attain the 9essationM In .rief, the attainment of 9essation is onl5 *ossi.le for those 6ho ha(e a9hie(e' .oth the *o6er of serenit5 /samatha8 an' the *o6er of insi)ht

it... An' this attainment is not 6ithin the rea9h of those other than non-retumers an' arahat-s 6ho ha(e rea9he' the ei)ht attainments@ it is the5, not others, 6ho enter u*on it.

SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA CAD SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA

par!!him honti as a *lu*erfe9t, 6e mi)ht inter*ret the sto9k *assa)e to mean, 6hen the *erson attaine' the 9essation, he ha' alrea'5 'estro5e' the mental 9orru*tions an' no6 his

to the normalit5, he is a)ain 6ithin the realm of sensual *leasure. Ho6e(er, as state' in the 9essation sto9k *assa)e, 6hen a *erson e0*erien9es the 9essation an' also

SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA CAC SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA

nasahhayatanassa pi pahanam vadami. Passasi no tvam /dayitam samayo+anam anum va thulam va yassaham no pahanam vadamiti. 'o hetam bhante ti5. his 9larifies t6o

he sto9k *assa)e 6hi9h has 9lear- referen9e to the 9essation 6ell as to Ithe e0tin9tion of 9ankersJ is freHuentl5 em*lo5e' in Pali 9anoni9al te0ts to 'es9ri.e an

SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA CA3 SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA

no6 .5 attainin) the 9essation, that is, the hi)hest form of 9on9entration-free'om.

In the An"utara 'i!aya 1A- I", A4<->8 a 9lassifi9ation of nine t5*es of 6is'om-li.erate' *ersons is foun'. here the ninth t5*e of the 6is'om- li.erate' 6ho is an arahat

SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA CA; SA$$A"EDAYI A$I#!DHA

6orl' an' 6ill a9hie(e 9om*lete nibbana 1parinibbana5 in that 6orl' 6ithout e(er returnin) to the sensual- relam. It seems then, the 9essation is the hi)hest form of free'om-e0*erien9e that non-

patvasu!ham viharissamati samapa++anti5. If the 9essation 6ere to .e a9hie(e' .5 eliminatin) all sorts of feelin), ho6 9oul' it .e re9o)ni1e' as the hi)hest ha**inessM his is a Huestion 'is9usse' e(en in

SAIsS-PAB&ABB#GYUD-PA C4B SA$>-PA B&AH-B#GYUD-PA

manner of *assin) a6a5 im*lies e(en the 9essation must .e )i(en u* *rior to the attainment of 9om*lete nibbana 1parinibbana8 .e9ause 9essation is a 9on'itione' state in 6hi9h one 9oul' .e in the

means the transmission of tea9hin)s. As this se9t 6as first foun'e' at Saris-*a at, it 6as thus 9alle' the Saris-*a .kah-.r)u5u'-*a se9t.

SA$S-PA B&AH-B#GYUD-PA C42

SAI$S-PA B&AH-B#GYUD-PA

Gsin-r?e )se' from Sastri B'e-.ahi /a99or'in) to %lue Annals- or #mo) #mo)-9o)-*a r'o-r?e an' the Dharma of Lha-mo I9o)s- *o a99*r'om) t* &huhu from #ol-*ahi r'o-r?e. After ha(in) b!?an5- an' Shan-s)om +hos-sen. stu'ie' man5 other tea9hin)s from Amon) them #mo) 9o)-*a 6as the A'(a5a(a?ra an' some other unitar5 su99essor to the tea9hin)s of tea9hers, he returne' to i.et. It

SAE"S-PA B&ABB#GYUD-PA

C4< SA$S-PA B&ABB#GYUD-PA

After finishin) his tea9herLs funeral o.seHuies, #mo) 9o)-*a li(e' in se9lusion to *ra9ti9e the dharma for t6o 5ears at S'ins-ma an' o.taine' man5 reali1ations.

learne' the dharma of M)on -*o *h5a) 'ru)-*a from Mus-9hen Bammkhahi rnal-h.5or-*aof the su. se9t of H?a). herefore, the tea9hin)s of the Sans-*a .kah-.r)5u'-*a se9t

