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Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Page 1

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Code Details - Tubesheets/Expansion Joints


Component: Front Tubesheet Rules for the Design of Fixed Tubesheets
ASME VIII-1 2011a UHX-13 Fig.UHX-13.1(b) Controlling Case: UHX-13.4(a)(7)

*** Tubesheet material:


Tubesheet temperature T
TubSh allowable stress S
TubSh mod.elasticity
E
Poisson's rat. tubSh
v

=
=
=
=

SA-516 K02700 Grd 70 Plate


300 F
TubSh metal tmp at rim T'= 300 F
20000 psi
*TubSh th.ex.coe. alpha = 6.9
28100000 psi *TubSh th.ex.coe. alpha' = 6.9
0.3
*(th.exp.coef * 10**6)

*** Shell material:


Design temp. shell
Shell allowable str.
Shell mod.elasticity
Poisson's ratio shell

Ts
Ss
Es
vs

=
=
=
=

SA-516 K02700 Grd 70 Plate


230 F
Shell metal tmp/TubS T's
20000 psi
*Shell th.ex.coe.alpha's
28450000 psi Shell mean metal tmp Tsm
0.3
*Shell th.ex.coe.alphasm

*** Tube material:


Design temp. tubes
Tt
Tube allow.Str. at Tt St
Tube mod.elas. at Tt Et
Poisson's rat. tubes vt
Tube yield stress
Syt

=
=
=
=
=

SA-214 K01807 Wld. tube


300 F
Tubes mean metal tmp Ttm
13412 psi
Tube allow.Str. at T Stt
28100000 psi Tube mod.elas. at T Ett
0.3
*Tube th.ex.coe.alphatm
23000 psi
*(th.exp.coef * 10**6)

*** Channel material:


Design temp. channel
Channel all. stress
Channel mod.elast.
Poisson's rat.channel

=
=
=
=

SA-516 K02700 Grd 70 Plate


300 F
Channel metal tmp TS T'c = 300 F
20000 psi
*Chan.th.ex.coe.alpha'c = 6.9
28100000 psi
*(th.exp.coef * 10**6)
0.3

Tc
Sc
Ec
vc

*** Adjacent shell matl:


Adj Shell all. str. Ss,1 = -

Tubesheet thickness

=
=
=
=

230 F
6.76
230 F
6.76

=
=
=
=

300 F
13412 psi
28100000 psi
6.9

*Shell th.ex.coe.alpha's1= 0.0


*Shell th.ex.coe.alpha'sm1=0.0

h = 2.625 in

Actual tubesheet thk

ha = 2.625 in

Shell side corr allow c = 0.125 in


SS TubSh corr allow
cs = 0.125 in

Tube side cor.allow.


TS TubSh corr allow

c = 0.0625 in
ct = 0.125 in

Shell diameter, Ds
Channel diameter, Dc
Shell thickness, ts
Adjacent shell thk ts,1
Channel thickness, tc

Corroded case
48.25 in
48.125 in
0.375 in
0.0 in
0.4375 in

Minimum TubSh thk, hmin


Thickness h used
Tubesheet OD

2.0645 in
2.375 in
A = 61.75 in

Uncorroded case
48.0 in
48.0 in
0.5 in
0.0 in
0.5 in
2.0779 in
2.625 in

Bolt circle diam.

C = 58.25 in

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Shell gasket diam.


Gs
Gasket reaction diam. G
Number of tubes
Nt
Pass partition groove hg
Tube outside diam.
dt
Tube pitch
p
Tube projection
tpr
Tube length L
L
Tube expanded depth ltx
Tube buckling factor
k
Outermost tube rad.
ro
Shell radius
as
Exp.joint spring rate kj

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

55.5 in
1874
0.1875 in
0.75 in
1.0 in
0.125 in
354.5 in
2.5 in
1
23.375 in
24.0 in
-

Page 2

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Channel gasket diam. Gc


Gasket reaction diam. G1
Flange load
W*
Eff.tube side groove h'g
Tube thickness
tt
Center-to-center dis UL
Tube corrosion allow. c
Tube length Lt
Lt
Tube exp.depth ratio rho
Unsupported tube span l
Unsupp.length lt=k*l lt
Channel radius
ac
EJ diameter
Dj

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

55.5 in
55.5 in
1356078 lbf
0.0 in
0.083 in
1.5 in
359.75 in
0.952
30.0 in
30.0 in
27.75 in
-

Pressure cases:
Shell pressure, Ps = 130 psi
Shell vacuum pr.Psv= -

Tubes pressure, Pt = 120 psi


Tubes vacuum pr.Ptv= -

Controlling tubesheet thickness case:


Shell pressure, Ps = 130 psi
UHX-13.5.1 Step 1.

Tubes pressure, Pt = 120 psi

Determine Do, Mu, Mu* and h'g from UHX-11.5.1.

Do = 2 * ro + dt
Do
mu = (p - dt) / p
mu
d* = MAX(dt-2*tt*(Ett/E)*(Stt/S)*Rho),(dt-2*tt))
d*
Pass lane area limit
4*Do*p
Actual pass lane area, AL
AL
Effective pitch = p/SQRT(1-(4*MIN[AL,4*Do*p]/Pi*Do**2))
p*
mu* = (p* - d*) / p*
mu*
h'g = MAX[(hg-ct),(0)]
h'g

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

47.5 in
0.25
0.644 in
190 in2
71.25 in2
1.0207 in
0.3691
0.0 in

=
=
=
=
=

23.75 in
1.0105
1.1684
0.5328
0.7167

Calculate ao, rhos, rhoc, xs and xt


ao =
rhos
rhoc
xs =
xt =

radius of the perforated region = Do / 2


= as/ao
= ac/ao
1 - Nt*(dt/(2*ao))**2
1 - Nt*((dt-2*tt)/(2*ao))**2

ao
rhos
rhoc
xs
xt

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Page 3

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

UHX-13.5.2 Step 2. Calculate the shell axial stiffness Ks, tube axial
stiffness Kt, and stiffness factors Ks,t and J
Shell axial stiffness, Ks = PI*ts(Ds+ts)*Es/L
Ks =
Ks* = PI*(Ds+ts)/((L-2*l1)/(Es*ts)+(2*l1/(Es,1*ts,1)) Ks* =
Tube axial stiffness, Kt = PI*tt(dt-tt)*Et/L
Kt =
Factor Ks,t = Ks/(Nt*Kt) or Ks*/(Nt*Kt)
Ks,t =
J = 1 / (1 + (Ks/Kj))
J =

6114031 lbf/in
13786 lbf/in
0.2367
1.0

Calculate shell coefficients betas, ks, lambdas and deltas


betas = (12*(1-vs**2))**0.25 / ((Ds+ts)*ts)**0.5
betas =
ks = betas*(Es*ts**3)/(6*(1-vs**2))
ks =
lambdas=(6*Ds/h**3)*ks*(1+h*betas+(h**2*betas**2)/2) lambdas =
deltas = (Ds**2/(4*Es*ts))*(1-vs/2)
deltas =

0.3691
240436
9335281
0.0000344

Calculate channel coefficients betac, kc, lambdac and deltac


betac = (12*(1-vc**2))**0.25 / ((Dc+tc)*tc)**0.5
betac =
kc = betac*(Ec*tc**3)/(6*(1-vc**2)
kc =
lambdac=(6*Dc/h**3)*kc*(1+h*betac+(h**2*betac**2)/2) lambdac =
deltac = (Dc**2/(4*Ec*tc))*(1-vc/2)
deltac =

0
0
0
0

NOTE: If the effect of plasticity used, Es or Ec will be Es* or Ec*


UHX-13.5.3 Step 3. Calculate h/p. If rho changes, recalculate d* and mu*
from UHX-11.5.1. Determine E*/E and v* relative to h/p from UHX-11.5.2
Layout: Triangular

Tubesheet thickness

From fig. UHX-11.2 or UHX-11.3 - E*/E = 0.3725


h/p = 2.625
Effective Tubsheet Mod.Elasticity E* = 10467052 psi
Parameter Xa = (24*(1-(v*)**2)*Nt*(Et*tt*(dt-tt)*
ao**2)/((E*)*L*h**3))**0.25

h = 2.625 in
v* = 0.3193
mu* = 0.3691

Xa = 4.794

UHX-13.5.4 Step 4. Calculate diameter ratio K and coefficient F.


