You are on page 1of 7

CORRELATION AND PHENOTYPIC VARIABILITY STUDIES FOR SOME

AGRONOMIC TRAITS AMONG BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)


ACCESSIONS.

MUHAMMAD MOHIBULLAH KHAN*, QASIM KHAN*, RAHM DIN KHAN* AND


MALIK ASHIQ RABANI**
* Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (NWFP) Pakistan
**National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate frequency distribution and correlation coefficient of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions,
an experimental plot of one hundred wheat accessions were evaluated and characterized for spike length
(cm), number of spikelets spike-1, grain yield plant-1, 1000-grain weight and grain yield (kg ha-1) parameters
during the rabi season 2004-2005. Genetic diversity was found satisfactory for all the traits. The frequency
distribution shows that spike length ranged from 6.2 to 22.1 (cm). Variability was observed among the
accessions for spike length (cm), which varied from 6.50 to 21.90 (cm) with mean value of 12.23 ± 2.28
(cm) and coefficient of variation for this parameter was 18.63 %. The results of formal analysis revealed
that distant variability in spikelets spike-1 was detected which ranged from 8.50 to 29.80 numbers of
spikelets spike-1 with the mean value of 16.35 ±3.00 and coefficient of variation is 8.32%. The frequency
distribution for number of spikelets spike-1 showed the variability from 7.1 to 31.00. The variation for grain
yield plant-1 ranged from 1.26 to 4.58 (g) with mean value of 2.36±0.52 and coefficient of variation 21.89
%. Frequency distribution for grain yield plan-1ranged from 1.26 to 3.32 (g). 1000-grain weight (g) varied
between 15.74 to 46.65 (g) with the mean value of 34.20±8.05 and coefficient of variation for this
parameter was 23.55%. The frequency distribution for 1000-grain weight (g) ranged from 15.20 to 47.19
(g). The variation for grain yield (kg ha-1) ranged from 2610 to 5058 (kg ha-1) with mean value of 4165
±504.45 (kg ha-1) and coefficient of variation for this character was 12.11%. Frequency distribution for
grain yield (kg ha-1) ranged from 2610 to 5065.9 (kg ha-1). Spike length revealed significant and highly
positively correlation with number of spikelets spike-1 (r = 0.20), grain yields plant-1 (r = 0.16) and grain
yield (kg ha-1) (r = 0.18), while this trait has negative correlation with 1000-grain weight (r = -0.02). Highly
significant and positive correlation was reviewed in number of spikelets spike-1 with grain yield plant-1 (r =
0.49) and grain yield (kg ha-1) (r = 0.34). While positive correlation of this trait was noted with 1000-grain
weight (r = 0.02). Grain yield plant-1 had highly significant positive correlation with 1000-grain weight (r =
0.30) and grain yield (kg ha-1) (r = 0.62). Highly significant positive correlation was observed of 1000-grain
weight with grain yield (kg ha-1) (r = 0.44).

INTRODUCTION wheat grain protein plays a fundamental part


Wheat is the staple food for 35 % of the in food processing, for instance, in bread
world’s population and is grown on 17 % of making, biscuits, breakfast cereals, and pasta
the cultivated area in the world (Kronstad, products (Payne and Rhodes, 1982). On the
1998). In Pakistan it is called Kanak basis of the geographical distribution of
(Punjabi), Ghanum (Pashto), and Gandum genetic diversity in different crop species he
(Urdu). Wheat belongs to the triticeae tribe identified areas, as centres of genetic
(Dumort; Hordeae, Benth.) and subtribe diversity. This may result in the loss of
Triticinae of the grass family Poaceae valuable indigenous accession if it is not
(Gramineae), one of the largest families of incorporated in accession collection and
Angiosperm (flowering plants) including conserved for future generation. Vavilov
600-700 genera and approximately 10,000 (1926) a geneticist and plant geographer,
species. According to (Levy and Feldman, explored the agricultural flora in many of
2002), all major types of polyploids the less developed and largely mountainous
(autopolyploids, allopolyploids and parts of the world, where the indigenous
segmental polyploids) are the members of crop varieties had not yet given way to
this family. Being of great importance cultivars selected by plant breeders. Keeping
nutritionally to many people of the world, in view the importance of germplasm,
19 Khan et al., Gomal University Journal of Research, 23 No. 2,18-24 (2007)