SA$ HAGA#A

C4>

SA$ HAGA#A

9lear li)ht /Ho'-)sal8. his is of eHual im*ortan9e 6ith the Great S5m.ol of D6a)s-*o .kah-.r)5u'*a. A)ain, in his %la m"on dbyermed- he sai', it is like 9uttin) a tree. If 5ou 9ut off its root, then

instan9es 6here the 6or' has .een use'. In the Ambattha sutta- the .rahamin 5oun)ster tells the Bu''ha that on9e he 6ent to the 9oun9il hall /Santha)ara8of &a*ila(atthu on an erran' of the .rahamin

SA$ IDE"A

C4A

SA$ IDE"A

of this 9lass. Similar in ar9hite9tural 'esi)n, .ut of lar)er si1e is the ruin *o*ularl5 9alle' Bho?anasala(a at Mihintale. his .uil'in) is D< feet sHuare on *lan. IIt ha' a lo6 hea(5 re(etment /a *lain sin)le .lo9k

he Si!sasamuccaya on the other han' la9ks ori)inalit5 an', as its title su))ests, is a 9om*en'ium of 'o9trinal matters in su**ort of 6hi9h he 9o*iousl5 Huotes *ortions

SA$ U IHI

C44

SA$ U IHI

Ea5a'e(a 6ho ha' su99ee'e' Dharma*ala as upadhyaya of $alan'a an' took the name Santi'e(a.

to*i9 of the Santutthi Sutta 1A. II, <D8, the G'is9ourse on 9ontentment7, in 6hi9h the Bu''ha *raise' the .lamelessness an' eas5 )ain of ra) ro.es, .e))e' alms foo', the root of a tree for lo')in) an' 9o67s urine as

SA$ irran

C4D

SA$ U IHI

he Bu''ha7s em*hasis on the 'e(elo*ment of 9ontentment 'i' not al6a5s meet 6ith the a**ro(al of his 'is9i*les. he %haddali Sutta an' the K(ta"iri Sutta re*ort monks refusin)

SAP APA$$IGUHA

C4C SA#A$A$&A#A, "ALI"I IYE

SAP APA$$IGUHA, a 9a(e in #a?a)aha, lo9ate' on the slo*e of Mt. "e.hara. When the Bu''ha so?ourne' at Sa*ta*anni)uha, he is sai' to ha(e offere' Anan'a the o**ortunit5 of reHuestin) him to li(e

It is from this sor'i' 9on'ition that Saranankara 6as a.le to res9ue the sasana as 6ell as the entire 9ulture to somethin) reminis9ent of its former )lor5 .5 the mi' 23th 9entur5. His a9hie(ements 6ere so

SA#A$A$&A#A, "ALI"I IYE C43 SA#A$A$&A#A, "ALI"I IYE

Sitinamalu(e 6ho later .e9ame one of the luminaries of learnin) in the Lo6 +ountr5. %rom the numerous 6orks he 6rote soon after, it is 9lear that he ha' mastere' Pali, Sinhala as

him the kin) ha' to in(ite Saranamkara .e9ause none of the "aninnanses 6as a.le to talk in Sanskrit. Saranamkara took this o**ortunit5 to *rea9h to the

SA#A$A$&A#A, "ALI"I IYE C4; SA#A$A$&A#A, "ALI"I IYE

this time .5 the efforts of Saranamkara an' su**lemente' .5 his line of *u*ils. With all these a9ti(ities, he .e9ame the sole authorit5 of reli)ious affairs that .5 2C>< he 6as a.le to issue the

Sri "i?a5a #a?asimha, as e0*e9te', 6as (er5 su**orti(e of Saranamkara. He 9onferre' the title of )a+a"uru . on him, an' on his reHuest, restore' the *ro*erties of the Suri5a)o'a

SA#A$A$&A#A, "ALI"I IYE CDB SA#A$A$&A#A, "ALI"I IYE

or'ination intro'u9e' on earlier o99asions faile' 'ue to the ha*ha1ar' manner in 6hi9h it 6as hel' this time, Saranamkara ha' e'u9ate' an' traine' the re9i*ients

this 'o9ument 9learl5 sho6 that the5 6ere .5 Saranamkara.

