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Master degree report SFR NETWORK OPTIMIZATION By MOHAMED LAHIANI In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree

of International Master on Communication Networks Engineering 2007/2008 At the Scuola Superiore SantAnna September 10th, 2008

Academic tutor Prof. Piero Castoldi Scuola Superiore SantAnna

Company tutor ...... Dott. Alessandro Di Gennaro

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Acknowledgements
I would like first, to praise God the Almighty for giving me life, health and for making me what I am today. Thanks to Him, this work has been achieved.

This thesis is the result of a path which I have walked through since I was a child. For this reason, I would like to thank all my family for their support and teachings. Father, mother, brothers, sister, you have always been there when I needed you.

I will never be able to repay you.

I would also like to express my deep gratitude to LEADCOM INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS for hosting and financing me during the last 4 months. I wish to particularly thank Alessandro Di Gennaro, Alberto Montecchiari,Flora Huyghe , Laurent Griponne and all the LEADCOM INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS staff: they gave me the unique opportunity to work with some of the most exceptional minds in this research Field.

I will never thank enough Prof. Imed Frikha, Prof. Piero Castoldi and every-one that made this master course a reality and possible.

Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to everyone that has contributed, directly or indirectly, to the realization of this work.

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Contents

Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................2 Contents .................................................................................................................................3 List of Figures ........................................................................................................................5 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................6 Chapter I: RF OPTIMIZATION INTRODUCTION ...............................................................8 I.1 UMTS: Notions of bases................................................................................................8 I.1.1 Architecture ............................................................................................................8 I.1.2 Interface radio.........................................................................................................8 I.1.3 Dimensionnement .................................................................................................10 1.3.1 The Sectorisation..............................................................................................10 1.3.2 Tilt electrical and mechanical: ..........................................................................10 1.3.3 Meaning of HandOver:.....................................................................................12 I.2 Basic Processes for RF Optimization ...........................................................................13 I.2.1 Flow Chat of RF Optimization ..............................................................................13 2.1.1 Test Preparations ..............................................................................................15 2.1.2 Data Collection ................................................................................................15 2.1.3 Problem Analysis .............................................................................................15 I.2.2 Test Preparations ..................................................................................................16 2.2.1 Deciding Optimization Goal.............................................................................16 2.2.2 Dividing Clusters .............................................................................................21 2.2.3 Deciding Test Route.........................................................................................23 2.2.4 Preparing Tools and Data .................................................................................23 I.2.3 Data Collection .....................................................................................................24 2.3.1 Drive Test ........................................................................................................26 2.3.2 Collecting RNC Configuration Data .................................................................27 Chapter II: SFR & NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS PROCESS..........................................28 II.1 TOOLS ......................................................................................................................30 II.2 MEASUREMENTS ...................................................................................................31 II.2.1 Measurements and Metrics ..................................................................................31 II.2.2 Measurement strategy..........................................................................................33 2.2.1 Measurement Routes ........................................................................................33 2.2.2 Measurement RUNs .........................................................................................34 II.2.3 Measurement standard procedure.........................................................................35 II.2.4 Measurement chain..............................................................................................35 II.3 PREPARATION PHASE ...........................................................................................36 II.3.1 Team Building & Tools Set Up ...........................................................................36 II.3.2 Cluster NEs Configuration Management..............................................................36 II.4 NETWORK ASSESSMENT & PRELIMINARY.......................................................37 RADIO OPTIMISATION PHASE ...................................................................................37 II.4.1 Radio Design Analysis ........................................................................................37 4.1.1 Pre-requisites analysis ......................................................................................37 4.1.2 Radio Design Analysis .....................................................................................39 II.4.2 3G Radio Layer Optimization..............................................................................40 4.2.1 Radio Optimization steps..................................................................................41 -3-

4.2.2 Analysis Principles...........................................................................................43 4.2.3 Problem area analysis flow-chart ......................................................................44 II.5 PERFORMANCE OPTIMISATION PHASE.............................................................45 II.5.1 Performance Survey ............................................................................................46 II.5.2 Performance Analysis ..........................................................................................46 II.5.3 Network Performance Optimization.....................................................................46 5.3.1 Call set-up failure optimization ........................................................................47 5.3.2 Drop Call optimization .....................................................................................48 II.6 SOME OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICE............................................................48 II.6.1 Configuration Management Process.....................................................................48 II.6.2 System problem investigation..............................................................................48 II.6.3 Some Maintenance/Optim coordination processes ...............................................49 6.3.1 Maintenance support when drive test measurements .........................................49 6.3.2 Request to open a Trouble Ticket .....................................................................50 6.3.2 Daily Trouble Ticket report ..............................................................................50 6.3.23Configuration Management .............................................................................50 Chapter III: NETWORK PREOPTIMIZATION & OPTMIZATION ....................................51 III.1 DECLARATION OF NEIGHBORS .........................................................................51 III.2 Determination of SCR, MODEL RADIO & PALIER................................................52 III.3 Atoll Simulation Week-5 ..........................................................................................53 III.4 KPI Analysis:............................................................................................................55 III.5 Run of Qualification: ................................................................................................58 III.5.1 Protocol of Run ..................................................................................................58 III.5.2 Run of Qualification Analysis: ...........................................................................58 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................64 REFERENCE.......................................................................................................................65 GLOSSARY.........................................................................................................................66

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List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Architecture of UMTS network..............................................................................8 Figure 1.2 Allocation of code .................................................................................................9 Figure 1. 3 Node B with 3 secteurs. ......................................................................................10 Figure 1.4 Illustration of a tilt and electrical diagram representation of radiation...................11 Figure 1.5.Simulation coverage following an electric tilt. .....................................................11 Figure 1.6 Illustration of a tilt and mechanical representation of the diagram radiation. ........11 Figure 1.7.Simulation coverage due to a mechanical tilt........................................................11 Figure 1.8 Principle of softer-handover.................................................................................12 Figure 1.9 Principle of softer-handover.................................................................................12 Figure 1.10: RF optimization flow ........................................................................................14 Figure 1.11 Shows divided clusters in a project. ...................................................................22 Figure 2.1 Standard optimization process..............................................................................29 Figure 2.2 Tuning method for coverage and dominant area optimization ..............................44 Figure 2.3 Process of Optimization .......................................................................................44 Figure 2.4 Process flow-chart for optimization of call set-up failures ....................................47 Figure 3.1 The main Window of ocean .................................................................................51 Figure 3.2 Import of Neighbors ............................................................................................52 Figure 3.3 Creation Of DM of MES......................................................................................52 Figure 3.4 Getting the Number of DM for the CA.................................................................53 Figure 3.5 Atoll Simulation Antenna U1 Tilt Initial T4 .......................................................54 Figure 3.6 Atoll Simulation Antenna U1 Downtilt de 2 soit T6..........................................55 Figure 3.7 KPI of RAB Voice..............................................................................................56 Figure 3.8 KPI of RAB Visio................................................................................................57 Figure 3.9 KPI of the ISHO (3G/2G) ....................................................................................57 Figure 3.10KPI of the ISHO (3G/2G) Success ......................................................................58 Figure 3.11 Distribution of pilot SC for the 1st Best Service Cell..........................................59 Figure 3.12 RSCP for 1st Best Service Cell ..........................................................................61 Figure 3.13 Mobile Dual CSF - Run Q ................................................................................62 Figure 3.15 Scanner for Sectors of our Site...........................................................................63 Figure 3.16 Scanner for Sectors of The First Couronne .........................................................63

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INTRODUCTION

Analog cellular systems are commonly referred to as first generation systems. The digital systems currently in use, such as GSM, PDC, CDMA One (IS-95) and US-TDMA (IS-136), are second generation systems. These systems have enabled voice communications to go wireless in many of the leading markets, and customers are increasingly finding value also in other services, such as text messaging and access to data networks, which are starting to grow rapidly.

Third generation systems are designed for multimedia communication: with them person toperson communication can be enhanced with high quality images and video, and access to information and services on public and private networks will be enhanced by the higher data rates and new flexible communication capabilities of third generation systems. This, together with the continuing evolution of the second generation systems, will create new business opportunities not only for manufacturers and operators, but also for the providers of content and applications using these networks.

In the standardization forums, WCDMA technology has emerged as the most widely adopted third generation air interface. Its specification has been created in 3GPP (the 3rd Generation Partnership Project), which is the joint standardization project of the standardization bodies from Europe, Japan, Korea, the USA and China. Within 3GPP, WCDMA is called UTRA

(Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex), the name WCDMA being used to cover both FDD and TDD operation.

Throughout this book, the chapters related to specifications use the 3GPP terms UTRA FDD and TDD, the others using the term WCDMA. This book focuses on the WCDMA FDD technology. The WCDMA TDD mode and its differences from the WCDMA FDD mode are presented in Chapter 13, which includes a description of TD-SCDMA.

