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FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

CBCT 2203

Basic Concept of Information Technology

SEMESTER May 2011

Table of Contents:

Descriptions:

Pages:

1) Introduction.

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2) Objective of the proposed solutions.

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3) Required changes. . 3.1) 3.2) 3.3) Hardware. Software.

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. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

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.4 .4 .7 .9

The peoples. .

4) Anticipating challenges. 4.1) 4.2) 4.3) Costs. .

. .

. .

. . .

. . .

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. . . .

. . . .

. 10 . 10 . 11 . 11

Skills and expertise. .

To find and choose latest suitable technology.

5) Obtaining solutions.

. 11

6) Summary. .

. 15

References. .

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1. Introduction: Sophisticated Information Technology (IT) infrastructures for business world are very important nowadays. Changes for excellence solution for latest and sophisticated IT infrastructures are crucial to all company in the world in order to expand and compete with the rivals in similar business field. A feasible solution in term of security, performance and cost has to be considered when the management decide to choose a right technology at the right time and places for their business solutions. TescoSoft Sdn. Bhd. was established in 2000 and one of the largest retailer companies in Malaysia beside competitors like Giant, Tesco, Jusco and Carrefour. The company has several departments which are Human Resources, Accounting, Marketing, Customer Service and Logistics. Each department operates their day to day tasks and business support on their own IT infrastructures which also known as an Island of information phenomena. These resulted in a high redundancy of data and inability of sharing valuable information amongst the departments in the company. The company required changes and have to formulate solutions to overcome the problems faced in order to compete with the giant rivals of retailer companies in Malaysia. The CEO decided to revamp the existing IT infrastructures in the company. Hence, this paper will be a proposal report for implementation of IT infrastructure for TescoSoft Sdn. Bhd., which prepared by the IT management team and to be submitted to the CEO.

2. Objective of the proposed solutions: The objective of this proposal is to provide solutions to the existing IT infrastructures to streamline entire business operations in the company regardless of their geographical location and departments that expanded globally. This will enable important data sharing and exchanges between all available departments at all branches whenever and wherever they need it with immediate access. A feasible solution in term of security, performance and cost effective has to be considered when selecting and implementing the suitable IT infrastructure solutions for the company. With a suitable and better IT infrastructures, all daily tasks for different department in the company will become smoother and easier. An island of information phenomena, a high redundancy of data and improper integration between the departments will be eliminated at the same time.

3. Required changes: As the company expanded globally, changes for IT infrastructure need to be done on relevant elements such as hardware, software and the people. Changes must be taken in line with a robust technology development in IT sector. Therefore, thorough research and investigations was carried out to find the best solutions for the changes with optimum performance, cost effective and meet the objectives or requirements by all departments in the company. The main IT infrastructure are including a Computer (PC), Application software, Data storage, Server, Network and the IT expert personnel such as a Programmer, System Analyst, Software Engineer and IT Technician. Computer or a Personal Computer (PC) is the main infrastructure that needed for IT solution. There are two types of PC that can be chose for a business purposes as per listed below: High end High performance 1) Desktop High end Business basics Multitasking/ productivity High end High performance 2) Notebook High end Business basics Multitasking/ productivity Chart 1: Two types of PC choice. Multitasking/ productivity Multitasking/ productivity

3.1. Hardware: Hardware is a physical component of the computer system in form of computer hardware devices. Hardware is a comprehensive term for all of the physical parts of a computer, as distinguished from the data it contains or operates on, and the software that
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provides instructions for the hardware to accomplish tasks. A typical computer hardware are including a CPU, Processor, motherboard, monitor, mouse, keyboard, data storage (Hard disk drive), RAM, CD-ROM or Optical disc drive, Expansion cards and Power supply unit. There are various types of computer and hardware in the market from a different supplier brands such as HP, Intel, ACER, DELL, SONY, AMD etc, with a different price ranges. Selecting a suitable computer and the hardware components are based on the needs of the user which comes with better performance, multitasking, productivity, cost effective and user friendly. The most important aspect is the user can performs their daily task faster and efficient to cope with the business needs in the company. For TescoSoft, medium performance hardware with least costs that suitable for Retailer industries will be selected. This is very important to avoid unnecessary cost spending on high end or over-capacity products. Below are some samples of hardware that available in the markets which are suitable in term of performance and prices comparison: (1) AMD Processors Brand (Model) AMD Sempron64 AM2 S940 3000+@1.80GHz@1600HTT@256K Descriptions/Features 1600MHz HTT, 128KB L1 Cache, 256KB L2 Cache, 90nm, AM2 Socket-940, Retail Box with HSF. 2000MHz HTT, 128KBx2 L1 Cache, 256KBx2 L2 Cache, 90nm, AM2 Socket-940, Retail Box with HSF. 2000MHz HTT, 128KBx2 L1 Cache, 512KBx2 L2 Cache, 90nm, AM2 Socket-940, Retail Box with HSF. 2000MHz HTT, 128KBx2 L1 Cache, 512KBx2 L2 Cache, 90nm, AM2 Socket-940, Retail Box with HSF. 2000MHz HTT, 128KBx2 L1 Cache, 512KBx2 L2 Cache, 90nm, AM2 Socket-940, Retail Box with HSF. RM.190 to RM.750 Per Unit. Prices

