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ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES (6th Edition)

By: Albert Paul Mal ino


d. ,pen the current source Cha!ter " INTRO#$CTION 1. An ideal voltage source has a% &ero internal re'i'tan(e b. Infinite internal resistance c. A load-dependent voltage d. A load-dependent current 2. A real voltage source has a. Zero internal resistance b. Infinite internal resistance (% A ')all internal re'i'tan(e d. A large internal resistance 3. If a load resistance is 1 kohm, a stiff voltage source has a resistance of a. At least 10 ohm b% Le'' than "* oh) c. ore than 100 kohm d. !ess than 100 kohm ". An ideal current source has a. Zero internal resistance b% In+inite internal re'i'tan(e c. A load-dependent voltage d. A load-dependent current #. A real current source has a. Zero internal resistance b. Infinite internal resistance c. A small internal resistance d% A lar,e internal re'i'tan(e $. If a load resistance is 1 kohm, a stiff current source has a resistance of a. At least 10 ohm b. !ess than 10 ohm (% More than "** -oh) d. !ess than 100 kohm %. &he &hevenin voltage is the same as the a. 'horted-load voltage b% O!en.load olta,e c. Ideal source voltage d. (orton voltage ). &he &hevenin resistance is e*ual in value to the a. !oad resistance b. +alf the load resistance (% Internal re'i'tan(e o+ a Norton (ir(uit d. ,pen-load resistance -. &o get the &hevenin voltage, .ou have to a. 'hort the load resistor b% O!en the load re'i'tor c. 'hort the voltage source d. ,pen the voltage source 10. &o get the (orton current, .ou have to a% Short the load re'i'tor b. ,pen the load resistor c. 'hort the voltage source 11. &he (orton current is sometimes called the a% Shorted.load (urrent b. ,pen-load current c. &hevenin current d. &hevenin voltage 12. A solder bridge a% )ay !rodu(e a 'hort b. ma. cause an open c. is useful in some circuits d. al/a.s has high resistance 13. A cold-solder 0oint a. sho/s good soldering techni*ue b% u'ually !rodu(e' an o!en c. is sometimes useful d. al/a.s has lo/ resistance 1". An open resistor has a. Infinite current through it b. Zero voltage across it c. Infinite voltage across it d% &ero (urrent throu,h it 1#. A shorted resistor has a. Infinite current through it b% &ero olta,e a(ro'' it c. Infinite voltage across it d. Zero current through it 1$. An ideal voltage source and an internal resistance is an e1ample of the a. Ideal appro1imation b% Se(ond a!!ro/i)ation c. +igher appro1imation d. 21act model 1%. &reating a connecting /ire as a conductor /ith 3ero resistance is an e1ample of the a% Ideal a!!ro/i)ation b. 'econd appro1imation c. +igher appro1imation d. 21act model 1). &he voltage out of an ideal voltage source a. Is 3ero b% I' (on'tant c. 4epends on the value of load resistance d. 4epends on the internal resistance 1-. &he current out of an ideal current source a. Is 3ero b% I' (on'tant c. 4epends on the value of load resistance d. 4epends on the internal resistance 20. &hevenin5s theorem replaces a complicated circuit facing a load b. an a. Ideal voltage source and parallel resistor b. Ideal current source and parallel resistor (% Ideal olta,e 'our(e and 'erie' re'i'tor d. Ideal current source and series resistor

d% 4 21. (orton5s theorem replaces a complicated circuit facing a load b. an a. Ideal voltage source and parallel resistor b% Ideal (urrent 'our(e and !arallel re'i'tor c. Ideal voltage source and series resistor d. Ideal current source and series resistor 22. ,ne /a. to short a device is a. 6ith a cold-solder 0oint b% 0ith a 'older brid,e c. 7. disconnecting it d. 7. opening it 23. 4erivations are a. 4iscoveries b. Inventions (% Produ(ed by )athe)ati(' d. Al/a.s called theorems 2". !a/s are proved b. a. 4efinition b% E/!eri)ent c. athematics d. 8ormulas 2#. 4efinitions are a. an made b. Invented c. ade up d% All o+ the abo e Cha!ter 1 SEMICON#$CTORS 1. &he nucleus of a copper atom contains ho/ man. protons9 a. 1 b. " c. 1) d% 12 2. &he net charge of a neutral copper atom is a% * b. :1 c. -1 d. :" 3. Assume the valence electron is removed from a copper atom. &he net charge of the atom becomes a. 0 b% 3 " c. -1 d. :" ". &he valence electron of a copper atom e1periences /hat kind of attraction to/ard the nucleus9 a. (one b% 0eac. 'trong d. Impossible to sa. #. +o/ man. valence electrons does a silicon atom have9 a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 $. 6hich is the most /idel. used semiconductor9 a. ;opper b. <ermanium (% Sili(on d. (one of the above %. +o/ man. protons does the nucleus of a silicon atom contain9 a. " b% "4 c. 2d. 32 ). 'ilicon atoms combine into an orderl. pattern called a a. ;ovalent bond b% Cry'tal c. 'emiconductor d. =alence orbit -. An intrinsic semiconductor has some holes in it at room temperature. 6hat causes these holes9 a. 4oping b. 8ree electrons (% Ther)al ener,y d. =alence electrons 10. 2ach valence electron in an intrinsic semiconductor establishes a a% Co alent bond b. 8ree electron c. +ole d. >ecombination 11. &he merging of a free electron and a hole is called a. ;ovalent bonding b. !ifetime (% Re(o))endation d. &hen-nal energ. 12. At room temperature an intrinsic silicon cr.stal acts appro1imatel. like a. A batter. b. A conductor (% An in'ulator d. A piece of copper /ire 13. &he amount of time bet/een the creation of a hole and its disappearance is called a. 4oping b% Li+eti)e c. >ecombination d. =alence 1". &he valence electron of a conductor is also called a a. 7ound electron b% 5ree ele(tron c. (ucleus d. ?roton 1#. A conductor has ho/ man. t.pes of flo/9 a% " b, 2 c. 3 d. "

1$. A semiconductor has ho/ man. t.pes of flo/9 a. 1 b% 1 c. 3 d. " 1%. 6hen a voltage is applied to a semiconductor, holes /ill flo/ a. A/a. from the negative potential b. &o/ard the positive potential c. In the e1ternal circuit d% None o+ the abo e 1). A conductor has ho/ man. holes9 a. an. b% None c. ,nl. those produced b. thermal energ. d. &he same number as free electrons 1-. In an intrinsic semiconductor, the number of free electrons a% E6ual' the nu)ber o+ hole' b. Is greater than the number of holes c. Is less than the number of holes d. (one of the above 20. Absolute 3ero temperature e*uals a% .178 de,ree' C b. 0 degrees ; c. 2# degrees ; d. #0 degrees ; 21. At absolute 3ero temperature an intrinsic semiconductor has a. A fe/ free electrons b. an. holes c. an. free electrons d% No hole' or +ree ele(tron' 22. At room temperature an intrinsic semiconductor has a% A +e9 +ree ele(tron' and hole' b. an. holes c. an. free electrons d. (o holes 23. &he number of free electrons and holes in an intrinsic semiconductor increases /hen the temperature a. 4ecreases b% In(rea'e' c. 'ta.s the same d. (one of the above 2". &he flo/ of valence electrons to the left means that holes are flo/ing to the a. !eft b% Ri,ht c. 2ither /a. d. (one of the above 2#. +oles act like a. Atoms b. ;r.stals c. (egative charges d% Po'iti e (har,e'

2$. &rivatent atoms have ho/ man. valence electrons9 a. 1 b% 8 c. " d. # 2%. A donor atom has ho/ man. valence electrons9 a. 1 b. 3 c. " d% : 2). If .ou /anted to produce a p-t.pe semiconductor, /hich of these /ould .ou use9 a% A((e!tor ato)' b. 4onor atoms c. ?entavalent impurit. d. 'ilicon 2-. +oles are the minorit. carriers in /hich t.pe of semiconductor9 a. 21trinsic b. Intrinsic (% n.ty!e d. p-t.pe 30. +o/ man. free electrons does a p-t.pe semiconductor contain9 a. an. b. (one (% Only tho'e !rodu(ed by ther)al ener,y d. 'ame number as holes 31. 'ilver is the best conductor. +o/ man. valence electrons do .ou think it has9 a% " b. " c. 1) d. 232. 'uppose an intrinsic semiconductor has 1 billion free electrons at room temperature. If the temperature changes to %#@;, ho/ man. holes are there9 a. 8e/er than 1 billion b. 1 billion (% More than " billion d. Impossible to sa. 33. An e1ternal voltage source is applied to a p-t.pe semiconductor. If the left end of the cr.stal is positive, /hich /a. do the ma0orit. carriers flo/9 a. !eft b% Ri,ht c. (either d. Impossible to sa. 3". 6hich of the follo/ing doesn@t fit in the group9 a% Condu(tor b. 'emiconductor c. 8our valence electrons d. ;r.stal structure 3#. 6hich of the follo/ing is appro1imatel. e*ual to room temperature9 a. 0 degrees ; b% 1: de,ree' C

c. #0 degrees ; d. %#degrees ; 3$. +o/ man. electrons are there in the valence orbit of a silicon atom /ithin a cr.stal9 a. 1 b. " (% ; d. 1" 3%. ?ositive ions are atoms that have a. <ained a proton b. !ost a proton c. <ained an electron d% Lo't an ele(tron 3). 6hich of the follo/ing describes an n-t.pe semiconductor9 a% Neutral b. ?ositivel. charged c. (egativel. charged d. +as man. holes 3-. A p-t.pe semiconductor contains holes and a. ?ositive ions b% Ne,ati e ion' c. ?entavalent atoms d. 4onor atoms "0. 6hich of the follo/ing describes a p-t.pe semiconductor9 a% Neutral b. ?ositivel. charged c. (egativel. charged d. +as man. free electrons "1. 6hich of the follo/ing cannot move9 a. +oles b. 8ree electrons ( Ion' d. a0orit. carriers "2. 6hat causes the depletion la.er9 a. 4oping b% Re(o)bination c. 7arrier potential d. Ions "3. 6hat is the barrier potential of a silicon diode at room temperature9 a. 0.3 = b% *%7 < c1= d. 2 m= per degree ;elsius "". &o produce a large for/ard current in a silicon diode, the applied voltage must be greater than a. 0 b. 0.3 = (% *%7 < d. 1 = "#. In a silicon diode the reverse current is usuall. a% <ery ')all b. =er. large c. Zero

