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FOOD-PROCESSING WASTES Review by: Mark E. Grismer, Charles C. Ross, G. Edward Valentine Jr., Brandon M.

Smith and James L. Walsh Jr. Water Environment Research, Vol. 73, No. 5 (January 2001), pp. 1-29 Published by: Water Environment Federation Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/29763116 . Accessed: 03/11/2013 16:59
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FOOD-PROCESSING WASTES
Mark E. Grismer, Charles C. Ross, G. Edward Valentine,
L. Walsh, Jr.

Jr.,Brandon M. Smith, James

Food-processing

waste management

continues

to be an area of great research

interest.

The challenge of meeting theworld's

increasing food demands while minimizing the innovative methods ofwaste largely focused on expanding and to

effect on the environment has required new and management. Research over the past year has waste for

optimizing existing technologies alternative uses ofwaste sectors.

treatment,while novel approaches

products continues to be a focus of many food industry to combine the

This year the Literature Review Committee has chosen

sections of FERMENTATION and FOOD-PROCESSING WASTES under the title of the


latter. This decision was made these two sections and was sections to be together. due to the common references and interests under determined to be more beneficial to the public for these

FERMENTATIONAND BEVERAGES
Though winery and micro-brewery for their products, research industries continue to grow due to increased demand

interest in the United States with respect to treatment of has fallen behind that conducted inEurope,

winery, brewery and distillerywastewater Australia and elsewhere. fermentation wastewaters problems associated wastewater industry and to some degree

However, as with many food processing wastewaters, are characterized by very high organic loads with additional Fermentation

with suspended

solids and phenolic compounds.

treatment concerns are often addressed inengineering and science

in industrytrade journals As in the past,

research publications.

the research work and experience

wastewater infermentation industry

treatment has

focused on the analysis of aerobic bioreactor and anaerobic systems and associated by-products.

sludge blanket treatment

Researchers

have found that brewery wastewater

is generally amenable

to biological

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reactor treatment methods

using different suspension

or filter media.

Nguyen et al.

(2000) used an aerobic fixed-filmsequencing control system based

batch reactor (SBR) with a feedback in the mixed liquor for

on dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentration

treatment of brewery wastewater.

The system was operated at 25 ?C and 35 ?C and oxygen demand (TBOD) 120

under growth-rate limiting conditions. Total biochemical removal efficiency ranged from83% and 438 mg BOD/L, with suspended

to 92% after 1.5 to 3 h and resulted inbetween

solids contributing between 63% and 71% of the installed or if the suspended

load. As with most biological treatment systems, treatment effectiveness would have been were an efficient secondary clarifierwas improved if removed from the brewery wastewater solids before treatment. Using an airlift the influence of pH, temperature and degradation of brewery wastewater

bioreactor, Zhang et al. (2000) considered

nitrogen (N) source on the kinetics of simultaneous and cultivation of Candida tropicalis.

Use of upflow anaerobic

sludge blanket (UASB)

reactors inbrewery wastewater and Yspeert (1999) reactor systems that are

treatment research has continued over the past year. Driessen described a new generation of more advanced characterized by biogas separation anaerobic

in two stages within the reactor and gas-driven IC system allows for large upflow liquid and gas

internaleffluent circulation (IC). The

velocities, treatment of low strength effluents at short hydraulic retention times (HRTs), and treatment of high strength effluents at very high volumetric loading rates. Using UASB and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, Jeison and Chamy (1999)

treated 500 and 10 000 mg chemical oxygen demand COD/L diluted beer. They obtained similar overall COD reactors (~ 80% fora sludge [VSS>d),

(COD)/L ethanol and 3 000 mg removal forethanol from both solids

loading rate of 800 mg COD/g volatile suspended reactor performed better than the UASB considered for

but found that the EGSB

treatment of the diluted beer. Similarly, Ince et al. (2000a) production wastewater measured ina crossflow ultrafiltration membrane anaerobic

inert COD

reactor treating brewery

having practically no inertsoluble COD.

Soluble microbial products of 2.2% of the influent COD.

in terms of COD were found to be an average

These microbial products were not removed from the effluent even with extended

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operation times. At a maximum organic COD

loading rate (OLR) of 28.5 kg COD/m3Dday, in the anaerobic reactor and 99% in the

removal efficiencies of no less than 97% permeate were achieved

membrane

during steady-state operation.

