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9/26/13

IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

CA T E G O RY A RCHI V E S : S O CI A L S E CT O R RE L A T E D T O HE A L T H, E DUCA T I O N A ND HR

Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Educatio

ASHA Accredited Social Health Activists


Posted on July 23, 2013 by admin

ASHA- Accredited Social Health Activist It works as an interface Between community and public health system. They are central feature of NHRM community based health care delivery They are accountable to panchayats. Their work involves counselling on improved health practices, prevention of illness and complications and appropriate curative care or referral for pregnant women, newborn or ill children as also malaria, TB and other conditions. They r also involved in social marketing of sanitary napkins and spacing contraceptives. ASHAs are reaching around 70% of population so 30% still remain unattended. Over 7.99 lakh ASHAs provided drug kits so far.These kits contain generic AYUSH and alopathic medicines for common ailments. Many state are also providing equipment kits for home based new born care. Impact of ASHA as per study done by planning commission: 1. 65% beneficiaries r visited by ASHA once in 15 -30 days . 2. 80% beneficiaries confirmed delivery of free drugs by ASHA 3. 65% opted for institutional delivery. 60% opted for antenatal care in govt facility. 4. 56% couples reported use of contraceptives of which 88 % availed it from govt health counters. Posted in Social Sector related to health, education and HR | Tagged asha , government schems, health care | Leave a reply

Access to healthcare heavily biased in favor of urban areas


Posted on July 23, 2013 by admin
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9/26/13

IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

A study done by IMS institute for healthcare informatics- understanding helath care access in india- what is the current state? Reveals but obvious following facts: Urban residents, 28% of total population, have access to 66% of country available hospitals beds. Distribution of healthcare workers is highly concentrated in urban areas and pvt sector. Patients in rural areas travel more than 5 kms to access in-patient facility 63% of the time. Difficulty in accessing transport options and loss of earning as a result of travel time lead to treatment being deferred or facilities selected that may be closer but not cost effective or best suited tonpatient needs. In 2012 , 61% of rural and 69% of urban pateints chose pvt in patient service providers upnfrom 40% reported in 1986 govt survey. Poor patients receiving out patient care for chronic condition at pvt facility spent on avg 44% of monthly household income per treatment whras 23 % for those using public facility. Effective, quality and more accessible public facility would curb the diversion of patients to pvt channelsenabling more patients to utilize lower cost facilities and reduce their out of pocket costs. Effective financial mechanisms like better insurance schemes are critical requirement to making healthcare more affordable for patients. Increased use of generic medicine, innovative delivery models and other cost effective treatment options will yield more affordable care. Posted in Social Sector related to health, education and HR | Tagged health care , inequality, study, survey | Leave a reply

Education India Year Book 2013


Posted on May 7, 2013 by admin

Before 1976, Education was state subject and Constitutional amendment of 1976 shifted it to concurrent list. It provided central government following responsibilities Reinforce the national and integral character of education Maintaining quality and standard including those of the teaching profession at all levels, the study and monitoring of the educational requirements of the country. National Education policy (NPE) 1986 and Program of Action (POA), 1986 as updated in 1992 are most notable policies and programs of government. NPE envisages
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9/26/13

IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

A national system of education to bring about uniformity in education Making adult education programs a mass movement Providing universal access, retention and quality in elementary education Special emphasis on education of girls Establishment of pace settign schools like navodaya Vidyalaya in each district Vocationalisation of secondary education synthesis of knowledge and inter-disciplinary research in higher education starting more open universities in the states strenghening the AICTE Encouraging sports, physical education, Yoga and adoption of an effective evaluation method

SSA Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan


Goals
1.

2. 3. 4.

Enrollment of all children in school, Education guarantee Scheme center or alternative school ( Special educational facilities for Out of school children, that is EGS center is opened for temporary period of 2 years after which a primary school replaces it in those habitations where 25 or more out of school children in 6-14 age group with primary school within 1 km range.) Retention of all children till upper primary stage Bridging gender and social category gap in retention, enrollment and learning Ensuring that there is significant enhancement in the learning achievements at primary and upper primary stage.