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In this report we will try to present a manual for UMTS data collection and for optimization also solutions for analyzing and the way for resolving problems in RF part of the WCDMA Network. Many cases of this manual are used from the SFR UMTS Network.

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Chapter I: RF OPTIMIZATION INTRODUCTION


I.1 UMTS: Notions of bases
I.1.1 Architecture
The architecture of UMTS network consists of: The UTRAN (UMTS Radio Access Network) responsible for managing the resources of the radio access network. CN (Core Network): Part of the core network operating all subscribers and their services associated

Figure 1.1 Architecture of UMTS network.

I.1.2 Interface radio


In WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), users all use the same frequency band at the same time; the separation between different users is provided by a "code" for each. This code is determined by a combination of:

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Master Report: SFR NETWORK OPTIMIZATION Channelization Code" (Code of Channlisation), type OVSF used primarily to discriminate a type of communication for users.

"Scrambling Code" (Code of jamming) used one hand to discriminate system cells between them and secondly it allows the mobile to detect and synchronize on the cell received better to read the information systems Channelization code Scrambling code

DATA
Bit rate Here is an example allocation code: Chip rate Chip rate .

C8,2 C8,3 C4,3

C8,2 C4,1 CS2

C8,1 C8,2 CS2 CS2 C8,2 CS1

C8,2 CS3

C4,2 CS4

CS1 CS3
For channels amounts (UL) 1 code CS jamming allocated by each mobile network

For channels descendants (DL) 1code Hash CS (scrambling) per cell for guarantee the independence between channels of different cells.

Here, C8,
2 is used by 2 to 1 mobile same cell, but with 2 codes interferen ce UL diffrents.

Figure 1.2 Allocation of code

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I.1.3 Dimensionnement
1.3.1 The Sectorisation The sectorisation is to increase the number of sectors of the same site in order to increase the capacity of the cell. It does these using directional antennas that emit only in a specific direction (azimuth) which has the effect of reducing the co-channel interference and services to more mobile. The configuration most commonly used now is that a 3 sectors. There are configurations 2 sectors (site bi sectoral) under the cover of a road for example, even 1 zone (site mono sectoral) for blankets "In Building" (Centre commercial stations, theatres, Etc.).

Figure 1. 3 Node B with 3 secteurs.

Note: This is called zone "overlapping" (zone recovery) the area where an overlap in several sectors. In this area that the motive may be lead to make a "HandOver" (passage relay). 1.3.2 Tilt electrical and mechanical: The height of an antenna, the width of the beam and its properties inclination (tilting properties") are parameters antenna which are of considerable importance as the coverage of a network. The first two are manufacturers predefined parameters, which can only be amended by the optimization team is none other than the third. There are two methods for a tilt antenna: A. The "tilt electric" during a lowering of the antenna (downtilt"), the main lobe, the lobe and the rear side lobes are affected by such change. It is therefore distort the diagram of radiation.

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Figure 1.4 Illustration of a tilt and electrical diagram representation of radiation.

Avant

Aprs

Figure 1.5.Simulation coverage following an electric tilt.

The "tilt mechanics": the antenna is literally inclined. In the event that fall on the antenna, the main lobe would be left lobe lowered and the rear would be high. In terms of side lobes, they would be only partially affected. In other words there is no distortion of the radiation pattern.

Figure 1.6 Illustration of a tilt and mechanical representation of the diagram radiation.

Avant

Aprs

Figure 1.7.Simulation coverage due to a mechanical tilt.

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1.3.3 Meaning of HandOver: The "HandOver" reflects the ability of mobile to be connected to several base stations simultaneously. In general, this feature is made possible by the use of receiver rake in the mobile node and B. The controller base station or RNC (Radio Network Controller) maintains a list of candidates to enter cells in handover with the current cell ( "Active Set") as a criterion type Eb / No (current cell) - Eb / No ( cell candidate) <threshold for admission. Similarly, retired on a cell of all cells handover if Eb / No (current cell) - Eb / No (cell candidate)> threshold rejection. There are several types of handover: The "Softer HandOver 'motive remains in the same area covered by one base station.

Figure 1.8 Principle of softer-handover.

The "Soft HandOver" changes the mobile base station

Figure 1.9 Principle of softer-handover.

The "Hard HandOver" on the meeting when the soft-handover is not possible ie during a changeover to other sub bands FDD, the changeover to TDD mode and at a changeover to another technology (2G, IEEE802.11, etc.).

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I.2 Basic Processes for RF Optimization


Once all the sites are installed and verification is complete, RF optimization starts. In some situations for a tight schedule, RF optimization might start after the construction of partial sites is complete. RF optimization is usually performed after 80% of total sites in a cluster are constructed.

RF optimization stage is one major stage of RNO. It aims at the following aspects: Optimizing signal coverage Control pilot pollution Control SHO Factor based on DT

RF optimization also involves optimizing list of neighbor cells.

When the indexes like DT and traffic measurement after RF adjustment meets KPI requirements, RF optimization stage ends. Otherwise you must reanalyze data and adjust parameters repeatedly until all KPI requirements are met. After RF optimization, RNO comes to parameter optimization stage.

I.2.1 Flow Chat of RF Optimization


RF optimization includes the following four parts: Test preparations Data collection Problem analysis Parameter adjustment

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1.10 shows the RF optimization flow chat.

Figure 1.10: RF optimization flow

In 1.10, the data collection, problem analysis, and parameter adjustment might be repeatedly performed according to optimization goal and actual on-site situations until RF indexes meet KPI requirements -14-

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2.1.1 Test Preparations

During test preparations, proceed as below:

Decide KPI goals for optimization according to the contract: 2.1.2 Data Collection Collect the following data: UE and scanner data
DT Indoor test Signaling tracing

Divide clusters properly and decide test route with the operator The KPI test acceptance route is especially important. Prepare tools and materials for RF optimization This ensures smooth RF optimization.

Call data tracing at RNC side

Configuration data The configuration data and the call data tracing help to locate problems.

Data collection is a precondition for problem analysis. 2.1.3 Problem Analysis You can locate problems by analyzing collected data. After analyzing coverage problems, pilot pollution problems, and handover problems, provide corresponding adjustment solutions. After adjustment, test the adjustment result. If the test result cannot meet KPI requirements, reanalyze problems and readjust parameters until all KPI requirements are met.

Due to weak coverage, pilot pollution, and missing neighbor cells, the following problems are related to location:

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Downlink interference Access problems Call drop problems

The previous problems occur regularly. You can solve them by repeated optimization.

If the coverage is good, pilot pollution and missing neighbor cells are not present, the access and call drop problems need to be solved during parameter optimization stage. You can refer to corresponding guidebooks. The period for solving uplink interference problems (RTWP is over high but no high traffic Matches it) is long, even as long as the RF optimization ends.

Output an updated list of engineering parameters and list of cell parameters after RF optimization. The list of engineering parameters reflects adjustment of engineering parameters (such as down tilt and azimuth) during RF optimization stage. The list of cell parameters reflects the adjustment of cell parameters (such as neighbor cell configuration) during RF optimization stage.

I.2.2 Test Preparations


Test preparations include the following four aspects: Deciding optimization goal Dividing clusters Deciding DT route Preparing tools and data

2.2.1 Deciding Optimization Goal The key of RF optimization is to solve problems as below: Weak coverage Pilot pollution High SHO Factor based on DT

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Actually, different operators might have different standards on KPI requirements, index definition, and attention. Therefore the RF optimization goal is to meet the coverage and handover KPI requirements in the contract (commercial deployment offices) or planning report (trial offices).

Define the indexes as required by contract as below:

The index definition is the percentage ratio of the sampling points with the index (such as CPICH Ec/Io) greater than the reference value in all sampling points.

Usually after RF optimization, the network must meet the index requirements listed in 0.

0 lists the RF optimization objectives according to analysis of and suggestion to coverage by existing network.

Index

Reference

Remarks According to test result from the scanner, in unloaded and outdoor conditions, in planning coverage areas, test in a gridlike route to cover all cells. According to test result from the scanner, in unloaded and outdoor conditions, in planning coverage areas, test in a gridlike route to cover all cells. The coverage level request is basic. If operators have penetration loss request, add the penetration loss to the coverage level. The SHO Factor based on DT should be 5% to 10% lower than the goal, because the following optimizations cause the soft handover factor to increase

97% in
urban area CPICH Ec/Io 9dB

97% in
suburban area

98% in
urban area CPICH RSCP 95dBm

95% in
suburban area

SHO Factor based on DT Pilot pollution ratio

30%40%

5%

Table 1-1: List of RF optimization objectives in R99 networks

The RF optimization of HSDPA services aims to improve the distribution of UE CQI.