K = A / Do
F = ((1-v*)/E*)*(lambdas+lambdac+E*Ln(K))

K = 1.300
F = 1.086

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Page 4

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Parameters Zd, Zv, Zw and Zm from Table UHX-13.1


Psi1(Xa)=bei(Xa)+(1-v*)/Xa*ber'(Xa)
Psi2(Xa)=ber(Xa)-(1-v*)/Xa*bei'(Xa)
Za
Zd
Zv
Zw
Zm

=
=
=
=
=

Psi1(Xa) = 0.3509
Psi2(Xa) = -4.9581

bei'(Xa)*Psi2(Xa)-ber'(Xa)*Psi1(Xa)
(ber(Xa)*Psi2(Xa)+ bei(Xa)*Psi1(Xa))/(Xa**3*Za)
(ber'(Xa)*Psi2(Xa)+ bei'(Xa)*Psi1(Xa))/(Xa**2*Za)
(ber'(Xa)*ber(Xa)+ bei'(Xa)*bei(Xa))/(Xa**2*Za)
(ber'(Xa)**2+bei'(Xa)**2)/(Xa*Za)

Za
Zd
Zv
Zw
Zm

=
=
=
=
=

17.7908
0.0139
0.0445
0.0445
0.307

Phi
Q1
Qz1
Qz2
U

=
=
=
=
=

1.4334
-0.0369
3.2352
8.7434
17.4868

Calculate Q1, Qz1, Qz2 and U


Phi = (1+v*) * F
Q1 = (rhos-1-Phi*Zv)/(1+Phi*Zm)
Qz1 = ((Zd+Q1*Zw)*Xa**4)/2
Qz2 = ((Zv+Q1*Zm)*Xa**4)/2
U = ((Zw+(rhos-1)*Zm)*Xa**4)/(1+Phi*Zm)
UHX-13.5.5 Step 5.
UHX-13.5.5(a) Calculate gamma (shown is max value for all cases)
gamma = (alphatm*(Ttm-Tamb)-alphasm*(Tsm-Tamb))*L
(= 0 used for load cases 1, 2, 3)

gamma = 0.1792 in

UHX-13.5.5(b) Calculate omegas, omegas*, omegac, omegac*


omegas = rhos*ks*betas*deltas*(1+h*betas)
omegas* = ao**2*((rhos**2-1)*(rhos-1))/4-omegas
omegac = rhoc*kc*betac*deltac*(1+h*betac)
omegac* = ao**2*(((rhoc**2+1)*(rhoc-1))/4(rhos-1)/2)-omegac

omegas = 6.0783
omegas* = -6.0469
omegac = 0.0

omegac* = 53.2049

UHX-13.5.5(c) Calculate gammab


gammab = (Gc-C)/Do

gammab = -0.0579

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Fig.UHX-13.1(b)

Page 5

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Controlling Case: UHX-13.4(a)(7)

UHX-13.5.6 Step 6. For each loading case calculate Ps', Pt', Pgamma, Pw,
Prim, and effective pressure Pe.
Ps' = (xs+2*(1-xs)*vt+(2/Kst)*(Ds/Do)**2*vs(Rhos**2-1)/(J*Kst)-((1-J)/(2*J*Kst))*
(DJ**2-Ds**2)/Do**2 ) * Ps

Ps' = 430.65 psi

Pt' = (xt+2*(1-xt)*vt+1/(J*Kst))*Pt

Pt' = 613.47 psi

Pgamma

= (Nt*Kt/(Pi*ao**2))*gamma

Pgamma = 2612.09 psi

PW

= -(U/ao**2)(gammab/(2*Pi))*W*

Prim

= -(U/ao**2)*((omegas*)(Ps)-(omegac*)(Pt))

PW = 387.37 psi
Prim = 222.3 psi

Effective pressure, Pe
Pe =

J*Kst/(1+J*Kst(Qz1+(rhos-1)Qz2))
* (Ps'-Pt'+Pgamma+PW+Prim)

Pe = 402.36 psi

UHX-13.5.7 Step 7. For each loading case calculate Q2 and Q3.


Q2 = ((omegas*)*Ps-(omegac*)*Pt)((omegas*(Ps*)-omegac*(Pc*))+
(gammab/(2*Pi))*(W*)/(1+Phi*Zm)
Q3 = Q1 + 2*Q2 / (Pe*ao**2)

Q2 = -13656.3809
Q3 = -0.1573

Using Xa and Q3, determine coefficient Fm for each loading case from
either Table UHX-13.1 or Figs. UHX-13.3.-1 and UHX-13.3.-2.
Controlling x for Fm, x = 4.794

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

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Fm(x) = (Qv(x) + Q3 * Qm(x)) / 2


Fm = MAX|Fm(x)|

Fm(x) = -0.0786
Fm = 0.0786

For each loading case, calculate the bending stress in the tubesheet
sigma = (1.5*Fm/mu*)*(2*ao/(h-h'g))**2 * Pe

sigma = 42107 psi


|sigma| <= 2*Sy
42107 psi <= 67200 psi

UHX-13.5.8 Step 8. For each loading case, calculate the maximum shear
stress in the tubesheet across the tubesheet diameter
Area enclosed by perimeter
Perimeter of the tube layout
Shear diameter, Dia = DL or Do
|Pe| = 402.36
3.2*S*mu*h/Do = 884.21
Ligament efficiency, mu

DL = 4*AP/CP

AP
CP
DL
Do
Dia

=
=
=
=
=

1604.74 in2
154.7128 in
41.4896 in
47.5 in
47.5 in

mu = (p-dt)/p = 0.25
Controlling x for FQ, x = 4.794

FQ(x) = (Qb(x) + Q3 * Qa(x))


FQ = MAX|FQ(x)|

FQ(x) = 1.0
FQ = 1.0

Shear stress at periphery,

tau = ( 1/(4*mu))*(Dia/h)*Pe tau = 7281 psi

Max shear across diameter,

tau = (FQ/(4*mu))*(Dia/h)*Pe tau = 7281 psi


|tau| <= 0.8*S
7281 psi <= 16000 psi

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

UHX-13.5.9 Step 9.

Page 7

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Perform this step for each loading case.

UHX-13.5.9(a) Check the axial tube stress.