SSA was approved 231233 Crore for 2010-11 to 2014-15 that aprox 40000 cr to 49000 cr every year to implement RTE-SSA National program for education of girls at elementary level NPEGEL Implemented in Educationally backward blocks to address obstacles to those girls education who are enrolled in school but do not attend school regularly.
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9/26/13

IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme Scheme provided for setting up residential upper primary schools for girls in educationally backward blocks with rural female literacy below the national average as per Census 2001. Minimum 75% seats in these schools are reserved for girls of SC/ST and minorities and 25% for girls from BPL families

Mid Day Meal Scheme


Covers all children studying in Classes I-VIII in govt, govt aided local body, EGS and AIE centers including Madarasas supported under SSA. Addresses hunger and education of majority of children in India The Working Group on Elementary Education & Literacy for the 12th Plan has recommended coverage of private unaided schools located in the SC, ST and minority concentration districts, under the MDMS, in a phased manner, during the 12th Plan. The Government has provided Rs.11937 crores for the Mid Day Meal Scheme (MDMS) scheme in the current year. Object of MDM
1. 2.

Improve nutritional status of children Encouraging poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections to attend school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities Providing nutritional support to children of primary stage in drought affected areas during summer vacation.

3.

Right to Education
86th Consitutional amendment of 2002, added Article 21A which provided for free and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14 years as a Fundamental Right. To fulfill 21A, Right of Children to free and compulsory Education Act, 2009 was passed that seeks to provide that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in formal school which satisfies
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9/26/13

IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

certain essential norms and standards The RTE Act came into force in 2010 and so far 20 states have notified the rules. But the big states such as Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat and West Bengal have not notified them as yet. According to the Act All private schools shall be required to enrol children from weaker sections and disadvantaged communities in their incoming class to the extent of 25% of their enrolment, by simple random selection. No seats in this quota can be left vacant. These children will be treated on par with all the other children in the school and subsidized by the State at the rate of average per learner costs in the government schools The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has been mandated to monitor the implementation of the Act. The law gives government a three-year window to ensure that infrastructure and other such provisions to meet the requirements of the law. (ie till 31-03-2013) A year long Shiksha Ka Haq Abhiyan campaign has been launched in 2012-13 to increase awareness about the education in the masses especially young children. The day 11 November will also be celebrated as National Education Day. National Institute of Open schooling (NIOS) NIOS provided access to sustainable and learner-centric quality school education, skill upgrading and training through open and distance learning and ensures convergence of open schooling organisations, resulting in an inclusive learning society, Human resource development, national integration and global understanding. It has aprox 16 lakh learners on roll.

NCERT
apex resource organization of govt in the field of school education It advises and assists the ministry of HRD, and departments of Education in States and UTs in formulation and implementation of their policies and major programs in the field of education, particularly for qualitative improvement of school education. It undertakes programs related to research development training extension,,
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9/26/13

IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

international cooperation, publication and dissemination of educational information. Acts as major agency for implementing the bilateral cultural exchange programs with other countries in the field of school education.

Saakshar Bharat Mission (Earlier known as National Literacy Mission)


Covers all adults in the age group 15 and beyond. Volunteer based mass campaign. Lok Shikha Kendra will be set up to coordinate and manage all mission programs within their territorial jurisdiction. Envisages to provide impetus to achieving the goal of a fully literate society engaged in lifelong learning. Objectives
1. 2.

Impart functional literacy and numeracy to non-literate and none-numerate adults Enable the neo-literate adults specially younger adults to continue their leaning beyond basic literacy and acquire equivalency to formal educational system Impart non and neo-literates relevant skill development programs to improve their earning and living conditions. Promote a learning society by providing opporutinities to neo literate adults and other potential learners for continuing learning

3.

4.