According to theoretical analysis, the CQI reported by UE and PCPICH Ec/Nt have relationship as below: CQIUE = Ec/NtPCPICH + MPO + 10log16 + 4.5dB

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Where in, Nt = (1- a) * Ior + Ioc + No a is the orthogonal factor lor is the signals of serving cell loc is the interference signals from neighbor cells No is the thermal noise Io = Ior + Ioc + No

Therefore, PCPICH Ec/Nt is approximately equal to PCPICH Ec/Io.

MPO = Min (13, CellMaxPower PcpichPower MPOConstant)

The maximum transmit power of a cell is usually 43 dBm, and the pilot channel power is 33 dBm.

When MPOConstant is 2.5 dB, the default configuration by RNC, the MPO is 7.5 dB.

The 4.5 dB is obtained according to the linear relationship between the SNR of the entire subscriber's HS-

PDSCHs and the corresponding CQIs. Namely, SNR = 4.5dB + CQIUE, and SNR = Ec/NtHS-PDSCH +

10log16. When calculating CQIUE at UE side, the UE assumes that the total transmit power of HS-PDSCH is PHS-DSCH = PPCPICH + MPO. Wherein, PPCPICH is the transmit power of PCPICH. Therefore, Ec/NtHS-PDSCH = Ec/NtPCPICH + MPO. As a result, the CQI reported by UE is as below:

CQIUE = Ec/NtPCPICH + MPO + 10log16 + 4.5dB

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According to previous analysis, the offset between CQIUE and PCPICH Ec/Io is 24 dB. Therefore, in terms of actual optimization, to optimize CQI is to optimize Ec/Io.

Assume that the cell power is dynamically distributed between R99 and HSDPA networks. After receiving CQIUE from UE, the NodeB adjust the CQI as below:

The CQI adjusted by NodeB, CQINodeB = ( Pcell - Pcommon PR99 PHS-SCCH (PPCPICH + MPO ) + CQIUE.

Where in, Pcell is the maximum transmit power of cell Pcommon is the CCH power of cell PR99 is the power of downlink associated DPCH for R99 or HSDPA subscribers. PHS-SCCH is the HS-SCCH power. Pcell = 43 dBm Pcommon is 20% of total power of cell No R99 subscribers are in the cell PR99 is too low to neglect PHS-SCCH is 5% of total power of cell

Assume: Therefore,

CQINodeB = 1 + CQIUE

According to experience in actual test, based on the difference between the Ec/Io from scanner and the Ec/Io from UE, reserve a margin of 1 dB. At the edge of cell, an HSDPA subscriber may occupy total power of cell, so the throughput rate at cell edge is equivalent to the throughput rate at cell edge for the single subscriber.

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Lists the relationship among the CQI reported by UE, pilot Ec/Io, and throughput rate at MAC-HS layer (MPO = 7.5 dB).

Subscribers' feeling throughput rate at MAC-HS layer for single subscriber Ec/Io

9 > CQI Poor 0320 kpbs > 15dB

15 > CQI 9 Fair 320 kbps to1.39 Mbps 15dB to 9dB

CQI 15 Good > 1.39 Mbps

9dB

Table 1-2: Relationship among the CQI reported by UE, pilot Ec/Io, and throughput rate at MAC-HS layer

The throughput rate provided in is based on the test in the following conditions: The codes and lub are not restricted. The category 12 UE has a subscribed rate of 2 Mpbs. The subscribed type is background or interactive service. Power is dynamically distributed. Namely, without R99 subscribers, all the power is used by the HSDPA subscriber to guarantee rate as high as possible. According to the requirements on RF optimization of unloaded R99 network, the CPICH Ec/Io 9 dB. After HSDPA is introduced, power is dynamically distributed, and the single HSDPA subscriber at cell edge uses all the power. Meanwhile, the downlink load reaches 90%, and CPICH Ec/Io 15.5dB.

If operators' requirement on throughput rate at cell edge is not the recommended values as listed in

, search the required value in 0.

0 lists the mapping relationship of HSDPA Catogory12 UE CQI and TB size. The CQIs that is larger than 13 or smaller than 5 are excluded. The rate at MAC-HS layer for the subscriber is (TBsize / 2ms) * (1 BLER), wherein, the BLER is 10%.

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CQI 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

TB Size 365 365 365 711 711 1055 1405 1742 2083

Table 1-3: Mapping relationship of HSDPA Catogory12 UE CQI and TB size

As previously mentioned, to optimize HSDPA is to optimize Ec/Io of target networks. Therefore, in terms of optimization method, the HSDPA and R99 networks are consistent. The following optimization flow will not distinguish HSDPA networks from R99 networks. 2.2.2 Dividing Clusters According to the features of UMTS technologies, the coverage and capacity are interactional and the frequency reuse factor is 1. Therefore RF optimization must be performed on a group of or a cluster of NodeBs at the same time instead of performing RF optimization on single site one by one. This ensures that interference from intra-frequency neighbor cells are considered during optimization.

Analyze the impact of the adjustment of an index on other sites before adjustment.

Dividing clusters involves approval by the operator. The following factors must be considered upon dividing clusters: According to experiences, the number of NodeBs in a cluster depends on the actual situation. 1525 NodeBs in a cluster is recommended. Too many or few NodeBs in a cluster is improper. A cluster must not cover different areas of test (planning) full coverage services.

Refer to the divided clusters for network project maintenance of the operator. Landform factor: Landforms affect signal propagation. Mountains block signal propagation, so they are natural borders for

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dividing clusters. Rivers causes a longer propagation distance, so they affect dividing clusters in various aspects. If a river is narrow, the signals along two banks will interact. If the transportation between two banks allows, divide sites along the two banks in the same cluster. If a river is wide, the upstream and downstream will interact. In this situation, the transportation between two banks is inconvenient, dividing clusters by the bank according to actual situation. A cell-like cluster is much usual than a strip-like cluster. Administrative areas when the coverage area involves several administrative areas, divide clusters according to administrative areas. This is easily acceptable by the operator. DT workload: The DT must be performed within a day for a cluster. A DT takes about four hours.

Figure 1.11 Shows divided clusters in a project.

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2.2.3 Deciding Test Route Confirm the KPI DT acceptance route with the operator before DT. If the operator already has a decided DT acceptance route, you must consider this upon deciding the KPI DT acceptance route. If the objective factors like network layout cannot fully meet the coverage requirements of decided test route by the operator, you must point this out.

The KPI DT acceptance route is the core route of RF optimization test routes. Its optimization is the core of RF optimization. The following tasks, such as parameter optimization and acceptance, are based on KPI DT acceptance route. The KPI DT acceptance route must cover major streets, important location, VIP, and VIC. The DT route should cover all cells as possible. The initial test and final test must cover all cells. If time is enough, cover all streets in the planned area. Use the same DT route in every test to compare performances more accurately. Round-trip DT is performed if possible.

Consider actual factors like lanes and left-turn restriction while deciding test route. Before negotiating with the operator, communicate these factors with local drivers for whether the route is acceptable.

2.2.4 Preparing Tools and Data Prepare necessary software (listed in 01), hardware (listed in 02), because the following test and analysis are based on them. Preparing Software

Table 1-4: lists the recommended software for RF optimization

No. 1 2 3 4

Software Tems investigation Data collection Tems Rout Analysis, Genex Assistant Actix Mapinfo

Function Data collection Analyzing DT data and checking neighbor cells Analyzing performance, Network KPIs Displaying maps and generating route data

Table 1-4: Recommended software for RF optimization

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Preparing Hardware

Table 1-5 lists the recommended hardware for RF optimization


No. 1 Device Scanner Specification DTI Scanner Remarks At least two test terminals. If there is HSDPA request, use the data card E620. U626 does not support HSDPA.

Test terminal and data line

Sonny Ericsson K800i

3 4

Laptop
Vehicle mounted inverter

PM1.3G/512M/20G/USB/COM/PRN DC to AC, over 300W

Table 1-5: Recommended hardware for RF optimization

Preparing Data

Table 1-6 lists the data to be collected before optimization


No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Needed data List of engineering parameters Map KPI requirements Network configuration parameters Survey report Single site verification checklist Floor plan of the target buildings Whether is necessary Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Remarks By Mapinfo or in paper For indoor test

Table 1-6: Data to be collected before optimization

I.2.3 Data Collection


During RF optimization stage, the key is the optimization of radio signals distribution, with the major means of DT and indoor test. Before test, confirm with the customer care engineers the following aspects: Whether the target NodeBs, RNCs, and related CN are abnormal due to being disabled, blocked, congested, and transmission alarms. Whether the alarms have negative impact on the validity of test result data. -24-

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If the alarms exist, solve the problems before test. DT is a major test. Collect scanner and UE data of radio signals by DT test. The data is applicable in analyzing coverage, handover, and pilot pollution problems. Indoor test involves the following areas: Indoor coverage areas

Indoor coverage areas include inside buildings, department stores, and subways. Inside areas of important facilities

Inside areas of important facilities include gymnasiums and government offices. Areas required by the operator: Areas required by the operator include VIC and VIP.

