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GTL.F1 Technology Synthetic Fuels via the GTL.F1 Fischer-Tropsch Process
GTL.F1 Technology Synthetic Fuels via the GTL.F1 Fischer-Tropsch Process

GTL.F1 Technology

Synthetic Fuels via the GTL.F1 Fischer-Tropsch Process

Highlights of GTL.F1’s Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch Process Complete technology packages and services

Highlights of GTL.F1’s Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch Process

Complete technology packages and services can be offered through synergies of the technology portfolio of the GTL.F1 partners, Lurgi and PetroSA, ranging from feedstock treatment to product upgrading. Synthetic fuels generated with GTL.F1’s Fischer-Tropsch technol- ogy from biomass, coal and gas as possible feedstocks are the alternative to oil based fuels and diesel with regard to combustion characteristics (high cetane num- ber and high motor efficiency) and eco-friendliness (free from sulfur and aromatics). The technology has progressed and matured to a point allowing for the new phase of licensing, engineering and commercial operation.

GTL.F1 stands for “Gas-to-Liquids” and implicates the application of the fuel products in Formula 1. With GTL.F1’s Fischer-Tropsch process not only the transfor- mation of gas-to-liquids (GTL) but also of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and of biomass-to-liquids (BTL) are possible. GTL.F1 has successfully run the worldwide biggest semi-com- mercial demonstration plant in Mossel Bay, South Africa. The know-how gained in the semi-commercial demon- stration plant will be implemented in the prototype of the biomass unit Bure Saudron in France.

GTL.F1’s Fischer-Tropsch technology is a state-ot-the-art process with a slurry reactor and a cobalt catalyst devel- oped by the GTL.F1. The Swiss registered company GTL.F1 is responsible for the commercial development, marketing and licensing of the new Fischer-Tropsch technology and developed Fischer-Tropsch catalyst.

Our Service GTL.F1 brings its customers the simplicity of a single source for global scale
Our Service GTL.F1 brings its customers the simplicity of a single source for global scale
Our Service GTL.F1 brings its customers the simplicity of a single source for global scale

Our Service

GTL.F1 brings its customers the simplicity of a single source for global scale Gas-to-Liquids, Biomass-to- Liquids and Coal-to-Liquids plants by providing the following services:

World-class syngas generation technology from natural gas The most modern Fischer-Tropsch synthesis technology The supply of a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst that meets the most arduous of specifications.

Technology with which to upgrade the Fischer-Tropsch product to high performance diesel and chemical grade naphtha. The taking back and treatment of spent Fischer-Tropsch catalyst Conceptual design Basic and Front End Engineering Packages The supply of Fischer-Tropsch proprietary equipment Assistance with commissioning and start-up Ongoing operational support

Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) offers a Solution to Increased Diesel Demand

Low Temperature

Fischer-Tropsch

LPG 5-10 % Naphtha 20-25 % Middle Distillates 70-75 %
LPG 5-10 %
Naphtha 20-25 %
Middle
Distillates 70-75 %

High Temperature

Fischer-Tropsch

LPG 1 % Alcohols 9 % Gasoline 48 % Middle Distillates 39 % Fuel Oil
LPG 1 %
Alcohols 9 %
Gasoline 48 %
Middle
Distillates 39 %
Fuel Oil 3 %
Crude Equivalent LPG 1 % Naphtha 9 % Gasoline 30 % Middle Distillates 40 %
Crude Equivalent
LPG 1 %
Naphtha 9 %
Gasoline 30 %
Middle
Distillates 40 %
Fuel Oil 20 %
Semi-Commercial Demo Plant The demonstration plant uses synthesis gas produced by the existing

Semi-Commercial Demo Plant

The demonstration plant uses synthesis gas produced by the existing GTL plant and the product is integrated into the existing product refining, blending and storage facilities.

Production capacity up to 1,000 bbl/d of oil and wax Demo-phase 2004-2008 Demonstration cost 95 mill Euro Technology licensor GTL.F1

The GTL.F1 Reactor

The GTL.F1 Fischer-Tropsch reactor comprises a vessel partly filled with a slurry of liquid wax and catalyst. Syngas of the correct stoichiometric makeup is bubbled into the bottom of the reactor and, on its passage through the slurry, reacts in the presence of the catalyst to form pre- dominantly normal alkanes of varying carbon number. The longer chain alkanes make up the wax in the reactor and the net production is separated from the slurry by means of

a filtration system of proprietary design. The heat of reac-

tion is removed, and the reaction temperature controlled, by generating medium pressure steam in a heat transfer surface immersed in the slurry. Shorter chain alkanes, together with the water of reaction, pass out of the reactor as vapour with the remaining unreacted syngas.

Erecting the FT Reactor for the GTL.F1 Demonstration Plant

Advantage of Slurry Bubble Column vs. Fixed-Bed Reactor

higher capacity higher productivity / volume easier construction less expensive higher catalyst efficiency better heat transfer almost isothermal lower dp

catalyst efficiency better heat transfer almost isothermal lower dp Slurry Reactor Concept 4

Slurry Reactor Concept

micro- Scanning electron graph of the catalyst The GTL.F1 Catalyst In summary, the cobalt catalyst-slurry

micro-

Scanning electron

graph of the catalyst

The GTL.F1 Catalyst

In summary, the cobalt catalyst-slurry reactor combination has proven to be successfull, and the technology has been brought to a level where it can be confidently used for industrial applications.