AMD Athlon64 AM2 X2 S940, 3600+@2.00GHz@2000HTT@512K

AMD Athlon64 AM2 X2 S940, 3800+@2.00GHz@2000HTT@1MB

AMD Athlon64 AM2 X2 S940, 4200+@2.20GHz@2000HTT@1MB

AMD Athlon64 AM2 X2 S940, 5000+@2.60GHz@2000HTT@1MB

Table 1.1: Sample of AMD Processors

(2) INTEL Processors Brand (Model) INTEL Celeron D LGA-775, 2.6GHz@533FSB@256KB INTEL Pentium D LGA-775, 2.8GHz@800FSB@2MB INTEL Pentium D LGA-775, 3.4GHz@800FSB@4MB INTEL Core 2 Duo LGA-775, 2.40GHz@1066FSB@4MB INTEL Core 2 Duo LGA-775, 2.67GHz@1066FSB@4MB Descriptions/Features 533MHz FSB, 20KB L1 Cache, 256KB L2 Cache, 90nm, LGA-775, Retail Box with HSF. 800MHz FSB, Dual Core, 20KB L1 Cache, 1MBx2 L2 Cache, 65nm, LGA-775, Retail Box with HSF. 800MHz FSB, Dual Core, 20KB L1 Cache, 2MBx2 L2 Cache, 65nm, LGA-775, Retail Box with HSF. 1066MHz FSB, Dual Core, 20KB L1 Cache, 2MBx2 L2 Cache, 65nm, LGA775, Retail Box with HSF. 1066MHz FSB, Dual Core, 20KB L1 Cache, 2MBx2 L2 Cache, 65nm, LGA775, Retail Box with HSF. RM.240 to RM.420 Per Unit. Prices

Table 1.2: Sample of INTEL Processors Motherboards Descriptions/Features Support for an Intel Core 2 Extreme processor/ Intel Core 2 Quad processor/Intel Core 2 Duo processor/ Intel Pentium processor Extreme Edition/Intel Pentium D processor/ Intel Pentium 4 processor Extreme Edition/Intel Pentium 4 processor/ Intel Celeron processor in the LGA 775 package Support for Socket AM3 processors: AMD Phenom II processor / AMD Athlon II processor Graphic cards Graphics Engine RADEON HD6500/Video Memory1GB GDDR5/Engine Clock650MHz/Memory Clock1000MHz x 4 (4.0 Gbps)/Memory Interface128bit

Brand (Model)

Prices

GIGABYTE G31M-ES2L LGA-775 Micro-ATX.

RM.190

GIGABYTE 890GPA-UD3H "Ultra Durable 3 - All Solid Capacitor + ESS" Socket-AM3 ATX

RM.520

PowerColor HD6570 1GB GDDR5

RM.299

HITACHI 2.5" 500GB SATA HDD. SEAGATE 500GB (Barracuda)

Hard Disk Hitachi 500GB (Travelstar) Serial ATA/300 (300MB/s), 12.0ms seek time, 5400RPM, 8MB Cache, 2.5" form. 500GB Serial ATA/300 (300MB/s), 8.5ms seek time, 7200RPM, 32MB Cache, 3.5" form.

