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AP Statistics Midterm Review

Short Answer 1. The histogram below shows the number of major hurricanes that reached the East Coast of the United States from 1944 to 200 . !escribe the sha"e# center# and s"read of the distribution.

Scenario 1-8 $ow much oil wells in a gi%en field will ultimatel& "roduce is 'e& information in deciding whether to drill more wells. $ere are the estimated total amounts of oil reco%ered from () wells in the !e%onian *ichmond !olomite area of the +ichigan basin# in thousands of barrels. The data is "ro%ided in ascending order# along with a dot"lot.
3 13 15 19 21 22 25 31 33 35 35 35 37 37 38 43 43 45 46 48 49 50 50 53 56 57 59 63 65 66 70 70 74 80 82 92 98 157

2. Use Scenario 1,). -hat measures would &ou use to describe the center and s"read of these data. /ustif& &our answer. (. Use Scenario 1,). 0ind the fi%e,number summar& for these data. 4. Use Scenario 1,). 1re there an& outliers. /ustif& &our answer. . Use Scenario 1,). 0or the oil well data# how can &ou tell without doing any calculations# that the mean of these data is larger than the median.

2. Su""ose 4 more %alues were added to the data# each e3actl& e4ual to the mean. -ould this ha%e an& im"act on the standard de%iation. E3"lain# without using an& calculations. Scenario 1-18 5elow are the lengths# in minutes# of the 2 most "o"ular mo%ies# as %oted on b& %isitors to a web site de%oted to mo%ies.
142 175 200 161 154 195 96 133 124 152 201 121 102 146 207 139 130 178 115 112 106 109 165 118 136

6. Use Scenario 1,1). The longest mo%ie on the list# at 206 minutes# is 1'ira 7urosawa8s classic The Seven Samurai. Su""ose its "lace on the list was re"laced b& 1nd& -arhol8s Sleep# which is (21 minutes of a man slee"ing. -ithout "erforming an& calculations# indicate whether each of the following measures of center and s"read would increase# decrease# or remain the same9 mean # median# standard de%iation# inter4uartile range Scenario 2-5 :inet&,eight women and 22 men "artici"ated in a fi%e 'ilometer road race. 5elow are summar& statistics from +initab on their times in the race. Descriptive Statistics: Women, Men
Variabl e Women Men N 98 225 Mean 28.891 24.758 StDev 6.481 5. 26 Minimum 17.717 15. 5 Q1 24.229 21.117 Median 26.917 24. 5 Q3 32.525 27.6 8 Maximum 48.8 48.417

). Use Scenario 2, . Santiago finished in 1st "lace among the men# with a time of 20.9 minutes. 7eisha finished ((rd among women# with a time of 2 .2 minutes. Use "ercentiles and z,scores to com"are Santiago8s and 7eisha8s relati%e standing among men and women# res"ecti%el&. 9. 1 stud& of elite distance runners found a mean bod& weight of 2(.1 'ilograms ;'g<# with a standard de%iation of 4.) 'g. Com"lete the following9 ;a< 1ssuming that the distribution of weights is a""ro3imatel& :ormal# ma'e an accurate s'etch of the weight distribution with the hori=ontal a3is mar'ed in 'ilograms. ;b< Use the 2)>9 >99.6 rule to find the "ro"ortion of runners whose bod& weight is between 4).6 and 26.9 'g. ;c< -hat "ro"ortion of runners ha%e bod& weights below 20 'g. ;d< -hat "ro"ortion of runners ha%e bod& weights abo%e 60 'g. ;e< Calculate and inter"ret the 4 th "ercentile of the runners8 bod& weight distribution. 10. ;a< 0ind the "ro"ortion of obser%ations from a standard :ormal distribution that satisfies S'etch the :ormal cur%e and shade the area under the cur%e that is the answer to the 4uestion. ;b< -hat z,score in a :ormal distribution has ((@ of all scores abo%e it. ? z ? 0.)4.

Scenario 3-1 The scatter"lot below shows the fuel efficienc& ;in miles "er gallon< and weight ;in "ounds< of twent& 2009 subcom"act cars.

