Industrial facilities are source of major disturbances to power system due to more and more large power loads being installed that, apart of their good functional properties, are characterized by negative impact on the quality of power.
The adverse impact of non-linear loads on a power system can be mitigated by means of compensation equipment like fixed capacitor (FC), thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) - FC/TCR.
The purpose of FC/TCR compensator is compensation of the fundamental component reactive power and filtering selected current harmonics.
This new issue of the Guide for Electrical Design Engineers, you will learn a step by step approach to size the FC/TCR compensator.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Industrial facilities are source of major disturbances to power system due to more and more large power loads being installed that, apart of their good functional properties, are characterized by negative impact on the quality of power.
The adverse impact of non-linear loads on a power system can be mitigated by means of compensation equipment like fixed capacitor (FC), thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) - FC/TCR.
The purpose of FC/TCR compensator is compensation of the fundamental component reactive power and filtering selected current harmonics.
This new issue of the Guide for Electrical Design Engineers, you will learn a step by step approach to size the FC/TCR compensator.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- voltage stability enhancement using the statcom
- Voltage drop calculation: voltage change during drive start
- Permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor
- Guide for electrical design engineers - Chapter 5 : Mitigation of voltage unbalance
- flexible AC transmission systems
- Power Systems Control and Stability
- Centralised reactive power compensation
- Designing an Uninterruptible Power Supply
- Static VAR compensation
- Measuring earth resistance
- Shunt Compensators
- Reactive Power Control by TJ Miller
- High Voltage Breakers
- Voltage Dip Immunity of Equipment and Installations
- Reactive Power Compensation
- statcom
- SVC
- static var compensator
- Short Circuit Calculation
- The Control Techniques Drives and Controls Handbook 2nd Edition[1]

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ARC FURNACE COMPENSATION

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1. INTRODUCTION

Industrial facilities are source of major disturbances to power system due to more

and more large power loads being installed that, apart of their good functional

properties, are characterized by negative impact on the quality of power. Such

loads are the cause of the supply voltage distortion, unbalance and fluctuations.

Depending on the load type, such disturbances may occur separately or

concurrently. These disturbances are propagated through distribution systems to

other users' networks, impair operating conditions of equipment and, in extreme

cases, prevent operation of electrical equipment sensitive to such disturbances.

Among industrial loads, having the most adverse impact on a power system due

to the emitted disturbances, are steelworks electric arc furnaces. They cause

mainly:

• current and voltage distortion,

• fluctuations of active and reactive power, supply voltage fluctuations and

flicker [6].

means of compensation equipment like fixed capacitor (FC), thyristor controlled

reactor (TCR) - FC/TCR. The purpose of FC/TCR compensator is compensation

of the fundamental component reactive power and filtering selected current

harmonics.

Such compensator is an example of the indirect compensation method in which,

depending on the needs of the voltage restorer or the reactive power

compensator function, the value of the sum of two current components is

controlled:

• fundamental harmonic of the capacitor current iFC, operated mostly as

high harmonics filter(s) (the FC section)

• fundamental harmonic of the reactor current iTCR controlled by means of a

phase-controlled thyristor AC switch (the TCR section) [8].

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2. FC/TCR COMPENSATOR

Fig. 1. Diagram of the static VAR compensator comprising Fig. 2. Diagram of the three-phase static compensator

a fixed capacitor bank and reactors whose reactive cur- with a phase-controlled reactor section

rents are controlled by means of thyristor AC switches

The FC/TCR compensator consists of a fixed capacitor bank divided into several

three-phase sections incorporating reactors, utilized also as high-order current

harmonics filters, and parallel reactors whose fundamental current harmonic is

controlled means of thyristor AC switches. The reactors' current can be

controlled in a continuous manner from zero, if the switch is turned off, to its

maximum value, when the reactor is directly connected to the source. The

compensator schematic diagram is shown in figure 1.

The capacitor banks generate capacitive reactive current of non-controlled value,

whereas the reactor section (TCR) current is controlled within the range from

zero to the current of a reactor being connected directly to the source. The

reactive current fundamental harmonic of such compensator is:

ik = -iC + iL (1)

where:

iC – the fundamental harmonic of the capacitor bank current (non-

controlled value)

iL – the fundamental harmonic of the inductive unit current (controlled

value)

ik – the fundamental harmonic of the compensator current.

Under symmetrical control conditions and balanced circuit parameters (the same

phase reactances and equal thyristors' control angles) the 3-rd harmonic and its

multiples do not occur.

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The compensator enables continuous control of reactive current over the range

from -Ic to -Ic + IL. Maximum voltage across the AC switches' thyristors does not

exceed the amplitude of the phase-to-phase voltage of a power system, i.e. it is

more than two times smaller than the voltage across the thyristors switching the

3

capacitor bank sections. The phase current of FC-TCR reactor section is

times larger than the thyristor switches (reactors') currents [2].

