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INTRODUCTION:

Heat exchangers are devices that provide the flow of thermal energy between two or more
fluid streams at different temperatures. The fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they
never mix, or directly contacted. They have generally no external heat and work interactions.
Typical applications are heating or cooling of a fluid stream and evaporation or condensation
of a single or multicomponant fluid streams. Other applications are sterilization, pateurization,
distillation, cyristallization or controlling a process fluid. They are widely used in
refrigeration, air conditioning, space heating, electricity generation and chemical processing.
Heat Exchanger Classification :
The classification of heat exchangers is based on the basic operation, construction, heat
transfer, and flow arrangements, due to the large number of configurations of heat
exchangers. This classification as outlined by Kakac and iu !"##$% willbe discussed&
'ecuperators and regenerators
Transfer processes& direct contact or indirect contact
(eometry of construction& tubes, plates, and extended surfaces
Heat transfer mechanisms& single phase or two phase flow
)low *rrangement& parallel flow, counter flow, or cross flow
+n this pro,ect, + studied on the shell and tube heat exchangers.The shell and tube heat
exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. *s its name implies this type of heat
exchanger consists of a shell !a large tube% with a series of small tubes inside it. Two fluids
with different initial temperatures flow through the exchanger. One through the tubes and the
other through the shell. Heat is transferred from one fluid to the other.This is a great way for
conservation of energy.
-hell and tube heat exchangers are employed when a process re.uires large .uantities of
fluid to be heated or cooled. /ue to their compact design, these heat exchangers contain a
large amount of heat transfer area and also provide a high degree of heat transfer efficiency.
They are commonly used as oil coolers, power condensers, preheaters and steam generators in
both fossil fuel and nuclear0based energy production applications, and also used in the air
conditioning and refrigeration industry.
"
There can be many variations on the shell and tube design. 1ost are either one, two or four
pass designs. This refers to the number of times the fluid in the tubes passes through the fluid
in the shell. +n a single pass heat exchanger, the fluid goes in one end and out the other. Two
and four pass designs are common because the fluid can enter and exit on the same side. This
makes construction much simpler.
*ccording to flow types of fluid through,they can be classified into two ma,or sections. +n
parallel0flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at one end, and flow through
in the same direction and leave together at the other end while in counter0flow heat
exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends. The counter current design is
most efficient since they allow the highest log mean temperature difference between the hot
and cold streams. 1any companies however do not use them because they can break easily in
addition to being more expensive to build. Often multiple heat exchangers can be used to
simulate the counter current flow of a single large exchanger.
)igure.".shell and tube exchanger
2
2. PARAMETER AND CA!CU!ATION
*ssumptions&
3egligible heat transfer from surroundings
3o heat generation within the system
4onstant properties
3o stored energy
3egligible kinetic and potential enery changes
3o phase change
Ta"le #. $i%en Para&eters
567 8thylene glycol 9ater
1ass flow rate mh, mc !kg:s% 6,7;< calculated
Temperature in Ti, ti !K% 6=6,"; 2#$,";
Temperature out To, to !K% 6"6,"; 6"$,";
-pecific Heat, 4ph, 4pc !,:kg K% 2#62 >"$7
/ynamic ?iscosity @ !3 s:m2% 7,777;=< 7,777#7=
Thermal 4onductivity k !9:m K% 7,>$< 7,<"
density A !kg:m6% "77$ ##$
'fouling !m2 K:9% 7,7772; 7,777"
Ta"le 2. Data 'or Cost Calc(lation
4u !B:kg% 7,7772
4i!B:3 m% 7,7777777>>
4o!B:3 m% 7,7777777>>
-f 7,";
Kf !":year% 7,2
9u !kg:h% "26>=,7<7>
Hy !hour:year% =777
Ta"le ). Design Para&eters
+nside diameter of the tube, +/ !m% 7,722
Outside diameter of the tube O/ !m% 7,72>
+nside shell diameter !+/shell % !m% 7,<
Tube Citch Ct !m% 7,6
3umber of tubes 3t <6
3umber of shell passes 3s "
6
3umber of baffles 3b ;
Daffle -pacing D !m% 7,76
3umber of Tube pass n 2
Thermal 4onductivity k !9:m K% carbon steel is assumed <7,;
Thermal 4onductivity 4ao !B:m2% 2$;
2.#. Calc(lation of Heat Transfer Rate:
The needed heat transfer amount can be calculated from E
.hFmhG4phG!Ti0To%F ;6=<"",;2 9
This value e.uals to the heat transfer for water because of no heat generation and storageE
.cF.h
mcF.c:!4pcG!to0ti%%F <,>67=;#$7# kg:s
2.2. Calc(lation of Correction 'actor ':
)or the case 3s F 3umber of shell passes F" and 'H"E
TiF6=6."; K ToF6"6."; K
tiF2#$."; K toF6"$."; K
i o
o i
t t
T T
R

