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Notes Cultural equivalent Descriptive equivalent Translation by description( +function), to neutralise or generalise a SL cultural word by using a description. E.

g samurai Japanese aristocracy from the 11th to 19th century its function was to provide officers and administrators Synonymy Near TL equivalent to an SL word in a context there a precise equivalent may or may not exist. Economy prevails over accuracy. Compromise translation. Kind (amable, agradable) nice, fussy, I feel a bit awkward (me siento raro) Mona (cake) Magdalena (fairy cakes, muffin) Through translation To transfer a SL word or expression into the TT using a literal translation of its component elements Superman (superhombre) Marriage de convenance ( matrimonio de conveniencia) Skyscraper (rascacielos ) Football (balonpie) Supermarket (supermercado) OMS (WHO) Shift or transposition Translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL (singular to plural, position of adjective, changing the word class or part of speech furniture (muebles) Applause aplausos Keyword palabra clave Advice consejos After she left (tras su partida He will back soon) (no tardara en venir( instead of estara de vuelta pronto))

Working with you is a pleasure (trabajar contigo es) Tras su salida (after hed gone out Theres a reason for life (hay una razon para vivir) Modulation Variation through a change of viewpoint. This allows to express the same phenomenon in a different way Dont delay (date prisa) No the quepa duda (get this straight) No tiene nada de tonto (hes extremely intelligent) No parking at all times (vado permanente) the early bird catches de worm (a quien madruga dios le ayuda) one bitten, twice shy (el gato escaldado del agua fria huye) dont be a stranger (quedemos otro dia) such hypocrisy makes me see red (estas hipocresas me sacan de quicio) get off your back side and do something useful ( deja de rascarte la barriga y ponerte a hacer algo til) you are welcome (de nada) recognized translation generally accepted translation of any institutional term intelligence service ( serviocio de inteligencia military) (should be servicio de informacion del ejercito) secretary of state ( secretaria de estado ( should be ministra de asuntos exteriores) compensation when loss of meaning, sound-effect, metaphor or pragmatic effect in one part of a sentence is compensated in another part, or in a contiguous sentence the atmosphere in the big gambling room had changed. Iut was now much quieter (elk ambiente haba cambiado por complete en la gran) E.g. the uso og the pronoun tu to express familiarity between two people (as opposed to formal usted could correspond in English to the use of a first name or nickname, or be marked by familiar syntactic phrases (ex Im, youre), or the use of please find attached the .pdf file

Paraphrase Amplification or explanation of the meaning of a segment of the text Couplets Using two translation strategies (transference + definition, through translation) E.g. my philosophy is carpe diem (seize the day) Notes, additions, glosses Then the translator supplies addition information in the form of footnotes, glossaries at the end of the text, or within the text. (e.g. Debrecen (the city of Debrecen, in west Hungary)) Reduction and expansion Imprecise translation procedure, intuitive and ad hoc. To use more words in the target text in order to re-express an idea or to reinforce the sense of a ST language (sense temps per posar-ho tot) Vivificatne (life giving) Computer science (informatica) Yes, so what? (Y? instead of si, y que?)