The three-phase compensator circuit is shown in figure 2. The compensator

comprises delta connected, fixed inductance reactors (L/2) whose current

fundamental harmonic is controlled by the phase control of thyristor AC switches

(ST) in each delta branch. AC switches are controlled by the control system in

order to control either the supply voltage (voltage restores) or to compensate the

load reactive current, depending on the compensation system purpose. Optimum

utilization of the applied thyristors is often provided by a step-down transformer

(Tr) with the leakage reactance higher than in typical applications, hence the

reactors' reactance can be reduced (in the extreme case to zero). The delta

connection of reactors is justified in both technical and economic terms. The

presented configuration allows reducing the thyristors' current ratings and

considerably reduces the supply current harmonic content as compared to a star

-connected circuit of the same power.

Thus, the compensator voltage-current characteristic encompasses the area of

inductive and capacitive loadings within boundaries determined by the capacitor

bank and reactors' powers. It should be emphasized that the compensator is a

source of odd harmonics and, if the control angles of antiparallel connected

thyristors are unequal, even harmonics also occur. Triplen harmonics in the

compensator current are cancelled by delta connection of reactor branches. Odd

harmonics can be mitigated by means of two 6-pulse circuits supplied from a

three-winding Yyd transformer with 30° phase shift between the secondary side

voltages, or by the use of suitable filters [10].

Passive filtering of high harmonic consists in connecting in parallel with the load

generating a given harmonic, a series LC circuit whose series resonant

frequency is tuned to the filtered harmonic frequency (Fig. 3).

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by a current source, and the high-harmonic filter; CF, LF, RF – the filter

capacitance, inductance and resistance, respectively

The inductive and capacitive reactances of LC series filter are subtracting one

from the other. For the series resonance frequency their absolute values are

equal and their difference is zero. Thus, at this specific frequency, the filter is

practically a short circuit. The remaining equivalent resistance, mainly that of the

reactor winding, is very small.

The reactance of the filter LC components connected in series is:

X ⎛ X 1⎞ ⎛ h 2 − ν F2 ⎞

X F (h ) = X L (h ) − X C (h ) = hX L − C = X C ⎜⎜ h L − ⎟⎟ = X C ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ ν Fh ⎠

2

h ⎝ XC h ⎠

(2)

where:

h - harmonic order,

νF - the filter natural relative frequency ,

Xc - reactance of the filter capacitor for the fundamental harmonic,

XL - reactance of the filter reactor for the fundamental harmonic.

As follows from the relation (2), the filter reactance is near to zero for the

harmonic h, whose frequency is close to the filter natural relative frequency nF.

In consequence of connecting the filter between the source phases the current

with the frequency close to the filter natural frequency, generated by a non-linear

load, flows through the filter thereby reducing the harmonic current flow through

the source. The filter reactance for h>nF is inductive, whereas for h<nF it is

capacitive. Since for the fundamental harmonic the filter has a capacitive

character, it is used for reactive power compensation [2,3].

The basic data necessary for the filter design are:

• data concerning the source of high harmonics, i.e. amplitude-frequency

spectrum of the non-linear load, the fundamental harmonic reactive power

required for the compensation purposes, etc.

• data concerning the power supply network, i.e. frequency characteristic

of the power system impedance at the point of common connection (PCC)

or, in the absence of such characteristic, the short-circuit capacity together

with the schematic diagram and technical specification of neighbourhood of

the considered point of the filter connection, the spectrum of initial voltage

distortion at the considered point, permissible voltage harmonic distortion

factor THD as per conditions of supply, and harmonic content (p.u.) etc.

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• data concerning the filter, i.e. the location of its installation, the selected

structure, technical specifications of passive elements to be used, etc. [7].

All further considerations are carried out under the following simplifying

assumptions:

• the source of high harmonics is an ideal current source,

• the filter resistance RF, inductance LF and capacitance CF, are lumped

elements and their values are constant over the considered frequency

interval,

• the filter is exclusively loaded with the fundamental harmonic and the

harmonic to which it is tuned.

supply network is represented by the ideal AC voltage source and the equivalent

resistance and inductance:

U 2 U 2 1

X S = 1 .1 ×

S SC

⇒ Ls = 1 .1 ×

S SC

×

100 π R S = 0 .1 X S

(3)

voltage at the point of connection.

The load is represented by the source high-harmonic currents and the load

impedance Zo. The purpose of the filter is:

• compensation of the load fundamental harmonic reactive power,

• mitigation of high-harmonics emitted by the load to the power system [4].

The single branch filter is a simple structure which can easily be analyzed. In this

section a matrix method for designing a group of single-frequency filters is used.

The diagram of the single-frequency filter and its frequency-impedance

characteristic are shown in figure 4 [4].

Assuming RF = 0, the impedance at the filtered frequency is 0 (this assumption

will hold true in further considerations):

1 1

Z F (ω r ) = jω r LF − j = 0 ω r = nr * ω1 =

ωr CF LF C F

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1 1

LF = = 2 2

ω C F n r ω1 C F

2

r

(4)

where:

Nr - the resonant frequency order

ω r = nr * ω1 - angular frequency of the filter series branch

ω1 - the fundamental harmonic angular frequency ().