11. Use Scenario (,1. As there a clear e3"lanator& %ariable and res"onse %ariable in this setting. Af so# tell which is which. Af not# e3"lain wh& not. 12. Use Scenario (,1. !oes the scatter"lot show a "ositi%e association# negati%e association# or neither. E3"lain wh& this ma'es sense. 1(. Use Scenario (,1. $ow would &ou describe the form of the relationshi". 14. Use Scenario (,1. -hich of the following is closest to the correlation between car weight and fuel efficienc& for these 20 %ehicles. E3"lain. r B > 0.9 r B > 0.2 rB 0 r B 0.4

1 . Use Scenario (,1. There is one Cunusual "ointD on the gra"h. E3"lain what is CunusualD about this car. 12. Use Scenario (,1. -hat effect would remo%ing the Cunusual "ointD ha%e on the correlation. /ustif& &our answer. 16. Use Scenario (,1. Af we con%erted the car weights to metric tons ;1 metric ton 2#20 "ounds<. $ow would the correlation change. E3"lain. Scenario 3-4 The table and scatter"lot below show the relationshi" between student enrollment ;in thousands< and total number of "ro"ert& crimes ;burglar& and theft< in 2002 for eight colleges and uni%ersities in a certain U.S. state. Enrollment ;in 1000s< ;x< 12 2 9 10 14 :o. of Ero"ert& Crimes ;y< 201 2 42 141 1()

22 21 19

201 2(0 294

The e4uation of the least,s4uares regression line is "ro"ert& crimes and x B student enrollment in thousands.

# where

B "redicted number of

1). Use Scenario (,4. Anter"ret the slo"e of the least,s4uares line in the conte3t of the "roblem. 19. Use Scenario (,4. $ow man& crimes would &ou "redict on a cam"us with enrollment of 14 thousand students. Show &our wor'. 20. Use Scenario (,4. 0ind the residual for the cam"us with 14 thousand students and 1() "ro"ert& crimes. Show &our wor'. Anter"ret the %alue of the residual in the conte3t of the "roblem. 21. Use Scenario (,4. -ould the slo"e of the regression line change if the "oint ;22# 201< were remo%ed from the data set. An what direction. 22. Use Scenario (,4. The %alue of for these data is 0.)01. Anter"ret this %alue in the conte3t of the "roblem.

Scenario 3-9 Fne wee'end# a statistician notices that some of the cars in his neighborhood are %er& clean and others are 4uite dirt&. $e decides to e3"lore this "henomenon# and as's 1 of his neighbors how man& times the& wash their cars each &ear and how much the& "aid in car re"air costs last &ear. $is results are in the table below9 +ean 2.4 G9 .(0 Standard de%iation (.6) G(2(. 0

x B number of car washes "er &ear y B re"airs costs for last &ear

The correlation for these to two %ariables is r B ,0.61 2(. Use Scenario (,9. -hat "ercentage of the %ariation in re"air costs can be e3"lained b& the number of times "er &ear a car is washed.

24. Use Scenario (,9. 5ased on these data# can we conclude that washing &our car fre4uentl& will reduce re"air costs. E3"lain. 2 . 1 local radio tal',show host as's %iewers to call in and %ote for or against a "ro"osed "lan to raise the "rices charged b& munici"al "ar'ing meters in a downtown sho""ing district. 6 @ of the res"ondents are o""osed to the increase. !escribe one "ossible source of error or bias that might arise in this "oll and indicate the direction in which the estimate might be biased. -hat is the name for this 'ind of bias. Scenario 4-1 1 medical stud& of heart surger& in%estigates the effect of a drug called a beta,bloc'er on the "ulse rate of the "atient during surger&. The "ulse rate will be measured at a s"ecific "oint during the o"eration. The in%estigators will use 20 "atients facing heart surger& as subjects. Hou ha%e a list of these "atients# numbered 1 to 20# in al"habetical order. 22. Use Scenario 4,1. !escribe the design of a com"letel& randomi=ed# controlled e3"eriment to test the effect of beta,bloc'ers on "ulse rate during surger&. Scenario 4-2 1 famil& restaurant chain wants to test the mar'et for a new menu item9 a grilled chic'en sandwich with chi"otle salsa. The& are interested in both how to mar'et the item and the right "rice to charge for it. The& decide to offer the sandwich at 20 different restaurants in the chain# using two different descri"tions on the menu. $alf the restaurants8 menus will em"hasi=e Chealth& eatingD and half will em"hasi=e C%alue.D These two grou"s of restaurants will be further di%ided in three grou"s# each charging either a $igh# +edium# or Iow "rice for the sandwich. 1fter a month# the& will measure what "ro"ortion of customers order the new sandwich. 26. Use Scenario 4,2. Su""ose the com"an& "lans to conduct a com"letel& randomi=ed design. Iist the e3"erimental units# factors# and treatments in this e3"erimental design. 2). Ereliminar& obser%ational studies ha%e lin'ed consum"tion of caffeine during "regnanc& to a higher incidence of miscarriages. At would be unethical to run a controlled e3"eriment to establish cause and effect in this situation. !escribe two wa&s in which researchers can see' to establish cause and effect that do not in%ol%e e3"eriments. Scenario 4-7 $igh blood "ressure adds to the wor'load of the heart and arteries and ma& increase the ris' of heart attac's. Af not treated# this condition can also lead to heart failure# 'idne& failure# or stro'e. -e wish to test the effecti%eness of 1ngiotensin,con%erting en=&me ;1CE< inhibitors as a treatment for high blood "ressure. 29. Use Scenario 4,6. At is well 'nown that men and women ma& react differentl& to common cardio%ascular drug treatments. -hat sort of e3"erimental design would &ou choose for this stud&# and wh&.