Research

into winery wastewater

treatment has

largely focused on the extension of to treatment of brewery via anaerobic

those anaerobic wastewater. processes

and aerobic methods

successfully applied

Research has

considering treatment ofwinery wastewater

included the application of UASB and fluidized-bed type reactors as well film technology (MFT). Kalyuzhnyi et al. (2000) investigated the (1 000 to 17 removals

as newer mobilized

performance of two laboratory UASB

reactors treatingwinery wastewater Total COD

000 mg COD/L) with and without recycling of treated water. achieved under OLRs

15.9, 6.5, 12.5 and 7.2 kg COD/m3*d and HRTs of less than one and 60% for the run at (45% to 67%

day were greater than 85% for the runs at the firstthree OLRs the lastOLR.

There was also substantial decolorization of thewastewater

reduction of polyphenol content). Using an inverse turbulent bed consisting of a granular floating solid expanded at an OLR of 15 kg COD/m3?d. 000 m2/m3) and Remaining by an upflow current of gas foranaerobic digestion, to 85% carbon removal froma winery wastewater (20

Buffiere et al. (2000) obtained 75 %

The carrier particles had high specific surface area

low energy requirements for fluidization (gas velocity of 1.5 mm/s). at the end of the tests was approximately 0.2 g attached volatile control of a fluidized bed on biological treatment of liquid

biomass

solids (VS)/g solids. anaerobic

Harmand et al. (2000) described

digester to stabilize production of biogas based The researchers

winery wastewater.

used a linearmodel of gas outflow rate and

inputflowrate inconjunction with the disturbance modeling principle to design a disturbance-accommodating full-scale application of MFT (2000). This case controller fora pilot-scale plant. A case technology was history of the first

presented by Cummings and Morris

history presented

the results obtained during the startup period as including reductions inelectrical,

well as benefits realized during system operation, chemical, and sludge disposal basins

costs and the ability to convert pre-existing aerobic basins.

intoadditional equalization

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Building on previous work (Benitez et al., 1999a and 1999b) with ozonation and aerobic treatment ofwinery wastewater, Benitez et al. (2000) studied decomposition inbatch reactors. The wastewater was of the treated in In the

organic content in winery wastewater series by an ozonation ozonation process,

process, an aerobic degradation, and another ozonation.

the effects of temperature, pH and presence

of hydrogen peroxide

(H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on removal of organic compounds were determined. Similarly, Beitran et al. (2000a) examined the effect of ozonation as a was It found that

pretreatment step prior to conventional aerobic biological treatment. preozonation enhanced COD and total organic carbon (TOC)

removal as well as N

removal and sludge settling properties. Kinetic studies revealed that preozonation enhances organic degradation by increasing the maximum microbial growth rate (Dmax)

and decreasing

the effects of inhibition.

Anaerobic

digester-style reactors have also been used to treat distillerywastewater. intoa high-rate anaerobic reactor

Nam et al. (1999) converted a conventional digester and obtained COD COD/m3?d. removal efficiencies of 72%

to 84% at OLRs

of 5.45 to 11.5 kg removed the of Up to

The process

produced biogas at rates of 0.57 to 0.69 m3/kg COD to 68%.

with methane

(CH4) contents of 59%

Akkuna and Clark (2000) described

performance of a granular-bed anaerobic baffled reactor and UASB 80% COD and 90% BOD

baffled reactor combining the advantages

systems for treatment ofwhiskey distillerywastewater. removal were obtained at an organic loading of 4.75 kg

COD/m3?d and very high solids retention times (SRTs), with effluent total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations of about 80 mg/L forall organic and hydraulic conditions studied. was It also found that acidogens were mostly non-granular while methanogens inan anaerobic were granular. Using rigid polyurethane foam as a packing material contact series filterto treat distillerywastewater, Vijayaraghavan (2000) evaluated the effect of HRT and toxic parameters

and Ramanujam

such as sulfate, total sulfide digestion on treatment acheieved when treating an

and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generated during wastewater efficiency. At a 4 day HRT, 73% to 98% COD

removal was

influent withCOD concentrations of 1 500 mg COD/L to 19 000 mg COD/L.

