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12

IRE TRANSACTIONS

ON

MICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

January

.3, o
A

I s;de
7+-

Wail WtI//- LO F@e~


p~wev of

TOp Wall - Hi

Measured

Unbalance

Shwf .2

Slot

Hybri~~

7 I I t I I I 4 /1 / I /, I /,/

0(

.f

(.O

&
-A_

Fig.

11

x.

considered handling The

only ability.

as a qualitative

indication

of the

power

second

duplexer, circuit,

employing behaved in

two-tube a similar receiving

arrays fashion bandwidth.

in at

6,
frefrzency

;
,?M C

the high This

switching level and duplexer

had

the

predicted in Fig.

Fig.

10

is shown

11 (above).

Calculation

of the Parameters
TSUNG-SHAN

of Ridge
CHEN~

Waveguides*

this paper an algebraic expression which conSummaryIn stitut es an approximation to Cohn% transcendental equation is given for the determination of the dominant-mode cutoff wavelength of ridge waveguides. A modified derivation of Mihrans equation for calculating the characteristic impedance of ridge waveguides is dkcussed. Based upon these formulas, nomography are constructed to permit the determination of these parameters with sufficient accuracy when the waveguide and the ridge dimensions vary. Experimental verification of the calculated cutoff wavelength is included.

coaxial for ridge equally frequency frequency In ridge cavities

junctions, special used

z as filter

elements, One

and type periodic

as components of by slow-wave of a of means resongmt the cutoff doubletuning permits field tuning a plunger electronis inis

other

purposes.3 which

structure

with

traveling-wave-tubes is made slots.

consists

waveguide spaced of

transverse this structure ridge have their between are the section. of

The

transverse to

corresponds tunable used cutoff ridges, by

of the

waveguide.4 magnetrons, as the means gap. In external electric of the the frequency satisfactory been reduced the obtained narrow

the

development because cavity

INTRODUCTION IDGE R ing also guides requiring matching the than same have have WAVEGUI and conventional internal Because been or used free a wider DES a lower dimensions. bandwidth of these have a longer cutoff hav-

waveguides

a compact concentrated characteristics which beam troduced two parallel 2 Radio method in

Because

wavelength

characteristic The free ridge from links in

impedance waveguides higher-mode ridge wavein systems mode, waveguide-to1 as

rectangular

waveguides

short-circuits

interference.

advantages,

of frequency this plates region attached

modulation, of strong to the electric ridges.

beam

as transmission in the elements

field

between

a wide

range

fundamental

transition

Res. Lab. Staff.

Harvard

Univ..

Verv

Hi~h-Frea

uencv
Co~, vol. Co.,

* Manuscript received by PGMTT, March 14, 1956. f Radio Corp. of America, Harrison, N. J. 1 T. N. Anderson, Double-ridge. waveguide for commercial IRE TRANS., vol. MTT-3, lines weather radar installation,
2-9; July, 1955.

airpp.

Techniques, vol. II, pp. 678684, 731736, McG~aw-I~ill, Bo~k Inc., New York, N. Y.; 1947. 3 S. B. Cohn, Properties of ridge waveguides, PROC. IRE, 35, pp. 783788 ; Angust, 1947.1 4 J. R. Pierce, Traveling-Wave Tubes, D. Van Nostrand New York, N. Y., ch. 4; 1950.

7957

Chen:
wavegwides in high are also for of low

Ccslcultstlon
as H-type

of fhe
output of trans-

Parameters

of

Ridge

Waveguides

13

Ridge transformers forming power

used the the

magnetrons impedance to the

purpose waveguide

the

used level of

for the is

transmission If the may short is with used, small

impedance

magnetron. employed, matching having former tained band tion

a rectangular dimensions be block an too large, heights. effectively

waveguide required especially When large the width by

transformer for for impedance magnetrons transbe can good proper

~-I+j
(a) Fig.