(0. The "robabilit& of rolling two si3,sided dice and ha%ing the sum on the two dice e4ual 6 is ;a< Anter"ret this "robabilit&. ;b< Hou roll two dice si3 times. 1re &ou guaranteed to get a sum of 6 once. E3"lain. Scenario 5-2

Su""ose &ou choose a random U.S. resident o%er the age of 2 . The table below is a "robabilit& model for the education le%el the selected "erson has attained# based on data from the 1merican Communit& Sur%e& from 2002,200). Education le%el attained :o high school di"loma $igh School di"loma or JE! Some college 5achelor8s degree Jraduate or "rofessional degree Erobabilit& 0.20 0.22 0.29 0.19 .

(1. Use Scenario ,2. -hat is the "robabilit& that a randoml& selected "erson has a graduate or "rofessional degree. ;That is# fill in the s"ace mar'ed with a C.D< Show &our wor'. (2. Use Scenario ,2. -hat is the "robabilit& that a randoml&,selected "erson has at least a high school di"loma. Show &our wor'. Scenario 5-4 A%& conducted a taste test for four different brands of chocolate chi" coo'ies. describes which coo'ie each subject "referred and their gender. Coo'ie 5rand 1 5 C 0emale 4 2 1( +ale 22 11 11 Totals 22 16 24 Su""ose one subject from this e3"eriment is selected at random. ((. Use Scenario ,4. 0ind the "robabilit& that the selected subject "referred 5rand C. (4. Use Scenario ,4. 0ind the "robabilit& that the selected subject "referred 5rand C# gi%en that she is female. ( . Use Scenario ,4. 1re the e%ents C"referred 5rand CD and CfemaleD inde"endent. E3"lain. (2. Use Scenario ,4. 1re the e%ents C"referred 5rand CD and CfemaleD mutuall& e3clusi%e. E3"lain. (6. Use Scenario ,4. Af a random sam"le of two subjects is selected# what is the "robabilit& that neither "referred 5rand 1. Scenario 5-5 Ffficials at !i"stic' College are interested in the relationshi" between "artici"ation in ;interscholastic< s"orts and graduation rate. The following table summari=es the "robabilities of se%eral e%ents when a male !i"stic' student is randoml& selected. Event Student participates in sports Student participates in sports and graduates Student graduates, given no participation in sports Probability 0.20 0.18 0.82 5elow is a two,wa& table that ! 1( 14 26 Totals (2 ) 94

(). Use Scenario , . 0ind the "robabilit& that a student graduates# gi%en that he "artici"ates in s"orts. (9. Use Scenario , . 0ind the "robabilit& that the indi%idual does not graduate# gi%en that he "artici"ates in s"orts. 40. The total sales on a randoml&,selected da& at /o&8s To& Sho" can be re"resented b& the continuous random %ariable S# which has a :ormal distribution with a mean of G(200 and a standard de%iation of G 00. 0ind and inter"ret .