UHX-13.5.9(a)(1) For each loading case determine coefficient Ft,min
and Ft,max from Table UHX-13.2 and calculate the two extreme values
of sigmat,1 and sigmat,2. These values may be positive or negative
Ft(x) = [Zd(x)+Q3*Zw(x)]*(Xa**4/2)

for 0 <= x <= Xa

Ft,min = MIN[[Zd(x)+Q3*Zw(x)]*(Xa**4/2)]
Ft,max = MAX[[Zd(x)+Q3*Zw(x)]*(Xa**4/2)]

Ft,min = -0.2709
Ft,max = 1.8349

UHX-13.5.9(a)(1)(a) When Pe <> 0:


sigmat,1 = ((Ps*xs-Pt*xt)-Pe*Ft,min)/(xt-xs)
sigmat,2 = ((Ps*xs-Pt*xt)-Pe*Ft,max)/(xt-xs)

sigmat,1 = 502 psi


sigmat,2 = -4105 psi

UHX-13.5.9(a)(2) Determine sigmat,max


sigmat,max = MAX(|sigmat,1|,|sigmat,2|)
Allowable tube stress in tension

sigmat,max = 4105 psi


St = 26824 psi

UHX-13.5.9(b) Check the tube-to-tubesheet joint


UHX-13.5.9(b)(1) Calculate the tube-to-tubesheet joint load, Wt
Wt = sigmat,max*Pi*(dt-tt)*tt

Wt = 714 lbf

UHX-13.5.9(b)(2) Determine the maximum allowable load for the


tube-to-tubesheet joint design Lmax
UW-18(d) max
UW-20
max
App.A max No
App.A max

load
=
load
=
test load =
test load =

2333 lbf
2799 lbf
Lmax = 2333 lbf

UHX-13.5.9(c) Check the tubes for buckling.


UHX-13.5.9(c)(1) Calculate largest buckling length lt
Tube buckling factor
Unsupported tube span

k = 1
l = 30.0 in

lt = largest unsupported buckling length = k*l

lt = 30.0 in

UHX-13.5.9(c)(2) Calculate rt, Ft and Ct


rt = SQRT(dt**2+(dt-2*tt)**2)/4
Ft = lt/rt
Ct = SQRT(2*PI**2*(Et/Syt))
UHX-13.5.9(c)(3) Determine the factor of safety Fs
Fsc = (3.25-0.25*(Zd+Q3*Zw)*Xa**4) = 2.3387

rt = 0.2376 in
Ft = 126.242
Ct = 155.2938

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Fs = MAX((1.25, Fsc)

Page 8

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(Fs need not be > 2)

Fs = 2.0

UHX-13.5.9(c)(4) Determine the buckling stress limit Stb


For Ct <= Ft
For Ct > Ft

Stb = MIN[(1/Fs)*(PI**2*Et/(Ft**2),St]
Stb = MIN[(Syt/Fs)*(1-Ft/(2*Ct)) ,St]

Stb = Stb = 6826 psi

UHX-13.5.9(c)(5) Determine sigmat,min


sigmat,min = MIN(sigmat,1 , sigmat,2)

sigmat,min = -4105 psi


|sigmat,min| <= Stb
4105 psi <= 6826 psi

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Page 9

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

UHX-13.5.10 Step 10. For each loading case, calculate the stresses in the
shell and /or channel integral with the tubesheet.
Calculate the axial membrane stress sigmasm, axial bending stress sigmasb
and total axial stress sigmas in the shell at its junction to the tubesheet
sigmasm = ao**2/[ts*(2*as+ts)]*[Pe+(rhos**2-1)
*(Ps-Pt)]+as**2/[ts*(2*as+ts)]*Pt

sigmasm = 12214 psi

sb1 = (6/ts**2)*ks
sb2 = betas*deltas*Ps
sb3 = 6*(1-(v*)**2)/(E*)*(ao**3/h**3)*(1+(h*betas/2))
sb4 = Pe*(Zv+Zm*Q1)+(2/ao**2)*Zm*Q2
sigmasb = sb1*(sb2+sb3*sb4)
sigmasb = 4499 psi
sigmas = |sigmasm| + |sigmasb|

sigmas = 16714 psi


sigmas <= 2*Sy
16714 psi <= 68880 psi

ASME VIII-1 2011a UHX-13 - Rules for the Design of Fixed Tubesheets
ASME Fig.UHX-13.1(b)
All Load Cases
Controlling case:
Load case:
Tubeside press, Pt
Shellside press, Ps
Axial diff.Th.Exp

120
0
0.0

0
130
0.0

120
130
0.0

***
7

0
0
0.1792

120
0
0.1792

0
130
0.1792

120
130
0.1792

TubSh Bending stress


Max TubSh Bending st
Min TubSh thk

-16258
30000
1.9489

2905
30000
0.8599

17795
30000
2.0361

30232
67200
1.7607

39339
67200
2.0084

33000
67200
1.8395

42107
67200
2.0779

TubSh Shear stress


Max TubSh Shear str
Min TubSh thk

-1079
16000
0.1902

1090
16000
0.2414

1163
16000
0.1136

7186
16000
1.179

6191
16000
1.0156

8276
16000
1.3578

7281
16000
1.1945

Tubesheet thickness

2.625

2.625

2.625

2.625

2.625

2.625

2.625

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Page 10

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Component: Front Tubesheet


ASME Fig.UHX-13.1(b)
All Load Cases
Load case:

Tubes controlling:
Tubes stress st,1
Tubes stress st,2
Max Tubes tens.str
Max Tubes comp.str

-1035
1752
13412
10921

538
-560
13412
7497

1192
-645
13412
6826

819
-5022
26824
6826

-37
-3636
26824
6826

***
1357
-5582
26824
6826

502
-4105
26824
6826

Shell controlling:
Total shell stress
Max shell stress
Max shell stress EP

29419
30000
68880

15572
30000
68880

16778
30000
68880

21342
68880

20356
68880

***
36914
68880

16714
68880

Channel controlling:
Total channel stress
Max channel stress
Max channel str. EP

EP factor - Facts(*)
EP factor - Factc(*)

1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0

(*) <= 1 used in calculations

Tube stress across the tubesheet diameter (0 <= x <= Xa)


Load case:
Ft,min
Ft,max

-2.425
9.487

-0.494
2.858

sigmat,1
Location x

-1035
2.013

538
0.096

1192
4.794

sigmat,2
Location x

1752
4.794

-560
4.794

Maximum stress
Max buckling stress

13412
10921

13412
7497

-13.702 -0.379
5.92
2.326

-0.232
1.703

-0.394
2.396

-0.271
1.835

819
0.096

-37
0.096

1357
0.096

502
0.096

-645
2.589

-5022
4.794

-3636
4.506

-5582
4.794

-4105
4.698

13412
6826

26824
6826

26824
6826

26824
6826

26824
6826

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

File: C:\Users\designer\Desktop\CPF PORTATIL\he-20 mech.EDR

Shell axial membrane stress, sigmasm


Load case:
|sigmasm|
Allowable stress
(JE*S) JE = 0.85
Compression:
sigmasm
Allowable stress