1

ω2 C F −1

1 ω L F C F −1

2

n ω12 C F

2

ω 2 − n r2ω r2

Z F (ω r ) = jωLF − j = j = j r

= j

ωC F ωC F ωC F n r2ω r2 C F ω

(5)

1 n r2ω12 − ω 2

Z F (ω r ) = − j

C F n r2ω r2ω

(6)

characteristics for RF ≠ 0, Xc – the filter capacitive reactance, XL- the filter

inductive reactance, ZF – the filter impedance, IF – the filter current, U – the filter

operating voltage

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ω = k * ω1

, k=1 – filter tuned to the fundamental harmonic.

Z F (ω r ) = j = j

nr2ω12 C F ω1 nr2 C F ω1

, (7)

At the fundamental angular frequency the imaginary part of the filter impedance

is directly proportional to the filter operating voltage and inversely proportional

to reactive power to be compensated:

Im(Z F ( n ) ) = − j

U N2

Q

, (8)

U2

1− n 1 2

−j N

= j 2 * r

Q nr C F ω1

, (9)

U2

n −1 2

1 n r2 − 1 Q

−j N

=−j 2 * r

CF = *

Q nr C F ω1 nr2

ω 1U 2

, N

(10)

The capacitance and inductance values in given branches are computed from

relations:

⎧ n r2 − 1 1 Q F

⎪C i = ⋅ ⋅

⎪ n r2 ω1 U N 2

⎨

⎪L = 1 = 1

⎪⎩ i

ω r C i n r ω12 C i

2 2

(11)

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compensated using the FC/TCR compensator

In order to determine the compensator power shall be known the economically

justified (specified in a contract with utility company) power factor at the given

point of a power system as specified by the utility company. In the general case

the capacitor bank power is determined from the formula:

where:

Qk –reactive power to be installed,

P – the load(s) active power,

tgϕ1 – power factor prior to compensation,

tgϕ2 – power factor after compensation.

The capacitor bank design and sizing should take into account problems that

may occur during the system operation due to the presence of high order

harmonics and resonance effects. Detuning from resonance is achieved using an

antiresonance reactor connected in series with capacitor bank. The

antiresonance reactor is used when the voltage distortion level is within

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acceptable limits, the capacitor bank shall also be protected against overloading

with high harmonic currents.

operating reactors, may lead to capacitor damages due to overvoltages and

overcurrents and, consequently, preclude operation of the compensation system

[1,9].

Short-circuit capacity of the 6kV network is SSC6kV = 16.9 [MVA]

Transformer rated power STr = 20 [MVA]

Transformer short-circuit voltage uz% = 13.5

Maximum averaged consumed active power: 10.13 [MW]

Maximum averaged consumed reactive power: 13.54 [MVAr]

Apparent power:

SP 16,91 * 106

I obc = = = 1626.9[ A]

3 *U N 3 * 6000

(14)

Hence the power factor:

Q

tg ϕ = P

= 1.34 (15)

P P

11 [MVAr].

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u z % * U N2 = 0.24[Ω] (18)

X Tr =

100 * S Trt

Harmonic currents In measured at the 6 kV side during the arc furnace operation

as the only load in the power network, are listed in table 1. The voltage distortion

factor THD at the 6kV busbars without the compensation circuit is calculated

using the formula:

∑ (U )

13

THDU =

2

2 N%

(19)

where: UN% - the percentage voltage harmonic content of the given harmonic.

100

U n % = 3 * I n * n * X zw( 6 kV ) *

UN

(20)

where: In- In- harmonic current, n- harmonic order, XZW(6kV)- the network

reactance at the 6kV side, UN- voltage at busbars (6kV)

content

order current In harmonic

[A] content [%]

1 1626.9 -

2 21.93 1.49

3 32.55 3.32

4 9.30 1.27

5 38.73 6.59

6 8.83 1.80

7 7.85 1.87

8 5.95 1.62

9 4.60 1.41

10 2.88 0.98

11 4.03 1.51

12 1.15 0.47

13 2.30 1.02

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The voltage distortion factor is determined from relation (19), but the percentage

voltage harmonic content for the given harmonic UN% is calculated form another

formula:

S10 max

U N % = 1.1 * bN % * n *

S SC

(23)

current; it depends on the load type, the factor values are listed in table 2.,

n- harmonic order,

SSC - short-circuit capacity (500 MVA),

S10max - maximum 10-minute apparent power of a nonlinear load, equal to

the arc furnace maximum power calculated from the formula (13).

furnace current versus the transformer nominal power

Furnace

transformer Harmonic order

rated power

i

MVA 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 13-25

% % % % % % % % %

2.5 36 25 8 10 4 3 2 1 0

5 26 20 5 7 2 3 2 1 0

10 26 13 4 5 1 2 1 1 0

16 16 18 6 8 3 3 2 1 0

50 7 10 4 5 1 2 2 1 0

content

order harmonic

content [%]

2 16 1.19

3 18 2.01

4 6 0.89

5 8 1.49

6 3 0.67

7 3 0.78

9 2 0.67

10 1 0.41

13 0 0.00

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The above inequality also shows the necessity for high harmonics compensation.