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Alternative distillerywastewater

treatment techniques considered

this past year include Lalov et al.

use of chitosan and fungi to remove high concentrations of organic material. (2000) determined that the amount of the anion-exchange contact time needed for successful wastewater

biopolymer chitosan and

treatmentwere a chitosan concentration concentrations of 2 800

wastewater with COD of 10 g/L and a contact time of 30 min for mg COD/L. Inaddition, the possibility was of adsorbed demonstrated

of subsequent by a direct

biomethanization

organic acid anions on the ionexchanger

addition of chitosan to the bioreactor. Gonzalez (Trametes spp.) to treat distillerywastewater. chromatography/mass wastewater

et al. (2000) used white-rot fungi They also used pyrolysis/gas the composition of a distillery

spectrometry to characterize

as well as tomonitor the changes which occurred after fungal treatment fungi. Maximum effluent decolorization values and COD reduction

with Basidiomycete

attained after 7 days of fungal treatmentwere 73.3% 20% (v/v)of distillerywastewater was added

and 61.7%,

respectively, when

to the culture medium.

Finally, Upendrakumar

and Bachman

(2000) presented a case

history of a wastewater featured an EGSB results of

pretreatment process at a beverage reactor followed by an aerobic SBR

bottling facility. The process

for polishing. The authors presented

initialsystem performance as well as modifications made


performance.

later to the system to improve

DAIRY
Several processes studies were conducted by researchers investigating the use of fixed-film the attachment, inan upflow

for treating dairy waste.

Ince et al. (2000b) evaluated

strength, and performance of a fixed filmon sintered glass media anaerobic filter. Biomass

distribution through the tower and reduction in media in the filter, which attained an average COD

compressive

strength was measured

removal of 80% at an OLR of 21 kg COD/m3*d and an HRT of 0.5 days. Alves et al. (2000) studied the effect of staged operation of an upflow anaerobic the effective HRT from2 d to 10 h by feeding synthetic dairy waste filter, decreasing at various points in

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the reactor. No advantage observed was

inperformance or change

in microbial characteristics was

incomparison with a conventional

filter.A differentbiofilm support system and Abbasi, 2000), who

investigated by other researchers

(Ramasamy

incorporated nylon mesh

intoan anaerobic

continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). CH4 yield, which improvement in microorganism-substrate contact and characterized as

This modification resulted ingreater than 20% according to the authors was due to enhanced

reduced washout.

Chen, et al. (2000a)

reviewed the use ofwhat was

a "deep bed" filtertechnology invarious dairy. This process media

industries throughout theworld, including a as well as the filter

used sand as the support formicroorganisms

for solids retention.

Other researchers

investigated biological and analytical topics related to dairy waste forBOD calculation was developed by Gough et al.

treatment. A prediction equation

(2000) using the effluent from an SBR at a fluidmilk processing which incorporated BOD, COD, total solids (TS), TSS,

plant. The equation, can

and pH in itsdevelopment,

be used for this particular wastewater with 95% confidence, according Vidal et al. (2000) studied the anaerobic wastewaters,

to the authors.

biodegradability of two synthetic dairy

one with a relatively high fat content and one with a relatively low fat found that optimum conditions forbiodegradability and CH4 in the range of 3 000 to 5 000 mg COD/L, requiring more time due to fat hydrolysis. for reducing whey COD

content. The researchers

production were obtained with wastewaters with treatment of the high-fatwastewater Mixed yeast cultures were used (Cristiana-Urbina et al., 2000).

inanother study as a means Treatment ofwhey

inan airliftbioreactor with a mixed yield (0.75 g

culture of Torulos cremoris and Candida biomass/g lactose) and high COD

utilis produced a high biomass

removal efficiency (95.8%).

Physical-chemical

processes

also generated

some

research

interest. Researchers

investigated the use of magnesium-enriched industrial wastewaters, to be an effective and economic An overview of membrane

liquid bittern in the treatment of a variety of The liquid bitternwas found lime.

including dairy (Ayoub et al., 2000). coagulant when used

inconjunction with slaked conducted

processes

was in the dairy industry

by Kuemmel,

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et al. (2000). discussed, were

Membrane

process

use

indairy production and whey processing was

and the results of a pilot study using an innovative combination of processes batch tests that suggested

reviewed. Koyuncu et al. (2000) conducted

nanofiltrationwould be effective inproducing reusable water from the effluent of a dairy processing wastewater osmosis treatment plant. Additional testing of a two-pass reverse produced high COD removals and high (RO) process on raw dairy wastewater

quality effluent.