ASME VIII-1 2011a

1791
17000

1465
17000

3256
17000

9237
40000

10749
40000

10703
40000

12214
40000

UHX-13 - Fixed Tubesheets - All Cases


Ps
psi

Pt
psi

Gamma
in

0
130
130
0
0
130
130

120
0
120
0
120
0
120

0
0
0
0.1792
0.1792
0.1792
0.1792

Load case

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Units: psi

Load case

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Page 11

P's
psi

P't
psi

0
430.7
430.7
0
0
430.7
430.7

613.5
0
613.5
0
613.5
0
613.5

Pgamma
psi
0
0
0
2612.1
2612.1
2612.1
2612.1

Pomega
psi
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Ps*
psi

Pc*
psi

W*
lbf

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

317150
0
317150
1356078
1356078
1356078
1356078

Pw
psi
90.6
0
90.6
387.4
387.4
387.4
387.4

Prim
psi
197.9
24.4
222.3
0
197.9
24.4
222.3

Pe
psi
-43
60.2
17.2
397.1
342.1
457.4
402.4

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

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Load case

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Q2

Q3

-6462.9
-545.9
-7008.8
-8676.9
-13110.5
-9222.8
-13656.4

0.4957
-0.0691
-1.4799
-0.1144
-0.1728
-0.1084
-0.1573

Fm

Sigma
psi

0.2706
0.0345
0.74
0.0572
0.0864
0.0542
0.0786

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Sigma All
psi

-16258
2905
17795
30232
39339
33000
42107

30000
30000
30000
67200
67200
67200
67200

Page 12

FQ

1.3865
1
3.7318
1
1
1
1

Tau
psi

Tau All
psi

-1079
1090
1163
7186
6191
8276
7281

16000
16000
16000
16000
16000
16000
16000

ASME VIII-1 2011a UHX-13 - Fixed Tubesheets - All Cases


Load case

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Fs

1.25
1.8209
2
2
2
2
2

Ft,min

-2.425
-0.494
-13.702
-0.379
-0.232
-0.394
-0.271

Load case

Sigsm
psi

Sigsb
psi

1791
1465
3256
9237
10749
10703
12214

-27629
14106
-13522
12105
-9607
26211
4499

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Ft,max

Sigt,1
psi

Sigt,2
psi

9.487
2.858
5.92
2.326
1.703
2.396
1.835

-1035
538
1192
819
-37
1357
502

1752
-560
-645
-5022
-3636
-5582
-4105

|Sigs| Sigsall
psi
psi
29419
15572
16778
21342
20356
36914
16714

30000
30000
30000
68880
68880
68880
68880

Sigcm
psi

Sigcb
psi

Sigt,All
psi
13412
13412
13412
26824
26824
26824
26824

|Sigc|
psi
-

Stb
psi
10921
7497
6826
6826
6826
6826
6826

Sigcall
psi
-

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Page 13

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Type of tube-to-TS joint: 'k' - Expanded with no grooves


Load case:
Wt tube-TS Load, lbf
Allowable no-test
Allowable test
Factor k
Max load K*At*Sa

1
305
1166
1400
1
2333

2
97
1166
1400
1
2333

3
207
1166
1400
1
2333

4
873
2333
2799
2
4665

5
632
2333
2799
2
4665

6
971
2333
2799
2
4665

7
714
2333
2799
2
4665

Allowable Loads per ASME Section VIII Div.1 2011a Appendix A


No Test
Type
Joint description
fr
Lmax
fr
a
Welded only a >= 1.4t
0.8
3732
1
b
Welded only t <= a < 1.4t
0.55
1283
0.7
b-1 Welded only a <= t
0
0 *
0.7
e
Welded a >= 1.4t and expanded
0.8
3732
1
f
Welded a < 1.4t exp.with 2 grooves 0.75
3499
0.95
g
Welded a < 1.4t exp.with 1 groove
0.65
3032
0.85
h
Welded a < 1.4t exp.with no grooves 0.5
2333
0.7
i
Expanded with 2 grooves
0.7
3266
0.9
j
Expanded with 1 groove
0.65
3032
0.8
k
Expanded with no grooves
0.5
2333
0.6
* = Load calculated exceeds code allowable for this joint type.
For joints types a,b,b-1,c,d,e :
Lmax = At*Sa*fr
For joints types f,g,h,
:
Lmax = At*Sa*fe*fr*fy
For joints types i,j,k
:
Lmax = At*Sa*fe*fr*fy*ft
Cross-sectional area At
Max stress St = At*Sa St
Tubesheet yield str. Stt
fe = (ltx/do or 1)
fe
ft = (Po+Pt)/Po
ft
ft = used (0<ft<=1)
ft
Tube OD
do
Tube thickness
t
Tubes Mod.Elasticity EtT
Tubes Coef.Th.Exp.(*) at
Friction coefficient muF

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.1739 in2
2333 psi
33600 psi
1
1
1
0.75 in
0.083 in
28100000 psi
6.9
0.5

Test
Lmax
4665
1633
3266
4665
4432
3965
3266
4199
3732
2799

Tube allowable stress Sa = 13412 psi


Tube yield stress
Stu
Min Yield Str. (Stt,Stu)
fy = Stt/Stu
fy = used (0<fy<=1)
fy
Expanded length
ltx
TubSh mean metal tmp
T
TubSh Mod.Elast.
EsT
TubSh Coef.Th.Exp.(*) as
(*)=*10**6 in/in/F

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

23000 psi
23000 psi
1.46
1
2.5 in
300 F
28100000 psi
6.9

Tube to tube hole Interfacial Pressure:


Po = ((do*t-t**2)*st)/(do*ltx*muF)
Pt = (T-Tamb)*(at-as)*(EtT*EsT)/(EtT+EsT)
For joint types i, j, k:

Po = 1358 psi
Pt = 0 psi
Po + Pt <= 0.58*SigmaM
1358 psi <= 13340 psi

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Page 14

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UHX-9 Tubesheet Flanged Extension


G = diameter of gasket load reaction
hG = gasket moment arm
Sa = allowable stress for tubesheet extension
at ambient temperature
Sd = allowable stress for tubesheet extension
at design temperature
Ta = ambient temperature
Td = design temperature
Wo = flange design bolt load, opeating conditions
Wg = flange design bolt load, gasket seating

G = 55.0 in
hG = 1.625 in
Sa = 20000 psi
Sd
Ta
Td
Wo
Wg

=
=
=
=
=

20000 psi
70 F
300 F
317150 lbf
1356078 lbf

Minimum required thickness of the tubesheet flanged extension


hro = SQRT((1.9 * Wo * hG) / (Sd * G))

hro = 0.9435 in

hrg = SQRT((1.9 * Wg * hG) / (Sa * G))

hrg = 1.951 in

hr = MAX[hro, hrg]

hr = 1.951 in

Unperforated tubesheet segment - minimum thickness


UG-34(c)(3)
Unperf. short span
d
Controlling pressure
P
Factor C
C
Z = 3.4 - (2.4 * d) / D

=
=
=
=

1.875 in
130 psi
0.3
3.158

Unperf. long span


Allowable stress
Joint efficiency
(max 2.5)

D
S
E
Z

=
=
=
=

18.5994 in
20000 psi
1
2.5

Effect of bolt load on unperforated tubesheet segment, if any


Bolt circle
Bolt load

BC = 58.25 in
W = 317150 lbf

Segment length
Gasket moment arm

L = 182.9978 in
hg = 1.625 in

Minimum thickness of unperforated segment:


t = d * SQRT(Z*C*P/S*E + 6*W*hg/S*E*L*d**2) = 0.9284 in
Component: Rear Tubesheet
Rules for the Design of Fixed Tubesheets
ASME VIII-1 2011a UHX-13 Fig.UHX-13.1(b) Controlling Case: UHX-13.4(a)(7)
*** Tubesheet material:
Tubesheet temperature T
TubSh allowable stress S
TubSh mod.elasticity
E
Poisson's rat. tubSh
v

