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Thursday, 04/07/2013

Generic process to be modified before it can be used. As the basic of all Instructional Design models. Each step in this model contains a question set where the answers will be the guidance for the next steps. Questions and answers will guide the design scopes; curriculum, course, module or teaching session. Consists of 5 steps/stages: Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation Requirement analysis What is the problem? How to solve it? Task analysis What is the content? Strategy analysis What is to be learned?



What is the objective? How to measure the achievement of the objective? What is the teaching strategy to achieve objective? What are the most effective media and method?


Materials What is the content of the media? How the form of the media? Evaluation Does it meet the standard? Does learning occur? How to make it better?

Thursday, 04/07/2013


Do the students ready to follow the course?


Has the problem solved? What is the impact? What should be changed?

EXPLANATIONS 1. Analysis Stage Teaching problems are explained Objectives and teaching goals are set Identifying the learning environment and students existing experiences Examples question: Who is the target group and what are the characteristics? What is the learning outcome? What is the delivery strategy option? How long the implementation?

2. Design Stage Attention is given to learning objectives, assessment tools, exercises, contents, T&L planning, and media selection. Must be implemented systematic & thorough 3. Development Stage Selection and integration of selected contents and technologies Program/project will undergo test and trial process The feedback result will be used to make the program/project better

4. Implementation Stage Training procedure is created It includes; understand curriculum, learning outcomes, media use, delivering techniques, evaluation process for teachers. Students registration, media use, tool preparation, book and suitable sources. All tools need to be use and well-function 5. Evaluation Stage Formative; throughout the ADDIE process/steps Summative; in form of tests for specific domain; feedback from users or students The discoveries of objectives & expectations of learners.

Thursday, 04/07/2013

Classroom-based instructional design Help teachers to plan teaching & learning effectively ASSURE stands for/ consist of 6 steps: Analyse learners State objectives Select method, media and materials Utilise media and materials Require learner response/participation Evaluate and revise materials

Analyse learner

general characteriustics knowledge/existing experiences learning styles

State objectives

ABCD concepts Classifying objectives individual objectives & differences determine the appropriate method for the learning task choose the right media for the method selected choose the specified media modify the media design the media preview the materials prepare the materials set up the environment prepare the students provide learning experiences involve students in learning activities such as drills, discussions, quizzes, projectsand etc. reinforcement is given after receiving response from the students aspects of students achievement learning outcomes evaluate media and methods media quality teachers' usage students' usage 3

Select methods, media and materials

Utilise media and materials

Require Learner Participation

Evaluate and Revise

Thursday, 04/07/2013 EXPLANATIONS 1. Analyse Learners 1. General Characteristics Help teachers to plan, select, develop and evaluate media effectively Include age, year/level, class, stream, gender, socio-economic background, culture, interests and attitudes etc. Teacher can find out the general characteristics through the interaction with the students, observations or review the existing students records. Example: subject & actions - kinaesthetic activities; simulations, role-playing, acting & video presentation for group discussion. 2. Prerequisite Competency Related to students experiences and knowledge Have a great impact on students learning process Teacher can identify it through pre-test at the beginning of the lessons, question and answer session or interaction with the students. 3. Learning Styles Refer to Dunn and Dunn (1992) standard measurement of learning styles Refer to the psychological traits and styles that explain how individuals perceive, interact and react emotionally to the learning environment. Example: auditory learning style is more suitable for students who prefer verbal commands or reading aloud. 2. State the objective Refers to the learning outcomes of what students have achieved after learning a topic Should be stated clearly and specifically to help teacher to: i. Select appropriate media and delivery method ii. Provide the positive learning environment iii. Evaluate the learning achievement Formulated using ABCD concept: i. Audience (target group-students) ii. Behaviour (students behaviours can be seen as results; visible & measurable) iii. Conditions (conditions to be fulfilled in order to achieve the desired behaviour) iv. Degree (minimum level of behavioural achievement) Objectives should be focused on the skills or the ability to think, and the students attitudes, feelings, physical & interpersonal skills Example: Explain at least 3 of the 5 effects of air pollution after reading the newspaper quotation given. 3. Select methods, media and materials Steps involve: i. Determine the appropriate type of technology to be used ii. Select appropriate methods for teaching and learning iii. Choose appropriate forms of media for the selected method iv. Select, modify and design the selected media

Thursday, 04/07/2013 4. Utilise/using technology, media and teaching and learning materials 5 steps need to be considered to ensure the media is optimally used: i. Preview material before using it in classroom ii. Provide equipment and make sure it works and have the ability or skills to use it iii. Provide appropriate environment iv. Prepare the students v. Provide the learning experiences 5. Require/encourage student participation Teacher must engage students with variety activities including drills, discussion, group work, and so on. Teacher should provide opportunities for students to participate in the planned activities Reinforcement activities should be given to the students immediately after the students give correct response 6. Evaluate and review the effectiveness of teaching and learning Evaluation involves the following aspects: i. Evaluating students achievements based on students performances (set specified objectives) the performance in terms of students skills and attitudes ii. Learning product iii. Evaluating media and method iv. Media quality v. Usage by teachers vi. Usage by students Evaluation occurs throughout the T&L process, before, during and after (via practice reflection); formative Aim: to ensure the selection of objectives, media and resources are appropriate to student ability Evaluation during the teaching process can be done through observation of students learning behaviours Teachers can modify or take other alternative if problem arise to improve T&L Make reflections and students feedbacks

By: Name : Nur Amylea Syazlina Binti Ismail Class : PISMP BI (TESL) 2 January 2011 Intake Subject: EDU3105