MEAT AND POULTRY


Ross et al. (2000) provided an overview of recent innovations indissolved air flotation pretreatment. Included in the overview was a study of a poultry rendering plant where a full-scale DAF was

wastewater (DAF) design for industrial case

installed to provide

pretreatment of a high-strength wastewater following pilot-scale provide TSS

(43 706 mg TSS/L and 113 864 mg COD/L) reported to

treatability testing. The full-scale DAF system was removals of 99.4% and 91.7%,

and COD

respectively, at high solids

loading rates (196 kg/m2?h) and systems at meat processing (2000).

lowair-to-solids ratios (0.0006 kg air/kg solids).

Alternatives for handling both the floatable and the settleable products fromDAF plants were discussed by Chittenden and Westerhold were

Ina full-scale application,

two-stage and three-stage centrifuge processes

used to separate

and recover the floatmaterial while settled solids were processed

through a plate settler. The recovered materials were used as animal feed ingredients, resulting ina cost-effective manner for handling these wastewater Two pilot-scale aerobic SBRs were operated on-site to evaluate treating poultry processing wastewater potential (ORP) Pavlostathis, and to examine residuals.

theirefficiency in

the use of oxidation-reduction (Pierson and to

in the reactors as a process Soluble COD (SCOD)

control parameter

2000).

removal efficiencies ranged from89%

98% and ammonia-nitrogen

(NH3-N) removal was 25%

to 41% while operating with an

HRT of 12 h. ORP monitoring provided distinctive trend lineswith identifiable inflection points related to carbon oxidation, ammonification and nitrification. A submerged

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biotower consisting of a flooded upflow reactor with random-packed media was the tertiarynitrificationof poultry processing wastewater process (Dale, 2000).

used for

Details of

startup were given and results from 12 months of operations were given along Bickers and van Oostrom (2000) investigated the

with comparative operating costs.

ability of diluted blood and three meat processing waste paunch

streams

(rendering stickwater,

liquor,and slaughter floor effluent) to supply organic carbon fordenitrification.

Anoxic batch tests were used to determine the maximum specific denitrification rates and anoxic half-saturation constants foreach waste paunch liquor contained stream. Rendering stickwater and COD. Slaughter floor

large amounts of readily biodegradable

and diluted blood contained COD. Grabas (2000)

or no significant amounts of readily biodegradable little

reported on laboratory testing of moving bed biofilm reactors With a total HRT of 4 to 13 to 75% total COD removal

(MBBRs)

for the treatment of meat processing wastewater. reported to provide 64%

hours, a series of twoMBBRs were froma presettled wastewater.

Treatability of poultry processing wastewater reactor was

using fixed-filmanaerobic

reactors was

investigated by del Pozo et al. (2000) with two laboratory-scale reactors operated at 35 ?C. One an upflow configuration and the other was tubes as support media. downflow, both COD removal

equipped with vertical corrugated PVC efficiencies ranged from85% while the highest organic 55% to 75%.

to 95% at an organic

loading rate of 8 kg COD/m3?day, resulted inefficiencies of and

loading rate of 35 kg COD/m3?day

Batstone et al. (2000a and 2000b) to describe

reported on the development

validation of a model wastewater.

the high-rate anaerobic

digestion of a complex reactor treating hog

A full-scale, two-stage hybrid upflow anaerobic

processing wastewater was assessed close to CSTR

for system validation. Reactor hydraulics were

hydraulics, and the model performed well on independent data sets with process for the treatment of evaluated in

and without recycle. The performance of a UASB slaughterhouse bench-scale

wastewater with and without DAF as pretreatment was

studies at 30 ?C by Manjunath et al. (2000).

The biochemical methane

potential (BMP) of the rawwastewater,

the DAF floatmaterial, and DAF subnatant was Results revealed higher biodegradability

determined by using a serum bottle technique.

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of the fractions as compared

to the rawwastewater.

SEAFOOD
An avoided cost economic potential wastewater analysis was performed by Cardoch et al. (2000) for two (1) conventional, on-site costs forDAF treatment

treatment options fora shrimp processor:

treatmentwith DAF and (2) artificialwetland treatmentwere approximately $208,000/year and a capitalized

treatment. Annualized for25 years.

Estimated wetland

costs were approximately 25% of the DAF treatment costs, with an annual cost of $63,000/year capacities and bead cost savings of over $1.5 million. The adsorption (Cu[ll]) and a commercial reactive dye on flake was It shown

and rates of divalent copper

types of chitosans were compared at 30 ?C (Wu et al., 2000).

that all equilibrium isotherms could be fitted to a Langmuir equation. capacity of Cu(ll) on flake and bead chitosans appeared adsorption capacity of the dye on bead typewas much

The adsorption but the

to be comparable,

larger than that on flake type by indicated

a factor of 2.0 to 3.8. The rates of dye adsorption on both types of chitosans differentcontrolling mechanisms.

SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY


Ellis et al. (2000) of organic reported on a dynamic simulation used to examine the potential effect

loading fluctuations on the biological treatment process

at a corn processing

facility. Data collected during an intensive twoweek No significant effect on the soluble components noted during shock biomass may cause loadings. However, upsets was it

full-scale operation were used to

calibrate a dynamic model of the extended aeration activated sludge treatment process. of the treatment system effluentwas noted that the observed rapid growth of a temporary

in the clarification process.

Also, as expected,

reduction in the D.O. concentration was

observed, which could result infilamentous the identificationof nutrient

bulking problems. A key result of the simulation work was deficiencies as a potential operating problem associated
sugar streams.

with the release of refined

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73, Number 5 Literature Review 2001.

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A pilot-scale

research program was

undertaken by Vossoughi

et al. (2000) to to generate several

investigate the capability of an upflow anaerobic wastewater CH4 from weeks were was

fixed bed (UAFB) process

from a beet sugar plant. After inoculation with biomass,

required for the population to adapt to the molasses wastewater

feedstock. The UAFB

able to treat the molasses

successfully at the OLR of 10 kg beet sugar molasses in the manner results of

COD/m3?day.

The results indicated that processing

is technically feasible and could be economically attractive. The experimental semi-continuous wastewater, tests of anaerobic

upflow filtertreatment of confectionery industry loads, were presented by di

carried out at various HRTs and organic COD

Berardino et al. (2000).

removal efficiencies greater than 80% were obtained demonstrated the ability to adapt

under the range of conditions tested, and the biomass

itselfto new a carbon source and deal successfully with organic

load fluctuations.

Three configurations fora dual-digestion examined was

system based

on an anaerobic

CSTR were

by Lafitte-Trouque and Forster (2000). A first-stage thermophilic digester mesophilic digesters. digesters operated at an HRT of 4 h while the mesophilic In terms of VS

used to provide the feed to each of the two second-stage

The thermophilic stage was

were operated at an HRT of 8, 12, and 15 d.

reduction, the three reactor used

configurations were similar, but all were more effective than a single-stage maintained a more stable pH, regardless of the quality of the feed sludge.

as the control. The configuration with the 12 d HRT was most effective and also

FRUITAND VEGETABLES
A DAF system was UASB implemented by a cranberry processor to polish the effluent from (le Roux et al., 2000). and flocculation,

reactor inorder to reduce TSS-related

sewer surcharges

The DAF system, using alum and a cationic polymer forcoagulation reduced the TSS COD reduction.

from the UASB effluent from691 mg/L to 53 mg/L and provided a 63%

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Villaverde et al. (2000) presented operational and performance data on the modification of an aerobic SBR process to optimize N removal from the effluent of a UASB providing

treatment of a potato starch production wastewater. phase

By using a short-cycled aeration

to optimize oxygen uptake for nitrificationand organic carbon fordenitrification, reported to provide 79% (with concentrations total nitrogen (TN) removal from the high up to 700 mg total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)/L

the process was

strength wastewater

and 2 000 mg COD/L). process

Frijters et al. (2000) reported on the use of an aerobic/anoxic pretreatment system fora capable of biofilm in the system was

for providing treatment of effluent from an anaerobic The carrier-based

potato processing wastewater.

removing 5 kg COD/m3?day overall. NH3-N removal in the aerated NH3-N/m3?day was attained, as was TN removals of up to 90% the anoxic section.

section of up to 1 kg

through denitrification in

Inan attempt to reduce the occurrence was employed prior to the second

of bulking sludge problems, a selector system

stage of a two-stage activated sludge plant providing (Nikolavcic and Svardal, 2000). The system

treatment of a potato starch wastewater was reported to have stage and

improved the sludge volume

index (SVI) to below 150 mL/g in the In for

second

improved the overall performance of the treatment system. that has been attributed to the occurrence

another study, Contreras et al. (2000) established Sphaerotilus natans, a species

the kinetic growth characteristics of bulking

sludge problems
wastewater.