=
=
=
=

SA-516 K02700 Grd 70 Plate


300 F
TubSh metal tmp at rim T'= 300 F
20000 psi
*TubSh th.ex.coe. alpha = 6.9
28100000 psi *TubSh th.ex.coe. alpha' = 6.9
0.3
*(th.exp.coef * 10**6)

*** Shell material:


Design temp. shell
Shell allowable str.
Shell mod.elasticity
Poisson's ratio shell

=
=
=
=

SA-516 K02700 Grd 70 Plate


230 F
Shell metal tmp/TubS T's
20000 psi
*Shell th.ex.coe.alpha's
28450000 psi Shell mean metal tmp Tsm
0.3
*Shell th.ex.coe.alphasm

*** Tube material:

Ts
Ss
Es
vs

SA-214 K01807 Wld. tube

=
=
=
=

230 F
6.76
230 F
6.76

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Page 15

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Design temp. tubes


Tt
Tube allow.Str. at Tt St
Tube mod.elas. at Tt Et
Poisson's rat. tubes vt
Tube yield stress
Syt

=
=
=
=
=

300 F
13412 psi
28100000 psi
0.3
23000 psi

*** Channel material:


Design temp. channel
Channel all. stress
Channel mod.elast.
Poisson's rat.channel

=
=
=
=

SA-516 K02700 Grd 70 Plate


300 F
Channel metal tmp TS T'c = 300 F
20000 psi
*Chan.th.ex.coe.alpha'c = 6.9
28100000 psi
*(th.exp.coef * 10**6)
0.3

Tc
Sc
Ec
vc

*** Adjacent shell matl:


Adj Shell all. str. Ss,1 = -

Tubesheet thickness

Tubes mean metal tmp Ttm


Tube allow.Str. at T Stt
Tube mod.elas. at T Ett
*Tube th.ex.coe.alphatm
*(th.exp.coef * 10**6)

=
=
=
=

300 F
13412 psi
28100000 psi
6.9

*Shell th.ex.coe.alpha's1= 0.0


*Shell th.ex.coe.alpha'sm1=0.0

h = 2.625 in

Actual tubesheet thk

ha = 2.625 in

Shell side corr allow c = 0.125 in


SS TubSh corr allow
cs = 0.125 in

Tube side cor.allow.


TS TubSh corr allow

c = 0.0625 in
ct = 0.125 in

Shell diameter, Ds
Channel diameter, Dc
Shell thickness, ts
Adjacent shell thk ts,1
Channel thickness, tc

Corroded case
48.25 in
48.125 in
0.375 in
0.0 in
0.4375 in

Minimum TubSh thk, hmin


Thickness h used
Tubesheet OD

1.9961 in
2.375 in
A = 61.75 in

Uncorroded case
48.0 in
48.0 in
0.5 in
0.0 in
0.5 in
2.0576 in
2.625 in

Bolt circle diam.

C = 58.25 in

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

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Shell gasket diam.


Gs
Gasket reaction diam. G
Number of tubes
Nt
Pass partition groove hg
Tube outside diam.
dt
Tube pitch
p
Tube projection
tpr
Tube length L
L
Tube expanded depth ltx
Tube buckling factor
k
Outermost tube rad.
ro
Shell radius
as
Exp.joint spring rate kj

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

55.5 in
1874
0.0 in
0.75 in
1.0 in
0.125 in
354.5 in
2.5 in
1
23.375 in
24.0 in
-

Page 16

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Channel gasket diam. Gc


Gasket reaction diam. G1
Flange load
W*
Eff.tube side groove h'g
Tube thickness
tt
Center-to-center dis UL
Tube corrosion allow. c
Tube length Lt
Lt
Tube exp.depth ratio rho
Unsupported tube span l
Unsupp.length lt=k*l lt
Channel radius
ac
EJ diameter
Dj

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

55.5 in
55.5 in
1304985 lbf
0.0 in
0.083 in
1.5 in
359.75 in
0.952
30.0 in
30.0 in
27.75 in
-

Pressure cases:
Shell pressure, Ps = 130 psi
Shell vacuum pr.Psv= -

Tubes pressure, Pt = 120 psi


Tubes vacuum pr.Ptv= -

Controlling tubesheet thickness case:


Shell pressure, Ps = 130 psi
UHX-13.5.1 Step 1.

Tubes pressure, Pt = 120 psi

Determine Do, Mu, Mu* and h'g from UHX-11.5.1.

Do = 2 * ro + dt
Do
mu = (p - dt) / p
mu
d* = MAX(dt-2*tt*(Ett/E)*(Stt/S)*Rho),(dt-2*tt))
d*
Pass lane area limit
4*Do*p
Actual pass lane area, AL
AL
Effective pitch = p/SQRT(1-(4*MIN[AL,4*Do*p]/Pi*Do**2))
p*
mu* = (p* - d*) / p*
mu*
h'g = MAX[(hg-ct),(0)]
h'g

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

47.5 in
0.25
0.644 in
190 in2
71.25 in2
1.0207 in
0.3691
0.0 in

=
=
=
=
=

23.75 in
1.0105
1.1684
0.5328
0.7167

Calculate ao, rhos, rhoc, xs and xt


ao =
rhos
rhoc
xs =
xt =

radius of the perforated region = Do / 2


= as/ao
= ac/ao
1 - Nt*(dt/(2*ao))**2
1 - Nt*((dt-2*tt)/(2*ao))**2

ao
rhos
rhoc
xs
xt

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UHX-13.5.2 Step 2. Calculate the shell axial stiffness Ks, tube axial
stiffness Kt, and stiffness factors Ks,t and J
Shell axial stiffness, Ks = PI*ts(Ds+ts)*Es/L
Ks =
Ks* = PI*(Ds+ts)/((L-2*l1)/(Es*ts)+(2*l1/(Es,1*ts,1)) Ks* =
Tube axial stiffness, Kt = PI*tt(dt-tt)*Et/L
Kt =
Factor Ks,t = Ks/(Nt*Kt) or Ks*/(Nt*Kt)
Ks,t =
J = 1 / (1 + (Ks/Kj))
J =

6114031 lbf/in
13786 lbf/in
0.2367
1.0

Calculate shell coefficients betas, ks, lambdas and deltas


betas = (12*(1-vs**2))**0.25 / ((Ds+ts)*ts)**0.5
betas =
ks = betas*(Es*ts**3)/(6*(1-vs**2))
ks =
lambdas=(6*Ds/h**3)*ks*(1+h*betas+(h**2*betas**2)/2) lambdas =
deltas = (Ds**2/(4*Es*ts))*(1-vs/2)
deltas =

0.3691
240436
9335281
0.0000344

Calculate channel coefficients betac, kc, lambdac and deltac


betac = (12*(1-vc**2))**0.25 / ((Dc+tc)*tc)**0.5
betac =
kc = betac*(Ec*tc**3)/(6*(1-vc**2)
kc =
lambdac=(6*Dc/h**3)*kc*(1+h*betac+(h**2*betac**2)/2) lambdac =
deltac = (Dc**2/(4*Ec*tc))*(1-vc/2)
deltac =

0
0
0
0

NOTE: If the effect of plasticity used, Es or Ec will be Es* or Ec*


UHX-13.5.3 Step 3. Calculate h/p. If rho changes, recalculate d* and mu*
from UHX-11.5.1. Determine E*/E and v* relative to h/p from UHX-11.5.2
Layout: Triangular

Tubesheet thickness

From fig. UHX-11.2 or UHX-11.3 - E*/E = 0.3725


h/p = 2.625
Effective Tubsheet Mod.Elasticity E* = 10467052 psi
Parameter Xa = (24*(1-(v*)**2)*Nt*(Et*tt*(dt-tt)*
ao**2)/((E*)*L*h**3))**0.25

h = 2.625 in
v* = 0.3193
mu* = 0.3691

Xa = 4.794

UHX-13.5.4 Step 4. Calculate diameter ratio K and coefficient F.