RM.180

RM.220

Optical Disc Drive (CD-ROM) LITE-ON 24X DVD Writer Internal SATA Black. 24X DVD Writer Internal SATA Power Supply Unit 400W True Power 24-Pin, SATA, PCI-E 6-Pin Power & 120mm Fan. RM.75

ASUS "By Delta" Atlas 400W GIGABYTE Superb Power 460W (GE-R460-V1)

RM.150

Active PFC, High Efficiency Power Circuit Design/12cm Cooling Fan with Noise RM.150 Killer/24-Pin Connector, 4 x SATA Power, 1 x 6-Pin PCI-E Power. Monitor Response Time: 5ms/18.5" Wide/1366 X 768 "Full HD" resolution/21W (Max) power consumption/448W X 358H X 198D of dimension/special features: FLATRON f Engine, HDCP, 4:3 in Wide.

LG W1943S LCD 18.5" Wide Glossy Black

RM.380

Response Time: 5ms/18.5" Wide/1366 X 768 "Full HD" resolution/30W (max) BENQ G900HD LCD 19" Wide power consumption/448W X 358H X Black with DVI "5ms" 198D of dimension/special features: FLATRON f Engine, HDCP compliance. GIGABYTE GM-M6000 LOGITECH Classic K100 Keyboard (PS/2) LOGITECH Media Combo MK200. Accessories 1600dpi Laser Mouse (USB/Wire) Keyboard & Optical Mouse (USB/wire)

RM.420

RM.29 RM.25 RM.50

Table 1.3: Samples of other PC Hardware. 3.2. Software:

Software is defined as a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, it is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and documentation. Computer software are includes

Application software, System software, Firmware, Testware, Programming software, Database, Graphics software and much more. There are various types of application software available in the market. The latest and better application software like Microsoft Office 2007 and 2010 are very common and easy to use. For Operating system, Microsoft Windows are commonly used instead of UNIX, Linux or Mac OS because it is user friendly and cheaper. For Business software solutions, Sage UBS software is the best solution because it is widely used for Human Resource (HR) and Payroll, Accounting as well as for Stock and Invoicing. In some other company, PeopleSoft software is used for the HR and Payroll management system. Security system software such as Symantec, Kaspersky, McAfee, AVG etc is also very important for software solution selection. This will prevent data lose due to virus attack or hacked by unknown personnel. Selecting the suitable software in term of excellence technology, better performance and cost effective for PC application is based on the needs and of each department. Below are samples for available software solutions in the market for prices comparisons: Operating Systems Features Fit for all business purposes in term of performance, communication, entertainment, productivity, professionality, safety and security. High end product of Microsoft windows

Brand/Descriptions MICROSOFT Windows 7 Professional OEM License. MICROSOFT Windows 7 Ultimate OEM License Apple-Mac OS X

Prices RM.450

RM.650 RM.920.

Designed by Apple inc. for PC operating system. Applications Software Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 High end product of Mac 2011 (Apple) Home and Business Edition complete with MS office. Microsoft Office 2010 for Homes & Business Microsoft Office 2010 Professional Sage UBS Nine plusAccounting software. Fit for all business purposes in term of performance, communication, entertainment, productivity, professionality, safety and security. Latest high end office product of Microsoft. Suitable for up to 20 users, data management, transactions management, security management, accounting, billing, inventory, sales and purchasing processes etc.

RM.850

RM.280

RM.500

RM.1,799

Sage UBS HRM & Payroll software. Kaspersky Business Space security. Symantec Enterprise Vault Edition. AVG Internet Security Business Edition 2011 with 2 Years Update.

Suitable for HR management systems and payroll management systems. System Security Software Protection for PC or workstation, Data server & Smartphone. Document archiving software to store, manage, and discover critical business information Ultimate endpoint security for PC and laptop, File server protections, Email server protections etc.

RM.1,299

RM.1,370 RM.2,489

RM.1,536

Table 1.4: Sample for Software types. 3.3. The Peoples:

Competent personnel or people working with the new IT infrastructure in the company must be considered too because only qualified and experience people can optimized the capabilities of the systems for the business requirements. New qualified peoples are needed to be hired to fill all of the job needs in this sector or department. All of the peoples signing for the new job positions will report directly to the IT Manager. Proposed new job positions with the qualifications that needed are stated below; 1) Software Engineer: Required a Diploma or Degree or higher related qualification in Computer Science study, with at least 2 years of working experience in similar field. 2) Hardware Engineer: Required a Diploma or Degree or higher relate qualification in Computer Science study, with at least 2 years of working experiences in similar field. 3) Programmer Analyst: Required a Degree or higher related qualification in Computer Science study, with at least 3 years of working experiences in similar field or equivalent. 4) Graphic Designer: Required a Degree or higher related qualification in Computer Science study, with at least 2 years of working experiences in similar field. 5) Web Developer/Designer: Required a Degree or higher related qualification in Computer Science study, with at least 2 years of working experiences in similar field.

