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Poulos, 1980, Pile foundation analysis and design, by John Wiley & Sons Inc. Bowles, J.E.

., 1997, Foundation analysis and design, fifth edition,, Mc Graw Hill Book Company-Singapore. Prakash S & Sharma HD., 1990, Pile foundation in Engineering practice, John Wiley $ Sons Coduto DP., 2001, Foundation design 2nd ed, Prentice Hall, Inc.

1. 2. 3.

Standard penetration tests Static cone penetration test (Dutch cone ) Presuremeter test

Meyerhof 1956 for displacement pile in sand


N/50 1 t/ft2
where Pu is ultimate load (ton) Np = standar penetration number at pile base N = average value of N along pile shaft

For small displacement piles


N/100 0.5 t/ft2
where Pu is ultimate load Ab = net sectional area of toe (ft) As = gross surface area of shaft ( ft2 )

Bromham and Styles, 1971 also used those two equations for stiff clays with some success

Meyerhof 1976 for displacement pile in sand and gravel qe = 0.4 N60 (D/B) r 4.0 N60r For nonplastic silt qe = 0.4 N60 (D/B) r 3.0 N60r For skin friction
Large displacement in cohesionless soil ..

D/B 10 7.5

.. D/B

fs = r /50 N60
Small displacement in cohesionless soil

N60= CN N60 CN = 2/(1+v /r ) SI unit

fs = r /100 N60

where

qe net unit end bearing resistance fs = unit skin friction resistance r = reference stress =2000 lb/ft2 = 100 kPa v = effective stress at B = pile diameter D = pile embedment depth N60 = SPT N value for field procedures only N60 = SPT N value corrected for field procedures and overburden stress

Meyerhof (1976)
End bearing Sand :
Non plastic silt

Qp = (0.4 N /B) Df Ap 4 N Ap Qp = (0.4 N /B) Df Ap 3 N Ap

dimana N = average corrected SPT

(23.44kPa)

N = CN N ; CN = 0.77(log 20/v )

dan

v 0.25 tsf

dimana N adalah rata-rata nilai SPT dekat pile tip

Friction Qs = p fS L dimana
Where

fs= N/50 1tsf

Qp= net unit end bearing resistance fs = unit skin friction resistance v = effective stress at B = pile diameter Df = pile embedment depth N = SPT N value for field procedures only N = SPT N value corrected for field procedures and overburden stress

Example 1
A closed ended 12-in. (300 mm) diameter steel pipe pile is driven into sand to 30-ft (9 m), depth. The water table is at ground surface and sand has 4 = 36" and unit weight (y) is 1251b/ft3 (19.8 kN/m3). Estimate the pipe pile's allowable load.
SOLUTION (a) Average N value near pile tip is 12 (10 + 12 + 14)/3) (b) Point Bearing (Qp) v near pile tip = (125 - 62.5) 30 lb/ft2 = 18751b/ft2 = 0.938 tsf The correction for depth in N values is applied by using equation as follows: CN = 0.77 log (20/0.938) = 1.02 Therefore, N= CNN. Then N= 1.02 x 12 =12 For driven piles

Qp = (0.4N/B)DfAp ,< 4NAP


where 0.4NDfAp/B = 0.4 x 12 x 30 x 0.78511 = 113 tons 4NAp = 4 x 12 x 0.785 = 37.7 tons The lower of these two values will be Q, = 37.7 tons (c) Shaft Friction (Q,) Average N value along pile shaft = (4 + 6 + 6 + 8 + 10)/5 = 6.8. Use an effective overburden pressure v for average depth of L/2 = 30/2 ft. Then v will be half the above value (v= 0.938/2 = 0.469 tsf). Then CN = 0.77 log(20/0.469) = 1.25. Thus,N= 6.8 x 1.25 = 8.5. fs = N/50 = 8.5/50 = 0.17 tsf (which is less than 1 tsf Q f = fsx p x L=0.17 x 3.14 x 1 x 30= 16tons (d) Allowable Bearing Capacity ((Qv)all ) (Qv)ult= Qp + Qf = 37.7 + 16 = 53.7 tons (Qv)all = (Qv)ult (Q,)/FS = 53.713 = 17.9 tons = 35.8 kips (156 kN)

Example 2
The drill shaft shown is to be design the benefit of any on site static loading test. The soil condition are uniform and the site characterization program was average. Compute the allowable downward load capacity

End bearing
Qp = Ap qc where Ap is pile tip area dan qc is cone penetration resistance

Friction capacity
Qs = p fS L
fs = ultimate

shift resitance

qcdesign = (qc1+qc2+2qc3)/4
where qc1= average cone resistance over two diameters below pile base. qc2= minimum cone resistance over two diameters below pile base. qc3= average of minimum values lower than qc1 over eight diameters above pile base.