K = A / Do
F = ((1-v*)/E*)*(lambdas+lambdac+E*Ln(K))

K = 1.300
F = 1.086

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Parameters Zd, Zv, Zw and Zm from Table UHX-13.1


Psi1(Xa)=bei(Xa)+(1-v*)/Xa*ber'(Xa)
Psi2(Xa)=ber(Xa)-(1-v*)/Xa*bei'(Xa)
Za
Zd
Zv
Zw
Zm

=
=
=
=
=

Psi1(Xa) = 0.3509
Psi2(Xa) = -4.9581

bei'(Xa)*Psi2(Xa)-ber'(Xa)*Psi1(Xa)
(ber(Xa)*Psi2(Xa)+ bei(Xa)*Psi1(Xa))/(Xa**3*Za)
(ber'(Xa)*Psi2(Xa)+ bei'(Xa)*Psi1(Xa))/(Xa**2*Za)
(ber'(Xa)*ber(Xa)+ bei'(Xa)*bei(Xa))/(Xa**2*Za)
(ber'(Xa)**2+bei'(Xa)**2)/(Xa*Za)

Za
Zd
Zv
Zw
Zm

=
=
=
=
=

17.7908
0.0139
0.0445
0.0445
0.307

Phi
Q1
Qz1
Qz2
U

=
=
=
=
=

1.4334
-0.0369
3.2352
8.7434
17.4868

Calculate Q1, Qz1, Qz2 and U


Phi = (1+v*) * F
Q1 = (rhos-1-Phi*Zv)/(1+Phi*Zm)
Qz1 = ((Zd+Q1*Zw)*Xa**4)/2
Qz2 = ((Zv+Q1*Zm)*Xa**4)/2
U = ((Zw+(rhos-1)*Zm)*Xa**4)/(1+Phi*Zm)
UHX-13.5.5 Step 5.
UHX-13.5.5(a) Calculate gamma (shown is max value for all cases)
gamma = (alphatm*(Ttm-Tamb)-alphasm*(Tsm-Tamb))*L
(= 0 used for load cases 1, 2, 3)

gamma = 0.1792 in

UHX-13.5.5(b) Calculate omegas, omegas*, omegac, omegac*


omegas = rhos*ks*betas*deltas*(1+h*betas)
omegas* = ao**2*((rhos**2-1)*(rhos-1))/4-omegas
omegac = rhoc*kc*betac*deltac*(1+h*betac)
omegac* = ao**2*(((rhoc**2+1)*(rhoc-1))/4(rhos-1)/2)-omegac

omegas = 6.0783
omegas* = -6.0469
omegac = 0.0

omegac* = 53.2049

UHX-13.5.5(c) Calculate gammab


gammab = (Gc-C)/Do

gammab = -0.0579

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Fig.UHX-13.1(b)

Page 19

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Controlling Case: UHX-13.4(a)(7)

UHX-13.5.6 Step 6. For each loading case calculate Ps', Pt', Pgamma, Pw,
Prim, and effective pressure Pe.
Ps' = (xs+2*(1-xs)*vt+(2/Kst)*(Ds/Do)**2*vs(Rhos**2-1)/(J*Kst)-((1-J)/(2*J*Kst))*
(DJ**2-Ds**2)/Do**2 ) * Ps

Ps' = 430.65 psi

Pt' = (xt+2*(1-xt)*vt+1/(J*Kst))*Pt

Pt' = 613.47 psi

Pgamma

= (Nt*Kt/(Pi*ao**2))*gamma

Pgamma = 2612.09 psi

PW

= -(U/ao**2)(gammab/(2*Pi))*W*

Prim

= -(U/ao**2)*((omegas*)(Ps)-(omegac*)(Pt))

PW = 372.77 psi
Prim = 222.3 psi

Effective pressure, Pe
Pe =

J*Kst/(1+J*Kst(Qz1+(rhos-1)Qz2))
* (Ps'-Pt'+Pgamma+PW+Prim)

Pe = 400.43 psi

UHX-13.5.7 Step 7. For each loading case calculate Q2 and Q3.


Q2 = ((omegas*)*Ps-(omegac*)*Pt)((omegas*(Ps*)-omegac*(Pc*))+
(gammab/(2*Pi))*(W*)/(1+Phi*Zm)
Q3 = Q1 + 2*Q2 / (Pe*ao**2)

Q2 = -13329.4561
Q3 = -0.155

Using Xa and Q3, determine coefficient Fm for each loading case from
either Table UHX-13.1 or Figs. UHX-13.3.-1 and UHX-13.3.-2.
Controlling x for Fm, x = 4.794

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Fm(x) = (Qv(x) + Q3 * Qm(x)) / 2


Fm = MAX|Fm(x)|

Fm(x) = -0.0775
Fm = 0.0775

For each loading case, calculate the bending stress in the tubesheet
sigma = (1.5*Fm/mu*)*(2*ao/(h-h'g))**2 * Pe

sigma = 41289 psi


|sigma| <= 2*Sy
41289 psi <= 67200 psi

UHX-13.5.8 Step 8. For each loading case, calculate the maximum shear
stress in the tubesheet across the tubesheet diameter
Area enclosed by perimeter
Perimeter of the tube layout
Shear diameter, Dia = DL or Do
|Pe| = 400.43
3.2*S*mu*h/Do = 884.21
Ligament efficiency, mu

DL = 4*AP/CP

AP
CP
DL
Do
Dia

=
=
=
=
=

1604.74 in2
154.7128 in
41.4896 in
47.5 in
47.5 in

mu = (p-dt)/p = 0.25
Controlling x for FQ, x = 4.794

FQ(x) = (Qb(x) + Q3 * Qa(x))


FQ = MAX|FQ(x)|

FQ(x) = 1.0
FQ = 1.0

Shear stress at periphery,

tau = ( 1/(4*mu))*(Dia/h)*Pe tau = 7246 psi

Max shear across diameter,

tau = (FQ/(4*mu))*(Dia/h)*Pe tau = 7246 psi


|tau| <= 0.8*S
7246 psi <= 16000 psi

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

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UHX-13.5.9 Step 9.

Page 21

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Perform this step for each loading case.

UHX-13.5.9(a) Check the axial tube stress.