L[~~jI
(b)

H-type

lCross sectional view of (a) single-riclge and (b) double-ridge waveguides.

ob-

physical may

sizes.

In addition,

broadseleca cutoff
L

characteristics of the dimensions at least

be provided H section of

of the as long

to yield the

wavelefigth connected In these

as that

waveguide

to the

transformers. of ridge characteristic to relations Cohns be known for first for their cutoff waveguides, impedance for design the determination wavelengths for of the the cutoff are imFig. 2Equivalent of ridge

applications and the

wavelength portant and been

parameters available.67

purposes, have accurate of odd the atTE1O to inthe This

approximate

lumped-constant circuit for a unit waveguide at cutoff wavelength.

\ m
~ c=c~+2cd

L.

length

developed

transcendental and even TE~~ and Recently unusual rectangular. the of of

expressions modes and

bottom

plate,

where in farads given by

a strong per unit

electric length

field of the

exists guide

also

expressions

capacitance

tenuation mode. clude than upon istics finding terms structed having ferent

characteristic Cohns ridge work

impedance has and article, dominant waveguides. are expressed and for having been cross

is approximately

extended sections

dimensions slo In ridge this

other is laid where space The to the order in the in cone is the equals ridge in permittivity the waveguide waves effects by the of the per medium meter discontinuities local proper and in

(1)
free-

emphasis mode Formulas

calculation rectangular

of the

charactet-for explicitly are waveguides

8.854

X 1012 farad

these the to various widths

characteristics guide facilitate aspect and

presents and causes local at the which methodl~ developed C& which with the

dimensions, computations ratios and

charts

electromagnetic waves. The calculation

or higherlocation capacitive matchfor on the ratio closely ffel the the ratio 2 C~/e bJbl. the which trans-

of these addition

fields

are included

ridges

of

dif-

depths.

of the discontinuity in nature. By the and

susceptance use of Hahns Jamiesonlz

is here

of field a series depends on quantity step

CUTOFF

WAVELENGTHS MODE IN RIDGE

FOR THE

DOMINANT

ing,

Whinnery

WAVEGUIDES and In the is double-ridge derivations, In Fig. represented wavemks 2, a by of capaciC, in capacicd.

discontinuity step ratio,

capacitance, bJbl, in Fig. and, to capacitance

a lesser

extent, of the

Cross guides units unit are

sections are shown of used

of single-ridge in ridge Fig. 1. unless otherwise waveguide

aJb2. The
is plotted This fringing is a

Cd along capacitance in

3 as a function

mentioned. circuit consisting The

discontinuity capacitance by 13

approaches

length

a constricted of

conductor,

lumped-constant tance and

equivalent

obtained

means

Schwarz-Chrktc}

inductance circuit the

in parallel. consists discontinuity such

capacitance,

formationlz,

the equivalent tance, C,, and

of the electrostatic capacitance, as that shown

When in Fig. Ca=: 7r where shown

$2+1
coshl x The with value that per

a single-ridge 1(a) is operating

waveguide

() 1X2 of unit

1+X2 cd found by length given

2 in - 131 from (2) 3. The can

in the dominant on the region

mode, between

the capacitance, the ridge and x = bJbl. to agree Fig.

2)
be total
(3)

C,, depends

mainly

5 G. B. Collins, cd., Microwave hfagnetrons, M.I.T. Rad. Lab. Ser., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., vol. 6, pp. 198-203 ; 1948. c G. L,. Ragan, cd., Microwa~,e Transmission Circuitsr M. 1.T. Rad. Lab. Ser., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., vol. 9, p. 57; 1948. Fields and Waves in Modern 7 S. Ramo and J. R. Whinnery, Radio, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N. 1.; 19-M. Die Berechnung von Steghohlleitern, 6 Hans-Georg Unger, A~chiv Elekt. L%ert~agung, Band 9, Heft 4; April, 1955. J. lbl. Osepchuk, Variational Calculations on Ridge \Vavecruides. Cruft Lab.. Harvard Univ.. Cambrid~e.w, Mass.. Tech. Rem No. 2~4; May 5, 1955. 10 S. Hopfer, The design of ridged waveguides, IRE TRANS., vol. MTT-3, pp. 2029; October, 1955.