6) IT Technicians: Required a certificate or Diploma holder in ICT or Computer science study or any related disciplines, with at least 1 year experiences or a fresh graduate. 7) Network Engineer: Required a Diploma or Degree or higher relate qualification in Computer Science study or any related discipline, with at least 2 years of working experiences in similar field or a fresh graduate. 8) IT Administration: Required a certificate or Diploma holder in ICT or Computer science study or any related disciplines, with at least 1 year experiences or a fresh graduate. Besides hiring new competent peoples for the new positions in the company, training will be given to all existing staffs or users on operating the PC or the new IT infrastructures by qualified trainer internally as well as externally.

4. Anticipating Challenges: The company needs to look out for any probable challenges when revamping existing IT infrastructure. This is very important to eliminate any unnecessary factors that might be existed during and after the revamping project. There are three main anticipating challenges that the company needs to look out for, such as cost, expertise and to find or choose the most suitable latest technology to fulfill the companys goals. In order to choose the best IT infrastructures that suites these criteria, a selection committee have to be formed which including all departments head and chaired by the CEO. 4.1. Costs:

Any business in the world existed because of profit. The most cost effective the company, the more profitable the business will. Cost effective driven company will focused on the optimization of their available manpower, infrastructures and operations with lower expenditure. The company can gives training for the available employees on the uses of the new IT infrastructures instead of hiring a new staff. This will help to reduce cost on human capital or over-manpower in the company and at the same time will motivating the employees morale. Cost for communications such as the needs for internets, telephones, video conference room and networking must be focused too. The company has to find and choose the most suitable telecommunication provider that can offer the best suite to the

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needs. The available telecommunication providers such as Jaring, CELCOM, DiGi, MAXIS and TMNET will gives different price packages. 4.2. Skills and Expertise:

Optimization of the new sophisticated IT infrastructure operations will only be realized by talented, competent and qualified peoples. Sophisticated infrastructures revamps will be useless if nobody know how to use it to the optimum. Younger generations are exposed to the uses of IT gadgets like PC, Notebooks and most of the applications nowadays. Young existing staffs in the company easily trained to master their skills in the new ICT infrastructure, while the middle ages and older staffs will benefits by learning the skills from their younger colleagues and peers. The skills of using this new IT infrastructure can be developed in the company through a proper training sessions conducted by both internal and external qualified trainers. 4.3. To find and choose latest suitable technology:

There are various types, models and brands of an IT infrastructure available in the markets. To find and choose the most suitable infrastructures with lowest costs but latest technology to suites the company needs is not an easy task. For example, a Desktop PC running with Intel Pentium II processor, 128KB RAM, 233MHz Speeds and 64GB memory are difficult to find in the market or maybe with a higher cost to obtain even to maintain it, is not a suitable choice for the company. There are various IT infrastructure suppliers such as Hewlett-Packade (HP), ACER, DELL, SONY, AMD, Asus, Fujitsu, Compaq, Hitachi, IBM and many more. They can afford to give best price offer for their products in packages including services.