Test the previous areas to locate, analyze, and solve the RF problems.

Indoor test also involves in optimizing handover of indoor and outdoor intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-system.

The DT and indoor test during RF optimization stage is based on VP service. According to the contract (commercial deployment offices) and planning report (trial offices), if seamless coverage by VP service is impossible in areas, such as, suburban areas and rural areas, the test is based on voice services.

For areas with seamless coverage by PS384K service or HSDPA service required by the contract (commercial deployment office) or planning report (trial office), such as office buildings, press centers, and hot spot areas, the test is based on the above services.

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2.3.1 Drive Test DT Types According to different full coverage services in the planned areas, DT might be one of the following: 3G ONLY continuous call test by using scanner + unloaded VP According to simulation result and experiences, if the test result meets requirements on VP service coverage, the test result will also meet identical coverage requirements of PS144K, PS128K, and PS64K services. 3G ONLY continuous call test by using scanner + unloaded voice service 3G ONLY continuous call test by using scanner + unloaded PS384K 3G ONLY continuous call test by using scanner + unloaded HSDPA

Setting DT Indexes The following paragraphs take VP service for example. Setting DT
Index Enable Call Number Setup Time (s) Calling Time (s) Idle Time (s) Call Count Meaning Whether to implement this index. True for implementation. False for non-implementation. The recommended value is True. Called number. Whether the called terminal supports VP must be Confirmed. The maximum time for setting up calls. It ranges from 2030s. The Recommended value is 25s. The time for a single call from call start to normal end of call. Set it great Enough according to actual DT route. The recommended value is 99999s. Call internal time. The recommended value is 10s.
Total call times. Set it great enough according to actual DT route. The

recommended value is 999 times.

Table1-7: For setting DT, see the following table.

Collect call data tracing at RNC side while performing drive test. This help to locate and analyze problems. Indoor Test: GPS signals are unobtainable in door test. Obtain the plan of the target area before test.

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Indoor test consists of walking test and vertical test.

Indoor test services are services by seamless coverage required in the contract (commercial deployment office) or planning report (trial office). The method for indoor test and requirements on collecting call tracing data are the same as DT. 2.3.2 Collecting RNC Configuration Data During RF optimization stage, collect neighbor cell data of network optimization and other data configured in RNC database. In addition, check whether the configured data is consistent with the previously checked/planned data.

While checking configured data, feedback the improperly configured data (if found) to product support engineers. During checking, pay special attention to handover reselection parameters and power setting parameters, as listed in Table1-8.

Configured parameters to be checked


Type Handover reselection parameter Power configuration parameter HSDPA cell configuration Content to be checked IntraFreqNCell (intra-frequency neighbor cell) InterFreqNCell (inter-frequency neighbor cell) InterRATNCell (inter-system neighbor cell) MaxAllowedULTxPower (maximum uplink transmit power of UE) PCPICHPower (PCPICH transmit power) Whether the HSDPA cell is activated HS-PDSCH code configuration HS-SCCH configuration HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH power configuration Table1-8: RNC parameters

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Chapter II: SFR & NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS PROCESS

The optimization process is divided into the following sub processes that are separately described: Preparation phase where the objective is to set the correct environment (including team building and tools set up). At this stage is also requested to perform a network health check (via Configuration Management team) to ensure that the planned network is implemented correctly. Network Assessment & Preliminary Radio Optimization phase where the purpose is to meet a minimum level of radio performance. It is based on hardware changes, i.e. antenna type, tilt and orientation, and changes in the 3G-3G neighbor lists. Inter-system reselection and voice handover is also optimized (only changes in the 3G-2G neighbor lists). It does not include changes on parameters beyond neighbor definitions or CPICH power. Performance Optimization phase where the purpose is to raise the level of network performance to the targets set between Nokia and SFR. Performance increase is achieved by a detailed analysis of failures causes (access and drops), a cell base analysis, and parameter changes. For different parameters sets a small reference area will be selected. Cluster Acceptance to validate that performance targets are reached over all cluster.

Figure below presents the overall optimisation process including links and data flow between project teams.

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Master Report: SFR NETWORK OPTIMIZATION


Figure 2.1 Standard optimization process

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Master Report: SFR NETWORK OPTIMIZATION

II.1 TOOLS
The following table includes all software and hardware tools required in different phases of the optimisation process. Tool Function

II.1.1Radio Design Analysis NetAct WCDMA Planner MapInfo + Macro Preliminary radio design analysis based on coverage prediction Digital terrain databases are provided by SFR 3G3G & 3G2G Adjacencies validation/definition MapInfo tool which graphically displays cells and shows its neighbors defined in OSS databases

II.1.2 3G Radio Layer Optimisation MapInfo Dive test routes definition Sub-cluster definition MapInfo + Macro 3G3G & 3G2G Adjacencies validation/definition MapInfo tool which graphically displays cells and shows its neighbors defined in OSS databases Acquisition plate-form for 6650 mobile phone and WCDMA Scanner Mobile phone used at this stage for voice short (10 sec) and long calls. Mobile is set to 3G single mode only CPICH RSCP, EcN0 and RSSI measurements Post-processing and analysis of all field measurement (MS + Scanner) Used to validate site engineering changes (i.e. tilts, azimuths) UTRAN parameters consistency checks Network KPI collection and reporting

Nemo 3G Outdoor Nokia 6650 WCDMA Anritsu or DTI Scanner Actix Analyser RVS NetAct WCDMA Planner PlanEditor + Macro EoSFlex

II.1.3 Performance Optimisation Nemo 3G Outdoor NITRO Nokia 6650 Samsung Z105 Acquisition plate-form for 6650 mobile phone and WCDMA Scanner Acquisition plate-form for Samsung Z105 mobile phone Voice and PS measurements (3G single or dual mode) Voice, Visio and PS measurements (3G single or dual mode)

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WCDMA Anritsu or DTI Scanner Actix Analyser RVS NetAct WCDMA Planner PlanEditor + Macro EoSFlex PMI Tickets RNC ICSU Parser NetHawk propocol analyser

CPICH RSCP, EcN0 and RSSI measurements Post-processing and analysis of all field measurement (MS + Scanner) Used to validate radio parameter changes (i.e. powers) UTRAN parameters consistency checks Network KPI collection and reporting To complete To complete Iub / IuCS / IuPS logs + Call trace analysis

Table 2-1: Radio optimization activities tools

II.2 MEASUREMENTS
II.2.1 Measurements and Metrics
Different types of measurements are required in different phases of the optimisation process. Objectives and Metrics of each measurement type are detailed hereafter.

CPICH scanner measurements Survey Equipment Data Collected Metrics for Analysis Objectives WCDMA DTI or Anritsu Scanner RSSI, CPICH Ec and Ec/No for top N where N8 Best Server CPICH Ec/Io, Best Server CPICH RSCP Radio Coverage evaluation Cell Dominance evaluation Overshooting cells 3G3G adjacencies evaluation NEMO 3G Outdoor + Nokia 6650 (3G single mode) Voice MOC (to fixed line) continuous when possible Voice MOC (to fixed line) 2 minutes with 10 sec pause Monitored cells Ec/Io, UE transmit power, detected cells, locations of dropped calls, location of access failures Best Server Ec/Io, Active Set Size, dropped calls, access failures Missing 3G3G adjacencies - 31 -

Voice call measurements (long and short calls) Survey Equipment Measurement scenario

Data Collected

Metrics for Analysis Objectives

Master Report: SFR NETWORK OPTIMIZATION

SHO performance Call Setup performance NodeB HW/SW pbm (ie Sleeping Cell detection)

Voice call measurements (3G single mode only) NEMO 3G Outdoor + Nokia 6650 (3G single mode) NITRO + Samsung Z105 (3G single mode) Voice MOC (to fixed line) 2 minutes with 1 minute Measurement scenario pause Monitored cells Ec/No, UE transmit power, detected Data Collected cells, locations of dropped calls, location of access failures Best Server Ec/Io, Active Set Size, dropped calls, Metrics for Analysis access failures Objectives Missing 3G3G adjacencies SHO performance Drop call causes investigation Access failure causes investigation Voice call measurements (dual mode) Survey Equipment Survey Equipment Measurement scenario Data Collected NEMO 3G Outdoor + Nokia 6650 (dual mode) NITRO + Samsung Z105 (dual mode) Voice MOC (to fixed line) 2 minutes with 1 minute pause Monitored cells Ec/Io, UE transmit power, detected cells, locations of dropped calls, location of access failures Best Server Ec/Io, Active Set Size, dropped calls, access failures Missing 3G2G adjacencies ISHO performance NEMO 3G Outdoor + Nokia 6650 (2G single mode) NITRO + Samsung Z105 (2G single mode) No calls performed, logs are with MS Idle GSM RxLev and RxQual GSM RxLev and RxQual Evaluate GSM coverage quality 3G2G adjacency plan optimization (combined with CPICH scanner measurements) NITRO + Samsung Z105 (2 MS used) Visio MOC (called MS is also in the VAN) 2 minutes with 1 minute pause Calling MS is set to dual mode Called MS is set to 3G single mode - 32 -