d. In the breakdo/n region "$. 'urface-leakage current is part of the a. 8or/ard current b. 8or/ard breakdo/n (% Re er'e (urrent d. >everse breakdo/n "%. &he voltage /here avalanche occurs is called the a. 7arrier potential b. 4epletion la.er c. Anee voltage d% Brea-do9n olta,e "). 4iffusion of free electrons across the 0unction of an unbiased diode produces a. 8or/ard bias b. >everse bias c. 7reakdo/n d% The de!letion layer "-. 6hen the reverse voltage increases from # to 10 =, the depletion la.er a. 7ecomes smaller b% Be(o)e' lar,er c. Is unaffected d. 7reaks do/n #0. 6hen a diode is for/ard-biased, the recombination of free electrons and holes ma. produce a. +eat b. !ight c. >adiation d% All o+ the abo e Cha!ter 8 #IO#E T=EOR> 1 . 6hen the graph of current versus voltage is a straight line, the device is referred to as a. Active b% Linear c. (onlinear d. ?assive 2. 6hat kind of device is a resistor9 a. Bnilateral b% Linear c. (onlinear d. 7ipolar 3. 6hat kind of a device is a diode9 a. 7ilateral b. !inear (% Nonlinear d. Bnipolar ". +o/ is a nonconducting diode biased9 a. 8or/ard b. Inverse c. ?oorl. d% Re er'e #. 6hen the diode current is large, the bias is a% 5or9ard b. Inverse

c. ?oor d. >everse $. &he knee voltage of a diode is appro1imatel. e*ual to the a. Applied voltage b% Barrier !otential c. 7reakdo/n voltage d. 8or/ard voltage %. &he reverse current consists of minorit.-carrier current and a. Avalanche current b. 8or/ard current (% Sur+a(e.lea-a,e (urrent d. Zener current ). +o/ much voltage is there across the second appro1imation of a silicon diode /hen it is for/ard biased9 a. 0 b. 0.3 = (% *%7 < d. 1 = -. +o/ much current is there through the second appro1imation of a silicon diode /hen it is reverse biased9 a% * b. 1 mA c. 300 mA d. (one of the above 10. +o/ much for/ard diode voltage is there /ith the idealdiode appro1imation9 a% * b. 0.% = c. ore than 0.% = d. 1 = 11. &he bulk resistance of a 1("001 is a. 0 b% *%18 oh) c. 10 ohm d. 1 kohm 12. If the bulk resistance is 3ero, the graph above the knee becomes a. +ori3ontal b% <erti(al c. &ilted at "#0 d. (one of the above 13. &he ideal diode is usuall. ade*uate /hen a% Trouble'hootin, b. 4oing precise calculations c. &he source voltage is lo/ d. &he load resistance is lo/ 1". &he second appro1imation /orks /ell /hen a. &roubleshooting b. !oad resistance is high c. 'ource voltage is high d% All o+ the abo e 1#. &he onl. time .ou have to use the third appro1imation is /hen a% Load re'i'tan(e i' lo9 b. 'ource voltage is high

c. &roubleshooting d. (one of the above 1$. +o/ much load current is there in 8ig. 3-1- Csee .our te1tbookD /ith the ideal diode9 a. 0 b. 1".3 mA (% ": )A d. #0 mA 1%. +o/ much load current is there in 8ig. 3-1- Csee .our te1tbookD /ith the second appro1imation9 a. 0 b% "4%8 )A c. 1# mA d. #0 mA 1). +o/ much load current is there in 8ig. 3-1- /ith the third appro1imation9 a. 0 b% "4%8 )A c. 1# mA d. #0 mA 1-. If the diode is open in 8ig. 3-1-, the load voltage is a% * b. 1".3 = c. 20 = d. -1# = 20. If the resistor is ungrounded in 8ig. 3-1-, the voltage measured /ith a 4 bet/een the top of the resistor and ground is closest to a. 0 b% ": < c. 20 = d. -1# = 21. &he load voltage measures 3ero in 8ig. 3-1-. &he trouble ma. be a. A shorted diode b% An o!en diode c. An open load resistor d. &oo much suppl. voltage Cha!ter 4 #IO#E CIRC$ITS 1. If (1E(2 F 2, and the primar. voltage is 120 =, /hat is the secondar. voltage9 a. 0 = b. 3$ = (% 6* < d. 2"0 = 2. In a step-do/n transformer, /hich is larger9 a% Pri)ary olta,e b. 'econdar. voltage c. (either d. (o ans/er possible 3. A transformer has a turns ratio of "G 1. 6hat is the peak secondar. voltage if 11# = rms is applied to the primar. /inding9 a% 4*%7 < b. $".$ =

c. 1$3 = d. $#0 = ". 6ith a half-/ave rectified voltage across the load resistor, load current flo/s for /hat part of a c.cle9 a. 0 degrees b. -0 degrees (% ";* de,ree' d. 3$0 degrees #. !ine voltage ma. be from 10# = rms to 12# rms in a half/ave rectifier. 6ith a #G1 step-do/n transformer, the ma1imum peak load voltage is closest to a. 21 = b. 2# = c. 2-.$ = d% 8:%4 < $. &he voltage out of a bridge rectifier is a a. +alf-/ave signal b% 5ull.9a e 'i,nal c. 7ridge-rectified signal d. 'ine /ave %. If the line voltage is 11# = rms, a turns ratio of #G 1 means the rms secondar. voltage is closest to a. 1# = b% 18 < c. 30 = d. 3# = ). 6hat is the peak load voltage in a full-/ave rectifier if the secondar. voltage is 20 = rms9 a. 0 = b. 0.% = (% "4%" < d. 2).3 = -. 6e /ant a peak load voltage of "0 = out of a bridge rectifier. 6hat is the appro1imate rms value of secondar. voltage9 a. 0 = b. 1"." = (% 1;%8 < d. #$.$ = 10. 6ith a full-/ave rectified voltage across the load resistor, load current flo/s for /hat part of a c.cle9 a. 0 degrees b. -0 degrees c. 1)0 degrees d% 86* de,ree' 11. 6hat is the peak load voltage out of a bridge rectifier for a secondar. voltage of 1# = rms9 CBse second appro1imation.D a. -.2 = b. 1# = (% "2%; < d. 2".3 = 12. If line fre*uenc. is $0 +3, the output fre*uenc. of a half-/ave rectifier is a. 30 +3 b% 6* =? c. 120 +3

d. 2"0 +3 13. If line fre*uenc. is $0 +3, the output fre*uenc. of a bridge rectifier is a. 30 +3 b. $0 +3 (% "1* =? d. 2"0 +3 1". 6ith the same secondar. voltage and filter, /hich has the most ripple9 a% =al+.9a e re(ti+ier b. 8ull-/ave rectifier c. 7ridge rectifier d. Impossible to sa. 1#. 6ith the same secondar. voltage and filter, /hich produces the least load voltage9 a. +alf-/ave rectifier b% 5ull.9a e re(ti+ier c. 7ridge rectifier d. Impossible to sa. 1$. If the filtered load current is 10 mA, /hich of the follo/ing has a diode current of 10 mA9 a% =al+.9a e re(ti+ier b. 8ull-/ave rectifier c. 7ridge rectifier d. Impossible to sa. 1%. If the load current is # mA and the filter capacitance is 1000u8, /hat is the peak-to-peak ripple out of a bridge rectifier9 a. 21.3 p= b. #$.3 n= c. 21.3 m= d% 4"%7 )< 1). &he diodes in a bridge rectifier each have a ma1imum dc current rating of 2 A. &his means the dc load current can have a ma1imum value of a. 1 A b. 2 A (% 4 A d. ) A 1-. 6hat is the ?I= across each diode of a bridge rectifier /ith a secondar. voltage of 20 = rms9 a. 1".1 = b. 20 = (% 1;%8 < d. 3" = 20. If the secondar. voltage increases in a bridge rectifier /ith a capacitor-input filter, the load voltage /ill a. 4ecrease b. 'ta. the same (% In(rea'e d. (one of these 21. If the filter capacitance is increased, the ripple /ill a% #e(rea'e b. 'ta. the same c. Increase d. (one of these

Cha!ter : SPECIAL.P$RPOSE #IO#ES 1. 6hat is true about the breakdo/n voltage in a 3ener diode9 a. It decreases /hen current increases. b. It destro.s the diode. c. It e*uals the current times the resistance. d% It i' a!!ro/i)ately (on'tant% 2. 6hich of these is the best description of a 3ener diode9 a. It is a rectifier diode. b% It i' a (on'tant. olta,e de i(e% c. It is a constant-cuffent device. d. It /orks in the for/ard region. 3. A 3ener diode a. Is a batter. b% =a' a (on'tant olta,e in the brea-do9n re,ion c. +as a barrier potential of 1 = d. Is for/ard-biased ". &he voltage across the 3ener resistance is usuall. a% S)all b. !arge c. easured in volts d. 'ubtracted from the breakdo/n voltage #. If the series resistance decreases in an unloaded 3ener regulator, the 3ener current a. 4ecreases b. 'ta.s the same (% In(rea'e' d. 2*uals the voltage divided b. the resistance $.In the second appro1imation, the total voltage across the 3ener diode is the sum of-the breakdo/n voltage and the voltage across the a. 'ource b. 'eries resistor (% &ener re'i'tan(e d. Zener diode %. &he load voltage is appro1imatel. constant /hen a 3ener diode is a. 8or/ard-biased b. >everse-biased (% O!eratin, in the brea-do9n re,ion d. Bnbiased ). In a loaded 3ener regulator, /hich is the largest current9 a% Serie' (urrent b. Zener current c. !oad current d. (one of these -. If the load resistance decreases in a 3ener regulator, the 3ener current a% #e(rea'e' b. 'ta.s the same c. Increases d. 2*uals the source voltage divided b. the series resistance 10. If the load resistance decreases in a 3ener regulator, the series current a. 4ecreases

b% Stay' the 'a)e c. Increases d. 2*uals the source voltage divided b. the series resistance 11. 6hen the source voltage increases in a 3ener regulator, /hich of these currents remains appro1imatel. constant9 a. 'eries current b. Zener current (% Load (urrent d. &otal current 12. If the 3ener diode in a 3ener regulator is connected /ith the /rong polarit., the load voltage /ill be closest to a% *%7 < b. 10 = c. 1" = d. 1) = 13. At high fre*uencies, ordinar. diodes don@t /ork properl. because of a. 8or/ard bias b. >everse bias c. 7reakdo/n d% Char,e 'tora,e 1". &he capacitance of a varactor diode increases /hen the reverse voltage across it a% #e(rea'e' b. Increases c. 7reaks do/n d. 'tores charges 1#. 7reakdo/n does not destro. a 3ener diode provided the 3ener current is less than the a. 7reakdo/n voltage b. Zener test current (% Ma/i)u) ?ener (urrent ratin, d. 7anier potential 1$. &o displa. the digit ) in a seven-segment indicator, a. ; must be lighted b. < must be off c. 8 must be on d% All 'e,)ent' )u't be on 1%. A photodiode is normall. a. 8or/ard-biased b% Re er'e.bia'ed c. (either for/ard- nor reverse-biased d. 2mitting light 1). 6hen the light increases, the reverse minorit. carrier current in a photodiode a. 4ecreases b% In(rea'e' c. Is unaffected d. >everses direction 1-. &he device associated /ith voltage-controlled capacitance is a a. !ight-emitting diode b. ?hotodiode (% <ara(tor diode d. Zener diode 20. If the depletion la.er gets /ider, the capacitance