F 6
i i
i
t T
t t
P

7
F 7,2<<<<<<<=
s
s
N
N
x
P
RP
R
P
RP
P
: "
: "
"
"
"
"
"
1
]
1

1
]
1

F 7,2<<<<<<<=

1
1
]
1

+
+ +

,
_

,
_

" " % : 2 !
" " % : 2 !
ln
% " !
% " !
ln
"
"
2
2
2
R R P
R R P
RP
P
R
R
F
x
x
x
x
F 7,<$$#"=>;#
2.). Calc(lation of T("e i*e Heat Transfer Coefficient+ hi:
To determine the type of hi formula 'et must be calculated for the tube sideE
'et F!>Gmc%:!3tGIG!+/%GJc%F <;"6,6"2""#
>
)or the caseE
2"77 K 'et K "7777
LF 'et:"777F<,;"66"2""#
[ ]
2;< . 7
% "7 : ! "
6 2
. "7
% 72"$; . 7 62;<= . 7 7=; . 6 7$ . 6 !
X
i
L
ID
x X X X B

,
_

+ +
F
"$,62#$;<;=
Decause of the absence of value, firstly an initial length is assumed and the formulas that
are related on length are calculated with this initial value. )inally, length value is calculated in
the excel program by the method of trial0error.
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

66 . 7
" . "<
k
C
k B
ID
h
p
i i

F
">#;6,"276<
2.,. Calc(lation of T("e i*e Press(re Dro-:
Cressure drop of water can be calculated. 1ain parameter that affects friction factor is
'eynolds 3umber of water.
)or the caseE
'et H"777 then, tube side fraction factor is, ft&
2;"> . 7
'e
772$ . 7
t
t
f
F 7,77767=$="
Tube side pressure drop, MCt&
*cF!IG+/2:>%G3t F7,726#>$6<" m
2
*cF*t
(tFmc:*tF 2<$,;2<7#;" kg:m
2
.s
% !
. . . . ;7> . 7
2
ID
n L G f
P
t t
t

F 6,##6#>>6=6 Ca
The pressure drop of return losses, MCr&
2
2; . "
t r
V n P
?tFmc:!pG*c%F 7,2<#7<>22> m:s
2
2; . "
t r
V n P
F "$7,<2<#"62 Ca
Total pressure drop&
r t total
P P P +
F "$>,<27$;=; Ca
;
2... Calc(lation of hell i*e Heat Transfer Coefficient+ ho:
*fter calculating tube side values, shell side calculations must be done. )irst step of this
calculation is e.uivalent diameter.
8.uivalent diameter, /e, for a s.uare pitch&
OD
OD P
D
T
e
.
% > : ! >
2 2


F 7,726=><>$6 m
4learance between the tubes, 4&
4FCt0O/F 7,77< m
-hell flow area, as&
)or " shell pass and 2 tube passes, the shell area is calculated as
T
shell
s
P
B C ID
a
. .

F 7,776< m
2
-hell side heat transfer coefficient, ho&

,
_

,
_

,
_

66 . 7 ;; . 7
7
6< . 7
k
C
G D
k
D h
p
s e e

(sFmh:asF $>$,$$$$$$# kg:m


2
s
hoF 6;7$,7<##=; 9:m2K
-hell side friction factor, fs&
'esF/eG(s:@hF 6>##<,=>;<=
'esH;77 then
fsF7,"";#:'es
7,"$;#=
F7,7"<;;$$<=
-hell side pressure drop&
s
e
B shell s s
s
N
D
N ID G f
P