capacitance is then

C in farads

of the

waveguide

II W. C. Hahn, A new method for the calculation of cavity resonators, J. Ap@. Phys., vol. 12, pp. 6268; January, 1941. 2 J. R. Whinnery and H. W. Jamieson, Equivalent circuits of discontinuities in transmission lines, PROC. IRE, vol. 32, pp. 98--1 16; February, 1944. 13 Miles Walker, Conjugate Functions for Engineers, Oxford University Press, Cambridge, Mass.; 1933.

14

IRE TRANSACTIONS

ON

MICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

January

:=;/(:+%)(3(307)
A nomograph waveguides (opposite). step value the ratio, and sum for the determination dimensions of &/& is shown for ridge 4 having The known in Fig. to a given joining this value of 2 CJe from corresponding Fig. 3. A line

bJbl,
the

is found
point

given

on the A

aJbz scales
line is and

determines then a~/al at drawn on the

(aJbZ +2 C~/e).
the scales line two and from given the

second the point the

connecting horizontal point. this A final

points

aJbl

cutting

diagonal value

a definite on the

(aJb~ +2 C~/c) through


of A./h.

intersection scale.

determines

right-hand

CUTOFF

WAVELENGTHS IN RIDGE

FOR THE WAVEGUIDES

HIGHER

MODES

To

find

the

cutoff

wavelengths shown in

of higher Fig. 1 (a) In

modes,

the

single-ridge traveling half


Fig. 3Discontinuity capacitance, Cd, and the ratio, as functions of the step ratio, bj/bl. 2 ca/6

waveguide in the

is considered having Fig. waves 5(a), by two bl and loop one sets and the an the

as a composite of a length, plates of the node circuit at In this mode

transmission-line transverse d, of the guide separated TE~o at the shown the left wave by

system is represented distances requires of Fig. and

direction.3

of parallel odd a

bz. The

a voltage the .5(b)

current

center in end

waveguide; should circuit have at

The 2 are both length

inductances determined sides of L, the in

in the by ridge henries the

equivalent sections as shown due to by ; @) ~b,), of in either

circuit the Fig.

show waveguide 1 (a).

in Fig. on inunit

equivalent open right circuit end.

a short

The per

circuit, he ~ T= 7r electrical in radians. length of section Xl

ductance,

section

az 61= () l&z

of waveguide

is given P(~l

L=

(4)

az & 62=ZZT=

electrical in r~dians.

length

of section

X2

where

p is the

permittivity per meter for in

of

the

medium For the

and the

equals double0=

characteristic ~~(~)=secionxinmhos. characteristic 02 = ~~~(~) = 2TjGdcd = section =

admittance

of

47r X 107 henry ridge C in At tudinal resonance quency, is waveguide (3) should the in the

free Fig.

space. 1 (b),

depicted be halved, frequency travel this circuit waves the

capacitance L in the in

and

the remains

inductance unchanged. forth and

(4)

admittance

of

doubled; waveguide

cutoff

X2 inmhos. susceptance for line

cutoff,

back

ridge longi-

transverse shown

direction in Fig.

without 2. The cutoff per

B.

discontinuity a length in mhos.

propagation; in the

condition waveguide

corresponds in cycles

to antifreThe cutoff condition of in the of second

d of the composite

f.,

of the ridge

the

waveguide circuit,3,10,14 cutoff dimensions

corresponds which leads AC,

to to im-

resonance

equivalent the of the guide

(5)

an

expression terms

giving

wavelength,

plicitly which, in conjunction with (3) and (4), becomes

bl _
b2 =

Cot[(-%:l-%%:t
. an(:;:) equation is solved for the first order mode root and wavelength of the TEIO for
Waveguide Handbook, M.I.T. Book Co., Inc., New York, N. Y.,