5. Obtaining Solutions. In order to obtain a suitable IT infrastructure with latest technology and lower costs, the company has to focus the three challenges as mentioned in topic 4 above. The most suitable PC to be chosen is a Desktop with a Business Basic and multitasking type compared to a Notebook or Laptop because the components and parts are compatible regardless of the models and manufacturer. Spares and component for Desktop PC are easy to find in the market and cheaper compare to Notebooks. The company can save or reduce cost on hiring a new staff by giving proper trainings to their existing staff to avoid over-manpower and ineffective human capital issue. To obtain the most suitable telecommunications provider,
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TMNET Malaysia will gives a lowest price packages with various choice of latest technology for the company compare to all other providers. Their services are including High Speed Broadband Access (HSBB), Voice, Data, Customized and Regulated Services. These will meet the company needs for telecommunication service for both internally and externally. A Ring Network Topology can be chose for networking layout within the company premises to eliminate cost of external network uses for internal telecommunication solution. A Ring Network topology is set up in a circular fashion in which data travels around the ring in one direction and each device on the right acts as a repeater to keep the signal strong as it travels. Each device incorporates a receiver for the incoming signal and a transmitter to send the data on to the next device in the ring. The network is dependent on the ability of the signal to travel around the ring. The company also can consider the following criteria for obtaining the IT infrastructures such as buying, leasing or renting. For a long run, buying is the best solution because it is cheaper compare to leasing or renting. We have a full control over it besides ability to change the components anytime. The disadvantages for buying is costs for starting up will be higher compare to renting and leasing, risk of obsolescence and full responsible on the components. Second option is leasing; where still cheaper compare to renting but more expensive compare to buying. No capital is tied up and no financing is required but the company cannot own it at the end of the day. The third option is renting; where the cost is very because the vendor considers the risks is high. Advantages for renting is no capital tied up, no financing required and easy to change the system at anytime but the company cannot own it at the end of the day. Competent, talented and qualified person can optimize the capabilities of the sophisticated IT infrastructures. This can be realized by hiring a new qualified and competent staffs and to provide intensive trainings for the existing talented staffs in the company. Topic 3.3 described details for hiring new staffs while intensive trainings provided and conducted by IT suppliers, providers, IT consultants externally and internally within the company will be the solutions for obtaining skilled and competent personnel. For examples, HP will conduct training for Operations and Maintenance of their supplied products and SAGE Consultant will conduct training for uses of their software products. The company also can hire an external IT consultant to give internal training for their staff on Microsoft Offices products.

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There are various IT Infrastructure suppliers or vendors available such as HewlettPackade (HP), ACER, DELL, SONY, AMD, Asus, Fujitsu, Compaq, Hitachi, IBM and many more. They can afford to give lower price offer for their products in packages including onsite services. The company can consider purchasing all needed IT infrastructures from only one supplier or provider because they can afford to give a lower price packages for various types of products in bulk instead of creating a custom infrastructure. Initial cost of purchasing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) packages from specified provider or vendor normally low, capabilities of the products already proven because it has been used by another company or firms and comes with services, training or help in package. The challenges to create a custom infrastructure such as higher initial cost, ongoing maintenance cost and necessity of hiring or work with new development team will be faced by the company. Below are the price comparison table between purchasing COTS and creating a custom infrastructure; Purchasing COTS (HP Pavilion p6700 Desktop PC series) Creating Custom Infrastructure

Descriptions

Price

Price

Operating System Processor

Software

Chipset Memory support Hard Drive Graphics

Preinstalled-Genuine Preinstalled-Genuine Windows 7 Home Windows 7 Home Premium 64 Premium 64 Intel Core i5Intel Core i52400,3.1GHz,DMI 2400,3.1GHz,DMI 2.5GT/s 2.5GT/s Microsoft Office Starter 2010, Microsoft Internet explorer, Microsoft Windows Live Apps, Microsoft Office 2010, Recovery CD Norton Antivirus 2010 RM.2,588 Creator, Hard Drive per unit based apps recovery, Norton internet security 2010. Intel H57 Intel H57 2 GB 1333MHz Kingston 2 GB 1333MHz DDR3, 4 DIMM DDR3, 4 DIMM 1 TB SATA 3G7200 rpm ATI Radeon HD 6570 Graphics (1 GB dedicated) Barracuda 1 TB SATA 3G-7200 rpm ATI Radeon HD 6570 Graphics

RM.499

RM.565

RM.955

RM.626 RM.70 RM.189 RM.265

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Audio

Beats audio console, High Definition Audio 7.1

None Broadcom Integrated 10/100/1000 BaseT network interface. PowerLogic Atrix 2000PU ComboPS2/USB Aopen 24x DSW2412S SATA

Integrated 10/100/1000 BaseT Communications network interface (Broadband Ready) Input Devices HP USB Standard Keyboard and HP USB optical mouse SuperMulti SATA Drive and Double Layer supporting Lightscribe Technology HP NIC Wireless LAN 802.11b/g/n Integrated Webcam2 and built-in microphone array 1 year limited hardware warranty, 1 year software support, 1 year limited onsite service. 24 X 7 technical assistance available online or toll-free by phone. Service Delivery: Customer replaceable parts include RAM, power supply, and hard drive. Onsite service provided by HP authorized service providers. HP 20" LED monitor Package. All-In-One Package: RM.2,588 per unit

RM.147

RM.36

Optical Drive

RM.63.