In the analysed example the static compensator and passive filters section shall

operate under the following conditions:

• voltage distortion factor THDU at the point of common connection at 110kV

busbars should not exceed 1.5%

• reactive power to be compensated is 11 MVAr

• dominant harmonic currents at 6kV busbars are the 3-rd and 5-th harmonic

currents (32.55A for the 3-rd harmonic and 38.73A for the 5-th harmonic,

respectively)

• the FC/TCR compensator will be connected at 6kV.

Initial design data are:

• maximum reactive power the filter can inject into the power system.

• capacitor overload current (as specified by the manufacturer)

• capacitor voltage utilization factor, expressed by the formula (25) [5]:

US

ku =

3U Nbat

(25)

where: US is the supply network voltage, UNbat is the capacitor bank rated voltage.

In order to reduce THD factor to the required level, the harmonic of the largest

magnitude shall be filtered out while reactive power consumed by the arc furnace

shall be compensated.

a) The required compensation power has been allocated between the fitter

braches proportionally to the values of eliminated harmonic currents:

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Qkomp = 11 [Mvar]

I5 = 38.8 [A]

b) Due to series connection of the resonance reactor and capacitor bank the

voltage across capacitors will be knf times higher than the busbars voltage:

n F2

k nf = 2

nF − 1

(26)

where: nF- harmonic order.

knf = = 1.042

52 − 1

nF 2 3 4 5 7 11

knf 1.333 1.125 1.067 1.042 1.021 1.008

c) The nominal voltage of the filter capacitor bank shall satisfy the relation:

The value1.1 results from power network voltage variations +/-10% UN (11)

d) Considering the above requirements the capacitor bank of "Y" company make,

with the following parameters has been selected:

Rated current……………………………………………………. 1000 A

Rated voltage……………………………………………………. 7600V

Capacitance……………………………………………………... 21.3 uF

Capacitance tolerance………………………………………….. -5/+10 % [12]

Current overload…………………………………………………. 1.5 In [12]

Voltage overload (Voltage overload factor)……………………. 1.1 Un [12]

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Static FC/TCR Compensator for Arc Furnace Compensation

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e) Since the reactive power delivered by the 5-th harmonic filter is expressed by

formula (29) [2]:

2

⎛U ⎞

QUz 5 = Q NbatF 5 ⋅ ⎜⎜ S ⎟⎟ = Q NbatF 5 ⋅ (k u )2

⎝ U CN ⎠

(29)

where: QUz5- the reactive power injected by capacitor to power system, QNbatF5-

the capacitor rated power, US- power network voltage, UCN- capacitor bank

voltage, kU- capacitor voltage utilization factor.

Thus, the rated power of the 5-th harmonic filter capacitor bank is:

2

⎛U ⎞

2

⎟⎟ = 11 * 106 ⋅ ⎛⎜

7600 ⎞

QNbatF 5 = QUz 5 ⋅ ⎜⎜ CN ⎟ = 17.65[ M var]

⎝ US ⎠ ⎝ 6000 ⎠

(30)

X bat

X DF 3 =

n 2 SR (31)

2

U NbatF 7600

X NbatF 5 = 5

= = 3.27[Ω]

QNbatF 5 17.65 * 106

(32)

X bat 3.04

X DF 3 = = = 0.13[Ω]

n 2 SR 25 (33)

X DF 3 0.12

LDF 3 = = = 0.41[ mH ]

ϖ1 314

(34)

b) For the filter detuned from resonance below nrsz the inductance values will be

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larger.

For the series resonant frequency order equal 4.5 the inductance will be:

52

LDF 4,5 = LDF 5 = 0.52[mH ]

4.52 (35)

Whereas for the series resonant frequency order equal 4.7 the inductance will

be:

52

LDF 4, 7 = LDF 5 = 0.47[mH ]

4.7 2 (36)

For both filters have been selected special design reactors of "Z" company make,

with inductance values calculated as above and 2% inductance toleration. The

reactors are provided with taps that allow matching their inductance to 4.5 or 4.7

detuning.

Capacitor banks are connected in a double star configuration with star points

connected. In such configuration a malfunction (short circuit) of a single does not

cause significant increase in phase currents. The designed topology allows for a

simple and cheap protection against the battery internal failures, or capacity

changes due to internal short circuits, by measuring the current in the conductor

connecting star points using a current transformer.

capacitor bank divided into two sections and symmetry control by means of

measuring the equalizing current I between neutral points of both sections

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using the Matlab software package.

