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# Line size of pipe based on Economic Velocity

## Table For economic velocity with respect to fluid density

Parameters Density Eco. Velocity Units Kg/m m/s
3

Density Range 1600 1.5 to 2.5 800 2.0 to 3.0 160 3.0 to 5.0 16 6.0 to 10.0 1.6 12.0 to 18.0

## Rule of Thumb: 1.) Flow under gravity - 0.3 to 0.4 m/s

Recommended is 0.3m/s

## 2.) Pump Suction velocity range is - 0.3 to 0.5m/s Formula:

Where:
Input Output Q= Ev = d= 4.375 50 0.3338 Flow Rate in "m /s" Economic Velocity in "m/s" Inside diameter of pipe in "m"
3

3

## Eco. Velocity Range (Steam)

Steam Condition Wet Exhaust Steam Dry Saturated Steam Super Heated Steam Formula: Velocity (m/s) 15 - 25 25 - 35 35 - 45 Note
Than the pressure Drop is 0.2bar/100m

Where:
W= Input Output Ev = Sp. Vol = d= 200 20 0.21 27.25 Steam Flow Rate in "Kg/hr" Economic Velocity in "m/s" Specific volume of steam in "m3/Kg" Pipe ID in "mm"

3

## Recommented Maximum Velocity of fluid for GRP pipe

For Clean Fluid Formula:

Where:
Input Output

=
V=

67.05 11.98

## Fluid Density in "lb/ft3" Fluid Velocity in "ft/s"

Reference
1.) Density of water = 62.48 lb/ft3 = 1000 Kg/m3 at 4 0C. 2.) Typicat GRP piping system work on velocity of 3~12 ft/s

Where:
Input Output

=
V=

67.05 5.99

## Recommented Minimum Pipe Diameter for GRP pipe

For Clean Fluid Formula:

Where:
Input

= Q= Sg =
d=

## 67.05 638.42 1.07 4.45

Fluid Density in "lb/ft " Flow Rate in "gal/min (gpm)" Fluid Specific Gravity Pipe inside Dia in "inch" Conert m3/hr Refer Table: 01

Output

Table: 01

## Typical Liquid Properties

Type of Liquid 10% Salt Water Brine, 25% NaCl Brine, 25% CaCl2 300 API Crude Oil Average Fuel Oils Kerosene Auto Gasoline Specific Gravity Sg at 60 0F 1.07 1.19 1.23 0.87 0.93 0.83 0.72 1.4 2.2 2.45 13 8.9 1.82 1.2

Viscosity at 60 0F (centip

Aviation gasoline 50% Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) JP3 JP5 JP8 60% Sulfuric Acid 98% Sulfuric Acid 85% Phosphoric Acid 37.5% Hydrochloric Acid

0.7 1.53 Mil 5624 Jet Fuels 0.75 0.84 0.8 Acids at 68 F 1.5 1.83 1.69 1.46
0

145

to GPM

638.4159

## Pressure Drop Calculation using Darcy-Fanny Formula

Step: 01 Find Reynoids No. (Re) using below formula Formula:

Where: d=
Input 0.2032 1.24 1074 0.0014

Pipe Inside Diameter in "meter" Fluid velocity in "m/s" Fluid Density in "Kg/m3" Convert Centipoise

u= = =

Output

Fluid Viscocity in "N-s/m2" Re = 193295.45 Reynolds No. if Re < 2000 2000 < Re < 10000 Re > 10000 Flow is Laminar Flow is in Transition Flow is in Turbulent

Step: 02 Find Relative Roughness Formula: Relative Roughness = Where: Input Output
Glass Pipe Drawn Brass Pipe Copper Pipe

/d
Pipe ID in "mm" Pipe Factor

d= =

203.2 0.045

Rr = 0.0002215

## 0.0015 0.0015 0.0015

CS Pipe Wrought Iron Galvanized Iron Cast Iron Pipe Concrete Pipe PVC - other Plastics GRP Pipe

## 0.0450 0.0450 0.1500 0.2600 0.18 -0.6000 0.1200

0.0053

Step: 03
Find Moody fiction factor from chart with respect to Re & Relative Roughness Fm = 0.017

Where: Fm = u=
Input

## 0.017 1.24 98 0.2032 9.81 0.64

Moody fiction Factor from chart Fluid Velocity in "m/s" Length of pipe in "meters" Inside dia of pipe in "meters" Accelaration due to gravity in "m/s2" Pressure Drop in "mlc"

L= d= g=

Output Step: 05

DP =

## Convert Pressure Drop from "mlc" in to "Kg/cm2" Formula: P= hXXg Where:

h= Input Output = g=

## 0.64 1074 9.81

Pressure in "mlc" Fluid density in "Kg/m " Accelaration due to gravity in "m/s2"
3

1.4

N-s/m2

0.0014

## Line Size of GAS

Step: 01
Find density of gas on given pressure & temperature

Formula:

= (P X Mw)/(R X T)
Where: Input Output Mw = Input Output Output Step: 02
Find economic velocity of gas by using below formula

P=

## 7 8.013 29 40 313 8.93

Pressure in "bar" Pressure in "bar Abs" Molecular weight of gas In 0C In 0K Density of Gas in "Kg/m3" 29 for Air,

R = 0.08313 Constant T=

## Formula: Ev = K/(n) For

1<=<16
K = 20, n = 1/3 K= 20 0.33 8.93 9.64

For

>=16
K = 25, n = 1/3

For

<1
K = 12, n = 1/2

n=

=
Ev =

## Find Actual Discharge

Where: VN = Input Pact = Tact = PN = PT = 90 8.013 313 1.013 273 Discharge of Gas in "m /hr" Pressure in "bar Abs" In 0K
3

Find Id of pipe

K = 12, n = 1/2