SARANAN,ARA( 1ALI1ITIYE BA9

SARASANGAHA

P.B. Mee)askum.ura.

of a'monition to his *u*ils su9h as the San"hara+anusasanava an' the letter to "ehalle Dhamma'inna hera, he stresses that the5 shoul' kee* to the an9ient tra'itions of

SA#A

HADIPA$I

CD<

SA#A

HADiPA$I

num.er of other 6orks to his 9re'it. It is 9lear that Parakrama.ahu 1a++hesito narindena he has .een a monk of hi)h so.ham Para!!atnabahuna5- 6hile sta5in) in the ma)nifi9ent mansion eru'ition. *ut u* .5 the kin) himself. In a''ition, "en. Sari*utta, in his

SA#A

HADIPA$I

CD> SA#A

HAMA$EUSA

to the stu'ents of histor5, .ut also to those intereste' in Pali Literature. !ften he has 9ite' Slhala Attha!athas su9h as $aha Attha!atha- the $ahapaccari- an' the Kurundi Attha!athas 6hi9h

#eferen9es
A Poranehi !atamyantu linatthassa pa!asana

na tan sabbattha bhi!!hunarp

SA#A

HAMA$EUSA CDA

SA#A

HAPPA&ASIM

In his *refa9e to the Saratthainah+usaKen. Sari*utta states that he 9om*ose' it in 9om*lian9e 6ith an in(itation ma'e .5 &in) Parakrama.ahu.

Saratthamah+usa is 5et to .e e'ite' an' *u.lishe' .5 the P&S. It is sai' that it is e'ite' an' *u.lishe' in Burma /M5anmar8 an' Siam / hailan'8 in their res*e9ti(e

SA#A

HAPPA&ASI$I CD4 SA#A

HAPPA&ASI$i

9onsulte' in un'erstan'in) the te0t, 1Sanryiittani!aya 8 has fift5 nine %hanavaras. Un'er the 9ir9umstan9es, he sa5s the num.er of %hanavaras in the 9ommentar5 shoul' .e taken as one hun're' an'

SA#A

HASAMU++AYA CDD

SA#IPU #A

SA#A HASAMU++AYA, is the name )i(en for the 9ommentar5 6ritten for Catubhanavara 1Catubhanavara p$i5- a 9olle9tion of Suttas meant for 9hantin) of Paritta / Paritta desana5. It is also kno6n as

9om*ilation from 6here the Suttas ha(e .een 'ra6n, the author of Saratthasamuccaya ha' no 'iffi9ult5 in 9om*ilin) his 9ommentar5. He has 'ra6n materials from ori)inal 9ommentaries an' there is no

SARIPUTRA

767

SARIPUTRA (i

'e*th8, upamana /inters*a9e measurements8 an' lambamma /*lum.-line measurements8. $onetheless, 6ith the 'e9line of Sanskrit e'u9ation in Sri Lanka after the Polonnaru6a Perio', the artists7

hree e'itions of this 6ork ha(e so far a**eare'. he first *u.lishe' in 2;<A .5 M. Siri(imala hera is, as the e'itor himself 9onfesses, the re*ro'u9tion of a sin)le manus9ri*t

SA#IPU

A /28

CD3

SA#IPU

A /28

en'o6ement later Pali 6orks the El'er7s mother is 9alle' #u*asari 1.DhA. II. 3A8. In one *la9e in Pali literature Sari*utta himself tells Punna Mantani*utta that his *ersonal name is U*atissa

/ vadibho"a 8 the (illa)e $ala'a)ramaka, 6here he li(e'. Later he, in turn, 6as 'efeate' in 'e.ate .5 another .rahamin tea9her from the Dak,sina*atha, name'

SA#IPU

A /28

CD;

SA#IPU

A /28

the5, 6ith fi(e hun're' others, 6ere or'aine' 'is9i*les of the tea9her San?a5a, the 6an'erin) as9eti9 /paribba+a!a 8.