a% #e(rea'e' b. 'ta.s the same c. Increases d. Is variable 21. 6hen the reverse voltage increases, the capacitance a% #e(rea'e' b. 'ta.s the same c. Increases d. +as more band/idth 22. &he varactor is usuall. a. 8or/ard-biased b% Re er'e.bia'ed c. Bnbiased d. ,perated in the breakdo/n region 23. &he device to use for rectif.ing a /eak ac signal is a a. Zener diode b. !ight-emitting diode c. =aristor d% Ba(- diode 2". 6hich of the follo/ing has a negative-resistance region9 a% Tunnel diode b. 'tep-recover. diode c. 'chottk. diode d. ,ptocoupler 2#. A blo/n-fuse indicator uses a a. Zener diode b. ;onstant-cuffent diode (% Li,ht.e)ittin, diode d. 7ack diode 2$. &o isolate an output circuit from an input circuit, /hich is the device to use9 a. 7ack diode b% O!to(ou!ler c. 'even-segment indicator d. &unnel diode 2%. &he diode /ith a for/ard voltage drop of appro1imatel. 0.2# = is the a. 'tep-recover. diode b% S(hott-y diode c. 7ack diode d. ;onstant-current diode 2). 8or t.pical operation, .ou need to use reverse bias /ith a a. Zener diode b. ?hotodiode c. =aractor d% All o+ the abo e Cha!ter 6 BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR 1. A transistor has ho/ man. doped regions9 a. 1 b. 2 (% 8 d. " 2. 6hat is one important thing transistors do9 a% A)!li+y 9ea- 'i,nal'

b. >ectif. line voltage ;. >egulate voltage d. 2mit light 3. 6ho invented the first 0unction transistor9 a. 7ell b. 8arada. c. arconi d% S(ho(-ley ". In an npn transistor, the ma0orit. carriers in the base are a. 8ree electrons b% =ole' c. (either d. 7oth #. &he barrier potential across each silicon depletion la.er is a. 0 b. 0.3 = (% *%7 < d. 1 = $. &he emitter diode is usuall. a% 5or9ard.bia'ed b. >everse-biased c. (onconducting d. ,perating in the breakdo/n region %. 8or normal operation of the transistor, the collector diode has to be a. 8or/ard-biased b% Re er'e.bia'ed c. (onconducting d. ,perating in the breakdo/n region ). &he base of an npn transistor is thin and a. +eavil. doped b% Li,htly do!ed c. etallic d. 4oped b. a pentavalent material -. ost of the electrons in the base of an npn transistor flo/ a. ,ut of the base lead b% Into the (olle(tor c. Into the emitter d. Into the base suppl. 10. ost of the electrons in the base of an npn transistor do not recombine because the. a% =a e a lon, li+eti)e b. +ave a negative charge c. ust flo/ a long /a. through the base d. 8lo/ out of the base 11. ost of the electrons that flo/ through the base /ill a% 5lo9 into the (olle(tor b. 8lo/ out of the base lead c. >ecombine /ith base holes d. >ecombine /ith collector holes 12. &he current gain of a transistor is the ratio of the a. ;ollector current to emitter current b% Colle(tor (urrent to ba'e (urrent c. 7ase current to collector current d. 2mitter current to collector current

13. Increasing the collector suppl. voltage /ill increase a. 7ase current b. ;ollector current c. 2mitter current d% None o+ the abo e 1". &he fact that onl. a fe/ holes are in the base region means the base is a% Li,htly do!ed b. +eavil. doped c. Bndoped d. (one of the above 1#. In a normall. biased npn transistor, the electrons in the emitter have enough energ. to overcome the barrier potential of the a% Ba'e.e)itter @un(tion b. 7ase-collector 0unction c. ;ollector-base 0unction d. >ecombination path 1$. 6hen a free electron recombines /ith a hole in the base region, the free electron becomes a. Another free electron b% A alen(e ele(tron c. A conduction-band electron d. A ma0orit. carrier 1%. 6hat is the most important fact about the collector current9 a. It is measured in milliamperes. b. It e*uals the base current divided b. the current gain. c. It is small. d% It a!!ro/i)ately e6ual' the e)itter (urrent% 1). If the current gain is 200 and the collector current is 100 mA, the base current is a% *%: )A b. 2 mA c. 2 A d. 20 A 1-. &he base-emitter voltage is usuall. a% Le'' than the ba'e 'u!!ly olta,e b. 2*ual to the base suppl. voltage c. ore than the base suppl. voltage d. ;annot ans/er 20. &he collector-emitter voltage is usuall. a% Le'' than the (olle(tor 'u!!ly olta,e b. 2*ual to the collector suppl. voltage c. ore than the collector suppl. voltage d. ;annot ans/er 21. &he po/er dissipated b. a transistor appro1imatel. e*uals the collector current times a. 7ase-emitter voltage b% Colle(tor.e)itter olta,e c. 7ase suppl. voltage d. 0.% = 22. A small collector current /ith 3ero base current is caused b. the leakage current of the a. 2mitter diode b% Colle(tor diode c. 7ase diode

d. &ransistor 23. A transistor acts like a diode and a a. =oltage source b% Current 'our(e c. >esistance d. ?o/er suppl. 2". If the base current is 100 mA and the current gain is 30, the collector current is a. 300 mA b% 8 A c. 3.33 A d. 10 A 2#. &he base-emitter voltage of an ideal transistor is a% * b. 0.3 = c. 0.% = d. 1 = 2$. If .ou recalculate the collector-emitter voltage /ith the second appro1imation, the ans/er /ill usuall. be a. 'maller than the ideal value b.. &he same as the ideal value (% Lar,er than the ideal alue d. Inaccurate 2%. In the active region, the collector current is not changed significantl. b. a. 7ase suppl. voltage b. 7ase current c. ;urrent gain d% Colle(tor re'i'tan(e 2). &he base-emitter voltage of the second appro1imation is a. 0 b. 0.3 = (% *%7 < d. 1 = 2-. If the base resistor is open, /hat is the collector cuffent9 a% * b. 1 mA c. 2 mA d. 10 mA Cha!ter 7 TRANSISTOR 5$N#AMENTALS 1. &he current gain of a transistor is defined as the ratio of the collector current to the a% Ba'e (urrent b. 2mitter current c. 'uppl. current d. ;ollector current 2. &he graph of current gain versus collector-current indicates that the current gain a. Is constant b. =aries slightl. (% <arie' 'i,ni+i(antly d. 2*uals the collector current divided b. the base current 3. 6hen the collector current increases, /hat does the current gain do9

a. 4ecreases b. 'ta.s the same c. Increases d% Any o+ the abo e ". As the temperature increases, the current gain a. 4ecreases b. >emains the same c. Increases d% Can be any o+ the abo e #. 6hen the base resistor decreases, the collector voltage /ill probabl. a% #e(rea'e b. 'ta. the same c. Increase d. 4o all of the above $. If the base resistor is ver. small, the transistor /ill operate in the a. ;utoff region b. Active region (% Saturation re,ion d. 7reakdo/n region %. Ignoring the bulk resistance of the collector diode, the collector-emitter saturation voltage is a% * b. A fe/ tenths of a volt ;. 1 = d. 'uppl. voltage ). &hree different H points are sho/n on a load line. &he upper H point represents the a. inimum current gain b. Intermediate current gain (% Ma/i)u) (urrent ,ain d. ;utoff point -. If a transistor operates at the middle of the load line, an increase in the base resistance /ill move the H point a% #o9n b. Bp c. (o/here d. ,ff the load line 10. If a transistor operates at the middle of the load line, an increase in the current gain /ill move the H point a. 4o/n b% $! c, (o/here d. ,ff the load line 11. If the base suppl. voltage increases, the H point moves a. 4o/n b% $! c. (o/here d. ,ff the load line 12. 'uppose the base resistor is open. &he H point /ill be a. In the middle of the load line b. At the upper end of the load line (% At the lo9er end o+ the load line d. ,ff the load line

13. If the base suppl. voltage is disconnected, the collectoremitter voltage /ill e*ual a. 0 = b. $ = c. 10.# = d% Colle(tor 'u!!ly olta,e 1". If the base resistor is shorted, the transistor /ill probabl. be a. 'aturated b. In cutoff (% #e'tro ed d. (one of the above 1#. If the collector resistor decreases to 3ero in a base-biased circuit, the load line /ill become a. +ori3ontal b% <erti(al c. Bseless d. 8lat 1$. &he collector current is 10 mA. If the current gain is 100, the base current is a. 1 microamp b. 10 microamp (% "** )i(roa)! d. 1 mA 1%. &he base current is #0 microamp. If the current gain is 12#, the collector current is closest in value to a. "0 microamp b. #00 microamp c. 1 mA d% 6 )A 1). 6hen the H point moves along the load line, the voltage increases /hen the collector current a% #e(rea'e' b. 'ta.s the same c. Increases d. 4oes none of the above 1-. 6hen there is no base current in a transistor s/itch, the output voltage from the transistor is a. !o/ b% =i,h c. Bnchanged d. Bnkno/n 20. A circuit /ith a fi1ed emitter current is called a. 7ase bias b% E)itter bia' c. &ransistor bias d. &/o-suppl. bias 21. &he first step in anal.3ing emitter-based circuits is to find the a. 7ase current b% E)itter olta,e c. 2mitter current d. ;ollector current 22. If the current gain is unkno/n in an emitter-biased circuit, .ou cannot calculate the a. 2mitter voltage b. 2mitter current

c. ;ollector current d% Ba'e (urrent 23. If the emitter resistor is open, the collector voltage is a. !o/ b% =i,h c. Bnchanged d. Bnkiio/n 2". If the collector resistor is open, the collector voltage is a% Lo9 b. +igh c. Bnchanged d. Bnkno/n 2#. 6hen the current gain increases from #0 to 300 in an emitter-biased circuit, the collector current a% Re)ain' al)o't the 'a)e b. 4ecreases b. a factor of $ c. Increases b. a factor of $ d. Is 3ero 2$. If the emitter resistance decreases, the collector voltage a% #e(rea'e' b. 'ta.s the same c. Increases d. 7reaks do/n the transistor 2%. If the emitter resistance decreases, the a% A !oint )o e' u! b. ;ollector current decreases c. H point sta.s /here it is d. ;urrent gain increases ;hapter ) &>A('I'&,> 7IA'I(< 1. 8or emitter bias, the voltage across the emitter resistor is the same as the voltage bet/een the emitter and the a. 7ase b. ;ollector c. 2mitter d% Bround 2. 8or emitter bias, the voltage at the emitter is 0.% = less than the a% Ba'e olta,e b. 2mitter voltage c. ;ollector voltage d. <round voltage 3. 6ith voltage-divider bias, the base voltage is a% Le'' than the ba'e 'u!!ly olta,e b. 2*ual to the base suppl. voltage c. <reater than the base suppl. voltage d. <reater than the collector suppl. voltage ". =47 is noted for its a. Bnstable collector voltage b. =ar.ing emitter current c. !arge base current d% Stable A !oint #. 6ith =47, an increase in emitter resistance /ill a. 4ecrease the emitter voltage b. 4ecrease the collector voltage c. Increase the emitter voltage

d% #e(rea'e the e)itter (urrent $. =47 has a stable H point like a. 7ase bias b% E)itter bia' c. ;ollector-feedback bias d. 2mitter-feedback bias %. =47 needs a. ,nl. three resistors b% Only one 'u!!ly c. ?recision resistors d. ore resistors to /ork better ). =47 normall. operates in the a% A(ti e re,ion b. ;utoff region c. 'aturation region d. 7reakdo/n region -. &he collector voltage of a =47 circuit is not sensitive to changes in the a. 'uppl. voltage b. 2mitter resistance (% Current ,ain d. ;ollector resistance 10. If the emitter resistance increases in a =47 circuit, the collector voltage a. 4ecreases b. 'ta.s the same (% In(rea'e' d. 4oubles 11. 7ase bias is associated /ith a. Amplifiers b% S9it(hin, (ir(uit' c. 'table H point d. 8i1ed emitter current 12. If the emitter resistance doubles in a =47 circuit, the collector current /ill a. 4ouble b% #ro! in hal+ c. >emain the same d. Increase 13. If the collector resistance increases in a =47 circuit, the collector voltage /ill a% #e(rea'e b. 'ta. the same c. Increase d. 4ouble 1". &he H point of a =47 circuit is a. +.persensitive to changes in current gain b. 'ome/hat sensitive to changes in current gain (% Al)o't totally in'en'iti e to (han,e' in (urrent ,ain d. <reatl. affected b. temperature changes 1#. &he base voltage of t/o-suppl. emitter bias C&'27D is a. 0.% = b. =er. large (% Near * < d. 1.3 =