10

6

Z(w) [Ohm]

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

the 5-th harmonic filtering branch (red); each characteristic determined

individually

4.5

3.5

3

Z(w) [Ohm]

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

the 5-th harmonic filtering branch (green) and the equivalent impedance (red)

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10

6

Z(n)/Z(wo)

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

Chart 3. Frequency characteristic of the supply network and the filter equivalent

impedance related to the equivalent impedance at f=50Hz

10

6

Z(w) [Ohm]

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

the 5-th harmonic filtering branch (red); each characteristic determined

individually

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4.5

3.5

3

Z(w) [Ohm]

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

the 5-th harmonic filtering branch (green) and the equivalent impedance (red)

10

6

Z(n)/Z(wo)

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

Chart 6. Frequency characteristic of the supply network and the filter equivalent

impedance related to the equivalent impedance at f=50Hz

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The equivalent impedance of the designed n-th harmonic filter with equivalent

circuit as in figure 7:

Fig. 7. The equivalent circuit of the source and the parallel filter for a single

harmonic

Z z ( n) =

(

nX tr n 2 X d − X c )

n 2 ( X tr + X d ) − X c

(37)

n 2 ( X Tr − X d ) − X c = 0

(38)

Xc

nr =

X tr + X d

(39)

• for detuning degree equal 4.7: 2.11

4.4.6. Verification of the 5-th harmonic capacitor bank for overload current

The filter power (the capacitor bank and reactor connected in series) is:

Q '

=

(UN )

2

=

(6000)

2

= 11.46MVar

NF 5

X Z (1) 2.92

(40)

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and:

X Z (1) = X DF 5(1) + X NbatF 5(1) = 3.14[Ω]

(41)

where: XdF5(1)- the reactor reactance at the frequency of 50 Hz, XbatF5(1)- the

capacitor reactance at the frequency of 50 Hz

The rated current of the 5-th harmonic capacitor battery [5] is:

'

QNF 12,34 * 106

I Nbat , F 5 = 5

= = 870.46[ A]

3 * U Nbat 3 * 7600

(42)

In order to verify the 5-th harmonic capacitor battery for the overload current

condition, it has been assumed that both the fundamental harmonic and the

filtered harmonic currents flow in the filter. The current in the 5-th harmonic

filtering branch is calculated from the formula:

I batF = I 12 + I n2

(43)

overload:

I n2

I Nbat . F ≥ = ki I n

p 2 − b 2 k u2

(44)

where:

b- capacitors' maximum voltage overload factor,

p- capacitors' maximum current overload factor (≤ 1.1) [12]

ku – capacitors' voltage utilization factor, formula (25)

In - the filtered n-th harmonic current.

1

ki =

p − ku2

2

(45)

capacitors used in filters its value is 1.5 [12]). It is assumed that filter branch for

the given harmonic is loaded with this harmonic current and, additionally, with

small currents of other non-filtered harmonics. Their influence is taken into

account by reducing the p2 value in a manner indicated in table 5:

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Table 5.

Overload factor

p=1.3 (1.5)

High-order harmonics taken into account 1.6 2.16

High-order harmonics not taken into account 1.69 2.25

In the case of considered 5-th harmonic filter the current will be:

(46)

US 6000

ku = = = 0.789

3U Nbat 7600

where: (47)

I batF 5 = I12− 5 + I n2 = 687.202 + 38.82 = 688.29[A]

(48)

1

ki = = 0.784

p 2 − ku2

(49)

ki I batF 3 = 0.784 * 688.29 = 539.65 [A]

(45)

I n2

870.46 [ A] ≥ = 539.65[A]

p 2 − b 2 k u2

(51)

I n2

I Nbat . F ≥ = k i I batF 5

p 2 − b 2 k u2

(52)

is satisfied.

THDU =

∑U 2

(n)

Uf

(53)

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where:

Un

Uf = 3 (54)

(55)

THDU

order 4.7 4.5

2 209.35 241.31

3 36.92 33.38

4 2.56 1.90

5 3.58 6.23

6 3.04 3.68

7 4.33 4.94

8 4.36 4.87

9 4.15 4.58

10 3.05 3.34

11 4.89 5.33

12 1.57 1.71

13 3.48 3.77

THDU 6.15 7.04

As seen from table 6, the voltage distortion factor was reduced but its value still

exceeds the required level 6.15%.

THDUF5= 6.15%, THDdop6kV = 5% [11], THDU6kV > THDdop6kV.

more than one harmonic, comprising a larger number of branches.

harmonic filters

a) The required compensation power has been allocated between the fitter

braches proportionally to the values of eliminated harmonic currents:

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I3 = 32.5 A

I5 = 38.8 A

I3 + I5 =131.4 A

I3

Quz 3 = ⋅ Qkomp = 4.8[ MVar ]

I5 + I3

(57)

I5

QuzF 3 = ⋅ Qkomp = 5.71[ MVar ]

I5 + I3

(58)

32

• for the 3-rd harmonic ku = = 1.125 (59)

32 − 1

52

• for the 5-th harmonic ku = = 1.042 (60)

52 − 1

c) The nominal voltages of filters capacitor banks will satisfy the relation:

• for the 5-th harmonic UNbat.F3 ≥ 1.042* 6 *1.1= 6.88 [kV] (62)

The value1.1 results from the assumed power network voltage possible rise by

10% [11].