efforts were made to characterize various coefficient of variation for this parameter
wheat accessions in detail to identify the was 18.63 % (Table 1).
superior accessions for future wheat Spikelets Spike-1
breeding and variety development in the The results of formal analysis exhibit that
country. distant variation in spikelets spike-1 was
detected. It ranged from 8.50 to 29.80
MATERIALS AND METHODS number of spikelets spike-1 with the mean
value of 16.35±3.00 and coefficient of
An experiment was conducted for one variation for this trait are 18.32% (Table 1).
hundred accessions of wheat (Triticum The frequency distribution for number of
aestivum L.) during the growing season spikelets spike-1 (Fig 2) presents that number
November, 2004-2005 in augmented field of spikelets spike-1 varied from 7.1 to 31.00.
design at research area of the Department of One accession [PARC/PGRI 004082 (01)]
Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of had minimum 8.5 number of spikelets spike-
1
Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail , while the accession [PARC/MAFF
Khan (NWFP), Pakistan. Cultural practices 004280 (01)] has maximum 29.8 number of
and fertilizer were applied properly. Data spikelets spike-1.
were taken for spike length (cm), number of
spikelets spike-1, grain yield plant-1, 1000- Grain Yield Plant-1 (g)
grain weight and yield (kg ha-1). The data Average grain yield plant-1 of the wheat
were statistically analyzed for agro- accessions varied considerably. The
morphological traits using the method of variation for grain yield plant-1 (Table 1)
Steel and Torrie, 1980. All the traits were ranged from 1.26 to 4.58 (g) with mean
categorized into different classes and value of 2.36±0.52 and coefficient of
frequency percentage was calculated. The variation for this character was 21.89 %.
combined correlation of morphological data Frequency distribution as presented in Fig 3
was analyzed by numerical taxonomic varied from 1.26 to 3.32 (g).
techniques using the method of (Sneath and
Sokal, 1973). 1000-Grain Weight (g)
The results of statistical analysis indicate
RESULTS that significant variation in 1000-grain
weight (g) was observed. It varied between
Spike Length (cm) 15.74 to 46.65 g with the mean value of
The magnitude of genetic variability was 34.20±8.05 g and coefficient of variation
significant for spike length. The frequency was 23.55%. The frequency distribution for
distribution (Fig 1) shows that spike length 1000-grain weight (g) as provided in Fig 4
(cm) ranged from 6.2 to 22.1 cm. The shows that 1000-grain weight (g) ranged
maximum number of accessions (31) had the from 15.20 to 47.19 (g).
spike length between 12.2 to 14.1 cm
followed by (31) accessions, which ranged Grain Yield (kg ha-1)
between 10.2 to 12.1 cm and 19 accessions Grain yield (kg ha-1) is the most important
varied between 14.2 to 16.1 cm. There are parameter for the selection of accessions
three accessions [PARC/JICA 003839 (02)], among wheat germplasm for the
[PARC/MAFF 004273 (01)] and development of wheat varieties with higher
[PARC/MAFF 004310 (01)] had minimum grain yield. From formal analyses of grain
spike length (cm) 7.9, 8.1 and 6.5 cm and yield data of the wheat accessions show
only one accession [PARC/MAFF 004775 distinct variation. The variation for grain
(01)] had maximum spike length cm i.e. yield (Table 1) ranged from 2610 to 5058
21.9 cm. The diversity in accessions for (kg ha-1) with mean value of 4165±504.45
spike length varied from 6.50 to 21.90 cm (kg ha-1) and coefficient of variation for this
with mean value of 12.23±2.28 cm and character was 12.11%. Frequency
Khan et al., Gomal University Journal of Research, 23 No. 2,18-24 (2007) 20