,
_

+

.
% " %! !
G ;" . 7
2

F #";,2<">2;< Ca
-hell side velocity&
?sFmh:!AGas%F 7,$>2";"<=; m:s
2./. Calc(lation of O%erall Heat Transfer Coefficient+ U:
The formula for og 1ean Temperature difference&
MTlm F !MT20MT"%:ln!MT2:MT"% F !MT"0MT2%:ln!MT":MT2%
<
MT"F Ti0to
MT2F To0ti
TiF 6=6,"; K ToF 6"6,"; K tiF 2#$,"; K toF 6"$,"; K
NTlmF 67,=$<2"7#2 K
":!OG*%F":!OoG*o%F!)GMTlm%:.F 7,77776#>;" 9:K
+nside heat transfer area of tubes, *iFIG+/GG3t
Outside heat transfer area of tubes, *oFIGO/GG3t
+nside heat transfer area of one tube, *iPFIG+/G
Outside heat transfer area of one tube, *oPFIGO/G
":!OoG*oP%F!":hiG*iP%Q!'fi:*iP%Q!!ln!O/:+/%%:!2GIGkG%% Q!'fo:*oP%Q!":hoG*oP%
! ":hiG*iP % F ":!hiGIG+/G%
! 'fi:*iP % F !'fi:IG+/G%
! 'fo:*oP % F !'fo:IGO/G%
! ":hoG*oP % F ":!hoGIGO/G%
R":!OoGO/%SF R":!hiG+/%SQR'fi:!+/%SQR!ln!O/:+/%%:!2Gk%S QR'fo:!O/%SQR":!hoGO/%S
R":!hiG+/%SF 7,77676#$76 m K:9
R'fi:!+/%SF 7,77>;>;>;; m K:9
R!ln!O/:+/%%:!2Gk%SF 7,777="#"72 m K:9
R'fo:!O/%SF 7,7"7>"<<<=m K:9
R":!hoGO/%SF 7,7""$==6=< m K:9
R":!OoGO/%SF 7,767;#$>76 m K:9
!OoGO/%F 62,<$">>>"$ 9:m K
OoF "6<",=2<$>"9:m
2
K
OoG*oF 2;6>$,7$6$2 9:K
*oF "$,<"><<"26 m2
*oFIGO/GG3tF "$,<"><<"26 m
2
F 6,#"$$766= m
2.0. Calc(lation of Heat !oss:
Dy calculating the heat loss with *o and Oo, the results can be checked.
.FOG*G!)GMTlm%F OoG*oG!)GMTlm%F ;6=<"",;2 9
This value is e.ual to the first heat transfer rate that is calculated from the formula of
.hFmhG4phG!Ti0To%. The e.uivalent demonstrates the accuracy of results.
=
2.1. Calc(lation of Cost:
4tF!*oGKfG4aoG!"Q-f%%Q!9uGHyG4u%Q!*oG8iGHyG4i%G6<77 Q!*oG8oGHyG4o%G6<77
!B:year%
8iFMCtG?tF >#,<=>$<=<$ 3:ms
8oFMCsG?sF ==7,=$$#>6" 3:ms
4tF 6;>>7,6#<>; B:year
).REU!T AND DICUION

TableE
Table >. 'esults after optimization
+nside diameter of tube !m% 7.722
Outside diameter of tube !m% 7,72>
+nside shell diameter !m% 7,<
Tube pitch !m% 7,76
Tube length !m% 6,#"$$766=
3umber of shell "
$
3umber of passes 2
3umber of tubes <6
3umber of baffles ;
Daffle spacing !m% 7.76
Tube side -hell side
?elocity !m:s% 7,2<#7<>22> 7,$>2";"<=;
'eynolds number <;"6,6"2""# 6>##<,=>;<=
Cressure drop !Ca% "$>,<27$;=; #";,2<">2;<
Heat transfer coefficient !9:m2K% ">#;6,"276< 6;7$,7<#<=;
Overall heat transfer coeff. !9:m2K% "6<",=2<$>"
Outside area of the unit !m2% "$,<"><<"26
Heat transfer rate !9% ;6=<"",;2
4ost !B:year% 6;>>7,6#<>;
)iguresE
hi vs Nt
14000
14200
14400
14600
14800
15000
15200
15400
15600
15800
16000
60 61 62 63 64 65 66
Nt
h
i
hi (W/m^2K)
)igure.2. hi versus 3t graph