GTL.F1’s experience has also confirmed that the idea of carrying out a demonstration at a semi-commercial scale was well founded, as up-scaling aspects were identified that would not have been apparent even if a large pilot plant had been used.

Successful Bid for BTL Bure

Biomass, such as agricultural residue, is pretreated to reduce moisture and particle size. It is then converted into so-called Syngas using a gasification reactor, a process that begins with the production of a flame reaction under high pressure and temperatures above 1300° C through the addition of oxygen and steam. The next step involves removing CO 2 and impurities such as sulfur from the syngas.

The pure syngas that results is then converted, using the Fischer-Tropsch technology from GTL.F1. It then becomes a green wax that is subsequently upgraded during down- stream processes, resulting in a diesel product of the highest quality and purity.

Mastering the Scale-up Challenge

Attrition of FT catalyst

Laboratory Semi- Catalyst (relative) Attrition Rate
Laboratory
Semi-
Catalyst (relative)
Attrition Rate

commercial

Increasing Reactor Diameter

Attrition Rate commercial Increasing Reactor Diameter Scale-up of Wax Separation System Laboratory Semi-

Scale-up of Wax Separation System

Laboratory Semi- Sustainable Rate Wax (relative) Separation
Laboratory
Semi-
Sustainable Rate Wax (relative) Separation

commercial

Increasing Reactor Diameter

System Laboratory Semi- Sustainable Rate Wax (relative) Separation commercial Increasing Reactor Diameter 5
History The GTL.F1 FT technology development started with early R&D work by Statoil
History The GTL.F1 FT technology development started with early R&D work by Statoil

History

The GTL.F1 FT technology development started with early R&D work by Statoil from 1986 onwards. As a result, one of the first patents in the area of modern FT has been filed for the proprietary cobalt catalyst on alumina support with rhenium as promoter and for the three-phase slurry bubble column reactor. Today, GTL.F1’s IPR portfolio includes patents for catalysts, reactor components and the conver- sion process itself.

The participating interests in the joint venture are now Pet- roSA 50 percent and Lurgi 50 percent. PetroSA is owner of the until recently largest GTL plant which they operate in Mossel Bay, South Africa. Lurgi is bringing into the joint venture its know-how from earlier FT activities and vast experience in commercializing first-of-its-kind technologies.

GTL.F1

GTL.F1 is a Swiss-registered limited company established in

2005 and jointly owned today by PetroSA and Lurgi.

GTL.F1 offers an integrated concept for GTL technology comprising Lurgi’s MegaSyn technology, its proprietary low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch technology based on cobalt catalyst, and product upgrading.

For BTL and CTL, we offer our slurry Fischer-Tropsch process integrated with upgrading technology licensed from a 3rd party.

The Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Limited, known as PetroSA,
The Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Limited, known as PetroSA,
The Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Limited, known as PetroSA,

The Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (Pty)

Limited, known as PetroSA, is South Africa's national oil company.

It owns, operates and manages the South African government's

commercial assets in the petroleum industry.

PetroSA is a pioneer in the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology, recog-

nised internationally for operating the first commercial GTL plant.

The refinery has been in operation since 1992. It is one of the

world’s largest GTL refineries, producing about 36,000 bbls day of

high quality fuels from Natural Gas and Condensate. The GTL

refinery not only boasts with both High Temperature (HT) and Low

Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) technologies, but also with the

Conversion of Olefins to Distillate (COD) technology.

www.petrosa.co.za

Lurgi GmbH is a member of the Global Engineering & Construction

(E&C) division of Air Liquide. ‘Air Liquide Global E&C Solutions’ is a

leading engineering company and a technology provider operating

worldwide in the fields of process engineering and plant contract-

ing.

Based on syngas, hydrogen production and clean conversion tech-

nologies for fuels or chemicals, the Lurgi technology portfolio offers

innovative solutions that allow operation of environmentally com-

patible plants with clean and energy-efficient production processes.

With its proprietary MegaSyn ® concept, a key Lurgi technology was

developed allowing ultra-large capacities suitable for Fischer-

Tropsch and other down-stream applications. Furthermore,

Air Liquide Global E&C Solutions can supply the oxygen required

for syngas production either from an air separation unit (ASU) inte-

grated in the project or supply over the fence (OTF).

We are continually exploring and developing possibilities to achieve

still larger syngas capacities at significantly lower capital and oper-

ating costs. In this light, we designed the syngas units for most

Fischer-Tropsch plants currently in operation worldwide.

Air Liquide Global E&C Solutions www.lurgi.com

Lurgi is a member of the Air Liquide Group.

Contact:

GTL.F1 AG

Witikonerstrasse 61 8032 Zurich

Denis Cieutat Managing Director Phone: +49 (0) 69 5808-2333 · Fax: +49 (0) 69 5808-2766 E-mail: denis.cieutat@gtlf1.com