Scenario 6-2 /oe the barber charges G(2 for a sha%e and haircut and G20 for just a haircut. 5ased on e3"erience# he determines that the "robabilit& that a randoml& selected customer comes in for a sha%e and haircut is 0.) # the rest of his customers come in for just a haircut. Iet J B what /oe charges a randoml&,selected customer. 41. Use Scenario 2,2. Ji%e the "robabilit& distribution for J. 42. Use Scenario 2,2. 0ind and inter"ret the mean of J# . .

4(. Use Scenario 2,2. 0ind and inter"ret the standard de%iation of J#

Scenario 6-7 The manager of a children8s "u""et theatre has determined that the number of adult tic'ets he sells for a Saturda& afternoon show is a random %ariable with a mean of 2).( tic'ets and a standard de%iation of .( tic'ets. The mean number of children8s tic'ets he sells is 42. # with a standard de%iation of ).1. 44. Use Scenario 2,6. The children8s tic'ets sell for G2. Iet T B the mone& he collects from all tic'et sales ;adults and children< on a random Saturda&. 1ssume ;unrealisticall&# "erha"s< that the number of tic'ets sold to adults is inde"endent of the number sold to children. -hat are the mean and standard de%iation of T. 4 . Use Scenario 2,6. At costs G(00 for the manager to "ut on each "u""et show. Iet P B the "rofit from a random Saturda&8s show. -hat are the mean and standard de%iation of P. 42. !etermine whether the random %ariable described satisfies the conditions for a binomial setting# a geometric setting# or neither. Su""ort &our conclusion. Su""ose that one of e%er& 100 "eo"le in a large communit& is infected with $AK. Hou want to identif& an $AK,"ositi%e "erson to include in a stud& of an e3"erimental new drug. $ow man& indi%iduals would &ou e3"ect to ha%e to inter%iew in order to find the first "erson who is $AK,"ositi%e. 46. !etermine whether the random %ariable described satisfies the conditions for a binomial setting# a geometric setting# or neither. Su""ort &our conclusion. !eal se%en cards from a standard dec' of 2 cards. Iet $ B the number of hearts dealt. 4). *esearch suggests that about 24@ of 12,&ear,olds in the United States can "ic' out the state of Colorado on a ma".

;a< -hat is the "robabilit& that &ou must sam"le e3actl& twel%e,&ear,olds to find the first one who can "ic' out Colorado on a ma". ;b< -hat is the "robabilit& that &ou must sam"le or more twel%e,&ear,olds to find the first one who can "ic' out Colorado on a ma". 49. 1n online "oll re"orted that 20@ of res"ondents subscribe to the Cfi%e,second rule.D That is# the& would eat a "iece of food that fell onto the 'itchen floor if it was "ic'ed u" within fi%e seconds. Iet8s assume this figure is accurate for the entire U.S. "o"ulation# and we select 1 "eo"le at random from this "o"ulation. ;a< !etermine the "robabilit& that e3actl& ( of the 1 "eo"le subscribe to the Cfi%e,second rule.D ;b< 0ind the "robabilit& that less than 4 "eo"le out of 1 subscribe to the Cfi%e,second rule.D ;c< Iet F B the number of "eo"le in our sam"le of 1 who subscribe to the Cfi%e,second rule.D 0ind the mean and standard de%iation for F. 0. Adentif& each underlined number as a "arameter or statistic. Use a""ro"riate notation to describe each number. The :ational Center for $ealth Statistics re"orts that the mean s&stolic blood "ressure for males ( to 44 &ears of age is 12) and the standard de%iation is 1 . The medical director of a large com"an& loo's at the medical records of 62 e3ecuti%es in this age grou" and finds that the mean s&stolic blood "ressure for these e3ecuti%es is 122.06. 1. 1ccording to the 2000 U.S. Census# )0@ of 1mericans o%er the age of 2 ha%e earned a high school di"loma. Su""ose we ta'e a random sam"le of 120 1mericans and record the "ro"ortion# sam"le that ha%e a high school di"loma. of indi%iduals in our

;a< -hat are the mean and standard de%iation of the sam"ling distribution of ;b< -hat is the a""ro3imate sha"e of the sam"ling distribution. /ustif& &our answer. ;c< Su""ose our sam"le si=e was (0 instead of 120. Com"are the sha"e# center# and s"read of this sam"ling distribution to the one in "arts ;a< and ;b<. ;d< Hou li%e in a small town with onl& 00 residents o%er the age of 2 . -hat is the largest "ossible sam"le &ou can ta'e from &our town and still be able to calculate the standard de%iation of sam"ling distribution of using the method "resented in the te3tboo'. E3"lain.