(8)

This The given cutoff wavelength, l/(fc <~) h., and of width of the ridge waveguide is the

to obtain higher-

cutoff

by AC=

the cutoff

wavelength&of The ratio


14 N. Marcuvitz, Ser., McGraw-Hill 399-402; 1951. Rad. Lab. vol. 10, pp.

rectangular of these two

waveguide cutoff

al by & = 2al. is

wavelengths

1957

Chen:

Calculation

of the

Parameters

of Ridge

Waveguides

15

RATIO TO

OF WAVEGUIDE WIOTH RIOGE WIOTH (aZ/al)

012345678910

20 19 la
[7 16 15 14 13 ii < ; 12 II -3 2

.
i

. I I

+ 10 $9 ~e 7 6 5 4 3 2 I 0
I,, ,,1, i,, l,, ,,1, ,,, l,,, RATIO OF WAVEGUIOE(a, /b,) WI OTH-TO-HEIGHT

-k

Fig.

~x,=a,,,

}=+ w
.~ q=al-ay

4Nomogr?ph ridge wavegmde the same internal

for the determination of the ratio, kj/A., of the cutoff wavelength, to the cutoff wavelength, h,, of a conventional rectangular waveguide dimensions.

x., of a having

the

cubic

terms

of (9); This

the

result

is a quadratic can be solved

equation readily to

CTF==WT
obtain a more even the in Fig. The
(b)

92 or

in &/hc.

equation value the at and the 5 (c). even are

accurate of

of A./XC. TE~O the waves end of have the voltage waveguide for these of the by the

modes center 5(a); Fig.

nodes section
iBc

at

bz

equivalent The cutoff given by modes

circuit wavelengths as determined

modes

becomes of this 2Cd bl al

(a)

(c)

TEZO and resonance

higher-order circuit h. x

Fig.

5Equivalent distributed parameter circuits for one half of a unit length of (a) ridge waveguide, (b) for odd modes of TE~O waves, and (c) for even modes.

61 order roots to odd the obtain TE~o the modes. appearing are can in the arguments less by (8) then the first of the than two The rived culation by means tron cutoff wavelengths of the Zi=

Tco[(-:)%l #,,.,
he Cot(: $:) OF RIDGE of ridge basis a magnetron is also the current attached In the WAVEGUI waveguide in the which used in OE decalIMPEDANCE impedance curves cavity This for is used

higher-order Because trigonometric unity, terms these of their

ratios

functions functions series

substantially Eq,

CHARACTERISTIC characteristic on the of tuning of a ridge

be replaced

expansions.

becomes

voltage-to-current

is tuned impedof on the into the comheight

to one of the magneformulation is separated component which longitudinal waveguide fields.

resonators.

parameter

ance-matching voltage-to-current two When ing the To the cubic are this terms solved the in for components: and bottom at the principal which

problems. ratio, 1) plates fields, point produces and

a longitudinal of the 2) where the another the local

(9) are discarded


h./& (7) value of A./h=

and

remainfrom only in

top the

waveguide,

excites

terms chart,

is obtained. determined is substituted

improve

accuracy

ponent changes,

approximate

16
The the sion field for first component

IRE TRANSACTIONS
of current, along and the lZI,

ON

MICROWAVE
by section expres-

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

January

8
is determined cross the distribution in Fig. lZ1 as 6(a) waveguide Cohna derived

as shown

6(b).