inactivated sludge processes

providing treatment of potato processing

Dinsdale

et al. (1999) conducted

laboratory-scale testing of a two-stage anaerobic activated sludge and a fruit

digestion process

for the stabilization of a mixture ofwaste

and vegetable mixture, with 25% of the feed VS contribution from fruit and vegetable wastes. The anaerobic system consisted of an acidogenic CSTR and methanogenic

inclined tubular reactor which provided 40% VS degradation and a CH4 yield of 0.25 m3/kgVS added, at an overall system Bagley loading rate of 5.7 kg VS/m3?day. Lalman and

(2000) determined the degradability and oils, inan anaerobic

effects of linoleic acid, inhibitory system. The authors recommended

commonly found invegetable

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using two separate

stages

in the anaerobic

treatment of vegetable

oil wastewater

to

minimize the inhibition of acetoclastic 30 mg/L or greater.

methanogens

by linoleic acid at concentrations of

Inan effort to reduce the phenols conducted

inolive mill effluent (OME), Al-Malah et al. (2000) through an adsorption process using

treatment tests by passing OME

activated clay after pretreatment by settling, centrifugation, and filtration. Ina batch process, maximum adsorption capacity was reached in less than 4 h with the maximum

removal for phenols and organic matter of 81 % and 71%, respectively. Beltran-Heredia et al. (2000a, 2000b, and 2000c) reported on the treatment ofwashing waters from

black table olive production using ozonation

pretreatment followed by aerobic biological configured to degrade Data on the aqueous biologically

treatment. The ozonation pretreatment step was inhibitory phenolic compounds removals of organic material specific phenolic compounds

found in thewastewater in the aerobic stage.

and resulted in improved ozonation of were

commonly found infood processing wastewaters

presented by Beitran et al. (2000b). et al. (2000) were able to

By isolating three polyphenolic fractions fromOME, Sayadi determine the aerobic and anaerobic that lowmolecular-weight anaerobically.

treatabilityof each fraction. The study concluded aerobically and

phenolics were more degradable

Garcia et al. (2000) also tested a number of fungi inan effort to reduce The study concluded thatPhanerochaete chrysosporium isolated

the phenol content of OME. was most capable

of phenol degradation.

Similarly, Robles

et al. (2000)

several different strains of Penicillium spp. fromexisting OME tested them for the removal of phenols fromOME. strains were capable subsequently of significant removals of COD

treatment ponds and

The tests indicated that these and phenol from the OME and

reduction of inhibitory effects of OME treatment forCOD

on other microbial strains. Others reduction in OME (Erguder et al.,

investigated the use of anaerobic 2000).

After acclimation periods of 15-25 days, batch anaerobic of 85.4% to 93.4% COD removal efficiencies.

reactors were shown to

be capable

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BAKERY
The performance of a full-scale tricklingfilterproviding pretreatment of a snack food processing wastewater was speeds (Linden et al., 2000). evaluated under various loading rates and flow distributor

Under optimum operating conditions, soluble BOD was varied considerably (400 to 1 300 rates and

reduced from 1 000 mg/L to 200 mg/L. Effluent TSS mg/L) due to biomass sloughing, which was

affected by hydraulic application

rotarydistributor speeds. reported on the performance of a grease aerobic treatment process

Keenan

and Sabelnikov

(2000)

trap system

converted

intoa biologically-augmented

to improve the The system was trap and

removal of fats, oils, and greases comprised of a two-cell grease the second acclimated cell converted

(FOG) froma bakery wastewater.

which the firstcell remained a grease trap in

intoan aerated

reactor augmented with bacterial strains

to a high-FOG food source.

During field tests of the system, effluent FOG

concentrations were

reduced from 1 512 mg/L to 320 mg/L. Effluent quality was installed to provide

media structure was improved to 28 mg FOG/L when a fixed-film biomass support.

SOLID WASTES
The conversion of rice straw, rice hulls, sugar bagasse, and pecan shells intogranular by

activated carbons using both physical and chemical activation was Ahmedna et al. (2000a). The carbons were evaluated

evaluated

for hardness, bulk density, ash,

conductivity, pH, total surface area, and adsorption properties, and the results were compared to two commercial reference carbons. Ina companion study, Ahmedna et al.