Source:Piling engineering, 2006

Normalized end-bearing resistance for driven closed-ended piles. (Annotations by Randolph, 2003.)
qb/qc recommended for closed-ended driven piles range from 0.2 (Jardine and Chow, 1996) to 0.5 (Kraft,1990) Randolph (2003) has pointed out that the magnitude of end-bearing pressure mobilized within displacements of 10% of the pile diameter will depend on the magnitude of residual stress locked into the soil below the pile base during installation, but proposed a design value of 0.4 for qb/qc unless high residual stresses could be demonstrated Lehane et al. (2005) proposed qb/qc of 0.6 for closed-ended piles and qb = (0.15+0.45Ar)qc

Normalized end-bearing pressures for driven open-ended piles and bored piles

Side friction coefficient Cs (Eslami &Fellinius, 1997)

Side friction coefficient Cs (Eslam &Fellinius, 1997)

Base on Baguelin, et all 1978 dan Canadian Foundation Engineering manual 1978, 1985) End bearing capacity

Where qo horizontal at rest in soil of pile tip kq bearing capacity factor (see grafic): class1 for clay&silts; class 2 for hard clay, dense silt, loose sand; class 3 for sand and gravel or rock; class 4 for very dense sand and gravel

Qp = Ap (qo + Kq(PL- Po)

Skin Friction

Qs = p f S L

Berdasarkan atas alat pancang yang digunakan, berat hammer dan tinggi jatuh hammer WH = Qdyn S +
dimana Qdyn = dynamic resitance of soil pile driving = energy looses

s is the permanent set of the pile. c is the elastic, or recoverable, movement of the pile

Source:Piling engineering, 2006

Modified Engineering News Formula

Hammer Data

Driving System or Appurtenance Data Pile Data Soil Data

Hammer input properties are usually well known from a manufacturersdatabase. In a driveability analysis, hammer types are selected based on the soil resistance to be overcome. The driving system or appurtenance dataconsists of information on hammer cushion, helmet including striker plate, inserts, adapters, etc. and pile cushion in case of concrete piles. Required pile data consists of total length, cross-sectional area, elasticmodulus and weight, all as a function of depth. Soil data input requires both an understanding of site-specific soil propertiesand the effects of pile driving on those properties. Dynamic properties such as dampingand quake are roughly correlated with soil type.

Drill shaft/ bored pile

Pada cohesionless soil (sand)


Reese & ONeill (1989) qe = 0.6 r N60 4500 kpa

Pada cohessive soil (clay)


Reese & ONeill (1989) qe = Nc su 4000 kpa

dimana:r =reference stress = 100kpa


qe =net unit end bearing resistance Jika dasar diameter shaft 50=120 cm :

Nc = 6[1+0,2(D/B )] 9 dimana

N60 =mean SPT value

Nc = bearing capacity factor D = depth of bottom of the shaft Bb = diameter of shaft base su = undrained shear strength

qer = 4.17 (Bb /Bb) qe Bb 120cm dimana: B = reference width=1ft=30cm B = base diameter

jika B > 190 cm harga

Fr = 2.5/[120 1 Bb /(Br + 2) ] <1.0


1 = 0.0071+ 0.0021(D /Bb ) 0.015

qer = Fr qe

= 1.59

0.5<=2<=1.5

Pada clay method = K tan s fS = v = K tan s v method fS = cu = ca =adhesion factor Qs = p fS l Qu = Q p + Q s

Pada cohesionless soil Reese & ONeill (1989)


method f s= v = K tan s

atau Reese & O neal 1989

= 1.5 0.135

dimana fs= unit skin friction resitance v= vertical effective stress at midpoint of soil layer K= coeficient of lateral earth pressure s= soil-shaft interface friction angle z = depth from the ground surface to the midpoint of strata Br=reference width= 30 cm (1ft)

z 0.25< <1.2 Br

Adhesion values for driven piles in mixed soil profiles, (a) Case 1: piles driven through overlying sands or sandy gravels, and (b) Case 2: piles driven through overlyingweak clay (Tomlinson, 1980).

Adhesion values for driven piles in stiff clays without different overlying strata (Case 3) (Tomlinson, 1980).

Problema dari beban dinamis (dynamic loading) dibagi atas:


Small strain respon amplitudo Large strain respon amplitudo

Prinsipal properti dalam dynamic soil-pile analisis: Youngs modulus E; shear modulus G; spring constant; damping dan Poisons rasio

Faktor

Tipe tanah; properti; tingkat terganggu

pengaruh modulus dinamis

nya tanah Initial level dr static stresss atau confining stress Strain level Time effects Degree saturation Frequency dan jumlah cycle Magnitude dari dynamic stress Dynamic prestrain

Metoda laboratory
Resonant column Cyclic simple shear Cyclic torsional simple shear Cyclic triaxial compression

Metoda lapangan
Cross-borehole wave propagation test Up-hole atau down-hole wave propagation test Standard penetration test (SPT) Footing resonance test Cyclic plate loading test

Elastic constans dari tanah


youngs modulus

= z/z

lateral strains x dan y adalah

x = y = - z
shear modulus

dimana adalah Poisons rasio

G = / atau = /G hubungan E, G dan E = 2G(1 + )