1$. If the emitter resistance doubles /ith &'27, the collector current /ill a% #ro! in hal+ b. 'ta. the same c. 4ouble d. Increase 1%. If a splash of solder shorts the collector resistor of &'27, the collector voltage /ill a. 4rop to 3ero b% E6ual the (olle(tor 'u!!ly olta,e ;. 'ta. the same d. 4ouble 1). If the emitter resistance increases /ith &'27, the collector voltage /ill a. 4ecrease b. 'ta. the same (% In(rea'e d. 2*ual the collector suppl. voltage 1-. If the emitter resistor opens /ith &'27, the collector voltage /ill a. 4ecrease b. 'ta. the same c. Increase slightl. d% E6ual the (olle(tor 'u!!ly olta,e 20. In &'27, the base current must be ver. a% S)all b. !arge c. Bnstable d. 'table 21. &he H point of &'27 does not depend on the a. 2mitter resistance b. ;ollector resistance (% Current ,ain d. 2mitter voltage 22. &he ma0orit. carriers in the emitter of a pnp transistor are a% =ole' b. 8ree electrons c. &rivalent atoms d. ?entavalent atoms 23. &he current gain of a pnp transistor is a. &he negative of the npn current gain b. &he collector current divided b. the emitter current c. (ear 3ero d% The ratio o+ (olle(tor (urrent to ba'e (urrent 2". 6hich is the largest current in a pnp transistor9 a. 7ase current b% E)itter (urrent c. ;ollector current d. (one of these 2#. &he currents of a pnp transistor are a. Bsuall. smaller than npn currents b% O!!o'ite n!n (urrent' c. Bsuall. larger than npn currents d. (egative 2$. 6ith pnp voltage-divider bias, .ou must use

a. (egative po/er supplies b. ?ositive po/er supplies (% Re'i'tor' d. <rounds Cha!ter 2 AC MO#ELS 1. 8or dc, the current in a coupling circuit is a% &ero b. a1imum c. inimum d. Average 2. &he current in a coupling circuit for high fre*uencies is a. Zero b% Ma/i)u) c. inimum d. Average 3. A coupling capacitor is a. A dc short b. An ac open (% A d( o!en and an a( 'hort d. A dc short and an ac open ". In a b.pass circuit, the top of a capacitor is a. An open b. A short (% An a( ,round d. A mechanical ground #. a% b. c. d. &he capacitor that produces an ac ground is called a By!a'' (a!a(itor ;oupling capacitor 4c open Ac open

$. &he capacitors of a ;2 amplifier appear a. ,pen to ac b. 'horted to dc c. ,pen to suppl. voltage d% Shorted to a( %. >educing all dc sources to 3ero is one of the steps in getting the a. 4; e*uivalent circuit b% AC e6ui alent (ir(uit c. ;omplete amplifier circuit d. =oltage-divider biased circuit ). &he ac e*uivalent circuit is derived from the original circuit b. shorting all a. >esistors b% Ca!a(itor' c. Inductors d. &ransistors -. 6hen the ac base voltage is too large, the ac emitter current is a. 'inusoidal b. ;onstant (% #i'torted d. Alternating

10. In a ;2 amplifier /ith a large input signal, the positive half c.cle of the ac emitter current is a. 2*ual to the negative half c.cle b. 'maller than the negative half c.cle (% Lar,er than the ne,ati e hal+ (y(le d. 2*ual to the negative half c.cle 11. Ac emitter resistance e*uals 2# m= divided b. the a. Huiescent base current b% #C e)itter (urrent c. A; emitter current d. ;hange in collector current 12. &o reduce the distortion in a ;2 amplifier, reduce the a. 4; emitter current b. 7ase-emitter voltage c. ;ollector current d% AC ba'e olta,e 13. If the ac voltage across the emitter diode is 1 m= and the ac emitter current is 0.1 mA, the ac resistance of the emitter diode is a. 1 ohm b% "* oh) c. 100 ohm d. 1 kohm 1". A graph of ac emitter current versus ac base-emitter voltage applies to the a. &ransistor b% E)itter diode c. ;ollector diode d. ?o/er suppl. 1#. &he output voltage of a ;2 amplifier is a. Amplified b. Inverted c. 1)0 degrees out of phase /ith the input d% All o+ the abo e 1$. &he emitter of a ;2 amplifier has no ac voltage because of the a. 4; voltage on it b% By!a'' (a!a(itor c. ;oupling capacitor d. !oad resistor 1%. &he voltage across the load resistor of a ;2 amplifier is a. 4c and ac b. 4; onl. (% AC only d. (either dc nor ac 1). &he ac collector current is appro1imatel. e*ual to the a. A; base current b% AC e)itter (urrent c. A; source current d. A; b.pass current 1-. &he ac emitter current times the ac emitter resistance e*uals the a. 4c emitter voltage b% AC ba'e olta,e c. A; collector voltage d. 'uppl. voltage

20. &he ac collector current e*uals the ac base current times the a. A; collector resistance b. 4; current gain (% AC (urrent ,ain d. <enerator voltage Cha!ter "* <OLTABE AMPLI5IERS 1. &he emitter is at ac ground in a a. ;7 stage b. ;; stage (% CE 'ta,e d. (one of these 2. &he output voltage of a ;2 stage is usuall. a. ;onstant b% #e!endent on reC c. 'mall d. !ess the one 3. &he voltage gain e*uals the output voltage divided b. the a% In!ut olta,e b. A; emitter resistance c. A; collector resistance d. <enerator voltage ". &he input impedance of the base increases /hen a% Beta in(rea'e' b. 'uppl. voltage increases c. 7eta decreases d. A; collector resistance increases #. =oltage gain is directl. proportional to a. 7eta b. Ac emitter resistance c. 4; collector voltage d% AC (olle(tor re'i'tan(e $. ;ompared to the ac resistance of the emitter diode, the feedback resistance of a s/amped amplifier should be a. 'mall b. 2*ual (% Lar,e d. Zero %. ;ompared to a ;2 stage, a s/amped amplifier has an input impedance that is a. 'maller b. 2*ual (% Lar,er d. Zero ). &o reduce the distortion of an amplified signal, .ou can increase the a. ;ollector resistance b% E)itter +eedba(- re'i'tan(e c. <enerator resistance d. !oad resistance -. &he emitter of a s/amped amplifier a. Is grounded b. +as no de voltage (% =a' an a( olta,e d. +as no ac voltage

10. A s/amped amplifier uses a. 7ase bias b. ?ositive feedback (% Ne,ati e +eedba(d. A grounded emitter 11. In a s/amped amplifier, the effects of the emitter diode become a. Important to voltage gain b. ;ritical to input impedance c. 'ignificant to the anal.sis d% $ni)!ortant 12. &he feedback resistor a. Increases voltage gain b% Redu(e' di'tortion c. 4ecreases collector resistance d. 4ecreases input impedance 13. &he feedback resistor a% Stabili?e' olta,e ,ain b. Increases distortion c. Increases collector resistance d. 4ecreases input impedance 1". &he ac collector resistance of the first stage includes the a. !oad resistance b. Input impedance of first stage c. 2mitter resistance of first stage d% In!ut i)!edan(e o+ 'e(ond 'ta,e 1#. If the emitter b.pass capacitor opens, the ac output voltage /ill a% #e(rea'e b. Increase c. >emain the same d. 2*ual 3ero 1$. If the collector resistor is shorted, the ac output voltage /ill a. 4ecrease b. Increase c. >emain the same d% E6ual ?ero 1%. If the load resistance is open, the ac output voltage /ill a. 4ecrease b% In(rea'e c. >emain the same d. 2*ual 3ero 1). If an. capacitor is open, the ac output voltage /ill a% #e(rea'e b. Increase c. >emain the same d. 2*ual 3ero 1-. If the input coupling capacitor is open, the ac input voltage /ill a. 4ecrease b. Increase c. >emain the same d% E6ual ?ero 20. If the b.pass capacitor is open, the ac input voltage /ill

a. 4ecrease b% In(rea'e c. >emainthe same d. 2*ual 3ero 21. If the output coupling capacitor is open, the ac input voltage /ill a. 4ecrease b. Increase (% Re)ain the 'a)e d. 2*ual 3ero 22. If the emitter resistor is open, the ac input voltage /ill a. 4ecrease b% In(rea'e c. >emain the same d. 2*ual 3ero 23. If the collector resistor is open, the ac input voltage /ill a% #e(rea'e b. Increase c. >emain the same d. 2*ual appro1imatel. 3ero 2". If the emitter b.pass capacitor is shorted, the ac input voltage /ill a% #e(rea'e b. Increase c. >emain the same d. 2*ual 3ero Cha!ter "" PO0ER AMPLI5IERS 1. 8or class 7 operation, the collector current flo/s a. &he /hole c.cle b% =al+ the (y(le c. !ess than half a c.cle d. !ess than a *uarter of a c.cle 2. &ransformer coupling is an e1ample of a. 4irect coupling b% AC (ou!lin, c. 4; coupling d. Impedance coupling 3. An audio amplifier operates in the fre*uenc. range of a. 0 to 20 +3 b% 1* =? to 1* -=? c. 20 to 200 k+3 d. Above 20 k+3 ". A tuned >8 amplifier is a% Narro9band b. 6ideband c. 4irect coupled d. Impedance coupled #. &he first stage of a preamp is a. A tuned >8 stage b. !arge signal (% S)all 'i,nal d. A dc amplifier $. 8or ma1imum peak-to-peak output voltage, the H point should be

a. (ear saturation b. (ear cutoff c. At the center of the dc load line d% At the (enter o+ the a( load line %. An amplifier has t/o load lines because a. It has ac and dc collector resistances b. It has t/o e*uivalent circuits c. 4; acts one /a. and ac acts another d% All o+ the abo e ). 6hen the H point is at the center of the ac load line, the ma1imum peak-to-peak output voltage e*uals a. =;2H b% 1<CEA c. I;H d. 2IcH -. ?ush-pull is almost al/a.s used /ith a. ;lass A b% Cla'' B c. ;lass ; d. All of the above 10. ,ne advantage of a class 7 push-pull amplifier is a. =er. small *uiescent current drain b. a1imum efficienc. of %).# percent c. <reater efficienc. than class A d% All o+ the abo e 11. ;lass ; amplifiers are almost al/a.s a. &ransformer-coupled bet/een stages b. ,perated at audio fre*uencies (% Tuned R5 a)!li+ier' d. 6ideband 12. &he input signal of a class ; amplifier a. Is negativel. clamped at the base b. Is amplified and inverted c. ?roduces brief pulses of collector current d% All o+ the abo e 13. &he collector current of a class ; amplifier a. Is an amplified version of the input voltage b% =a' har)oni(' c. Is negativel. clamped d. 8lo/s for half a c.cle 1". &he band/idth of a class ; amplifier decreases /hen the a. >esonant fre*uenc. increases b% A in(rea'e' c. I! decreases d. !oad resistance decreases 1#. &he transistor dissipation in a class ; amplifier decreases /hen the a. >esonant fre*uenc. increases b% (oil A in(rea'e' c. !oad resistance decreases d. ;apacitance increases 1$. &he po/er rating of a transistor can be increased b. a. >aising the temperature b% $'in, a heat 'inc. Bsing a derating curve d. ,perating /ith no input signal