Metrics for Analysis Objectives 2G Idle Mode measurements Survey Equipment Measurement scenario Data Collected Metrics for Analysis Objectives

Visio call measurements Survey Equipment Measurement scenario

Master Report: SFR NETWORK OPTIMIZATION

Data Collected

Metrics for Analysis Objectives

Monitored cells Ec/Io, UE transmit power, detected cells, locations of dropped calls, location of access failures Best Server Ec/Io, Active Set Size, dropped calls, access failures Visio performance evaluation Drop call causes investigation Access failure causes investigation NEMO 3G Outdoor + Nokia 6650 (dual mode) NITRO + Samsung Z105 (dual mode) FTP 128DL : 3Mb file transfer (30 sec pause bw DL) FTP 64UL : 1Mb file transfer (30 sec pause bw UL)
Monitored cells Ec/Io, UE transmit power, detected cells, locations of dropped calls, location of access failures

FTP call measurements Survey Equipment Measurement scenario Data Collected Metrics for Analysis Objectives

Best Server Ec/Io, Active Set Size, dropped calls, access failures FTP performance evaluation Drop call causes investigation Access failure causes investigation

II.2.2 Measurement strategy


2.2.1 Measurement Routes
3 route types have been defined.

ROUTES id ROUTE A

TYPE Detailed Cluster drive test route

ROUTE B

Global reference route over all area Acceptance drive test route

ROUTE C

OBJECTIVES This route should extensively go through each sectors coverage area in order to validate good service conditions are provided where expected. This route is defined for both site verification (to validate that the site performs correctly as a stand-alone unit), and cluster validation. Cluster size : 10/15 NodeB One route is designed per cluster This route should be defined overall cluster area to demonstrate regular evolution of KPI performances. This route should not be so dense and should be performed in max 6/10 hours. Should be defined between SFR and NOKIA at least 2 weeks before starting the acceptance phase

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Master Report: SFR NETWORK OPTIMIZATION 2.2.2 Measurement RUNs


ROUTE RUN 1 ROUTE A MS SERVICES MS SETTINGS OBJECTIVES ANALYSE REQUIRED SCANNER VOICE (2 min + 1 min pause) SINGLE MODE 3G VISIO (2 min + 1 min pause) SINGLE MODE 3G Radio Coverage Quality Evaluation (for both Voice Coverage (CPICH RSCP, Ec/Io) Black Spots identification and CS Data services) First Tilts or other site engineering recos (ie azimuth) 3G3G Mobility Performance Evaluation proposal First 3G3G ADJ recos proposal GSM Radio Coverage Quality Evaluation 3G2G Mobility Performance Evaluation Identify possible exclusion area for Voice where GSM quality is not enough First 3G2G ADJ recos proposal

1 NOKIA 6650 2 SAMSUNG Z105 RUN 2 ROUTE A 1 NOKIA 6650 1 NOKIA 6650 RUN 3 ROUTE A 1 NOKIA 6650 2 SAMSUNG Z105 RUN 4 ROUTE A 1 NOKIA 6650 2 SAMSUNG Z105

SCANNER VOICE (2 min + 1 min pause) DUAL MODE IDLE MODE SINGLE MODE 2G

SCANNER VOICE (2 min + 1 min pause) DUAL MODE VISIO (2 min + 1 min pause) SINGLE MODE 3G

1st Tilt, 3G3G and 3G2G ADJ recos validation 3G3G Mobility Performance Evaluation 3G2G Mobility Performance

Additional recos (Tilt, 3G3G ADJ,) proposal Exclusion Area identification Evaluation

SCANNER VOICE (2 min + 1 min pause) DUAL MODE VISIO (2 min + 1 min pause) CALLING MS : DUAL MODE / CALLED MS : SINGLE MODE 3G

2st Tilt, 3G3G ADJS recos validation 3G3G Mobility Performance Evaluation 3G2G Mobility Performance Evaluation

Additional recos (3G3G, 3G2G ADJ,) proposal Specific cell basis parameter changes proposal (ie SHO Offset to reduce "Canyon Effects")

RUN 5 ROUTE C 1 NOKIA 6650 2 SAMSUNG Z105

SCANNER VOICE (2 min + 1 min pause) DUAL MODE VISIO (2 min + 1 min pause) CALLING MS : DUAL MODE / CALLED MS : SINGLE MODE 3G

Latest Overall Cluster Perfomance Evaluation

Additional recos (3G3G, 3G2G ADJ,) proposal Specific cell basis parameter changes proposal (ie SHO Offset to reduce "Canyon Effects")

CONTINIOUS PERFOMANCE BENCHMARK ROUTE B 1 NOKIA 6650 1 SAMSUNG Z105 ROUTE B 2 SAMSUNG Z105 ROUTE B 1 SAMSUNG Z105 1 SAMSUNG Z105 SCANNER VOICE (2 min + 1 min pause) DUAL MODE VOICE (2 min + 1 min pause) DUAL MODE SCANNER VISIO (2 min + 1 min pause) CALLING MS : DUAL MODE / CALLED MS : SINGLE MODE 3G SCANNER FTP UL64 (File 1 Mo) DUAL MODE FTP DL128 (File 3 Mo) DUAL MODE VOICE Performance Evaluation Gap Analysis NOKIA 6650 vs SAMSUNG Z105 VISIO Performance Evaluation Gap Analysis Voice vs Visio PS Data Performance Evaluation

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II.2.3 Measurement standard procedure


A typical procedure for drive test measurements is:

1) 2)

Check consistency of all parameters of the cells/sites belonging to the cluster/sub-cluster prior the measurement starting. Coordination between drive team (DT) and monitoring team (O&M); make sure all sites are unlocked for measurements, and normally radiating, i.e. no alarm preventing measurements. Start/Continue measurements session; at any call drop: a) Stop the van, if possible b) Note any event that could have caused the drop (poor coverage, wrong SC, missing neighbour) c) Goto 2)

3)

4)

On completion of the drive route: a) Make sure that all the drive measurements has been correctly logged in a file b) Make sure all events that may have affected the results have been recorded

Coordination between drive team (DT) and monitoring team (O&M); DT should inform O&M when NodeB instability is detected, and O&M should inform DT about any NodeB operations.

II.2.4 Measurement chain


As requested for the acceptance, measurements are executed in Incar mode. The measurement procedure is the following:

2 antennas shall be installed on the roof top of the Van : 1 for the WCDMA scanner and another for the mobile phone Mobile phone : the total losses in the measurement chain shall equal 7 dB to reproduce the Incar losses WCDMA scanner : the total losses in the measurement chain shall equal 0 dB

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II.3 PREPARATION PHASE


II.3.1 Team Building & Tools Set Up
Objective here is to set up required resources and tools. Dimensioning will depend on number of cluster, volume of sites par cluster and cluster geographical distribution. Main impact of this geographical distribution is clearly on dimensioning necessary measurement Vans.

II.3.2 Cluster NEs Configuration Management


The Cluster network health check ensures that the planned network is implemented correctly, all cells are up and running and correct parameters are set. These should be done before starting first measurements. There are many checks to look at: Alarm check (BTS, RNC, other) SW (i.e. NodeB SW, AXC SW) and Parameter check (i.e. DCN, Iub ATM) Neighbour consistency check Cell load check KPI check

NEs alarms should be investigated and solved by O&M team, and potential misalignments in network parameterisation should be corrected by Configuration Management team. Prior first measurement campaign starting, five Configuration & Performance Management reports should be set up and reported to optimization team: NodeB configuration follow up (on a regular basis, ie 2 times per month) To be produced by Configuration Management team Cell Availability status (once per) To be produced by Configuration Management team NodeB alarms history report (on a daily basis) To be produced by Configuration Management team

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Trouble Ticket report (on a daily basis) To be produced by O&M team


EoSFlex Top KPI report (on a daily basis) To be produced by Configuration Management team

In addition, before each measurement campaign and after each massive UTRAN parameters changes (ie Neighbours), Cluster UTRAN parameter consistency check should be performed.

II.4 NETWORK ASSESSMENT & PRELIMINARY RADIO OPTIMISATION PHASE


II.4.1 Radio Design Analysis
As radio design of the cluster to optimise has been performed by SFR, the main activity in this phase is to acquire detailed information on the cluster, and then analyse this info using NetAct WCDMA Planner tool, to identify potential problems and to define the measurement strategy.