2. The customer care manager at a cell "hone com"an& 'ee"s trac' of how long each hel",line caller s"ends on hold before s"ea'ing to a customer ser%ice re"resentati%e. $e finds that the distribution of wait times for all callers has a mean of 12 minutes with a standard de%iation of minutes. The distribution is moderatel& s'ewed to the right. Su""ose the manager ta'es a random sam"le of 10 callers and calculates their mean wait time# ;a< -hat is the mean of the sam"ling distribution of ;b< As it "ossible to calculate the standard de%iation of Af it is# do the calculation. Af it isn8t# e3"lain wh&. ;c< !o &ou 'now the a""ro3imate sha"e of the sam"ling distribution of Af so# describe the sha"e and justif& &our answer. Af not# e3"lain wh& not. (. The weights of Jrann& Smith a""les from a large orchard are :ormall& distributed with a mean of ()0 gm and a standard de%iation of 2) gm. ;a< 1 single a""le is selected at random from this orchard. -hat is the "robabilit& that it weighs more 400 gm. ;b< Three a""les are selected at random from this orchard. -hat is the "robabilit& that their mean weight is greater than 400 gm..


E3"lain wh& the "robabilities in ;a< and ;b< are not e4ual.

AP Statistics Midterm Review Answer Section

SH R! A"S#$R 1. 1:S9 The distribution is s'ewed right and has single "ea' at 2 hurricanes and a range of ) hurricanes. *E09 Lui= 1.21 2. 1:S9 Use median and inter4uartile range# since the distribution is s'ewed# there is a strong outlier# and these measures are resistant to outliers . *E09 Lui= 1.(1 (. 1:S9 +in. B ( L1 B ( +ed. B 46 L( B 2 +a3. B 1 6 *E09 Lui= 1.(1 4. 1:S9 1. 3 AL* B 1. 3 (0 B 4 M ( > 4 B >10 ;no low outliers<M 2 N 4 B 110 so 1 6 is an outlier. *E09 Lui= 1.(1 . 1:S9 Since the mean is not resistant to the strong outlier to the right# it will be higher than the median# which is not influenced b& the outlier. *E09 Lui= 1.(1 2. 1:S9 The new %alues would ha%e de%iations of 0 from the mean. Since the standard de%iation is a measure of the a%erage de%iation from the mean# it would be reduced b& the inclusion of 4 more 08s into the calculation. *E09 Lui= 1.(C 6. 1:S9 +ean and standard de%iation will increase# median and inter4uartile range will not change. 0or an&one watching the mo%ie# life will imitate art. *E09 Test 1C ). 1:S9 Santiago8s "ercentile is 0O22 B 22.2 and his z,score is ;20.9 > 24.6 )<O .022 B >0.66. 7eisha8s "ercentile is (2O9) B (2.2 and her z,score is ;2 .2 > 2).)91<O2.4)1 B >0. 6. Since lower finish times are better# Santiago had a better finish among men than 7eisha had among women.

*E09 Lui= 2.1C 9. 1:S9 ;a< See gra"h in solutions for P1a# Lui= 2.21 on TES4 website or T*5. ;b< 4).6 is ( standard de%iations below 2(.1# so 99.6O2 or 49.) @ or the scores are between 2(.1 and 4).6. 26.9 is 1 standard de%iation abo%e the mean# so 2)O2 or (4@ of the scores are between 2(.1 and 26.9. Thus 49.) N (4 B )(.) @ of the scores are between 4).6 and 26.9. ;c< z,score for 20 is # which ;b& Table 1< has a "ercentile of # "ercentile