d) Considering the above requirements the capacitor bank of "Y" company make

with following parameters has been selected:

Rated current ...................................................................................... 1000 A

Rated voltage….….……………………………………………………….7800 V

Capacitance ...................................................................................... 21.3 uF

Capacitance tolerance .............................................................. -5/+10 % [12]

Current overload ............................................................................. 1.5 In [12]

Voltage overload (Voltage overload factor) ....................................1.1 Un [12]

e) The required powers of the 3-rd and 5-th harmonic filters are expressed by

formulas [2]:

2

⎛U ⎞

QUz 3 = Q NbatF 3 ⋅ ⎜⎜ S ⎟⎟ = Q NbatF 3 ⋅ (k u )2

⎝ U CN ⎠

(63)

24

Static FC/TCR Compensator for Arc Furnace Compensation

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2

⎛U ⎞

QUz 5 = Q NbatF 5 ⋅ ⎜⎜ S ⎟⎟ = Q NbatF 5 ⋅ (k u )2

⎝ U CN ⎠

(64)

2

⎛U ⎞

2

⎟⎟ = 4.80 * 106 ⋅ ⎛⎜

7600 ⎞

QNbatF 3 = QUz 3 ⋅ ⎜⎜ CN ⎟ = 7.70[ M var]

⎝ US ⎠ ⎝ 6000 ⎠

(65)

2

⎛U ⎞

2

⎟⎟ = 5.71 * 106 ⋅ ⎛⎜

7600 ⎞

QNbatF 5 = QUz 5 ⋅ ⎜⎜ CN ⎟ = 9.16[ M var]

⎝ US ⎠ ⎝ 6000 ⎠

(66)

X bat

X DF 3 =

n 2 SR (67)

2

U NbatF

X NbatF 3 = 3

= 7.51[Ω]

QNbatF 3

(55)

X bat

X DF 3 = = 0.83[Ω]

n 2 SR (56)

X DF 3

LDF 3 = = 2.66[mH ]

ϖ1

(57)

2

U NbatF

X NbatF 4 = 5

= 6.31[Ω]

QNbatF 5

(58)

X bat

X DF 5 = = 0.25[Ω]

n 2 SR (59)

25

Power Quality

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X DF 5

LDF 5 = = 0.80[mH ]

ϖ1

(60)

b) For the filter detuned from resonance below nrsz the inductance values will be

larger.

For the degree of detuning from resonance equal 2.5 and 4.5 for the 3-rd and 5-

th harmonic, respectively, the inductances will be:

32

LDF 3− 4,5 = LDF 3 = 3.82[mH ]

2.52 (61)

2

5

LDF 5 − 4, 7 = LDF 5 = 0.99[mH ]

4.52 (61)

Whereas for degree of detuning from resonance equal 2.7 and 4.7 for the 3-rd

and 5-th harmonic, respectively, the inductances will be:

32

LDF 3− 4, 7 = LDF 3 = 3.28[mH ]

4.7 2 (61)

2

5

LDF 5 − 4, 7 = LDF 5 = 0.91[mH ]

4.7 2 (61)

For both filters have been selected special design reactors of "Z" company make,

with inductance values calculated as above, and 2% inductance toleration. The

reactors are provided with taps that allow matching their inductance to the

degree of detuning: 2.5 and 4.5, 2.7 and 4.7, 2.8 and 4.8.

selected parameters using the Matlab software package:

a) For series resonant frequency order equal 2.7 and 4.7 ‑ charts 7,8 and 9

26

Static FC/TCR Compensator for Arc Furnace Compensation

www.leonardo-energy.org

10

6

Z(w) [Ohm]

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

Chart 7. Frequency-impedance characteristics for the degree of detuning 2.7 and 4.7 of the

supply network (blue), the 3-rd harmonic filtering branch (green) and the 5-th harmonic filtering

branch (red); each characteristic determined individually

4.5

3.5

3

Z(w) [Ohm]

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

Chart 8. Frequency-impedance characteristics of the supply network (blue), the 3-rd harmonic

filtering branch (blue), the 5-th harmonic filtering branch (green) and the equivalent impedance

(red)

27

Power Quality

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10

6

Z(n)/Z(wo)

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

Chart 9. Frequency characteristic of the supply network and the filter equivalent impedance

related to the equivalent impedance at f=50Hz

For series resonant frequency order equal 2.5 and 4.5 ‑ charts 10,11 and 12

10

6

Z(w) [Ohm]

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

Chart 10. Frequency-impedance characteristics of the supply network (blue), the 3-rd harmonic

filtering branch (green) and the 5-th harmonic filtering branch (red); each characteristic

determined individually

(red)

28

Static FC/TCR Compensator for Arc Furnace Compensation

www.leonardo-energy.org

4.5

3.5

3

Z(w) [Ohm]

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

Chart 11. Frequency-impedance characteristics of the supply network (blue), the 3-rd harmonic

filtering branch (blue), the 5-th harmonic filtering branch (green) and the equivalent impedance

10

6

Z(n)/Z(wo)