4.1.1 Pre-requisites analysis Pre-requisites that should be provided by SFR for each cluster are listed hereafter. These pre-requisites have to be provided 6 weeks before the optimisation contractual starting date (T0).
Pre-requisites KPIs service level (SILVER, GOLD, PLATINUM) & Number of KPIs to reach (5 or 9) List of Node-Bs to optimise Cluster terrain database (5m resolution for dense urban and urban areas, 50m for suburban and rural). This database includes ; DTM, Building Height, Cluster layers). CW measurements in 2GHz or 1.8 GHz bands and calibration reports when available SFR design engineering criteria and rules (coverage thresholds, power budgets,) 3G site database (including sites within the cluster & sites located 5 km around) : Priority 1 1 1

2 1 1

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Site coordinates (X, Y, Z) Site ids (Site Name, Code, Cell Id,) Antenna height Sectors and Azimuths Tilt figures (mechanical + electrical relative to 0) Antenna type Cable losses Primary Scrambling Codes Powers of the common channels of each sector 3G3G and 3G2G neighbour list Radio parameter settings 1

2G site database (including sites within the cluster & sites located 5 km around) : Site engineering config (see details above) BSIC and BCCH frequency channel 2G2G neighbour list Radio parameter settings Cluster contour definition (Radio KPIs will be measured inside this contour) Cluster contour coverage statistics and the interference levels : % Points with Pilot RSCP >= -91 dBm, % Points with Pilot Ec/Io >= -10 dB Coverage plots for Incar CS64 and PS128 services Site integration timetable 3G site folders including the following informations : Site implementation drawings on the scale (for all antenna installed on the site : antenna support location, antenna height, antenna type, azimuth, tilt, isolation distance, nearby obstacles indication, feeder type and length), and panoramic photos. Cluster digital maps (useful to define drive test routes) Iub transmission topology (including Iub & DCN IP config)

1 1

1 1

2 2

Pre-requisites analysis consists in checking consistency of info provided by SFR, and request for missing data. Inconsistency report between Site Folders and Engineering Database

(IngeUTRAN) should be produced if needed.

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4.1.2 Radio Design Analysis Main tasks of this phase are: Site radio engineering checking (photo, antenna implementation, Height, Azimuth, Tilt) Digital terrain database integration in NetAct Planner (50m and/or 5m resolution databases are provided by SFR, and should be converted to NetAct planner format) Propagation model tuning (Volcano model is used. Tuning will be required when the standard deviation of our generic model is higher than 9dB when compared to some WCDMA scanner measurements. When available, this tuning will be performed with CW measurements provided by SFR. If not available, a soft tuning only with WCDMA scanner measurements will be done). Radio planning with NetAct WCDMA Planner (including 3G parameters planning) o Identification of poor coverage areas o Identification of good enough coverage areas, but poor quality (bad EcI0) o Pilot pollution analysis o Identify possible site engineering changes (tilts, azimuths, Power) 3G/3G neighbouring cells planning 3G/2G neighbouring cells planning Sub-cluster definition (cluster is divided into 10/20 sites subclusters specific drive test route measurements are defined for each sub-cluster) Reference drive test routes definition (see 5.2.1 Measurement Routes) o One global reference route (Route B) o One route for each sub-cluster (Route A) During this phase its also possible to identify areas where the sites position if not optimal and might prevent the full optimization. These cases must be discussed with SFR. The information in the planning tool can also be used in the following phases to complement the measured data in the analysis and to support in the validation of site engineering change request (ie Tilts and Azimuths).

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NetAct Planner configuration and Radio Design analysis main steps are presented the following documents: [1] NetAct Planner Configuration Guidelines [2] NetAct Planner Plots/Outputs [3] 3G3G Adjacencies Planning [4] 3G2G Adjacencies Planning [5] Primary Scrambling Code re-uses analysis [6] Preliminary Tilt analysis Before starting the first measurement campaign 3G/3G & 3G/2G have to be implemented in the network both in RNC and BSC see 10.1 Configuration Management Process.

II.4.2 3G Radio Layer Optimization


The main target of this phase is to optimise the radio environment, both from coverage and quality point of view. Main tasks of this phase are:

Radio measurement & post-processing Problem analysis (coverage and dominance main issues) Site visit for specific radio coverage problems Cross feeder identification Site engineering modification requirements (mainly electrical tilt) 3G3G and 3G2G neighbouring cells and CPICH Power requirements and implementation Radio measurement control of specific problems Reporting of major issues

The first step is to perform a measurement campaign, where radio measures (WCDMA Scanner) are performed together with 1 Voice call and 1 Visio call (RUN 1). The results are then processed to produce reports and analysed.

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In some specific radio coverage problems (i.e. poor coverage or strong dominance), site visit will be planned. So, site access to Nokia has to be guarantee by SFR. The outcome of the analysis is a number of recommendations for changes to software (mainly 3G3G and 3G2G neighbouring cells and CPICH Power), site configuration parameters (Tilt, Azimuth) and site wrong configuration (crossfeeder). While the software parameters are handled directly by Nokia engineers, the site configuration changes other than electrical tilt must be approved by SFR. In case they are accepted, the changes should take place within a lead-time agreed between SFR and Nokia, from the moment they are submitted by Nokia. Delays in this will necessarily reflect on the overall duration. In case they are rejected, Nokia and SFR should agree to find an alternative solution. In some extreme case, where no alternative solutions can be found (i.e. the exclusion of some areas from KPI evaluation will be negotiated). All the changes identified through the measurement campaign are documented, in order to be inserted in SFR Data Bases (IngeUTRAN). see 10.1 Configuration Management Process. 4.2.1 Radio Optimization steps Three specifics runs can be defined: 1) First Run Improve overall radio coverage performances a. Measurements are performed over sub-cluster routes (measurement protocol used is described in 5.1.1) b. First corrections should focus on electrical tilts and 3G neighbouring c. After corrections implementation, a validation drive test is performed over the same sub-cluster routes 2) Second Run Focus on remaining poor radio areas (improve Ec/Io, reduce pilot pollution)

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a. Analyse poor coverage (Scanner CPICH RSCP < 92dBm) Detailed measurements are performed over selected poor coverage area in order to evaluate are size Is there any possible optimization actions (other than adding a new site) to improve the coverage (ie Antenna height, bearing, Azimuths)? If yes, validate possible actions with NetAct Planner If no, exclusion area should be reported

b. Analyse good coverage, poor Ec/Io (Scanner CPICH RSCP > - 90dBm, Ec/Io < -12dB)
Detailed measurements are performed over selected poor quality area in order to evaluate are size Is there any possible optimization actions (other than changing Powers) to improve the quality (ie improve cell dominance/cell overshooting with fine tuning Tilts, Azimuths)? If yes, validate possible actions with NetAct Planner If no, goto to 3)

3)

Third Run Focus on remaining poor radio areas where no reengineering actions can improve performances

Evaluate possible CPICH Tx Power changes (use NetAct for validation) Is some quality improvement? If no, set previous CPICH Tx Power and exclusion area should be reported

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4.2.2 Analysis Principles Cell Availability and Trouble Tickets reports should be checked before starting analysis in order to identify possible NodeB instability impact on measurements. If for any faults/problems reasons site/cells seem to be faulty, a site trouble report to O&M team should be issued for further inspection on the site status and alarms. From OMC/EoSFlex some report tables (ie Service level report and Cell resource and cell availability report) should be also in the analysis. To provide sufficient RSCP and clear dominant is a basic concept in optimisation. Use Actix to check RSCP and Ec/Io of each SC distributed to that area. Antenna panning / tilting might be required to optimise and create a dominant cell area. Minimum performance should be achieved by avoiding unnecessary overlapping The cause(s) of dropped calls and its origin like poor coverage, radio quality, and UE or network problem should be analysed. Studying the layer3 messages are useful to identify these problems and their root-cause. In some cases we observed dropped call due to the reach of the UL Coverage limit. Uplink coverage of UE is smaller compared to serving cells downlink coverage. This UL/DL imbalance result into that the UEs Tx power is not sufficient to reach serving cell in some areas. This UL/DL imbalance can be due to MHA wrong parameter settings. In this case NodeB commissioning file should be checked. If the current serving cell is far distant from UE but there is a candidate cell, which is closer to UE to serve the problematic point, the candidate cell needs to be optimised to serve the area. However, it should be confirmed that there are not too many scrambling codes distributed to this area by increasing the coverage with a new candidate cell. It is favourable to use the Anritsu scanner data to analyse this problem. The tuning method to optimise coverage and cell dominance area was tabulated below.