Huerie' a.out his tea9hers. Assa?i 6as mo'est enou)h to a'mit that he 6as ne6l5 or'aine' an' that his kno6le')e is mea)re. Ho6e(er, he 9oul', if the interro)ator 6as 6illin), )i(e the )ist of the Bu''ha7s

SA#IPU

A /28

CCB

SA#IPU

A /28

his ma5 ha(e .een a later 'e(elo*ment an' a *ossi.le influen9e of this is seen in the Pali 9ommentaries as 6ell. +om*letel5 i)norin) the 0inaya a99ount of the 9on(ersion of Sari*utta after

.5 the Bu''ha to a 6an'erin) as9eti9 name' DI)hanakha. his ha**ene' in the 9a(e 9alle' Sukarakhata on the Gi??hakuta Mountain 9lose to #a?a)aha. Sari*utta 6ho 6as, at the time,

SA#IPU

A /28

CC2

SA#IPU

A /28

re9luse .efore startin) his stu'5. &osthila .e9ame a re9luse an' (o6e' not to 9li* his nails until he mastere' the lo!ayata. hus, 6ith lon) nails, he 9ame to .e kno6n as

Bu''ha at $alan'a. In it Sari*utta 'e9lares his a.solute faith an' 9onfi'en9e that there ne(er 6as, nor shall .e, nor is their no6 a re9luse or .rahamin 6ho is )reater or more a99om*lishe' 6ith re)ar' to the

SA#IPU

A /28

CC<

SA#IPU

A /28

In the fourth 'is9ourse /s.(. 2D> B Bu''ha refers to the *assin) a6a5 of .oth Sari*utta an' Mo))allana sho6in) that .oth the 9hief 'is9i*les *re-'e9ease' the Master. At the time

an5thin) of the sort, nor 'oes it s*eak of Bu''ha returnin) to Sa(atthi from Belu(a)ama. Instea' it s*eaks of his 9ontinuin) his ?ourne5 to &usinara. Moreo(er the

SA#IPU

A /28

CC>

SA#IPU

A /28

)reat kin)s, Sakka an' Maha.rahma (isite' him 'urin) the ni)ht. He 6as a.le to 9on(in9e his mother of the )reatness of the Bu''ha an' the Dhamma an' 6ith his sermon she

*ast ha' su9h a 9hief *air an'. the Bu''has in the future also 6ill ea9h ha(e su9h a *air. /s.(. E DA8.

SA#IPU

A /28

AAA

SA#IPU

A /28

other a9ute fello6 mem.er of the !r'er. !ne su9h 6is'om, s6ift 6is'om, 6is'om, an' of *ier9in) 6is'om is 'is9ourse is the Anah"ana Sutta 1$. Sari*uttaJ, 6ere the terms use' .5 2<A ff8. Here he enumerates four him. At the en' of the 'is9ourse the *ersons 6ith an' 6ithout .lemishes Master sa5s that if an5 one 9oul' an' )i(es a 'etaile' 'isHuisition at

SA#IPU

A /28

CC4

SA#IPU

A /28

Mahakotthita. Similarl5 the )athavinitaSutta is a 'ialo)ue .et6een Sari*utta an' Punnamantani*utta /i.. 2A ff8. Yet in this instan9e Sari*utta is the interro)ator an' the ans6ers )i(en .5 Punna. It is interestin) to note

.ase' on his fame as the foremost in 6is'om amon) the Bu''ha7s 'is9i*les. 6o other 6ell-kno6n 'is9ourses attri.ute' to him are the Sah"iti 1D. III. 2;A ff8 an' the

SA#IPU

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CCD

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*osition Sari*utta7s 9a*a.ilit5 to i'entif5Sari*utta a)ree' to 9arr5out the su.tle 6eaknesses in his ?unior res*onsi.ilit5 entruste' to him .5 9ollea)ues an' hel*in) them out of the Sah)ha. Earlier 6e sa6 ho6 ha' to 9orre9t a them to make them a'(an9e on their Sari*utta s*iritual Huest is seen in the manner misinter*retation .5 a monk of a

SA#IPU

A /28

AAA

SA#IPU

A /28

9ommittin) sui9i'e. He e(en offere' to kee* him su**lie' 6ith foo' an' me'i9ine an' further, if he has no atten'ant, to take u* that 'ut5 as 6ell /ih. I". 44 ff8. Sari*utta7s 9om*assion an' 9on9ern for the

1yathabhutam8. !nl5 6ith latter Hualities 9oul' one .e an en'-maker 1ib. 2D> f.8. his is 5et another e0am*le ho6 Sari*utta ta9kle' su.tle *ro.lems that 9ame to him.