UHX-13.5.9(a)(1) For each loading case determine coefficient Ft,min
and Ft,max from Table UHX-13.2 and calculate the two extreme values
of sigmat,1 and sigmat,2. These values may be positive or negative
Ft(x) = [Zd(x)+Q3*Zw(x)]*(Xa**4/2)

for 0 <= x <= Xa

Ft,min = MIN[[Zd(x)+Q3*Zw(x)]*(Xa**4/2)]
Ft,max = MAX[[Zd(x)+Q3*Zw(x)]*(Xa**4/2)]

Ft,min = -0.2768
Ft,max = 1.8584

UHX-13.5.9(a)(1)(a) When Pe <> 0:


sigmat,1 = ((Ps*xs-Pt*xt)-Pe*Ft,min)/(xt-xs)
sigmat,2 = ((Ps*xs-Pt*xt)-Pe*Ft,max)/(xt-xs)

sigmat,1 = 512 psi


sigmat,2 = -4137 psi

UHX-13.5.9(a)(2) Determine sigmat,max


sigmat,max = MAX(|sigmat,1|,|sigmat,2|)
Allowable tube stress in tension

sigmat,max = 4137 psi


St = 26824 psi

UHX-13.5.9(b) Check the tube-to-tubesheet joint


UHX-13.5.9(b)(1) Calculate the tube-to-tubesheet joint load, Wt
Wt = sigmat,max*Pi*(dt-tt)*tt

Wt = 720 lbf

UHX-13.5.9(b)(2) Determine the maximum allowable load for the


tube-to-tubesheet joint design Lmax
UW-18(d) max
UW-20
max
App.A max No
App.A max

load
=
load
=
test load =
test load =

2333 lbf
2799 lbf
Lmax = 2333 lbf

UHX-13.5.9(c) Check the tubes for buckling.


UHX-13.5.9(c)(1) Calculate largest buckling length lt
Tube buckling factor
Unsupported tube span

k = 1
l = 30.0 in

lt = largest unsupported buckling length = k*l

lt = 30.0 in

UHX-13.5.9(c)(2) Calculate rt, Ft and Ct


rt = SQRT(dt**2+(dt-2*tt)**2)/4
Ft = lt/rt
Ct = SQRT(2*PI**2*(Et/Syt))
UHX-13.5.9(c)(3) Determine the factor of safety Fs
Fsc = (3.25-0.25*(Zd+Q3*Zw)*Xa**4) = 2.3251

rt = 0.2376 in
Ft = 126.242
Ct = 155.2938

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

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Fs = MAX((1.25, Fsc)

Page 22

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

(Fs need not be > 2)

Fs = 2.0

UHX-13.5.9(c)(4) Determine the buckling stress limit Stb


For Ct <= Ft
For Ct > Ft

Stb = MIN[(1/Fs)*(PI**2*Et/(Ft**2),St]
Stb = MIN[(Syt/Fs)*(1-Ft/(2*Ct)) ,St]

Stb = Stb = 6826 psi

UHX-13.5.9(c)(5) Determine sigmat,min


sigmat,min = MIN(sigmat,1 , sigmat,2)

sigmat,min = -4137 psi


|sigmat,min| <= Stb
4137 psi <= 6826 psi

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

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Page 23

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

UHX-13.5.10 Step 10. For each loading case, calculate the stresses in the
shell and /or channel integral with the tubesheet.
Calculate the axial membrane stress sigmasm, axial bending stress sigmasb
and total axial stress sigmas in the shell at its junction to the tubesheet
sigmasm = ao**2/[ts*(2*as+ts)]*[Pe+(rhos**2-1)
*(Ps-Pt)]+as**2/[ts*(2*as+ts)]*Pt

sigmasm = 12169 psi

sb1 = (6/ts**2)*ks
sb2 = betas*deltas*Ps
sb3 = 6*(1-(v*)**2)/(E*)*(ao**3/h**3)*(1+(h*betas/2))
sb4 = Pe*(Zv+Zm*Q1)+(2/ao**2)*Zm*Q2
sigmasb = sb1*(sb2+sb3*sb4)
sigmasb = 5453 psi
sigmas = |sigmasm| + |sigmasb|

sigmas = 17622 psi


sigmas <= 2*Sy
17622 psi <= 68880 psi

ASME VIII-1 2011a UHX-13 - Rules for the Design of Fixed Tubesheets
ASME Fig.UHX-13.1(b)
All Load Cases
Controlling case:
Load case:
Tubeside press, Pt
Shellside press, Ps
Axial diff.Th.Exp

120
0
0.0

0
130
0.0

120
130
0.0

***
7

0
0
0.1792

120
0
0.1792

0
130
0.1792

120
130
0.1792

TubSh Bending stress


Max TubSh Bending st
Min TubSh thk

-15407
30000
1.8812

2769
30000
0.7974

16860
30000
1.9679

29413
67200
1.7367

38520
67200
1.9874

32181
67200
1.8166

41289
67200
2.0576

TubSh Shear stress


Max TubSh Shear str
Min TubSh thk

-1074
16000
0.1284

1090
16000
0.1789

1156
16000
0.0504

7151
16000
1.1732

6156
16000
1.0099

8241
16000
1.3521

7246
16000
1.1888

Tubesheet thickness

2.625

2.625

2.625

2.625

2.625

2.625

2.625

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

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Page 24

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Component: Rear Tubesheet


ASME Fig.UHX-13.1(b)
All Load Cases
Load case:

Tubes controlling:
Tubes stress st,1
Tubes stress st,2
Max Tubes tens.str
Max Tubes comp.str

-1032
1747
13412
10921

538
-560
13412
7497

1187
-642
13412
6826

828
-5062
26824
6826

-27
-3654
26824
6826

***
1367
-5622
26824
6826

512
-4137
26824
6826

Shell controlling:
Total shell stress
Max shell stress
Max shell stress EP

29299
30000
68880

15572
30000
68880

16658
30000
68880

22251
68880

19357
68880

***
37822
68880

17622
68880

Channel controlling:
Total channel stress
Max channel stress
Max channel str. EP

EP factor - Facts(*)
EP factor - Factc(*)

1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0

(*) <= 1 used in calculations

Tube stress across the tubesheet diameter (0 <= x <= Xa)


Load case:
Ft,min
Ft,max

-2.401
9.416

-0.494
2.858

sigmat,1
Location x

-1032
2.013

538
0.096

1187
4.794

sigmat,2
Location x

1747
4.794

-560
4.794

Maximum stress
Max buckling stress

13412
10921

13412
7497

-13.837 -0.386
5.968
2.356

-0.238
1.723

-0.4
2.422

-0.277
1.858

828
0.096

-27
0.096

1367
0.096

512
0.096

-642
2.589

-5062
4.794

-3654
4.506

-5622
4.794

-4137
4.698

13412
6826

26824
6826

26824
6826

26824
6826

26824
6826

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

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Shell axial membrane stress, sigmasm


Load case:
|sigmasm|
Allowable stress
(JE*S) JE = 0.85
Compression:
sigmasm
Allowable stress