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Tuning Tuningmethods methodsfor for Coverage CoverageProblem ProblemArea Area

High riority HighP Priority

Tuning Tuningmethods methodsfor for Dominance DominanceProblem ProblemArea Area

Up-tilting Up-tiltingof ofserving servingcells cellsantenna antennato to extend coverage radius and to extend coverage radius and toimprove improve unsatisfied unsatisfiedcoverage coveragearea area Increase CPICH T x Power Increase CPICH Tx Powerof ofserving servingcell cell Change Antenna Bearing Angle: Change Antenna Bearing Angle:Focus Focus the themain mainbeam beamof ofantenna antennato tocoverage coverage holes and low RSCP area holes and low RSCP area Change ChangeAntenna AntennaPattern: P attern:Displace Displacewith with higher highergain gainantenna antennawith withadequate adequate antenna antennatilting tilting Increase Increaseserving servingcells cellsantenna antennaheight heightto to get higher effective antenna gain get higher effective antenna gainbut but there thereis isrisk riskto tomake makeundesirable undesirableinterintercell cellinterference interferenceto toadjacent adjacent cells cells

Down-tilting Down-tiltingof of interfering interferingcells cells antenna, which generate antenna, which generatepilot pilot pollution pollution Change x Power: ChangeCPICH CPICHT Tx Power:Increase Increase serving servingcells cellsTx T xpower powerbut butdecrease decrease interfering cells Tx power interfering cells T x power Change Changeantenna antennabearing bearingangles anglesof ofcells cells involved in pilot pollution involved in pilot pollution Change Changeantenna antennapatterns patternsof ofcells cells involved involvedin inpilot pilotpollution. pollution.Smaller Smallergains gains for interfering cells and higher gain for interfering cells and higher gainfor for victim victimcell cell Decrease Decreaseantenna antennaheight heightof of interfering interfering cells and increase antenna height cells and increase antenna heightof of victim victimcell cellwith withadequate adequatetilting tiltingangle angle

Figure 2.2 Tuning method for coverage and dominant area optimization

4.2.3 Problem area analysis flow-chart


Drive Test Measurement
Coverage problem area

(A)
Best servers CPICH RSCP>-92dBm

Coverage area optimization

Y
Nth best server CPICH RSCP>- 92 dBm

Dominance problem area (Excessive # of SC in RSCP)

Dominance area optimization / SHO opt

(B)

(C)
Y
Dominance area optimization /SHO opt

N
Best servers Ec/No<-9 dB

Dominance problem area (Low best server Ec/No) (Excessive # of SC )

Complet e Measurement Analysis

Figure 2.3 Process of Optimization

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Some optimisation guidelines and processes are detailed in the following documents: [7] Actix Analyser Configuration Guidelines [11] 3G3G Adjacencies Optimization (based on field measurements) [12] 3G2G Adjacencies Optimization (based on field measurements)

II.5 PERFORMANCE OPTIMISATION PHASE


After the radio layer, the End-to-End services are optimised. This is done again through a measurement campaign, where the services to be optimised are tested. At the same time, radio parameters are checked again to verify the effect of the changes. Main tasks of this phase are:

Service performance (Voice, Visiophony, FTP) measurement & postprocessing Radio coverage and End-to-End KPI status

Detailed problem analysis (Drop Calls, SHO failures, Call set-up failures) 3G3G neighbouring cells and 3G parameters modification requirements and implementation 3G2G neighbouring cells modification requirements and implementation Reporting of major issues The measurement reports are analysed, and, where needed, changes are made to software parameters. In case changes are needed on equipment not provided by Nokia, like Transmission or Core network, Nokia will submit a change request to SFR. The change should be completed within a lead-time agreed between SFR and Nokia, to avoid impact on the duration of the service. All the changes are reported to SFR, together with the relevant measurement reports. For detailed analysis, some logs from UTRAN & CORE sub-system interfaces (Iub, IuCs, IuPs, Gn, Gi, Gr) can be used. So, UTRAN & CORE interfaces access to Nokia for measurement purpose (via network analysers) has to be guarantee by SFR.

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A final report is generated, containing the measurement report showing the fulfilment of the KPIs requested. This report shows that the cluster is ready for final acceptance, from the 3G performance point of view.

II.5.1 Performance Survey


All services are tested over the detailed sub-cluster routes. This performance survey is used to evaluate overall E2E performances. It can be run before end of the previous 3G Radio Layer Optimisation.

II.5.2 Performance Analysis


Detailed drop calls and access failures analysis are performed in order to evaluate all potential failure causes. An action plan is defined to: Identify without ambiguity failures causes Validate possible corrective parameter settings Action plan should focus on main issues (high priority is given to cause which have main impact). Failures should be sorted by cells/sites. Sites with higher failure occurrence should be checked. Cell availability / Trouble Ticket reports and OSS counters/KPI should be crosschecked in order to identify possible NodeB faults. If needed a site trouble report to O&M team should be issued for further inspection on the site status and alarms. Some new parameter templates can be evaluated. For that purpose, a small trial area (a sub-cluster for instance) should be selected.

II.5.3 Network Performance Optimization


A measurement / analysis / changes loop is implemented and run until KPI commitments are reached. Global reference route will be measured on a regular basis (ie 2 times per month) to evaluate the gap still to improve to reach the commitments. One of the outcomes at this stage is also identification of all reasons that can prevent KPI achievements (Burden proof mechanism): UE-specific problems (hanging onto the cell, poor cell reselection, poor power control) UE-NW incompatibilities

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BTS, RNC or network faults Other sub-system (CNCS, CNPS), third party faults 5.3.1 Call set-up failure optimization It was observed that call set-up failures came from the UE itself or due to a network problem. In these cases the Service level report together with drive-test analysis was profound in the troubleshooting. The basic process of call set-up failure optimisation is summarized in a flow chart below.

Start Other Good Candidate C ell (from Scanner data) ?


No

Best servers RS CP > -92dBm


Yes

No

Missing Neighbor ?
No Yes

No

Yes

Cell Reselect ion Optimization

Best servers E c/No > -9dB


Yes

Neighbor list Optimization

DL Coverage Optimizat ion Dominant area optimization

UE T xP wr = Max (24dBm) & Received Power increase T PC? No

Y es

UL coverage O ptimization (Change serving cell)

(Reason of problem: L1 sync fail)

No

(DCH) RRC Connection setup Completed sent f rom UE ? Y es

(Check failure cause)

No

Radio Bearer setup f ailureReceived? Yes

C heck failure cause (Not radio problem/cell update)

Figure 2.4 Process flow-chart for optimization of call set-up failures

Detailed Call set-up failure optimisation process is presented in document [9] Call Set up Failure Analysis.

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5.3.2 Drop Call optimization The concept of drop optimisation is the same as for call set-up failure analysis, i.e. to provide sufficient RSCP and clear cell dominance areas. Studying layer3 messages are also important here to identify problems. Detailed Drop Call optimisation process is presented in document [8] Drop Call Analysis. Additional guidelines and processes used at this stage are presented in the following documents: [10] Top KPI Analysis [13] Sleeping Cell Analysis [14] Cell Interference Analysis

II.6 SOME OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICE


II.6.1 Configuration Management Process
1. Send parameter change requests (with right format) to Nokia Configuration Management team. 2. CM team has to confirm the date when those changes will be implemented in the network (few changes are implemented the same day). 3. As soon as the implementation date is confirmed (normally it should be confirmed the same day of your request), send the required file for IngUTRAN update purpose to your SFR radio interfaces + put in the loop SFR CA (Centre d'Administration) 4. SFR radio team should afterwards confirm you when IngUTRAN is updated (to be sure, request an IngUTRAN extract)

II.6.2 System problem investigation


For unknown or unclear drop or access failures causes, a site request for investigation has to be sent to System Support team. Template of this request Site Problem tracking form is attached in Annex 2. To qualify/describe as much as possible the problem, before each request following checks are mandatory:

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1.

TOP KPI + Cell avalaibility report Check for instance if the site/cell is Blocked or in Sleeping state

2. 3. 4.

Alarm history Check possible HW issues Trouble Tickets Site Configuration follow up report - Check possible config misalignment (ie MHA with wrong settings) or synchro pbm (ie DAC Word)

II.6.3 Some Maintenance/Optim coordination processes


6.3.1 Maintenance support when drive test measurements 1) Friday W-1, Zone Managers have to send to Nokia monitoring team (O&M) (Franck Papo & Yannick Marquette), a detailed measurement plan for week W (measurement plan template is attached in Annex 3). 2) Prior starting the measurement, coordination between drive test team (DT) and O&M team ; make sure all sites are unlocked for measurements, and normally radiating, i.e. no alarm preventing measurements. It's up to DT to call O&M team. 3) Start/Continue measurements session; at any abnormal event (several access failure in the same site with no coverage pbm, missing SC...): a) Stop the van, if possible

b) Note the event c) Goto 2)

4) When NodeB instability/suspected alarms are detected by O&M team, O&M team has to inform DT team. Also, DT team has to be informed about any NodeB operations. 5) On completion of the drive test, DT has to : a) Make sure that all the drive measurements has been correctly logged in a file

b) Make sure all events that may have affected the results have been recorded/reported

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6.3.2 Request to open a Trouble Ticket 6) When suspected NodeB pbms are noticed by Optimization team, a request to open a TT has to be sent to O&M team. This request should describe as much detailed as possible the suspected pbm and the operation type to plan (i.e. 10 MHz meas, WSC card change...). 7) This request should be acknowledged by O&M team; TT number, date of operation should be confirmed. 8) When the NodeB operation is completed, a report has to be sent to Optimization team (Ing who sent the request + Zone Manager). This report should describe; site status before operation, operation performed, site status after operation. 6.3.2 Daily Trouble Ticket report A daily TT report has to be sent by O&M team. This report should include; TT number, pbm description, date of operation.