0.2 6)# so about 22@ of the runners ha%e weights below 20 'g. ;d< =,score for 60 is which ;b& Table 1< has 1 > .92 1 B 0.0649 or about 6. @ of the scores abo%e it. ;e< The 4 corres"onds to z B > 0.1(. This corres"onds to a weight of >0.1(;4.)< N 2(.1 B 22.462 'g. So about 4 @ of the runners ha%e weights below 22. 'g. *E09 Lui= 2.21 10. 1:S9 ;a< Ero"ortion B 0.6(40. See gra"h for P2a# Lui= 2.21 on TES4 website or in T*5. ;b< z B 0.44. *E09 Lui= 2.21


11. 1:S9 Car weight is the e3"lanator& %ariable# 0uel efficienc& is res"onse. -e e3"ect a car8s weight to be a major factor in determining its fuel efficienc&. *E09 Lui= (.11 12. 1:S9 The association is negati%e. This ma'es sense because it ta'es more fuel to mo%e a hea%ier car. *E09 Lui= (.11 1(. 1:S9 The form is linear# with the e3ce"tion of one outlier in the y ;fuel efficienc&< direction. *E09 Lui= (.11 14. 1:S9 r B >0.2. The relationshi" is negati%e# but because of the outlier it is not as high as >0.9. *E09 Lui= (.11 1 . 1:S9 This car has remar'abl& high fuel efficienc&Qfar better than an& other car in the data set ;An fact# it8s a gas, electric h&brid<.

*E09 Lui= (.11 12. 1:S9 *emo%ing this "oint would ma'e the correlation much closer to >1. *E09 Lui= (.11 16. 1:S9 This would not change the correlation at all# since the units in which %ariables are e3"ressed has no im"act on the correlation. 1). 1:S9 0or each 1000,student increase in enrollment# the "redicted number of "ro"ert& crimes increases b& 21.)(. *E09 Lui= (.21 19. 1:S9 crimes. *E09 Lui= (.21 20. 1:S9 . The actual number of "ro"ert& crimes at this college is number of crimes "redicted b& this linear model. *E09 Lui= (.21 21. 1:S9 That "oint has a high# "ositi%e residual# so it tends to C"ullD the line toward it. *emo%ing it would reduce the slo"e. *E09 Lui= (.21 22. 1:S9 )0.1@ of the %ariation in "ro"ert& crimes can be accounted for b& the regression of "ro"ert& crimes on enrollment. *E09 Lui= (.21 2(. 1:S9 # or 0.41@. *E09 Test (1 24. 1:S9 :o. Since this was not a controlled e3"eriment# there could be lur'ing %ariables that are res"onsible for the association obser%ed here. Eerha"s the fre4uenc& with which dri%ers wash their cars is confounded with other good car,maintenance habits# such as changing the car8s oil fre4uentl&. .04 fewer than the

*E09 Test (1 2 . 1:S9 Fnl& those listeners with strong o"inions are li'el& to call in. The "oll "robabl& o%erestimates o""osition to the increase. This is bias arising from %oluntar& res"onse. *E09 Lui= 4.11 22. 1:S9 Use a random number table to choose ten 2,digit numbers from 01 to 20# ignoring re"eats. The "atients with these numbers will recei%e the beta,bloc'er during their o"eration. The remaining 10 "eo"le will act as a control grou" and will not recei%e the beta bloc'er. +easure "ulse rate of all "atients at the s"ecified "oint in the o"eration# and com"are the difference in mean "ulse rate for the two grou"s. *E09 Lui= 4.21 26. 1:S9 E3"erimental units9 the 20 restaurants. 0actors9 menu descri"tion and "rice. Treatments9 $ealth&,$igh "rice# $ealth&,+edium "rice# $ealth&,Iow "rice# Kalue,$igh "rice# Kalue,+edium "rice# Kalue,Iow "rice. *E09 Lui= 4.21 2). 1:S9 Jood general categories9 establish a strong association between caffeine consum"tion and miscarriages in a wide %ariet& of studiesM establish a "lausible mechanism for the im"act of caffeine on miscarriagesM show the association e3ists in studies that stratif& for "ossible lur'ing %ariables# such as other health factors that ma& be confounding with caffeine consum"tion. Student answers will vary. *E09 Lui= 4.(1 29. 1:S9 1 randomi=ed bloc' designQbloc'ing b& genderQwill reduce the im"act that differences between the res"onses of men and women to the treatment might ha%e on %ariabilit& arising from random assignment. *E09 Test 41 (0. 1:S9 ;a< Af two dice were rolled man&# man& times# the "ro"ortion of rolls that resulted in the sum on the dice e4ualing 6 would be about one si3th. ;b< :o. -hile we can "redict the "ro"ortion of 68s rolled in the long run# the "ro"ortion of 68s rolled in the short run is un"redictable. *E09 Lui= .11 (1. 1:S9 Since all the "robabilities in the sam"le s"ace must add u" to 1# E;Jraduate or "rofessional degree< B 1 > 0.90 B 0.10. *E09 Lui= .21