Principle target of the mission it to impart functional literacy to 7 Crore adults in the age group of 15 years and beyond. Mission will primarily focus, but not limited to, women.
Posted in General Studies II, Social Sector related to health, education and HR | Tagged education policy, mdms, rte , sakshar bharat, ssa | Leave a reply

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana


Posted on March 25, 2013 by admin

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) was launched by Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India in 2008 to provide health insurance cover to Below
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9/26/13

IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

Poverty Line population and informal sector workers of India. In 2013-14 budget, the benfits of RSBY is extended to few other categories like the rickshaw pullers, auto taxi drivers, and it budget allocation has been increased to 1137 Cr. The scheme is today the worlds largest medical insurance programme covering over 120 million poor people in the country. The objective of the scheme is to protect these families from shocks related to catastrophic expenditures on health by improving access to health and reducing out of pocket expenditure. Main Features of RSBY This is a Smart Card based cashless and paperless social health insurance scheme. It provides annual hospitalisation cover up to Rs. 30,000 for a family of five members through health insurance companies. Families pay only a registration fee of Rs. 30 and get a RSBY smart card which helps in accessing empaneled hospitals across the country for in-patient treatment. Transportation expenses up to Rs. 1,000 per year are provided in cash for travelling to the hospital. All pre-existing diseases are covered from day one. There is no age limit to enrol in the scheme. 75 % of the cost (premium) of the scheme is borne by Central Government (90% in case of Jammu & Kashmir and North-Eastern States) and the rest is borne out by respective State government. State Governments can top-up the coverage amount beyond Rs. 30,000. Started in few districts in 2008, the scheme has spread into 486 districts across 28 States and Union Territories as of December 2012. The premium charged by insurance companies has large variations ranging from Rs. 224 to Rs. 745 per family per year in a district. The average premium which was Rs. 600 in 2008 has come down to Rs. 350 in 2012. Around 12,000 hospitals are empanelled under RSBY to
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9/26/13

IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

provide hospitalisation benefits to the enrolled members in RSBY 70 per cent are private hospitals and 30 per cent are public hospitals. Though almost all cases of hospitalization are covered, package rates have been fixed for around 1,100 procedures. RSBY has garnered an enviable position in Indias policy space. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and International Labour Organization (ILO) picked it up as one of the top 18 social security schemes in the world.In June 2011, the World Bank came out with its first-ever review of social welfare policies in India. For most part, the review panned the policies for their faulty design and sloppy implementation. However, there was one exceptionthe Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY), or the national health insurance scheme. The RSBY has received rave reviews even from international organisations. The GIZ (or the German Agency for International Cooperation that, along with the World Bank, was involved in designing the scheme) in its January 2013 report has found that based on data from three statesBihar, Uttarakhand and Andhra Pradesh90 percent of the respondents were satisfied with the scheme. The criticism against RSBY is at two broad levels: The first concern is that, in the absence of a strong primary and secondary health infrastructure, it increases the tendency among patients to get hospitalised at the first instance. As an off-shoot, it leads to increased frauds. Various studies and reports have shown how empanelled hospitals did not have adequate facilities, or how hospitals conducted unnecessary hysterectomies on patients to make easy money through the cashless insurance schemes. Second, as more and more people use insurance to pay their bills, insurance companies will ask for higher premiums from the government. In time, this trend could make the scheme unviable. Should health care be provided through government channels or through giving out medical insurance? One public health expert says that while you could combine both approaches, it would be better if the government manages the demand. India has failed
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IAS Syllabus | Social Sector related to health, education and HR notes | IAS MAINS

miserably in managing supply since its independence. Providing insurance not only gives the poor a chance to access private care but also provides a business case for private players to service remote areas. Read more: http://forbesindia.com/article/universal-health-care/will-rashtriya-swasthya-bima-yojana-takeus-the-us-health-care-way/34903/1#ixzz2OWKPpWMe Posted in General Studies II, Social Sector related to health, education and HR, Welfare schemes and instituions for vulnerable sections | Leave a reply

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