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02/10/2013

Borehole Environment

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

Reservoir Geometry

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

02/10/2013

Drilling Disturbs Formation Washouts and Filtrate Invasion


Drilling and rock crushing
Damage Zone

Mud systems and invasion Oil-based Mud


Small conductivity mud. Shallow invasion. Thin cake.

Water-based Mud
Moderate to very conductive mud. Shallow to deep invasion. Thin to thick cake.

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

Effects of Drilling Mud and Mud Filtrate Invasion

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

02/10/2013

Borehole Environment
Where a hole is drilled into a formation, the fluid plus the rock particles will penetrate the formation. Contamination will occur at the wellbore. Hence effects logging measurements.

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

Mud Filtrate Invasion

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

02/10/2013

Symbols used in Log Interpretation

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

Common Terminology
Borehole R m =Borehole mud resistivity R mc =Mud cake resistivity Invaded zone Rmf = Mud filtrate resistivity Rxo = Invaded zone resistivity Sxo = Invaded zone water saturation Uninvaded zone Rw = Interstitial water resistivity Rt = Uninvaded zone resistivity Sw =Uninvaded zone water saturation
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Hole Diameter ( )
A wells borehole size is determined by the outside diameter of the drilling bit. The diameter of the hole may be equal or larger or smaller than bit size.
Washout and/or collapse of shale and poorly cemented porous rocks. Build-up of mudcake on porous and permeable formation.

Borehole sizes normally vary from 7 7/8 inches to 12 inches. Modern logging tools are designed to operate and running within these sizes.

The size of the hole is measured by Caliper Log.

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

Drilling Mud (R m )
Most wells are drilled with rotary bits and special muds are used for the circulation purpose. Mud has various functions:
Remove cuttings from the wellbore Lubricate and cool the drill bit Maintain borehole pressure on formation pressure

The density of the mud is kept high enough to exert a hydrostatic pressure greater than formation pressure (OBD). This pressure difference forces some of the drilling fluid to invade porous and permeable formations. Solid particlaes (clay minerals from the drilling mud) will be traped on the side of the borehole and form mudcake ( ). Fluids that filters into the formation during invasion is called mud filterate ( )

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

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Invaded, Flushed, Transition and Uninvaded


Invaded Zone - The zone which is invaded by mud filtrate and it consists of flushed zone ( ) and the transition or annulus zone ( ). The Flushed Zone - ( ) occurs close to the borehole where the mud filtrate has almost completely flushed out the formations hydrocarbons and/or water. Transition or Annulus zone ( ) is the zone where the formation fluids and mud filtrate are mixed, it occurs between the flushed zone ( ) and uninvaded zone ( ). Uninvaded Zone ( ), is defined as the area beyond the invaded zone where the formation fluids are unaffected or uncontaminated by mud filtrate.
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Flushed Zone ( )
The flushed zone extends only a few inches from the wellbore and is a part of the invaded zone. If invasion zone is deeper, the flushed zone is completely cleared of its formation water ( ) by mud filtrate ( ). When oil is present in the flushed zone, the degree of flushing can be determined by mud filtrate from the difference between water saturation in the flushed zone ( ) and water saturation in uninvaded zone ( ). About 70 to 95% of the oil is flushed out, the remaining oil is called Residual Oil ( = 1 ), =[ROS].

Well Log Analysis

Borehole Environment

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Uninvaded Zone ( )
The uninvaded zone is located beyond the invaded zone. Pores in the uninvaded zone are uncontaminated by mud filtrate. Instead they are saturated with formation fluids (water, oil or gas). Even in the hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs there is a layer of formation water on grain surface.
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Uninvaded Zone ( )
The uninvaded zone is am important factor in reservoir evaluation, because, by using a water saturation data, a log analyser can determine a reservoir hydrocarbon saturation by the below equation: = 1.0
Where;
is the hydrocarbon saturation is the water saturation of the uninvaded zone

The ratio of the uninvaded zones water saturation ( ) to the flushed zones water saturation ( ) is called the index of hydrocarbon moveability.
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