1%. &he ac load line is the same as the dc load line /hen the ac collector resistance e*uals the a. 4; emitter resistance b. A; emitter resistance (% #C (olle(tor re'i'tan(e d. 'uppl. voltage divided b. collector current 1). If >; F 3.$ kohm and >! F 10 kohm, the ac load resistance e*uals a. 10 kohm b% 1%6: -oh) c. I kohm d. 3.$ kohm 1-. &he *uiescent collector current is the same as the a% #C (olle(tor (urrent b. A; collector current c. &otal collector current d. =oltage-divider current 20. &he ac load line usuall. a. 2*uals the dc load line b. +as less slope than the dc load line (% I' 'tee!er than the d( load line d. Is hori3ontal 21. 8or a H point near the center of the dc load line, clipping is more likel. to occur on the a. ?ositive peak of input voltage b. (egative peak of output voltage (% Po'iti e !ea- o+ out!ut olta,e d. (egative peak of emitter voltage 22. In a class A amplifier, the collector current flo/s for a. !ess than half the c.cle b. +alf the c.cle c. !ess than the /hole c.cle d% The entire (y(le 23. 6ith class A, the output signal should be a% $n(li!!ed b. ;lipped on positive voltage peak c. ;lipped on negative voltage peak d. ;lipped on negative current peak 2". &he instantaneous operating point s/ings-along the a% AC load line b. 4; load line c. 7oth load lines d. (either load line 2#. &he current drain of an amplifier is the a. &otal ac current from the generator b% Total d( (urrent +ro) the 'u!!ly c. ;urrent gain from base to collector d. ;urrent gain from collector to base 2$. &he po/er gain of an amplifier a. Is the same as the voltage gain b. Is smaller than the voltage gain (% E6ual' out!ut !o9er di ided by in!ut !o9er d. 2*uals load po/er 2%. +eat sinks reduce the a. &ransistor po/er

b. Ambient temperature (% Dun(tion te)!erature d. ;ollector current 2). 6hen the ambient temperature increases, the ma1imum transistor po/er rating a% #e(rea'e' b. Increases c. >emains the same d. (one of the above 2-. If the load po/er is 3 m6 and the dc po/er is 1#0 m6, the efficienc. is a. 0 b% 1 !er(ent c. 3 percent d. 20 percent Cha!ter "1 EMITTER 5OLLO0ERS 1. An emitter follo/er has a voltage gain that is a. uch less than one b% A!!ro/i)ately e6ual to one c. <reater than one d. Zero 2. &he total ac emitter resistance of an emitter follo/er e*uals a. re@ b. re (% re 3 reC d. >2 3. &he input impedance of the base of an emitter follo/er is usuall. a. !o/ b% =i,h c. 'horted to ground d. ,pen ". &he dc emitter current for class A emitter follo/ers is a. &he same as the ac emitter current b% <E di ided by RE c. =c divided b. >c d. &he same as the load current #. &he ac base voltage of an emitter follo/er is across the a. 2mitter diode b. 4; emitter resistor c. !oad resistor d% E)itter diode and e/ternal a( e)itter re'i'tan(e $. &he output voltage of an emitter follo/er is across the a. 2mitter diode b. 4; collector resistor (% Load re'i'tor d. 2mitter diode and e1ternal ac emitter resistance %. If 7eta F 200 and re F 1#0 ohm, the input impedance of the base is appro1imatel. a% 8* -oh) b. $00 n c. 3 kohm d. # kohm

). &he input voltage to an emitter follo/er is usuall. a% Le'' than the ,enerator olta,e b. 2*ual to the generator voltage c. <reater than the generator voltage d. 2*ual to the suppl. voltage -. &he ac emitter current is closest to a. =< divided b. re b. vin divided b. re@ c. =< divided b. re@ d% in di ided by re 10. &he output voltage of an emitter follo/er is appro1imatel. a. 0 b. =< (% in d. =cc 11. &he ac load line of an emitter follo/er is usuall. a. &he same as the dc load line b. ore hori3ontal than the dc load line (% Stee!er than the d( load line d. =ertical 12. If the input voltage to an emitter follo/er is too large, the output voltage /ill be a. 'maller b. !arger c. 2*ual d% Cli!!ed 13. If the H point is at the middle of the dc load line, clipping /ill first occur on the a. !eft voltage s/ing b. Bp/ard current s/ing c. ?ositive half c.cle of input d% Ne,ati e hal+ (y(le o+ in!ut 1". If an emitter follo/er has =;2H F # =, I;H F 1 mA, and re F 1 kohm, the ma1imum peak-to-peak unclipped output is a. 1 = b% 1 < c. # = d. 10 = 1#. If the load resistance of an emitter follo/er is ver. large, the e1ternal ac emitter resistance e*uals a. <enerator resistance b. Impedance of the base (% #C e)itter re'i'tan(e d. 4; collector resistance 1$. If an emitter follo/er has re@ F 10 ohm and re F -0 ohm, the voltage gain is appro1imatel. a. 0 b. 0.# (% *%2 d. 1 1%. A s*uare /ave out of an emitter follo/er implies a. (o clipping b. ;lipping at saturation c. ;lipping at cutoff d% Cli!!in, on both !ea-'

1). A 4arlington transistor has a. A ver. lo/ input impedance b. &hree transistors (% A ery hi,h (urrent ,ain d. ,ne =72 drop 1-. &he ac load line of the emitter follo/er is a. &he same as the dc load line b% #i++erent +ro) the d( load line c. +ori3ontal d. =ertical 20. If the generator voltage is # m= in an emitter follo/er, the output voltage across the load is closest to a% : )< b. 1#0 m= c. 0.2# = d. 0.# = 21. If the load resistor of 8ig. 12-la in .our te1tbook is shorted, /hich of the follo/ing are different from their normal valuesG a% Only a( olta,e' b. ,nl. dc voltages c. 7oth dc and ac voltages d. (either dc nor ac voltages 22. If >1 is open in an emitter follo/er, /hich of these is true9 a. 4; base voltage is =cc b. 4; collector voltage is 3ero c. ,utput voltage is normal d% #C ba'e olta,e i' ?ero 23. Bsuall., the distortion in an emitter follo/er is a% <ery lo9 b. =er. high c. !arge d. (ot acceptable 2". &he distortion in an emitter follo/er is a. 'eldom lo/ b. ,ften high c. Al/a.s lo/ d% =i,h 9hen (li!!in, o((ur' 2#. If a ;2 stage is direct coupled to an emitter follo/er, ho/ man. coupling capacitors are there bet/een the t/o stages9 a% * b. 1 c. 2 d. 3 2$. A 4arlington transistor has a 7eta of )000. If >2 F 1 kohm and >! F 100 ohm, the input impedance of the base is closest to a. ) kohm b. )0 kohm (% ;** -oh) d. ) ohm 2%. &he transistors of a class 7 push-pull emitter follo/er are biased at or near a% Cuto++

b. &he center of the dc load line c. 'aturation d. &he center of the ac load line 2). &hermal runa/a. is a. <ood for transistors b. Al/a.s desirable c. Bseful at times d% $'ually de'tru(ti e 2-. &he ac resistance of compensating diodes a. ust be included b% I' u'ually ')all enou,h to i,nore c. ;ompensates for temperature changes d. Is ver. high 30. A small *uiescent current is necessar. /ith a class 7 push-pull amplifier to avoid a. &hermal runa/a. b. 4estro.ing the compensating diodes (% Cro''o er di'tortion d. 21cessive current drain 31. &he 3ener current in a 3ener follo/er is a. 2*ual to the output current b% S)aller than the out!ut (urrent c. !arger than the output current d. ?rone to thermal runa/a. 32. In the t/o-transistor voltage regulator, the output voltage a. Is regulated b. +as much smaller ripple than the input voltage c. Is larger than the 3ener voltage d% All o+ the abo e 33. 8or a class 7 push-pull emitter follo/er to /ork properl., the emitter diodes must a. 7e able to control the *uiescent current b. +ave a po/er rating greater than the output po/er c. +ave a voltage gain of I d% Mat(h the (o)!en'atin, diode' 3". &he ma1imum efficienc. of a class 7 push-pull amplifier is a. 2# percent b. #0 percent (% 7;%: !er(ent d. 100 percent 3#. &he ac emitter resistance of an emitter follo/er a. 2*uals the dc emitter resistance b. Is larger than the load resistance c. +as no effect on ?? d% I' u'ually le'' than the load re'i'tan(e Cha!ter "8 D5ET' 1. A J82& a% I' a olta,e.(ontrolled de i(e b. Is a current-controlled device c. +as a lo/ input resistance d. +as a ver. large voltage gain 2. A unipolar transistor uses a. 7oth free electrons and holes

b. ,nl. free electrons c. ,nl. holes d% Either one or the otherE but not both 3. &he input impedance of a J82& a. Approaches 3ero b. Approaches one (% A!!roa(he' in+inity d. Is impossible to predict ". &he gate controls a. &he /idth of the channel b. &he drain current c. &he proportional pinchoff voltage d% All the abo e #. &he gate-source diode of a J82& should be a. 8or/ard-biased b% Re er'e.bia'ed c. 2ither for/ard- or reverse-biased d. (one of the above $. ;ompared to a bipolar transistor, the J82& has a much higher a. =oltage gain b% In!ut re'i'tan(e c. 'uppl. voltage d. ;urrent %. &he pinchoff voltage has the same magnitude as the a. <ate voltage b. 4rain-source voltage c. <ate-source voltage d% Bate.'our(e (uto++ olta,e ). 6hen the drain saturation current is less than I4'', a J82& acts like a a. 7ipolar transistor b. ;urrent source (% Re'i'tor d. 7atter. -. >4' e*uals pinchoff voltage divided b. the a. 4rain current b. <ate current c. Ideal drain current d% #rain (urrent +or ?ero ,ate olta,e 10. &he transconductance curve is a. !inear b. 'imilar to the graph of a resistor (% Nonlinear d. !ike a single drain curve 11. &he transconductance increases /hen the drain current approaches a. 0 b. I4CsatD (% I#SS d. I' 12. A ;' amplifier has a voltage gain of a% ,)rd b. gmrs c. gmrsECl : gmrsD d. gmrdECl : gmrdD