Wireless connectivity Web Camera

None LOGITECH C210 Webcam

RM.80

Limited Warranty and Services

Separate warranty for different type of components/No warranty.

Monitor Main Board Total price:

ACER 20" Wide LCD monitor MSI MS7673 P67A-C45 RM.4,235 per unit

RM.295 RM.445

Table 1.5: Price comparison between COTS and creating custom PC.

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From the table shown above, obviously indicates a large price difference when we decide to purchase all-in-one package and to custom build a PC. That is only for a PC excluding the server, networking, workmanship and services. The supplier like HP willing to reduce the price per unit of their product when purchasing the COTS package in bulk and comes together with technical supports and trainings. We can save a large sum of money when decide to purchase the entire IT infrastructure from only one specific supplier or vendor like HP. 6. Summary: Changes for excellence solution for latest and sophisticated IT infrastructures are crucial to all company in the world in order to expand and compete with the rivals in similar business field. TescoSoft Sdn. Bhd., need to do changes and find a best solution to ascertain IT infrastructures in order to stay on par to its rival competitors such as Giant, Tesco, Jusco and Carrefour in the retail business. Element such as Island of information phenomena, a high redundancy of data and inability of sharing valuable information amongst the departments in the company will be eliminated through the analysis done for preparing this proposal. The three main elements relevant to the company and required for the changes proposal like the hardware, software and the people have been considered and discussed. The company need to evaluate and select the best solutions for the hardware and software besides creating and hire a new competent staff in order to optimize the capabilities of the new IT infrastructures performance. Probable challenges that might be faced by the company to revamp the existing IT infrastructure like costs, skills and choosing the best solution that suit the needs of the company has discussed and decided. The company have to purchase all needed infrastructures only from supplier or vendor like HP because they willing to give a special discount at the lowest rates which comes in packages. Therefore, the company will save cost on obtaining a custom-made infrastructure like PC in bulk. The CEO decision to revamp the existing IT infrastructures in the company will be realized. Hence, the evaluating committee will be formed to do the selection and evaluating work for the proposed solutions. The people that should involve will be all of the department heads, the users representative from each department and the systems analysts. This team will be lead by the IT manager and chaired by the CEO of the company. The committee will do the evaluation and selection on the following criteria:

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(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Performance effectiveness efficiency, Hardware and software supports, Installation and training supports, Maintenance and operation supports, Ease of use and flexibilities, and Manufacturing support.

Competent, talented and qualified person can optimize the capabilities of the new sophisticated IT infrastructures. This can be realized by hiring a new qualified and competent staffs and to provide intensive trainings for the existing talented staffs in the company. Specific supplier or vendor like HP will conduct training for Operations and Maintenance of their supplied products, whilst SAGE Consultant will conduct training for uses of their software products. The company also can hire an external IT consultant or trainer to give training for their staff on Microsoft Offices products. Hence, supports and training are one of the most important criteria that need to be considered in order to meet the needs of the IT infrastructure revamps for TescoSoft Sdn. Bhd.

(Word Counts = 4,191)

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References: 1) Computer Hardware definition. Retrieved from: http://www.openprojects.org/hardwaredefinition.htm.

2) Computer software. (2011, June 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17:31, June 27, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Computer_software&oldid=436013954 3) Hewlett-Packade (HP) Malaysia web page (June, 2011). http://h20424.www2.hp.com/index/homepage/my/en/hp-malaysia-home-office.asp 4) IT occupations (2007). Version 1.0 final. Retrieved on July 8, 2011: www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/.../it.pdf?view=Binary 5) IT Infrastructure overview (2008). eMASION Inc. Retrieved on July 8, 2011: http://www.emason.biz/whitepapers/IT%20Infrastructure%20Overivew%20white%20pap er%20022508.pdf 6) Kendall & Kendall (2008).Chapter 10-Preparing the systems proposal. Sixth Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall. Retrieved on July 8, 2011: http://chadalong.com/mgmt321/kendall7e_ch10.ppt 7) Network topology. (2011, July 2). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20:00, July 4, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Network_topology&oldid=437383860 8) PC Depot Malaysia web page (July, 2011). Retrieved on July 8, 2011: http://www.pcdepot.com.my/pricelist.aspx 9) Personal computer hardware. (2011, June 27). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17:32, June 27, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Personal_computer_hardware&oldid=4364648 15 10) SAGE UBS web page (June 2011). Retrieved on July 8, 2011: http://www.sage.my/

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