Cluster alarms and cell availability reports will be provided by Stephane Ponot. As TOP KPI report, those reports will be stored by Stephane on a daily basis in the appropriate project folders.

6.3.23Configuration Management Cluster site configuration report will be from now on performed by EoS team.

This report will be done on a weekly basis for all clusters. Only DAC Word values are not reported (value still to be checked by System Support team).

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Chapter III: NETWORK PREOPTIMIZATION & OPTMIZATION


III.1 DECLARATION OF NEIGHBORS
The firs step to do for the integration for one site is the declaration of his neighbors 3G/3G and 3G/2G. After the declaration we inject the neighbors in a specific Database which is Ocean. For the declaration of neighbors we should respect many rules defined by SFR such as SIB11 criteria (the criteria changes from one Region to another).

Figure 3.1 The main Window of ocean

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Figure 3.2 Import of Neighbors

III.2 Determination of SCR, MODEL RADIO & PALIER


Before the Integration we should determinate the SCR of each sector by w specific tool and we should create the Model Radio of the site and inject all this information on the ocean database. After injecting the neighbors and inject all the information about the site we create a DM for the Mise En Service (when the site will be on air) .

Figure 3.3 Creation Of DM of MES

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Figure 3.4 Getting the Number of DM for the CA

III.3 Atoll Simulation Week-5


Before the integration of the site we should do some simulations for our site and also for the Cluster in order to do some recommendations of Electric Tilt. Setting antenna down tilt depends on the following factors: Relative height to around environment Coverage range requirements Antenna types

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If the antenna down tilt is improper, signals are received in the areas which are covered by this site.

Therefore interferences to other areas cause pilot pollution. Even worse, interferences might cause call drop.
1 816 000 1 816 000

846 500

847 000

847 500

848 000

130752

131736 130015

1 815 500

132108


132080 130743

130132 1 13 130 30 07 76 76 69 9 9

130760

1 815 500

130075
133622

1 815 000


130770

131744
1 815 000

132231

1 814 500

130761

846 500

130041

1 814 500

847 000

847 500

848 000

Figure 3.5 Atoll Simulation Antenna U1 Tilt Initial T4

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1 816 000 1 816 000

846 500

847 000

847 500

848 000

130752

130015 1317 36

1 815 500

132108


132080 130743

130132 1 13 30 07 76 69 9

1307 60

1 815 500

133622

130075

1 815 000


130770

131744
1 815 000

1322 31

1 814 500

130761

846 500

130041

1 814 500

847 000

Figure 3.6 Atoll Simulation Antenna U1 Downtilt de 2 soit T6

847 500

848 000

III.4 KPI Analysis:


After the integration of the site and the Mise en service we should check the results of the KPI to generate the report J+1 and S+1. We should attend the Rate of KPI defined by SFR to validate the site. If we discover that the Rate of KPI are bad so we should do some investigations such as Add and Dell of neighbors using the Flux (a database generated to define the traffic and exchanges between the different sectors and sites. RSCP: Received Signal Code Power.

RSCP is an acronym used in UMTS and other CDMA cellular communications systems and stands for

While RSCP can be defined generally for any CDMA system, it is more specifically used in UMTS.

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Also, while RSCP can be measured in principle on the downlink (DL) as well as on the uplink (UL), it is usually associated only with the downlink and thus it is presumed to be measured by the UE and reported to the Node-B.

In brief, the received power on one code after de-spreading measured by UE on the pilot bits on a given channel. The reference point for the RSCP is the antenna connector of the UE. If Tx diversity is applied on the measured channel then the received code power from each antenna is separately measured and summed together in watt to produce a total received code power on the measured channel.

Figure 3.7 KPI of RAB Voice

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Figure 3.8 KPI of RAB Visio

Figure 3.9 KPI of the ISHO (3G/2G)

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Figure 3.10KPI of the ISHO (3G/2G) Success

III.5 Run of Qualification:


III.5.1 Protocol of Run
Scanner Mob1: Long call 3G locked Mob2: Short call 2min 1min Dual mode (50 calls minimum) Mob2: Idle 2G locked

III.5.2 Run of Qualification Analysis:


Usually, the strongest RSCP received by each scanner in the coverage area must be above 95 dBm. Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based RSCP for 1st Best ServiceCell, and you can obtain the distribution of weak coverage area. Weak coverage areas with RSCP smaller than 95 dBm in the DT route. According to scanner and UE, the pilot RSCP is acceptable. If the scanner antenna is mounted outside the car, and the UE is inside the car, there is a penetration loss of 5 to 7 dB. Use scanner

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data to avoid incomplete pilot information measured by UE due to missing neighbor cells. Cell primary pilot analysis is analyzing cell scramble information obtained in DT. Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based RSCP for SC, and you can obtain the signal distribution of each cell (scramble). According to DT data, if the scramble signals of a cell are not present, probably some sites cannot transmit signals during test. If a cell cannot transmit signals during DT, the DT of relative areas must be re-performed. Very weak coverage might be result of blocked antennas, so you must check the survey report of the site and check installation of on-site antennas. No (poor) coverage cell might be due to that the DT route does not cover the cell coverage area. In this case, reevaluate the DT route for the rationality and perform DT again.

Figure 3.11 Distribution of pilot SC for the 1st Best Service Cell

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Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based RSCP for SC, and you can obtain the signal distribution of each cell (scramble). If the signals of a cell are widely distributed, even in the neighbor cells and the cells next to its neighbor cells, the signals of the cell is present, the cell encounters a cross-cell coverage which might be due to over high site or improper down tilt of antenna. The cross-cell coverage cells interferes neighbor cells, so the capacity declines. You can solve the problem by increasing the down tilt of antenna or lowering the height of antenna. Avoid forming new weak coverage areas while solving cross-coverage problems. Pay special attention to the adjustment of engineering parameters which might cause coverage voids. Be conservative that cross-cell coverage is better than coverage voids if no other choices are available. Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based SC for 1st Best Service Cell, and you can obtain The scramble distribution of the best cell. If multiple best cells changes frequently in an cell, the cell is a no primary pilot cell, as shown in 0 No primary pilot cell forms due to the following causes: o o o Cross-cell non-seamless coverage due to over high site Pilot pollution in some areas Coverage voids at edges of coverage areas

Missing neighbor cells, improper parameters of soft handover, cell selection and reselection cause the consistent between scanner primary pilot cell and camped cell in idle mode or Best Service Cell in the active set in connection mode of UE. After optimization, the Ec/Io for 1st Best Service Cell of UE.

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Figure 3.12 RSCP for 1st Best Service Cell

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Figure 3.13 Mobile Dual CSF - Run Q

Figure 3.14 Mobile 3G locked Drop Call and CSF - Run Q

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Figure 3.15 Scanner for Sectors of our Site

Figure 3.16 Scanner for Sectors of The First Couronne

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CONCLUSION
In this reports we tried to make a manual for pre-optimizing/optimizing WCDMA networks which contents many cases of problems in WCDMA RF interface. It was requested by the company which did my internship to keep it as reference for next optimization projects. And I m Introduced a sample of Incident Reports and KPI report which I have been delivering those kind of report to the customer (SFR UMTS OPTIMIZATION) during this project In which I was involved as WCDMA Optimizer Consultant with Nokia Siemens Networks.

This internship was useful for me since I improved my Skills in Mobile network Optimization Filed. And based on that I will be able to find a good job opportunity in wireless planning and optimization filed overall the world.

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REFERENCE
Following process and guidelines have been defined and customised for SFR Solution Plaque project. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] NetAct Planner Configuration Guidelines (P. Cirella) NetAct Planner Plots/Outputs (P. Cirella) 3G3G Adjacencies Planning (B. Hani) 3G2G Adjacencies Planning (B. Hani) Primary Scrambling Code re-use analysis (B. Hani) Preliminary Tilt analysis (B. Hani) Actix Analyser Configuration Guidelines (G. Borges) Drop Call Analysis (B. Guillard) Call Set up Failure Analysis (B. Guillard) Top KPI Analysis (B. Guillard, B. Hani) 3G3G Adjacencies Optimisation (based on field measurements) (B. Hani) 3G2G Adjacencies Optimisation (based on field measurements) (B. Hani) Sleeping Cell Analysis (B. Guillard) Cell Interference Analysis (B. Guillard) UTRAN parameter consistency check tools and process (P. Cirella)

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GLOSSARY

NW CS PS SC SW HW UE

Network Circuit Switched Packet Switched Scrambling Code Software Hardware User Equipment (aka MS)

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