13. A source follo/er has a voltage gain of a. gmrd b. gmrs (% ,)r'F(l 3 ,)r') d. gmrdECl : gmrdD 1". 6hen the input signal is large, a source follo/er has a. A voltage gain of less than one b. A small distortion c. A high input resistance d% All o+ the'e 1#. &he input signal used /ith a J82& analog s/itch should be a% S)all b. !arge c. A s*uare /ave d. ;hopped 1$. A cascode amplifier has the advantage of a. !arge voltage gain b% Lo9 in!ut (a!a(itan(e c. !o/ input impedance d. +igher gm 1%. =+8 stands for fre*uencies from a. 300 k+3 to 3 +3 b. 3 to 30 +3 (% 8* to 8** M=? d. 300 +3 to 3 <+3 1). 6hen a J82& is cut off, the depletion la.ers are a. 8ar apart b. ;lose together (% Tou(hin, d. ;onducting 1-. 6hen the gate voltage becomes more negative in an nchannel J82&, the channel bet/een the depletion la.ers a% Shrin-' b. 21pand c. ;onduct d. 'top conducting 20. If a J82& has I4'' F 10 mA and =? F 2 =, then >4' e*uals a% 1** oh) b. "00 ohm c. 1 kohm d. # kohm 21. &he easiest /a. to bias a J82& in the ohmic region is /ith a% <olta,e.di ider bia' b. 'elf-bias c. <ate bias d. 'ource bias 22. 'elf-bias produces a. ?ositive feedback b% Ne,ati e +eedba(c. 8or/ard feedback d. >everse feedback

23. &o get a negative gate-source voltage in a self-biased J82& circuit, .ou must have a a. =oltage divider b% Sour(e re'i'tor c. <round d. (egative gate suppl. voltage 2". &ransconductance is measured in a. ,hms b. Amperes c. =olts d% Mho' or Sie)en' 2#. &ransconductance indicates ho/ effectivel. the input voltage controls the a. =oltage gain b. Input resistance c. 'uppl. voltage d% Out!ut (urrent Cha!ter "4 MOS5ET' 1. 6hich of the follo/ing devices revolutioni3ed the computer industr.9 a. J82& b. 4- ,'82& (% E.MOS5ET d. ?o/er 82& 2. &he voltage that turns on an 2 ,' device is the a. <ate-source cutoff voltage b. ?inchoff voltage (% Thre'hold olta,e d. Anee voltage 3. 6hich of these ma. appear on the data sheet of an enhancement-mode ,'82&9 a. =<'CthD b. I4ConD c. =<'ConD d% All o+ the abo e ". &he =<'ConD of an n-channel 2- ,'82& is a. !ess than the threshold voltage b. 2*ual to the gate-source cutoff voltage c. <reater than =4'ConD d% Breater than <BS(th) #. An ordinar. resistor is an e1ample of a. A three-terminal device b. An active load (% A !a''i e load d. A s/itching device $. An 2- ,'82& /ith its gate connected to its drain is an e1ample of a. A three-terminal device b% An a(ti e load c. A passive load d. A s/itching device %. An 2- ,'82& that operates at cutoff or in the ohmic region is an e1ample of a. A current source b. An active load

c. A passive load d% A '9it(hin, de i(e ). ; ,' stands for a. ;ommon ,' b. Active-load s/itching c. p-channel and n-channel devices d% Co)!le)entary MOS -. a. b. (% d. =<'ConD is al/a.s !ess than =<'CthD 2*ual to =4'ConD Breater than <BS(th) (egative

10. 6ith active-load s/itching, the upper 2- ,'82& is a a% T9o.ter)inal de i(e b. &hree-terminal device c. '/itch d. 'mall resistance 11. ; ,' devices use a. 7ipolar transistors b% Co)!le)entary E.MOS5ET' c. ;lass A operation d. 4 ,' devices 12. &he main advantage of ; ,' is its a. +igh po/er rating b. 'mall-signal operation c. '/itching capabilit. d% Lo9 !o9er (on'u)!tion 13. ?o/er 82&s are a. Integrated circuits b. 'mall-signal devices c. Bsed mostl. /ith analog signals d% $'ed to '9it(h lar,e (urrent' 1". 6hen the internal temperature increases in a po/er 82&, the a. &hreshold voltage increases b. <ate current decreases (% #rain (urrent de(rea'e' d. 'aturation current increases 1#. ost small-signal 2- ,'82&s are found in a. +eav.-current applications b. 4iscrete circuits c. 4isk drives d% Inte,rated (ir(uit' 1$. ost po/er 82&' are a% $'ed in hi,h.(urrent a!!li(ation' b. 4igital computers c. >8 stages d. Integrated circuits 1%. An n-channel 2- ,'82& conducts /hen it has a. =<' K =? b% An n.ty!e in er'ion layer c. =4' K 0 d. 4epletion la.ers 1). 6ith ; ,', the upper a. A passive load ,'82& is

b. An active load c. (onconducting d% Co)!le)entary 1-. &he high output of a ; ,' inverter is a. =44E2 b. =<' c. =4' d% <## 20. &he >4'ConD of a po/er 82& a. Is al/a.s large b. +as a negative temperature coefficient (% =a' a !o'iti e te)!erature (oe++i(ient d. Is an active load Cha!ter ": T=>RISTORS 1. A th.ristor can be used as a. A resistor b. An amplifier (% A '9it(h d. A po/er source 2. ?ositive feedback means the returning signal a. ,pposes the original change b% Aid' the ori,inal (han,e c. Is e*uivalent to negative feedback d. Is amplified 3. A latch al/a.s uses a. &ransistors b. 8eedback c. ;urrent d% Po'iti e +eedba(". &o turn on a four-la.er diode, .ou need a. A positive trigger b. lo/-current drop out (% Brea-o er d. >everse-bias triggering #. &he minimum input current that can turn on a th.ristor is called the a. +olding current b% Tri,,er (urrent c. 7reakover current d. !o/-current drop out $. &he onl. /a. to stop a four-la.er diode that is conducting is b. a. A positive trigger b% Lo9.(urrent dro! out c. 7reakover d. >everse-bias triggering %. &he minimum anode current that keeps a th.ristor turned on is called the a% =oldin, (urrent b. &rigger current c. 7reakover current d. !o/-current drop out ). A silicon controlled rectifier has a. &/o e1ternal leads

b% Three e/ternal lead' c. 8our e1ternal leads d. &hree doped regions -. A ';> is usuall. turned on b. a. 7reakover b% A ,ate tri,,er c. 7reakdo/n d. +olding current 10. ';>s are a. !o/-po/er devices b. 8our-la.er diodes (% =i,h.(urrent de i(e' d. 7idirectional 11. &he usual /a. to protect a load from e1cessive suppl. voltage is /ith a a% Cro9bar b. Zener diode c. 8our-la.er diode d. &h.ristor 12. An >; snubber protects an ';> against a. 'uppl. overvoltages b% 5al'e tri,,erin, c. 7reakover d. ;ro/barring 13. 6hen a cro/bar is used /ith a po/er suppl., the suppl. needs to have a fuse or a. Ade*uate trigger current b. +olding current c. 8iltering d% Current li)itin, 1". &he photo-';> responds to a. ;urrent b. =oltage c. +umidit. d% Li,ht 1#. &he diac is a a. &ransistor b. Bnidirectional device c. &hree-la.er device d% Bidire(tional de i(e 1$. &he triac is e*uivalent to a. A four-la.er diode b. &/o diacs in parallel c. A th.ristor /ith a gate lead d% T9o SCR' in !arallel 1%. &he uni0unction transistor acts as a a. 8our-la.er diode b. 4iac c. &riac d% Lat(h 1). An. th.ristor can be turned on /ith a% Brea-o er b. 8or/ard-bias triggering c. !o/-current dropout d. >everse-bias triggering

1-. A 'hockle. diode is the same as a a% +our.layer diode b. ';> c. diac d. triac 20. &he trigger voltage of an ';> is closest to a. 0 b% *%7 < c. " = d. 7reakover voltage 21. An. th.ristor can be turned off /ith a. 7reakover b. 8or/ard-bias triggering (% Lo9.(urrent dro! out d. >everse-bias triggering 22. 21ceeding the critical rate of rise produces a. 21cessive po/er dissipation b% 5al'e tri,,erin, c. !o/-current drop out d. >everse-bias triggering 23. A four-la.er diode is sometimes called a a. Bni0unction transistor b. 4iac (% !n!n diode d. '/itch 2". A latch is based on a. (egative feedback b% Po'iti e +eedba(c. &he four-la.er diode d. ';> action

#. If the po/er gain doubles, the decibel po/er gain increases b. a. A factor of 2 b% 8 dB c. $ d7 d. 10 d7 $. If the voltage gain doubles, the decibel voltage gain increases b. a. A factor of 2 b. 3 d7 (% 6 dB d. 10 d7 %. If the voltage gain is 10, the decibel voltage gain is a. $ d7 b% 1* dB c. "0 d7 d. $0 d7 ). If the voltage gain is 100, the decibel voltage gain is a. $ d7 b. 20 d7 (% 4* dB d. $0 d7 -. If the voltage gain is 2000, the decibel voltage gain is a. "0 d7 b. "$ d7 (% 66 dB d. )$ d7 10. &/o stages have decibel voltage gains of 20 and "0 d7. &he total ordinar. voltage gain is a.1 b. 10 c. 100 d% "*** 11. &/o stages have voltage gains of 100 and 200. &he total decibel voltage gain is a. "$ d7 b. $$ d7 (% ;6 dB d. 10$ d7 12. ,ne fre*uenc. is ) times another fre*uenc.. +o/ man. octaves apart are the t/o fre*uencies9 a. 1 b. 2 (% 8 d. " 13. If f F 1 +3, and f2 F 10 +3, the ratio fEf2 represents ho/ man. decades9 a. 2 b. 3 c. " d% : 1". 'emilogarithmic paper means a% One a/i' i' linearE and the other i' lo,arith)i( b. ,ne a1is is linear, and the other is semilogarithmic c. 7oth a1es are semilogarithmic d. (either a1is is linear

Cha!ter "6 5REA$ENC> E55ECTS 1. 8re*uenc. response is a graph of voltage gain versus a% 5re6uen(y b. ?o/er gain c. Input voltage d. ,utput voltage 2. At lo/ fre*uencies, the coupling capacitors produce a decrease in a. Input resistance b% <olta,e ,ain c. <enerator resistance d. <enerator voltage 3. &he stra.-/iring capacitance has an effect on the a. !o/er cutoff fre*uenc. b. idband voltage gain (% $!!er (uto++ +re6uen(y d. Input resistance ". At the lo/er or upper cutoff fre*uenc., the voltage gain is a. 0.3#Amid b. 0.#Amid (% *%7*7A)id d. 0.--#Amid