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

f [Hz]

Chart 12. Frequency characteristic of the supply network and the filter equivalent impedance for

the degree of detuning 2.5 and 4.5 related to the equivalent impedance at f=50Hz

29

Power Quality

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The parallel resonance relative frequency for the detuning degree 2.5 and 4.5 is:

• for the 3-rd harmonic filter: 2.64

• for the 5-th harmonic filter: 3.58

• for the 5-th harmonic filter: 2.34

The filter power is:

Q '

=

(UN )

2

=

(6000)

2

= 5.40[ MVar ]

NF 5

X Z (1) 6.67

(62)

and:

X Z 3(1) = X DF 3(1) + X NbatF 3(1) = 6.67[Ω]

(63)

'

QNF 5,4 * 106

I Nbat , F 3 = 3

= = 409.91[ A]

3 * U Nbat 3 * 7600

(64)

(65)

(66)

I n2

409.91[ A] ≥ = 255.01[A]

p 2 − b 2 ku2

(67)

30

Static FC/TCR Compensator for Arc Furnace Compensation

www.leonardo-energy.org

I n2

I NbatF ≥ = k i I batF 3

p 2 − b 2 k u2

(68)

is satisfied.

(U N )2

5 = = 5.94[ MVar ]

'

Q NbatF

X Z (1)

(69)

and:

X Z 5(1) = X DF 5(1) + X NbatF 5(1) = 6.06[Ω]

(70)

'

QNbatF

I Nbat , F 5 = 5

= 451.55[ A]

3 * U Nbat

(71)

(72)

I batF 5 = I12 + I n2 = 358.58[A]

(73)

I n2

451.55[A] ≥ = 281.14[A]

p 2 − b 2 ku2

(74)

I n2

I NbatF ≥ = k i I batF 5

p 2 − k u2

(75)

is satisfied.

Calculations of total harmonic voltage distortion factor THDU have been carried

out as in subsection 4.4.7.

31

Power Quality

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Table 7. Voltage harmonic percentage content and total harmonic voltage distortion

factor THDU for the 3-rd and 5-th harmonic filter

Current harmonic Un for detuning degree Un for detuning degree

order 2.7 and 4.7 2.5 and 4.5

2 8.73 9.32

3 29.63 31.62

4 18.93 8.79

5 6.90 10.81

6 4.43 5.00

7 5.55 6.00

8 5.23 5.56

9 4.76 5.02

10 3.40 3.57

11 5.34 5.60

12 1.69 1.76

13 3.70 3.86

THDU 1.12 1.1

As seen from table 7, the use of the compensator reduced the voltage distortion

factor below the required limit level. Thus, the 3-rd and 5-th harmonic filter is

adequately sized.

compensator

The equivalent circuit for calculation of currents distribution is shown in figure 8.

The actual distribution of currents is tabulated in table 8.

Fig. 8. Schematic diagram of power network supplying the arc furnace and the

designed capacitor banks

32

Static FC/TCR Compensator for Arc Furnace Compensation

www.leonardo-energy.org

Q 'uzbatF 3 = 5.40[MVar]

(76)

Q uzbatF 5 = 5.94[MVar]

'

(77)

(78)

The value 1.07 results from the manufacturing tolerances +/-2% for reactors and

+/- 5% for capacitors.

The output power to be compensated was 11 Mvar.

Q sk = Q p − Q FC = 1 3 ,52 − 12,13 = 1,41[ MVar ]

compensation is:

(79)

Apparent power:

S p' = PP2 + Qsk2 = 10,22[ MVA]

(80)

S p'

'

I obc = = 983,63[ A]

3 *U N

(80)

QSK

tϕ = = 0,14

PP

(81)

z 0 ( n ) * i 0 ( n)

i Fk =

z k ( n)

(82)

where:

iFk – the k-th harmonic filter current;

z0(n) – the equivalent impedance for the n-th harmonic of the power k,

transformer and filters, as seen from the point of the arc furnace

connection;

33

Power Quality

www.leonardo-energy.org

zk(n) – the impedance for the n-th harmonic of the k-th harmonic filter;

iO(n) – the arc furnace n-th harmonic current.

Table 8. The distribution of currents among the filter branches and 6kV network

for the assumed degree of detuning 2.7 and 4.7

Harmonic order F3 [A] F5 [A] Tr [A]

rent [A]

1 759.62 109.21 114.81 983.63

2 21.93 8.47 4.52 8.94

3 32.55 12.84 12.10 7.60

4 9.30 0.84 7.45 1.01

5 38.73 2.19 33.28 3.26

6 8.83 0.89 6.47 1.47

7 7.85 0.93 5.30 1.62

8 5.95 0.75 3.83 1.37

9 4.60 0.60 2.87 1.13

10 2.88 0.39 1.75 0.74

11 4.03 0.55 2.41 1.06

12 1.15 0.16 0.68 0.31

13 2.30 0.32 1.35 0.63

Reactors in the delta arms are divided into two equal parts as in figure 9.