#
+n this study number of tubes is main design parameter. *ccording to )igure.2 hi decreases
when number of tubes increases. hi depends on 'eynolds number and 'eynolds and it
changes with different tube numbers. Therefore, changing number of tubes affects the hi value
inversely proportional.
ho vs Nt
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
60 61 62 63 64 65 66
Nt
h
o
ho (W/m^2K)
)igure.6.ho versus 3t graph

This graph shows that ho value is constant with increasing number of tubes because the
parameters that affect the ho value does not depend on tube number.
Uo vs Nt
1352
1354
1356
1358
1360
1362
1364
1366
1368
1370
1372
60 61 62 63 64 65 66
Nt
U
o
Uo
)igure.>.Oo versus 3t graph
"7
)igure > indicates the relation between Oo and 3t. Oo decreases while 3t increases
according to this plot. Oo is directly related on hi and ho values. Decause of the fact that hi
decreases and ho remains constant with increasing 3t, an increase in Oo value is observed.
P vs Nt
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
60 61 62 63 64 65 66
Nt

P
P (Pa)
)igure.;. MC versus 3t graph

Total pressure drop e.uals to summation of pressure drop of return losses and tube side
pressure drop. Cressure drop of return losses is related with the velocity of tube side and tube
side pressure drop depends on tube side 'eynold number and length. /uring the optimization
tube side velocity remains constant whereas 'eynold number and length decrease with
increasing tube number. *s a result, total pressure drop inversely proportional with tube
number as it is seen in )igure ;.
""
Ao(m^2)
18,5
18,55
18,6
18,65
18,7
18,75
60 61 62 63 64 65 66
Nt
A
o
Ao(m^2)
)igure.<.*o versus 3t graph

)igure < illustrates the relation between *o and 3t. *n increase in 3t leads to an increase
in *o value. The main reason of this behaviour of *o is that the formula of OoG*o must be
constant in any condition. /ue to the inverse ratio between Oo and 3t, *o and 3t are directly
proportional.
Cost vs Nt
35438
35440
35442
35444
35446
35448
35450
35452
60 61 62 63 64 65 66
Nt
C
o
s
t
Cost, Ct
($/!a")
)igure.=.4ost versus 3t graph

The results of the optimization indicates that the minimum value of cost is 6;>>7,>7
B:year when the the tube number is <6 which is its optimum value in )igure =. +n the formula
"2
of cost, 8o and *o are the most significant parameters. /uring optimization *o value arises
as in )igure < and 8o decreases as in the calculations. Op to the optimum 3t value, decreasing
in the 8o is much more effective than increasing in the *o.However, after this optimum point,
opposite situation is valid. Therefore, cost is decrasing upto optimum tube number value and
after this value an increase is observed for cost.
,.CONC!UION

"6
)or this heat exchanger design, carbon steel is selected due to its low cost and higher
thermal conductivity. 8xcept from carbon steel, the other materials can be used for the desired
stainless properties. +n addition, " shell 2 tube pass heat exchanger type and s.uare pitch are
assumed.
+n calculations, the tube number range between <" and <; provides holding the 'eynolds
number between 2"77 and "7777. +n this case the flow is turbulent and the cost is cheaper.
1oreover, the increase in baffle number has an increasing effect on cost value. This is the
reason of choosing ; baffles for this design.
The aim of this study is to calculate the minimum cost. +n order to reach cost, the length
should be calculated. /ue to the fact that 'eynolds number is between 2"77 and "7777, we
approached accurate length by trial0error method using excel program.
To sum up, optimization results reveal that by increasing the number of tubes, tube side
and overall heat transfer coefficients decrease whereas shell side heat transfer coeeficient
remains constant. *lso, a decrease in total pressure drop is observed while the outside area of
the unit increases with increasing tube number. *t the end of the optimization, the tube
number is tried to be optimized to approach minimum cost value.

,. RE'ERENCE
">
http&::www.the0engineering0page.com
http&::www.cheresources.com:designexzz.html
http&::en.wikipedia.org:wiki:-hellTandTtubeTheatTexchanger
).C. +ncropera, /.C. /ewitt, T.. Dergman, *.-. avine, )undamentals of Heat and
1ass Transfer.
4. 4aputo, C. 1. Celagagge, C. -alini, Heat exchanger design based on economic
optimisation, *pplied Thermal 8ngineering. 277=
";