(2000b) produced granular activated carbons from pecan hulls and sugarcane combined with corn syrup or coal tar binders. This study examined parameters described sugar. in the previous citation fora process the same

bagasse

fordecolorization of raw to study the effects of

Daud et al. (2000)

reported on a series of experiments

carbonization

temperature on pore development

in the production of activated carbon

13
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from palm shells. The char was bed reactor.

activated at 500 ?C, 800 ?C, and 900 ?C ina fluidized

Raw and pelletized peanut hulls were exchange

tested as a replacement forcommercial ions fromwastewater

ion The

resin for the removal of metal

(Brown et al., 2000).

study evaluated

the removal of Cu, cadmium

(Cd), zinc (Zn), and

lead (Pb) under both the use of

steady-state and transient-rate conditions. Gupta and AN (2000) evaluated bagasse wastewater. combustion flyash for removal of Cu and Zn from including pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal

The study ion

optimized various parameters concentrations,

temperature, and particle size.

Abu-EI-ShaY

et al. (2000)

reported on a process

for removal methyl blue and methyl and pyrolyzed oil shale. The Olive oil

orange dyes using solid residue from olive mill waste study compared wastes

thewaste materials with a commercial coconut shell carbon.

impregnated with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and thermally treated at 500 ?C to The carbon

700 ?C were used tomanufacture activated carbon (Khalil et al., 2000). produced proved to be a multi-purpose, high-capacity adsorbent remediation.

wastewater useful in

An evaluation was bagasse

conducted on the economic

and environmental

impact of using

and eucalyptus as a fuel inelectric power production at sugar mills (van den The study concluded that the materials could compete with

Broek et al., 2000). conventional

fuel oil as a fuel source.

The energy characteristics of the exhaust foot reported by Masghouni and Hassairi compared to

were cake from the olive oil extraction industry (2000).

The combustion of the solid material for brick manufacturing was

fuel oil containing 4% sulfur (S) and found to significantly reduce the emissions
oxides.

of sulfur

Islam and Ani (2000) conducted processes

a technical and economic

analysis of pyrolytic

for the conversion of rice husk waste

to pyrolytic oil and solid char. The

study evaluated

fluidized bed pyrolysis with and without catalytic treatment. A simple

14
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method for the production of pure silica xerogels Kalapathy et al. (2000). The process was based

from rice hull ash was

described

by

on an alkaline extraction followed by

acid precipitation. Jimenez et al. (2000)

investigated cooking conditions (time,

wheat temperature, and formaldehyde concentration) for the production of pulp from straw with formaldehyde water mixtures. The pulp properties analyzed cellulose, and ethanol-benzene lignin, also determined. extractables included yield,

content. The pH of thewastewater

produced was rice husk ash slabs made


commercial

The manufacture ofwhite Portland cement fromwaste described by Ajiwe et al. (2000). Concrete to

ina pilot plant process was

using the rice husk ash concrete were determined to be comparable


concrete.

Bioconversion

of cassava

and sugar cane bagasse Vandenberghe

and their products were et al. (2000)

reviewed by using a yielded a

Pandey et al. (2000a and 2000b)

reported on the synthesis bagasse

of citric acid from sugar cane bagasse,

coffee husk, and cassava

culture of Aspergillus niger. The solid-state fermentation of cassava maximum of 88 g of citric acid per kg of drymatter. (PAH), a bioplastic, was

bagasse

Polyhydroxyalkanoates malt and soy wastes al., 2000).

produced

through the bioconversion

of

mixed with a culture of activated sludge microorganisms

(Wong et

The physical and chemical properties were described and found to be Navarro et al. generated (2000) described a bioconversion

different formalt and soy feedstocks. process for the treatment of vinasse

by the production of ethanol from sugar The process required no that requires a using

cane molasses

by fermentation and distillation processes.

external energy inputand could replace the current incineration process significant amount of external energy. A solid-state fermentation process Lentinus edodes and apple, cranberry, and strawberry pomace was evaluated

as substrates for the The study

production of polygalacturonase concluded

by Zheng and Shetty (2000).

that strawberry pomace was

the best substrate, followed by apple pomace, substrate.

while cranberry pomace was

not an acceptable

An anaerobic

plug-flow reactor was

used to treat a mixture of semi-solid waste

from

15
Water Environment Federation. Water Copyright? 2001 by the Environment Research, Volume 73, Number 5 Literature Review 2001.

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wholesale

fruit and vegetable markets mixed with sewage

sludge

(Sharma et al., 2000).