SA#IPU

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CC3

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?ani.5 *asse' 6as a 'ut5 atten'e' to the Bu''ha an' his 'is9i*les. 6i9e Sari*utta 6as in(ite' to the .e'si'e of Anatha*in'ika 6ho 6as )rie(ousl5 ill. Both o99asions he

a6a5 to .e re.orn in the Brahma 6orl'. But the Bu''ha foun' fault 6ith Sari*utta for lea(in) the .rahamin 6hen he 9oul' ha(e 'one mu9h more to hel* him. he El'er7s

SA#IPU

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CC;

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the 'is9i*les sat on these seats for se(en 'a5s a.sor.e' in the Gattainment of 9essation7 / nirodha samapatti5. Sara'a stoo' .5 the Bu''ha hol'in) a sun-sha'e of flo6ers a.o(e the Bu''ha. At the

u*on returnin) to #a?a)aha. he .rahamin 6as still milkin) his 9o6s 6hen Sari*utta (isite' him. o +hanna he offere' to look after him *ersonall5. His *osition as the 9hief

SA#IPU

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C3B

SA#IPU

A /<8

9ollea)ue 6oul' ha(e )ot it Sari*utta sa6 the 6hole series of e(ents an' refuse' to a99e*t it, for it 6oul' .e a .lot on the *urit5 of his li(elihoo' 1a+iva- parisuddhi5. He

shoul' 'ra*e the )arment roun' the .o'5. He rea'il5 a99e*te' the a99usation of the no(i9e Ias if on his forehea'J an', 6ith'ra6in) to a little, 'istan9e, 'ra*e' his un'er ro.e *ro*erl5 an' thanke' the

SA#IPU

A /<8

C32

SA#IPU

A/<8

al6a5s refers to the kin) an' his )reat ser(i9es to the Sasana in his 6orks. he kin) .uilt a ma)nifi9ent vihara at Eeta(ana monaster5 s*e9iall5 for him, 6hi9h 6as a'orne' 6ith

in(itation e0ten'e' to him .5 &in) Parakrama.ahu, in the mi'st of the Saii)ha. %urther he is re*orte' to ha(e 6ritten the 0isuddhipatha San"aha-

SA#IPU

A /<8

C3<

SA#$A H

)i(es the histor5 of the the oothlo)i9al #eli9. s9ien9es an' the *oet &ali'asa in the Moreo(er Me'hankara or fiel' of *oetr5, ma5 .enefit to the U'um.ara)iri Me'hankara 6as also 6orl'.J amon) the 'istin)uishe' *u*ils of "en. Sari*utta. He 6as the author of

SA#$A H

C3>

SA#$A H

e09a(ate' area, .eautifull5 sha'e' he site of the stu*a is sai' to 6ith man)o, tamarin' an' bodhi mark the a9tual s*ot 6here the Bu''ha met His fi(e 'is9i*les 6ho trees. ha' 'eserte' Him at Uru(ela 6hen He a.an'one' the *ra9ti9e of self -

SA#$A H

C3A

SA#$A H

to .a9k on a 9ir9ular abacus a.our one foot hi)h. his abacus has a dharmaca!ra 6heel of <A s*okes .elo6 the front le)s of ea9h lion. Bet6een these dharmaca!ras are

"ihara has .een ma'e after this statue. A re*li9a of the same is a(aila.le at the ne6l5 .uilt vihara in $e6 Delhi.