1#. If .ou /ant to improve the high-fre*uenc. response of an amplifier, /hich of these /ould .ou tr.9 a. 4ecrease the coupling capacitances. b. Increase the emitter b.pass capacitance. (% Shorten lead' a' )u(h a' !o''ible% d. Increase the generator resistance. 1$. &he voltage gain of an amplifier decreases 20 d7 per decade above 20 k+3. If the midband voltage gain is )$ d7, /hat is the ordinar. voltage gain at 20 +39 a% 1* b. 200 c. 2000 d. 20,000 Cha!ter "7 #I55ERENTIAL AMPLI5IERS 1. onolithic I;s are a. 8orms of discrete circuits b% On a 'in,le (hi! c. ;ombinations of thin-film and thick-film circuits d. Also called h.brid I;s 2. &he op amp can amplif. a. A; signals onl. b. 4; signals onl. (% Both a( and d( 'i,nal' d. (either ac nor dc signals 3. ;omponents are soldered together in a% #i'(rete (ir(uit' b. Integrated circuits c. ''I d. onolithic I;s ". &he tail current of a diff amp is a. +alf of either collector current b. 2*ual to either collector current (% T9o ti)e' either (olle(tor (urrent d. 2*ual to the difference in base currents #. &he node voltage at the top of the tail resistor is closest to a. ;ollector suppl. voltage b% &ero c. 2mitter suppl. voltage d. &ail current times base resistance $. &he input offset current e*uals the a% #i++eren(e bet9een t9o ba'e (urrent' b. Average of t/o base currents c. ;ollector current divided b. current gain d. 4ifference bet/een t/o base-emitter voltages %. &he tail current e*uals the a. 4ifference bet/een t/o emitter currents b% Su) o+ t9o e)itter (urrent' c. ;ollector current divided b. current gain d. ;ollector voltage divided b. collector resistance ).&he voltage gain of a diff amp /ith a differential output is e*ual to >; divided b. a% reC b. re@E2 c. 2re@ d. >2

-. &he input impedance of a diff amp e*uals re@ times a. 0 b. >; c. >2 d% 1 ti)e' Beta 10. A dc signal has a fre*uenc. of a% * b. $0 +3 c. 0 to over 1 +3 d. 1 +3 11. 6hen the t/o input terminals of a diff amp are grounded, a. &he base currents are e*ual b. &he collector currents are e*ual (% An out!ut error olta,e u'ually e/i't' d. &he ac output voltage is 3ero 12. ,ne source of output error voltage is a. Input bias current b% #i++eren(e in (olle(tor re'i'tor' c. &ail current d. ;ommon-mode voltage gain 13. A common-mode signal is applied to a. &he noninverting input b. &he inverting input (% Both in!ut' d. &op of the tail resistor 1". &he common-mode voltage gain is a% S)aller than olta,e ,ain b. 2*ual to voltage gain c. <reater than voltage gain d. (one of the above 1#. &he input stage of an op amp is usuall. a a% #i++ a)! b. ;lass 7 push-pull amplifier c. ;2 amplifier d. '/amped amplifier 1$. &he tail of a diff amp acts like a a. 7atter. b% Current 'our(e c. &ransistor d. 4iode 1%. &he common-mode voltage gain of a diff amp is e*ual to >; divided b. a. re@ b. re@E2 c. 2re@ d% 1RE 1). 6hen the t/o bases are grounded in a diff amp, the voltage across each emitter diode is a. Zero b. 0.% = (% The 'a)e d. +igh 1-. &he common-mode re0ection ratio is a. =er. lo/

b% O+ten e/!re''ed in de(ibel' c. 2*ual to the voltage gain d. 2*ual to the common-mode voltage gain 20. &he t.pical input stage of an op amp has a a. 'ingle-ended input and single-ended output b. 'ingle-ended input and differential output (% #i++erential in!ut and 'in,le.ended out!ut d. 4ifferential input and differential output 21. &he input offset current is usuall. a% Le'' than the in!ut bia' (urrent b. 2*ual to 3ero c. !ess than the input offset voltage d. Bnimportant /hen a base resistor is used 22. 6ith both bases grounded, the onl. offset that produces an error is the a. Input offset current b. Input bias current (% In!ut o++'et olta,e d. 7eta Cha!ter "; OPERATIONAL AMPLI5IERS 1. 6hat usuall. controls the open-loop cutoff fre*uenc. of an op amp9 a. 'tra.-/iring capacitance b. 7ase-emitter capacitance c. ;ollector-base capacitance d% Co)!en'atin, (a!a(itan(e 2. A compensating capacitor prevents a. =oltage gain b% O'(illation' c. Input offset current d. ?o/er band/idth 3. At the unit.-gain fre*uenc., the open-loop voltage gain is a% " b. Amid c. Zero d. =er. large ". &he cutoff fre*uenc. of an op amp e*uals the unit.-gain fre*uenc. divided b. a. the cutoff fre*uenc. b% Clo'ed.loo! olta,e ,ain c. Bnit. d. ;ommon-mode voltage gain #. If the cutoff fre*uenc. is 1# +3 and the midband openloop voltage gain is 1,000,000, the unit.-gain fre*uenc. is a. 2# +3 b. 1 +3 c. 1.# +3 d% ": M=? $. If the unit.-gain fre*uenc. is # +3 and the midband open-loop voltage gain is 200,000, the cutoff fre*uenc. is a% 1: =? b. 1 +3 c. 1.# +3 d. 1# +3

%. &he initial slope of a sine /ave is directl. proportional to a. 'le/ rate b% 5re6uen(y c. =oltage gain d. ;apacitance ). 6hen the initial slope of a sine /ave is greater than the sle/ rate, a% #i'tortion o((ur' b. !inear operation occurs c. =oltage gain is ma1imum d. &he op amp /orks best -. &he po/er band/idth increases /hen a. 8re*uenc. decreases b% Pea- alue de(rea'e' c. Initial slope decreases d. =oltage gain increases 10. A %"1; uses a. 4iscrete resistors b. Inductors (% A(ti e.load re'i'tor' d. A large coupling capacitor 11. A %"1; cannot /ork /ithout a. 4iscrete resistors b. ?assive loading (% #( return !ath' on the t9o ba'e' d. A small coupling capacitor 12. &he input impedance of a 7I82& op amp is a. !o/ b. edium c. +igh d% E/tre)ely hi,h 13. An !81#%A is a a. 4iff amp b. 'ource follo/er c. 7ipolar op amp d% BI5ET o! a)! 1". If the t/o suppl. voltages are plus and minus 1# =, the ?? value of an op amp is closest to a. 0 b. :1#= c. -1# = d% 8* < 1#. &he open-loop cutoff fre*uenc. of a %"1; is controlled b. a. A coupling capacitor b. &he output short circuit current c. &he po/er band/idth d% A (o)!en'atin, (a!a(itor 1$. &he %"1; has a unit.-gain fre*uenc. of a. 10 +3 b. 20 k+3 (% " M=? d. 1# +3 1%. &he unit.-gain fre*uenc. e*uals the product of closedloop voltage gain and the a. ;ompensating capacitance

b. &ail current (% Clo'ed.loo! (uto++ +re6uen(y d. !oad resistance 1). If funit. is 10 +3 and midband open-loop voltage gain is 1,000,000, then the open-loop cutoff fre*uenc. of the op amp is a% "* =? b. 20 +3 c. #0 +3 d. 100 +3 1-. &he initial slope of a sine /ave increases /hen a. 8re*uenc. decreases b% Pea- alue in(rea'e' c. ;c increases d. 'le/ rate decreases 20. If the fre*uenc. is greater than the po/er band/idth, a% Sle9.rate di'tortion o((ur' b. A normal output signal occurs c. ,utput offset voltage increases d. 4istortion ma. occur 21. An op amp has an open base resistor. &he output voltage /ill be a. Zero b. 'lightl. different from 3ero (% Ma/i)u) !o'iti e or ne,ati e d. An amplified sine /ave 22. An op amp has a voltage gain of #00,000. If the output voltage is 1 =, the input voltage is a% 1 )i(ro olt' b. # m= c. 10 m= d. 1 = 23. A %"1; has suppl. voltages of plus and minus 1# =. If the load resistance is large, the ?? value is a. 0 b. :1# = (% 17 < d. 30 = 2". Above the cutoff fre*uenc., the voltage gain of a %"1; decreases appro1imatel. a. 10 d7 per decade b. 20 d7 per octave c. 10 d7 per octave d% 1* dB !er de(ade 2#. &he voltage gain of an op amp is unit. at the a. ;utoff fre*uenc. b% $nity.,ain +re6uen(y c. <enerator fre*uenc. d. ?o/er band/idth 2$. 6hen sle/-rate distortion of a sine /ave occurs, the output a. Is larger b% A!!ear' trian,ular c. Is normal d. +as no offset 2%. A %"1; has

a. A voltage gain of 100,000 b. An input impedance of 2 ohm c. An output impedance of %# ohm d% All o+ the abo e 2). &he closed-loop voltage gain of an inverting amplifier e*uals a. &he ratio of the input resistance to the feedback resistance b. &he open-loop voltage gain (% 5eedba(- re'i'tan(e di ided by the in!ut re'i'tan(e d. &he input resistance 2-. &he noninverting amplifier has a a. !arge closed-loop voltage gain b. 'mall open-loop voltage gain (% Lar,e (lo'ed.loo! in!ut i)!edan(e d. !arge closed-loop output impedance 30. &he voltage follo/er has a a% Clo'ed.loo! olta,e ,ain o+ unity b. 'mall open-loop voltage gain c. ;losed-loop band/idth of 3ero d. !arge closed-loop output impedance 31. A summing amplifier can have a. (o more than t/o input signals b% T9o or )ore in!ut 'i,nal' c. A closed-loop input impedance of infinit. d. A small open-loop voltage gain Cha!ter "2 NEBATI<E 5EE#BACG 1. 6ith negative feedback, the returning signal a. Aids the input signal b% O!!o'e' the in!ut 'i,nal c. Is proportional to output current d. Is proportional to differential voltage gain 2. +o/ man. t.pes of negative feedback are there9 a. ,ne b. &/o c. &hree d% 5our 3. A =;=' amplifier appro1imates an ideal a% <olta,e a)!li+ier b. ;urrent-to-voltage converter c. =oltage-to-current converter d. ;urrent amplifier ". &he voltage bet/een the input terminals of an ideal op amp is a% &ero b. =er. small c. =er. large d. 2*ual to the input voltage #. 6hen an op amp is not saturated, the voltages at the noninverting and inverting inputs are a% Al)o't e6ual b. uch different c. 2*ual to the output voltage d. 2*ual to :1# = $. &he feedback fraction 7