ASME VIII-1 2011a

1785
17000

1465
17000

3250
17000

9192
40000

10704
40000

10658
40000

12169
40000

UHX-13 - Fixed Tubesheets - All Cases


Ps
psi

Pt
psi

Gamma
in

0
130
130
0
0
130
130

120
0
120
0
120
0
120

0
0
0
0.1792
0.1792
0.1792
0.1792

Load case

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Units: psi

Load case

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Page 25

P's
psi

P't
psi

0
430.7
430.7
0
0
430.7
430.7

613.5
0
613.5
0
613.5
0
613.5

Pgamma
psi
0
0
0
2612.1
2612.1
2612.1
2612.1

Pomega
psi
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Ps*
psi

Pc*
psi

W*
lbf

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

311018
0
311018
1304985
1304985
1304985
1304985

Pw
psi
88.8
0
88.8
372.8
372.8
372.8
372.8

Prim
psi
197.9
24.4
222.3
0
197.9
24.4
222.3

Pe
psi
-43.3
60.2
17
395.2
340.2
455.4
400.4

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

Shell&TubeMech V8.0 (ASME 2012)

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Load case

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Q2

Q3

-6423.6
-545.9
-6969.5
-8350
-12783.6
-8895.9
-13329.5

0.4896
-0.0691
-1.4914
-0.1119
-0.1702
-0.1062
-0.155

Fm

Sigma
psi

0.2677
0.0345
0.7457
0.0559
0.0851
0.0531
0.0775

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

Sigma All
psi

-15407
2769
16860
29413
38520
32181
41289

30000
30000
30000
67200
67200
67200
67200

Page 26

FQ

1.3718
1
3.7609
1
1
1
1

Tau
psi

Tau All
psi

-1074
1090
1156
7151
6156
8241
7246

16000
16000
16000
16000
16000
16000
16000

ASME VIII-1 2011a UHX-13 - Fixed Tubesheets - All Cases


Load case

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Fs

1.25
1.8209
2
2
2
2
2

Ft,min

-2.401
-0.494
-13.837
-0.386
-0.238
-0.4
-0.277

Load case

Sigsm
psi

Sigsb
psi

1785
1465
3250
9192
10704
10658
12169

-27514
14106
-13408
13058
-8654
27164
5453

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Ft,max

Sigt,1
psi

Sigt,2
psi

9.416
2.858
5.968
2.356
1.723
2.422
1.858

-1032
538
1187
828
-27
1367
512

1747
-560
-642
-5062
-3654
-5622
-4137

|Sigs| Sigsall
psi
psi
29299
15572
16658
22251
19357
37822
17622

30000
30000
30000
68880
68880
68880
68880

Sigcm
psi

Sigcb
psi

Sigt,All
psi
13412
13412
13412
26824
26824
26824
26824

|Sigc|
psi
-

Stb
psi
10921
7497
6826
6826
6826
6826
6826

Sigcall
psi
-

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

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Page 27

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Type of tube-to-TS joint: 'k' - Expanded with no grooves


Load case:
Wt tube-TS Load, lbf
Allowable no-test
Allowable test
Factor k
Max load K*At*Sa

1
304
1166
1400
1
2333

2
97
1166
1400
1
2333

3
206
1166
1400
1
2333

4
880
2333
2799
2
4665

5
635
2333
2799
2
4665

6
978
2333
2799
2
4665

7
720
2333
2799
2
4665

Allowable Loads per ASME Section VIII Div.1 2011a Appendix A


No Test
Type
Joint description
fr
Lmax
fr
a
Welded only a >= 1.4t
0.8
3732
1
b
Welded only t <= a < 1.4t
0.55
1283
0.7
b-1 Welded only a <= t
0
0 *
0.7
e
Welded a >= 1.4t and expanded
0.8
3732
1
f
Welded a < 1.4t exp.with 2 grooves 0.75
3499
0.95
g
Welded a < 1.4t exp.with 1 groove
0.65
3032
0.85
h
Welded a < 1.4t exp.with no grooves 0.5
2333
0.7
i
Expanded with 2 grooves
0.7
3266
0.9
j
Expanded with 1 groove
0.65
3032
0.8
k
Expanded with no grooves
0.5
2333
0.6
* = Load calculated exceeds code allowable for this joint type.
For joints types a,b,b-1,c,d,e :
Lmax = At*Sa*fr
For joints types f,g,h,
:
Lmax = At*Sa*fe*fr*fy
For joints types i,j,k
:
Lmax = At*Sa*fe*fr*fy*ft
Cross-sectional area At
Max stress St = At*Sa St
Tubesheet yield str. Stt
fe = (ltx/do or 1)
fe
ft = (Po+Pt)/Po
ft
ft = used (0<ft<=1)
ft
Tube OD
do
Tube thickness
t
Tubes Mod.Elasticity EtT
Tubes Coef.Th.Exp.(*) at
Friction coefficient muF

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.1739 in2
2333 psi
33600 psi
1
1
1
0.75 in
0.083 in
28100000 psi
6.9
0.5

Test
Lmax
4665
1633
3266
4665
4432
3965
3266
4199
3732
2799

Tube allowable stress Sa = 13412 psi


Tube yield stress
Stu
Min Yield Str. (Stt,Stu)
fy = Stt/Stu
fy = used (0<fy<=1)
fy
Expanded length
ltx
TubSh mean metal tmp
T
TubSh Mod.Elast.
EsT
TubSh Coef.Th.Exp.(*) as
(*)=*10**6 in/in/F

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

23000 psi
23000 psi
1.46
1
2.5 in
300 F
28100000 psi
6.9

Tube to tube hole Interfacial Pressure:


Po = ((do*t-t**2)*st)/(do*ltx*muF)
Pt = (T-Tamb)*(at-as)*(EtT*EsT)/(EtT+EsT)
For joint types i, j, k:

Po = 1358 psi
Pt = 0 psi
Po + Pt <= 0.58*SigmaM
1358 psi <= 13340 psi

Heat Exchanger Mechanical Design

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Page 28

Printed: 24/10/2013 at 11:57:33 a.m.

UHX-9 Tubesheet Flanged Extension


G = diameter of gasket load reaction
hG = gasket moment arm
Sa = allowable stress for tubesheet extension
at ambient temperature
Sd = allowable stress for tubesheet extension
at design temperature
Ta = ambient temperature
Td = design temperature
Wo = flange design bolt load, opeating conditions
Wg = flange design bolt load, gasket seating

G = 55.0 in
hG = 1.625 in
Sa = 20000 psi
Sd
Ta
Td
Wo
Wg

=
=
=
=
=

20000 psi
70 F
300 F
311018 lbf
1304985 lbf

Minimum required thickness of the tubesheet flanged extension


hro = SQRT((1.9 * Wo * hG) / (Sd * G))

hro = 0.9343 in

hrg = SQRT((1.9 * Wg * hG) / (Sa * G))

hrg = 1.9139 in

hr = MAX[hro, hrg]

hr = 1.9139 in

Unperforated tubesheet segment - minimum thickness


UG-34(c)(3)
Unperf. short span
d
Controlling pressure
P
Factor C
C
Z = 3.4 - (2.4 * d) / D

=
=
=
=

1.875 in
130 psi
0.3
3.158

Unperf. long span


Allowable stress
Joint efficiency
(max 2.5)

D
S
E
Z

=
=
=
=

18.5994 in
20000 psi
1
2.5

Effect of bolt load on unperforated tubesheet segment, if any


Bolt circle
Bolt load

BC = 58.25 in
W = 311018 lbf

Segment length
Gasket moment arm

L = 182.9978 in
hg = 1.625 in

Minimum thickness of unperforated segment:


t = d * SQRT(Z*C*P/S*E + 6*W*hg/S*E*L*d**2) = 0.9196 in