The primary objective of the study was produced from the anaerobic process.

to determine the quality and quantity of biogas Edelmann et al. (2000) conducted a similar sludge inan

which fruit and vegetable waste was study in anaerobic process process. A two-step process was heat ina plant processing

co-digested with sewage

used to generate both electricity and A thermal hydrolysis process investigated by for

1 m3/d ofwaste.

the pretreatment of hard-to-digest waste Scheider et al. (2000).

such as food scraps was

The pretreatment process was

shown to significantly improve the effect of

the anaerobic

digestion of thewaste materials.

Kim et al. (2000) evaluated

particle size and sodium waste.

ion concentration on thermophilic anaerobic that particle size isone of the most

digestion of food

The study concluded process.

importantparameters

in the anaerobic

Huang et al. (2000) developed vegetable waste. waste

an empirical model for thermophilic composting of

The model can be used to predict the ratio of the pre-dried vegetable as an alternative to conventional composting

to rice hulls, aeration rate, and reaction temperature and time. A slurry-phase indecomposing At a 5 day HRT, roughly 82% of the carbonaceous degraded with comparable (PO4-P). removals of nitrate-nitrogen

bioreactor was evaluated food wastes materials

(Yun et al., 2000). in the feed stock was

(NO3-N) and phosphate-phosphorus

MISCELLANEOUS
Cantor et al. (2000) compared before and after conversion the performance of an aerobic activated sludge process biological reactor (MBR) process The external membrane allowed that filtration

to a membrane

provided treatment of a food ingredientswastewater. system used to clarify biomass roughly five times the COD (98.6% and 85.4%, from thewastewater

the plant to operate at COD and TN removals

loading while providing comparable

respectively) and effluent quality. A process

forcontrolling the

addition of N and P in the aerobic wastewater was described

treatment of nutrient-deficient food processing (2000). The addition of these

by Prendl and Nikolavcic

16
Water Environment Federation. Water Copyright? 2001 by the Environment Research, Volume 73, Number 5 Literature Review 2001.

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nutrientswas Rajeshwari anaerobic processing

controlled by monitoring the NH3-N and the PO4-P concentrations. for

et al. (2000) reviewed the suitability and status of development treatment of a variety of industrial wastewaters facilities.

including those from food

The use of cellulose-based

fibrous materials and polyelectrolytes for the recovery of froma food processing wastewater was and cellulose

proteins and other biological compounds reported by Chen et al. (2000b).

The use of carboxymethyl cellulose

triacetate fibers to form flocculated sludges quality effluentwith 90% BOD removals.

suitable foranimal feed also resulted inhigh the results of used for

Brinck et al. (2000) presented

studies on the influence of fattyacids on the fouling of ultrafiltration membranes the treatment of food processing wastewaters. membrane was
wastewater.

The flux through a polyethersulfone

severely reduced under acidic conditions with a high fattyacid

In response

to regulations limiting salt loading in land application systems, Smith and that total dissolved solids (TDS) and indicators for systems providing treatment of some food the use of fixed dissolved TDS solids as a

Crites (2000) presented data suggesting conductivity were not adequate processing wastewaters. better indicator because

The authors advocated

food processing wastewater

has a higher organic fraction

which will break down biologically soils. Data were presented production facilities.

in the soil system without affecting groundwater or from tomato, canning, and cheese

wastewater for

Mathematical

models were developed

to predict the effect of effluent recirculation on the reactors treatingmunicipal and soybean The study concluded that therewas a

performance of upflow fixed-filmanaerobic processing wastewaters maximum (Yu et al., 2000).

threshold of recirculation rates beyond which system performance would be processing wastewater made

adversely affected and that the complexity of the soybean the effect difficultto predict through a model.

17
Water Environment Federation. Water Copyright? 2001 by the Environment Research, Volume 73, Number 5 Literature Review 2001.

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Mark E. Grismeris

a Professorin

theDepts. Of LAWR-Hydrology and Biological & Charles C. Ross and G.

Agricultural Engineering Edward

at the University of California, Davis.

Valentine, Jr., are principals and Brandon M. Smith is a project engineer with Inc., inAtlanta, Georgia. Tech Research James L. Walsh, Jr., is a

Environmental Treatment Systems, Senior Research Correspondence Systems,

Engineer at the Georgia should be addressed

Institute inAtlanta.

to Charles C. Ross, Environmental Treatment

Inc., P.O. Box 94005, Atlanta, GA 30377.

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Trickling Filter forTreatment of a Snack Water Environ. Fed.

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