(2. 1:S9 Fne "ossible method9 using the com"lement rule# this is 1 > E;:o high school di"loma<# or 1 > 0.20 B 0.)0. *E09 Lui= .21 ((. 1:S9

*E09 Lui= .(1 (4. 1:S9

*E09 Lui= .(1 ( . 1:S9 :o9 *E09 Lui= .(1 (2. 1:S9 :o. The occurrence of one e%ent does not "reclude the occurrence of the otherM it8s "ossible that a subject "refers 5rand C and is also female. That is *E09 Lui= .(1 (6. 1:S9 2) subjects did not "refer brand 1# so *E09 Lui= .(1 (). 1:S9 .

. *E09 Lui= .(1 (9. 1:S9 . See tree diagram in solutions for P2# Lui= .(1 on TES4 website or in T*5.

*E09 Lui= .(1 40. 1:S9 This is the "robabilit& that the total sales on a randoml&,selected da& e3ceeds G4000. *E09 Lui= 2.11 41. 1:S9 J P(J) 20 0.1 (2 0.)

*E09 Lui= 2.11 42. 1:S9 / B the mean amount of mone& /oe can e3"ect to ma'e "er customer in the long run B

*E09 Lui= 2.11 4(. 1:S9 / B the a%erage distance from the mean ;G(0.20< for each indi%idual customer B

*E09 Lui= 2.11 44. 1:S9

*E09 Lui= 2.21 4 . 1:S9 M *E09 Lui= 2.21 42. 1:S9 This is a geometric setting9 %inar& outcomes ;$AK or not<# 'nde(endent trials ;one "erson8s condition does not influence condition of ne3t randoml&,selected indi%idual<# we are counting the number of !ria)s to the first $AK case# and the "robabilit& of S*ccessQfinding a "erson who is $AK,"ositi%eQis alwa&s 0.01. *E09 Lui= 2.(1 ;not changed b& subtracting a constant<.

46. 1:S9 This is neither binomial nor geometric# because each trial is not inde"endent of "re%ious trials since it is done without re"lacement9 the suit of the first card influences the "robabilit& of a heart on the second card# and so on. *E09 Lui= 2.(1 4). 1:S9 +a< Jeometric setting with pB 0.249 M or . ;b< E4ui%alent to

*E09 Lui= 2.(1 49. 1:S9 ;a< F is binomial with n B 1 and p B 0.20. ;b< ;c< *E09 Lui= 2.(1 0. 1:S9 is a "arameterM *E09 Lui= 6.11 1. 1:S9 ;a< ;b< Since normal. ;c< would not change# and # the distribution is a""ro3imatel& is a "arameterM is a statistic. # .

would be larger ;0.06(< and the distribution would be non,:ormal# since

# which is less than 10. ;d< The largest sam"le we can ta'e is 0# otherwise the sam"le would be more than 10@ of the "o"ulation# and sam"ling without re"lacement would re4uire a finite "o"ulation correction to calculate standard de%iation. *E09 Lui= 6.21 2. 1:S9 ;a< minutes ;the same as the "o"ulation mean<.

;b< Hes. At seems reasonable to assume that the sam"le of 10 is less than 10@ of the entire "o"ulation calls. . ;c< :o. The "o"ulation distribution is s'ewed# and n B 10# which is not large enough for the central limit theorem to a""l&. *E09 Lui= 6.(1 (. 1:S9 ;a<

;b< . ;c< The mean weight of a random sam"le of three a""les is less %ariable than the weight of a single randoml&,selected a""le# so we are less li'el& to get a mean weight that is 20 gm abo%e the mean when we ta'e a sam"le of three a""les. *E09 Lui= 6.(1