SA#$A H

C34

SA#$A H

6orkmanshi*, it has no eHual in the museum an' is 6ell *reser(e'.

railin). It is, ho6e(er, 'iffi9ult to sa5 6h5 it is in su9h an a6k6ar' *la9e. Some are of the o*inion that it is a *art of the Dharmara?ika-stu*a 1devata-!otuva5 fallen there 6hen it

SA#$A H

C3D

SA#$A H

time to time, a99or'in) to their *etitions, fi)ures 6ith )oo' or .a' si)ns. It 6as here that the atha)ata /Eulai8, ha(in) arri(e' at Enli)htenment, .e)an to turn the

his ins9ri*tion )i(es an inklin) into 9ertain 'ifferen9es that ha' arisen amon) the sam"ha 'urin) Asoka7s time. he *art5 hol'in) 6ron) (ie6s .e9ame so 'an)erous

SA#$A H

C3C

SA#$A H

stru9ture at Samath an' 9an .e seen for miles aroun'. Its hei)ht is 2BA feet an' the lo6er *ortion is fa9e' 9om*letel5 6ith stones ha(in) .eautiful 9ar(in)s all roun'. he 'esi)n 9onsists of a .roa' .an' of

in a hun're' su99essi(e lines, an' in ea9h ni9he is a )ol'en fi)ure of the Bu''ha. In the mi''le of the vihara is a fi)ure of the Bu''ha ma'e of teou-shih /nati(e 9o**er8. It is of life-si1e an' he is re*resente' as

SA#$A H

C33

SASA$A

re9ei(e' an assuran9e /of .e9omin) a Bu''ha8. In the mi'st of the bhadra-!alpa 6hen men7s 5ears amounte' to <B,BBB, &as5a*a Bu''ha /&ia-she-*o-fo8 a**eare' in

an' *ure freHuentl5 9ome to make their offerin)s here, .ut 6hen the hereti9s an' men of e(il min' s*eak li)htl5 of or insult the stone, the 'ra)on kin) inha.itin) the *ool 9auses the 6in's to rise an' rain to

SASA$A

C3;

SASA$A

'is*ensation of the Bu''ha, the Bu''hist reli)ion, tea9hin) an' 'o9trineJ as its meanin)s. Some of these latter meanin)s are not atteste' in the earl5 9anoni9al te0ts. In a non- reli)ious sense the 6or' is

to the E0alte' oneJ/e).AK. 2.4B28. !ften in earl5 te0ts, a monk or nun 6ho has rea9he' the ultimate )oal of eman9i*ation throu)h the reali1ation of the three kno6le')es 6oul' 'e9lare it in the follo6in) 6or's,

SASA$A

C;B

SASA$A

t6o thin)s, 0PN.pariyatti-s asana an' patipatti- sasana. he te0t here takes the pariyatti-sasana to mean the a.o(e ninefol' 'i(ision. he patipatti- sasana is inter*rete' to mean Ithe ri)ht *ath

pariyatti or patipatti51pariyatti nu!ho sasanassa mulam udahu patipatti53. At its 9on9lusion those 6ho hel' pariyatti to .e the .asis of the sasana 6on the 'a5. Un'ou.te'l5 it is this tra'ition 6hi9h is refle9te' in

SASA$A

C;2

SASA$A"AMSA

C.

4itanachchi

5e$erences

the5 all ren'e1(ous on the Bu''ha seat at the foot of the Bo'hi tree. he5 all lum* to)ether like a mass of )ol' an' emanate the si0 9oloure' ra5s, 6hi9h tou9h ten- thousan' 6orl' s5stems. hen a flame, risin)

SASA$A"AMSA

C;<

SASA$A"AMSA

of the Kali a)e. A 9areful stu'5 of the te0t sho6s the author7s intimate a9Huaintan9e 6ith the 9ommentaries. he st5le is similar to that of Bu''ha)hosa. he te0t re9or's the *art *la5e' .5 the

allusions to the Burmese kin)s .: In 9ha*ter " 'ealin) 6ith the histor5 of Bu''hism in the "ana(asi 9ountr5, there is a referen9e to Sirikhetta. It is Prome in Burma.

IA

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!ne of the four massi(e an' im*osin) )ate6a5s at the four 9orners of the San9hi stu*a 'e*i9tin) ela.orate 9ar(in)s an' s9ul*tures. he5 are fine s*e9imens of Bu''hist s9ul*tural 6ork an' ha(e no eHual an56here else in In'ia. Courtesy , &he Kay of the %uddha- Pu.li9ation Di(ision, Ministr5 of Information an' Broa'9astin), Go(ernment of In'ia, 2;4D.

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