distribution as presented in Fig 5 ranged al., 2006; He et al., 2006; Gorney et al.,
from 2610 to 5065.9 (kg ha-1). Genotype 2006; Memon et al., 2005). Significant
[PARC/MAFF 004353 (03)] indicated genotypic differences were observed for all
lowest grain yield (2610 kg ha-1), while the traits, which are in agreement with the
accession [PARC/MAFF 004279 (05)] had a results observed by (Bcer and Sakar, 2004;
maximum grain yield (5058 kg ha-1). Singh and Gupta, 2004; Stolt et al., 2006).
While negative correlation in spike length
CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS was found with 1000-grain weight by (Patel
To understand the relationship among plant and Jain, 2002). The parameters showing
parameters is needful for selecting traits for significant positive correlation can be
yield improvement. By correlation we can utilized for further crop improvement
identify variation, which varies together, or program to develop new wheat varieties.
a measure of intensity of association (Steel
and Torrie, 1980). Correlation among CONCLUSION
phenotypic parameters may indicate
biological process that is of considerable From the observations it was decided that
evolutionary interest. The correlation genotypes [PARC/MAFF 004775 (01)],
coefficients among five traits for the year [PARC/MAFF 004280 (01)] and
2005 are shown in Table 2. Spike length [PARC/MAFF 004279 (05)] has maximum
revealed significant and highly positive spike length of 21.9, 18.7 and 15.2 (cm),
correlation with number of spikelets spike-1 while 20.7, 29.8 and 17.6 spikelets spike-1
(r = 0.20), grain yields plant-1 (r = 0.16) and and grain yield plant-1consisting of 3.16,
grain yield (kg ha-1) (r = 0.18). While this 2.53 and 4.58 (g) respectively. 1000-grain
trait has negative correlation with 1000- weight for the said genotypes contains 32.2,
grain weight (r = -0.02). Highly significant 25.5 and 45.8 (g), while grain yield consists
positive correlation was depicted in number of 4761, 4653 and 5058 (kg ha-1). The
of spikelets spike-1 with grain yield plant-1 (r objective of the experiment among one
= 0.49) and grain yield kg ha-1 (r = 0.34). hundred wheat accessions was to select the
While positive correlation of this trait was best accessions with good performance.
noted with 1000-grain weight (r = 0.02). Hence the accessions [PARC/MAFF 004775
Grain yield plant-1 had highly significant (01)], [PARC/MAFF 004280 (01)] and
positive correlation with 1000-grain weight [PARC/MAFF 004279 (05)] has the
(r = 0.30) and grain yield kg ha-1 (r = 0.62). required potential and recommended for
Highly significant positive correlation was general cultivation in Dera Ismail Khan zone
observed in 1000-grain weight with grain (NWFP), Pakistan for further necessary
yield (kg ha-1) (r = 0.44). evaluation.

DISCUSSION ABBREVIATIONS
S/S = Spikelets spike-1.
The genetic diversity is the backbone of GY / Plant = Grain yield plant-1.
crop improvement. A positively significant 1000-GW = 1000-grain weight (g).
observation was found satisfactory for Spike GY (kg ha-1) = Grain yield (kg ha-1).
length, number of spikelets spike-1, grain
yield plant-1, 1000-grain weight and yield ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
(kg ha-1) respectively. These traits can be
utilized for further breeding programme to This research work has been financially
synthesize a new wheat variety according to supported under the Indigenous Scholarship
the need of the country. These observations programme to Muhammad Mohibullah
agree with the earlier findings (Jardat, 1991; Khan from Higher Education Commission,
Verma et al., 1998; Moreno-Sevilla et al., Islamabad, which is highly acknowledged
1995; Carver and Rayburn, 1994; Singh et
21 Khan et al., Gomal University Journal of Research, 23 No. 2,18-24 (2007)

Table 1 Basic statistics of one hundred wheat genotypes for variability estimation.

Traits Mean Minimum Maximum Variance SD CV (%) SE

Spike Length (cm) 12.23 6.50 21.90 5.19 2.28 18.63 0.22

Spikelets spike-1 16.35 8.50 29.80 8.97 3.00 18.32 0.30

Grain yield plant-1 2.36 1.26 4.58 0.27 0.52 21.89 0.05

1000-grain weight (g) 34.20 15.74 46.65 64.88 8.05 23.55 0.79

Grain yield (kg ha-1) 4165 2610 5058 254467.06 504.45 12.11 49.70

Table 2 Correlation coefficients of one hundred genotypes of wheat.

Traits Spike Length S/S GY/Plant 1000-GW GY (kg ha-1)


Spike Length 1.00
S/S 0.20* 1.00
GY/Plant 0.16* 0.49** 1.00
1000-GW -0.02 0.02 0.30** 1.00
-1
GY (kg ha ) 0.18* 0.34** 0.62** 0.44** 1.00

*, ** = Significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability level respectively.

35

30

25
No. of accessions

20

15

10

0
6.2-8.1 8.2-10.1 10.2-12.1 12.2-14.1 14.2-16.1 16.2-18.1 18.2-20.1 20.2-22.1
Spik e Le ngth (cm )

Fig.1: Frequency distribution of spike length (cm).


Khan et al., Gomal University Journal of Research, 23 No. 2,18-24 (2007) 22

45

40

o. of accessions 35

30

25

20
N

15

10

0
7.1-10 10.1-13 13.1-16 16.1-19 19.1-22 22.1-25 25.1-28 28.1-31
Spik e le ts /s pik e

Fig. 2: Frequency distribution of spikelets per spike.