Z=%w)(sin+; cost ana


where: VO = the center amplitude of voltage distribution at of the waveguide cross section

11)
the
Fig. 7Electrostatic-field distribution at corner unit length of ridge waveguide. of

/P
ZTE =
@

characteristic k ~_)9 x; wave impedance. Iz2 =

Zcdvo COS 0 2HW = eZTE


Eq. (12) agrees with Mihrans impedance, result. 15 ridge wave-

(12)

The guide

characteristic is then

Zo, of the

Zo =
(12, + 0 122) = /(1:$ 13)

(a)

where 1 e

Zom =
(b) Fig. 6(a) Cross section distribution across (a); (c) of ridge waveguide; (b) curve of voltage (c) equivalent transmission line circuit.

~1 2cd
-cos@2+ e

. (14)

ba 1 h: sin9z+cos b~ ( b, r
h@c tan and ridges, az/al

Otan

2)

Because less than Because very fields, mined existing field the and The waveguide. width E the predominant, potential closely the from in the value that of capacitance found by the given process by (2) agrees equal is free with second of matching be deterfield the of are Based constructed double-ridge left-hand

the unity

ratios for

are

considerably If the medium can be

narrow

cos 02 is approximately

to 1, sin t% to 02, and space and by & and

191/2 to 01/2.

61/2 are less than

20,

(14)

current

component, of the

I~z, can electrostatic Fig.

approximated

a consideration the discontinuity at the the region


total

region. corner that which


over charge

7 shows length fields

1207r z,. = Zcd


-+;+;; e l~

distribution of

ridge over

of a unit the at the local


the

(15)
2

In the derivation

follows,

W represents
same region,

()
and (13) the the nomograph of

al in Fig. from by 8 is the 2.

Q the
electric at

upon for side

(15) the

field plane

intensity 1 in Fig.

discontinuity. by

determination value chart should

ZO~ and

ZO. For

6(c)

is given

waveguides, of the

of ZO found be multiplied

VI = V(I Cos e
and by the use of Gauss law = CdVO CO
02,

EXPERIMENTAL In the the development a double-ridge to maintain of the as follows: (7) and al=

VERIFICATION 825-megacycle was center cavity ~. coupled frequency. in centi& is to

&(lV)(l) from which

= Q = C~Vl

of a 10-kilowatt, waveguide a constant double-ridge

magnetron, magnetron The meters 6w The meter rent magnetic is given for both field by sides H= strength, E~ZTE ridge of the H, and by in the ampere-turns longitudinal per curIRE,

cd

VII CO !!?2

dimensions were

E=

16, az = 2.5I5, to obtain guide The

2bl = 25.6, and


= 2.095 &

2b2 = 6. Eqs.
where

(9) are used

AC= 32 centimeters.

wavelength,
waveguides,

b T. G. Mihran, Closedand open-ridge vol. 37, pp. 640-644; June, 1949.

PROC.

19.57

Chen:

Calculation

of the

Parameters

of

Ridge

Waveguides

FORMULA:

FORMULAS: 1207r y+g+:~(l.g)

Z.cc,.

20

Z*

Z.m ~

Ii

II

02 =

2Cd (0,-02) TTZ..

12

13 11--l#J

Fig. 8Nomograph of ridge

for determination of characteristic waveguides having narrow ridges.

impedance

calculated

from

the

relation

in to the of Fig.

which

h is the

free-space At For 6.6

wavelength the resonant the guide

corresponding frequency, wavelength of 40 and as shown with (15) 30 in the and of of the were
Fig.
FREE-SPACE WAvELEt4GTH (N cEt4Tl METERs

a particular cavity the ridge 9 were length the 9.7 values characteristic used

frequency. should calculated and of 9.6 and waveguide.

be half values inches

wavelengths of &/2

centimeters, measured The (13) the cavity in close

as compared obtained resonant from

6.6 inches,

respectively.

impedance check the cold

was

to

frequency

magnetron-cavity length. The agreement.

combination measured and

as a function calculated results

9Tuning curve for double-ridge cavity to be coupled to 10,Ir.ilowatt, 825-megacycle developmental tunable magnetron.

I
50