Advantages of such configuration are: better voltage distribution, easy

manufacturing and limiting possible short-circuit currents.

34

Static FC/TCR Compensator for Arc Furnace Compensation

www.leonardo-energy.org

(83)

(84)

(85)

The designed reactor consists of two parts with inductances of 0123 mH each.

the selected reactors are special design reactors of "Z" company make, with

inductance values calculated as above and 2% inductance toleration.

7. Conclusions

• The voltage distortion factor at 6kV during the arc furnace operation without

the compensation circuit is THD = 8.6%, whereas with the compensation

circuit connected THD = 1.1% (the 3-rd and 5-th harmonics are reduced

considerably) confirms proper operation of filters F3 and F5.

• The current loading of F3 filter is 255A and does not exceed its

nominal current of 409A.

• The current loading of F3 filter is 281A and does not exceed its

nominal current of 409A.

It follows from the calculations that the designed compensation system will not

be overloaded with high-harmonic currents and will operate properly. The voltage

distortion is within acceptable limits.

8. References

1. Strojny J., Strzałka J.: Projektowanie urządzeń elektroenergetycznych .

Kraków , Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne, 2008 [Electrical

Power Equipment Design. AGH-UST Publishers, Krakow, 2008.]

2. Piróg S.: Energoelektronika. Układy o komutacji sieciowej i o komutacji

twardej. Kraków, AGH Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne

2006, [Power Electronics. Line Commutated and Hard Commutated

Systems. AGH-UST Publishers, Krakow, 2006]

3. Strzelecki R., Supronowicz H. Współczynnik mocy w systemach zasilania

prądu przemiennego i metody jego poprawy. Warszawa : Oficyna Wydaw.

35

Power Quality

www.leonardo-energy.org

PW, 2000 [Power Factor in AC Power Supply Systems and Methods for its

Improvement. Warsaw University of Technology Publ., Warsaw, 2000.]

4. Klempka R., Stankiewicz A. Modelowanie i symulacja układów dynamicznych :

wybrane zagadnienia z przykładami w Matlabie. Kraków, Uczelniane

Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne AGH, 2007 [Modelling and Simulation

of Dynamic Systems: Selected Problems and Examples in Matlab

Environment. AGH-UST Publishers, Krakow, 2007]

5. Praca zbiorowa: Poradnik inżyniera elektryka. T.2. Warszawa : Wydaw. Nauk.

-Techniczne, 1997 [Joint publication: Electrical Engineer Guide, vol.2.

Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Techniczne, Warsaw, 1997.]

6. Hanzelka Z. Skuteczność statycznej kompensacji oddziaływania odbiorników

niespokojnych na sieć zasilającą. Rozprawy-Monografie. Kraków , Wydaw.

AGH, 1994 Effectiveness of Static Compensation of Fluctuating Loads

Impact on Power System. AGH-UST Monographs, Krakow, 1994.

7. Hanzelka Z., Klempka R.: Pasywne filtry wyższych harmonicznych.

„elektro.info" 6/2003 [Passive High Harmonics Filters. „elektro.info" 6/2003.]

8. Hanzelka Z. JAKOSC ENERGII ELEKTRYCZNEJ CZĘŚĆ 3 - Wahania

napięcia, (http://www.twelvee.com.pl) [Electric Power Quality, Part 3 –

Voltage fluctuations (http://www.twelvee.com.pl]

9. Hanzelka Z. JAKOSC ENERGII ELEKTRYCZNEJ CZĘŚĆ 4 - Wyższe

harmoniczne napięć i prądów (http://www.twelvee.com.pl) [Electric Power

Quality, Part 4 – Voltage and Current High Harmonics (http://

www.twelvee.com.pl]

10. Hanzelka Z. Kompensator statyczny ze sterownikiem prądu indukcyjnego.

Rozprawy elektrotechniczne 34, 1988 [A Static Compensator with Inductive

Current Controller. Electrical Engineering Transactions No.34, 1988]

11. ROZPORZĄDZENIE MINISTRA GOSPODARKI z dnia 4 maja 2007 r. w

sprawie szczegółowych warunków funkcjonowania systemu

elektroenergetycznego [The ordinance of the Minister of Economy of May 4

2007 in the matter of detailed terms and conditions of power system

operation]

12. Norma PN-EN-60871-1:2006 Tytuł: Kondensatory do równoległej

kompensacji mocy biernej w sieciach elektroenergetycznych prądu

przemiennego o napięciu znamionowym powyżej 1 kV, Wymagania ogólne

[Standard EN 60871-1:2005 Shunt capacitors for a.c. power systems having

a rated voltage above 1000 V. General]

13. Geppart A., Polaczek A.: Wskazówki projektowania dotyczące ograniczania

odkształceń i wahań napięcia w sieciach ŚN i nn energetyki zawodowej.

Instytut Energetyki. Warszawa - Katowice 1987 [Design Guidelines

Concerning Voltage Distortion and Fluctuation Mitigation in MV and LV

Power Systems. Institute of Power Engineering, Warsaw‑ Katowice, 1987.]

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