30

25
No. of accessions

20

15

10

0
1.26-1.66 1.67-2.08 2.09-2.49 2.5-2.91 2.92-3.32
Gr ain Yie ld/plant

Fig. 3: Frequency distribution of grain yield plant-1 (g).

25

20
No. of accessions

15

10

0
15.2-19.19 19.2-23.19 23.2-27.19 27.2-31.19 31.2-35.19 35.2-39.19 39.2-43.19 43.2-47.19
1000 Se e d w e ight (g)

Fig. 4: Frequency distribution of 1000-grain weight (g).


23 Khan et al., Gomal University Journal of Research, 23 No. 2,18-24 (2007)

35

30

25
No. of accessions

20

15

10

0
2610-2916 2917-3223 3224-3530 3531-3837 3838-4144 4145-4451 4452-4758 4759-5065
Gr ain Yie ld (k g/ha)

Fig. 5: Frequency distribution of grain yield (kg ha-1).

REFERENCES Levy A A, Feldman M (2002). The impact


Bcer B T, Sakar D (2004). Evaluation of of polyploidy on grass genome evolution.
some lentil genotypes at different locations Plant Physiol. 130, 1587-1593.
in Turkey. Agric and Bio., 6(2): 317-320.
Memon S, Ansari B A and Baloch M
Carver B F, Rayburn A L (1994). (2005). Estimation of genetic variation for
Comparison of related wheat stocks agroeconomic traits in spring wheat
possessing 1B or 1BL.1RS chromosomes: (Triticum aestivum L). Indus.J.Pla.Sci. 4(2):
Agronomic performance. Crop Sci., 34: 171-175.
1505-1510.,
Moreno-Sevilla B, Baenziger P S, Shelton
Gorny A G, Garczynski S, Banaszak Z, D R, Graybosch R A and Peterson C J
Ugowska B (2006). Genetic variation in the (1995). Agronomic performance and end-
efficiency of nitrogen utilization and use quality of 1B vs. 1BL1RS genotypes
photosynthetic activity of flag leaves among derived from winter wheat “Rawhide”. Crop
the old and modern accession of winter Sci., 35: 1607-1612.
wheat. J. Appl. Gen; 47(3): 231-237.
Patel A K, Jain S (2002). Studies of genetic
Hu Z H, Xu Z H, Xia L Q, Xia X C, Yan J, variability in wheat under rainfed condition.
Zhang Y and Chen X M (2006). Genetic J N K V V.Res.J. 36(1/2): 25-28.
variation for waxy proteins and starch
properties in Chinese winter Peterson C J (1999). Agronomic
wheats.Cereal.Res.Comm. 34(2/3): 1145- performance and stability of 1A vs.
1151. 1AL.1RS genotypes derived from winter
wheat “Nekota”. Crop Sci., 39: 643-648.
Jaradat A A (1991). Phenotypic divergence
for morphological and yield-related traits Payne P I, Rhodes A O (1982). Cereal
among landrace genotypes of durum wheat storage proteins structure and role in
from Jordan. Euphytica, 52: 155-164. agriculture and food technology. Plant
Physiol. pp.346-369.
Kronstad W E (1998). Agricultural
development and wheat breeding in 20th Singh K N, Kulshreshtha N, Vinod K and
Century. H. J. Braun . (Eds). Wheat Setter T (2006).Genetic variability of wheat
prospects for global improvement, pp.1-10. (Triticum aestivum L.) lines for grain
Khan et al., Gomal University Journal of Research, 23 No. 2,18-24 (2007) 24

Singh T, Gupta K K (2004). Genetic variation in wheat cadmium accumulation


diversity for yields and related traits in lentil on soils with different cadmium
(lens culinaris Medik.). Plant Archives 4(1): concentrations.J.Agr.Crop.Sci. 192(3): 201-
39-43. 208.

Sneath P H A, Sokal R R (1973). Numerical Vavilov N I (1926). Studies on the origin


Taxonomy: The Principles and Practice of of cultivated plants. Bulle.Appli.Bot.,
Numerical Classification. W.F. Freeman & Genetics and Plant Br, 16: 1-248.
Co., San Francisco, 573p.
Verma S R, Yunus M, Sethi S K (1998).
Steel R G D, Torrie J H (1980). Principles Breeding for yield and quality in durum
and Procedures of Statistics. 2nd Edition, wheat. pp.15-18.
McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York,
USA, 633p. yield and component characters grown
under sodic and waterlogged conditions.
Stolt P, Asp H, Hultin S (2006). Genetic Indian J.Agric.Sci. 76(7): 414-419.