a. Is al/a.s less than 1 b. Is usuall. greater than 1 (% May e6ual " d. a. not e*ual 1 %. An I;=' amplifier has no output voltage. A possible trouble is a. (o negative suppl. voltage b% Shorted +eedba(- re'i'tor c. (o feedback voltage d. ,pen load resistor ). In a =;=' amplifier, an. decrease in open-loop voltage gain produces an increase in a. ,utput voltage b% Error olta,e c. 8eedback voltage d. Input voltage -. &he open-loop voltage gain e*uals the a. <ain /ith negative feedback b% #i++erential olta,e ,ain o+ the o! a)! c. <ain /hen 7 is 1 d. <ain at funit. 10. &he loop gain A,!7 a. Is usuall. much smaller than 1 b% I' u'ually )u(h ,reater than " c. a. not e*ual 1 d. Is bet/een 0 and 1 11. &he closed-loop input impedance /ith an I;=' amplifier is a. Bsuall. larger than the open-loop input impedance b. 2*ual to the open-loop input impedance c. 'ometimes less than the open-loop impedance d% Ideally ?ero 12. 6ith an I;=' amplifier, the circuit appro1imates an ideal a. =oltage amplifier b% Current.to. olta,e (on erter c. =oltage-to-current converter d. ;urrent amplifier 13. (egative feedback reduces the a. 8eedback fraction b% #i'tortion c. Input offset voltage d. !oop gain 1". A voltage follo/er has a voltage gain of a. uch less than 1 b% " c. ore than 1 d. A 1#. &he voltage bet/een the input terminals of a real op amp is a. Zero b% <ery ')all c. =er. large d. 2*ual to the input voltage 1$. &he transresistance of an amplifier is the ratio of its a. ,utput current to input voltage

b. Input voltage to output current c. ,utput voltage to input voltage d% Out!ut olta,e to in!ut (urrent 1%. ;urrent cannot flo/ to ground through a. A mechanical ground b. An ac ground (% A irtual ,round d. An ordinar. ground 1). In a current-to-voltage converter, the input current flo/s a. &hrough the input impedance of the op amp b% Throu,h the +eedba(- re'i'tor c. &o ground d. &hrough the load resistor 1-. &he input impedance of a current-to-voltage converter is a. 'mall b. !arge (% Ideally ?ero d. Ideall. infinite 20. &he open-loop band/idth e*uals a. funit. b% +1(OL) c. funit.EA;! d. fma1 21. &he closed-loop band/idth e*uals a. funit. b. f2C,!D (% +unityFACL d. fma1 22. 8or a given op amp, /hich of these is constant9 a. f2C;!D b. 8eedback voltage c. A;! d% ACL+1(CL) 23. (egative feedback does not improve a. 'tabilit. of voltage gain b. (onlinear distortion in later stages c. ,utput offset voltage d% Po9er band9idth 2". An I;=' amplifier is saturated. A possible trouble is a. (o suppl. voltages b% O!en +eedba(- re'i'tor c. (o input voltage d. ,pen load resistor 2#. A =;=' amplifier has no output voltage. A possible trouble is a% Shorted load re'i'tor b. ,pen feedback resistor c. 21cessive input voltage d. ,pen load resistor 2$. An I;I' amplifier is saturated. A possible trouble is a. 'horted load resistor b% R1 i' o!en c. (o input voltage d. ,pen load resistor

2%. An I;=' amplifier has no output voltage. A possible trouble is a. (o positive suppl. voltage b. ,pen feedback resistor c. (o feedback voltage d% Shorted load re'i'tor 2). &he closed-loop input impedance in a =;=' amplifier is a% $'ually lar,er than the o!en.loo! in!ut i)!edan(e b. 2*ual to the open-loop input impedance c. 'ometimes less than the open-loop input impedance d. Ideall. 3ero Cha!ter 1* LINEAR OP.AMP CIRC$ITS 1. In a linear op-amp circuit, the a. 'ignals are al/a.s sine /aves b% O! a)! doe' not ,o into 'aturation c. Input impedance is ideall. infinite d. <ain-band/idth product is constant 2. In an ac amplifier using an op amp /ith coupling and b.pass capacitors, the output offset voltage is a. Zero b% Mini)u) c. a1imum d. Bnchanged 3. &o use an op amp, .ou need at least a% One 'u!!ly olta,e b. &/o suppl. voltages c. ,ne coupling capacitor d. ,ne b.pass capacitor ". In a controlled current source /ith op amps, the circuit acts like a a. =oltage amplifier b. ;urrent-to-voltage converter (% <olta,e.to.(urrent (on erter d. ;urrent amplifier #. An instrumentation amplifier has a high a. ,utput impedance b. ?o/er gain (% CMRR d. 'uppl. voltage $. A current booster on the output of an op amp /ill increase the short-circuit current b. a. A;! b% Beta d( c. funit. d. Av %. <iven a voltage reference of :2.# =, /e can get a voltage reference of :1# = b. using a a. Inverting amplifier b% Nonin ertin, a)!li+ier c. 4ifferential amplifier d. Instrumentation amplifier ). In a differential amplifier, the ; >> is limited mostl. b. a. ; >> of the op amp b. <ain-band/idth product c. 'uppl. voltages

d% Toleran(e o+ re'i'tor' -. &he input signal for an instrumentation amplifier usuall. comes from a. An inverting amplifier b. A transducer c. A differential amplifier d% A 0heat'tone brid,e 10. In the classic three op-amp instrumentation amplifier, the differential voltage gain is usuall. produced b. the a% 5ir't 'ta,e b. 'econd stage c. ismatched resistors d. ,utput op amp 11. <uard driving reduces the a. ; >> of an instrumentation amplifier b% Lea-a,e (urrent in the 'hielded (able c. =oltage gain of the first stage d. ;ommon-mode input voltage 12. In an averaging circuit, the input resistances are a. 2*ual to the feedback resistance b. !ess than the feedback resistance (% Breater than the +eedba(- re'i'tan(e d. Bne*ual to each other 13. A 4EA converter is an application of the a. Ad0ustable band/idth circuit b. (oninverting amplifier c. =oltage-to-current converter d% Su))in, a)!li+ier 1". In a voltage-controlled current source, a. A current booster is never used b. &he load is al/a.s floated (% A 'ti++ (urrent 'our(e dri e' the load d. &he load current e*uals I'; 1#. &he +o/land current source produces a a. Bnidirectional floating load current b% Bidire(tional 'in,le.ended load (urrent c. Bnidirectional single-ended load current d. 7idirectional floating load current 1$. &he purpose of A<; is to a. Increase the voltage gain /hen the input signal increases b% Con ert olta,e to (urrent c. Aeep the output voltage almost constant d. >educe the ; >> of the circuit c 1%. 1 ppm is e*uivalent to a. 0.1L b. 0.01L c. 0.001L d. 0.0001L d 1). An input transducer converts a. =oltage to current b. ;urrent to voltage c. An electrical *uantit. to a nonelectrical *uantit. d. A nonelectrical *uantit. to an electrical *uantit. d 1-. A thermistor converts a. !ight to resistance

b. &emperature to resistance c. =oltage to sound d. ;urrent to voltage b 20. 6hen /e trim a resistor, /e are a. aking a fine ad0ustment a. >educing its value b. Increasing its value d. aking a coarse ad0ustment a 21. A 4EA converter /ith four inputs has a. &/o outputs b. 8our outputs c. 2ight outputs d. 'i1teen outputs d 22. An op amp /ith a rail-to-rail output a. +as a current-boosted output b. ;an s/ing all the /a. to either suppl. voltage c. +as a high output impedance d. ;annot be less than 0 =. b 23. 6hen a J82& is used in an A<; circuit, it acts like a a. '/itch b. =oltage-controlled current source c. =oltage-controlled resistance d. ;apacitance c 2". If an op amp has onl. a positive suppl. voltage, its output cannot a. 7e negative b. 7e 3ero c. 2*ual the suppl. voltage d. 7e ac coupled a ;hapter 21 A;&I=2 8I!&2>' 31 1. &he region bet/een the passband and the stopband is called the a. Attenuation b. ;enter c. &ransition d. >ipple c 2. &he center fre*uenc. of a bandpass filter is al/a.s e*ual to a. &he band/idth b. <eometric average of the cutoff fre*uencies c. 7and/idth divided b. H d. 3-d7 fre*uenc. 3. &he H of a narro/band filter is al/a.s a. small b. e*ual to 76 divided b. f0 c. less than 1 d% ,reater than " ". A bandstop filter is sometimes called a a. 'nubber b. ?hase shifter (% Not(h +ilter d. &ime-dela. circuit #. &he all-pass filter has

a. (o passband b. ,ne stopband (% the 'a)e ,ain at all +re6uen(ie' d. a fast rolloff above cutoff $. &he appro1imation /ith a ma1imall.-flat passband is a. ;heb.shev b% In er'e Cheby'he c. 2lliptic d. 7essel %. &he appro1imation /ith a rippled passband is a. 7utter/orth b. Inverse ;heb.shev (% Elli!ti( d. 7essel ). &he appro1imation that distorts digital signals the least is the a. 7utter/orth b. ;heb.shev c. 2lliptic d% Be''el -. If a filter has si1 second-order stages and one first-order stage, the order is a. 2 b. $ c. % d% "8 10. If a 7utter/orth filter has - second-order stages, its rolloff rate is a. 20 d7 per decade b. "0 d7 per decade c. 1)0 d7 per decade d% 86* dB !er de(ade 11. If n F 10, the appro1imation /ith the fastest rolloff in the transition region is a. 7utter/orth b. ;heb.shev c. Inverse ;heb.shev d% Elli!ti( 12. &he elliptic appro1imation has a a. 'lo/ rolloff rate compared to the ;auer b% Ri!!led 'to!band c. a1imall.-flat passband d. onotonic stopband 13. !inear phase shift is e*uivalent to a. H F 0.%0% b. a1imall.-flat stopband (% Con'tant ti)e delay d. >ippled passband 1". &he filter /ith the slo/est rolloff rate is the a. 7utter/orth b. ;heb.shev c. 2lliptic d% Be''el 1#. A first-order active-filter stage has a% One (a!a(itor b. &/o op amps

c. &hree resistors d. a high H 1$. A first-order stage cannot have a a. 7utter/orth response b% Cheby'he re'!on'e c. a1imall.-flat passband d. >olloff rate of 20 d7 per decade 1%. 'allen-Ae. filters are also called a% <C<S +ilter' b. 87 filters c. 7i*uadratic filters d. 'tate-variable filters 1). &o build a 10th-order filter, /e should cascade a. 10 first-stage stages b% : 'e(ond.order 'ta,e' c. 3 third-order stages d. 2 fourth-order stages 1-. &o get a 7utter/orth response /ith an )th-order filter, the stages need to have a. 2*ual H@s b. Bne*ual center fre*uencies c. Inductors d% Sta,,ered AC' 20. &o get a ;heb.shev response /ith a 12th-order filter, the stages need to have a. 2*ual H@s b. 2*ual center fre*uencies c. 'taggered band/idths d% Sta,,ered (enter +re6uen(ie' and AC' 21. &he H of a 'allen-Ae. second-order stage depends on the a% <olta,e ,ain b. ;enter fre*uenc. c. 7and/idth d. <76 of the op amp 22. 6ith 'allen-Ae. high-pass filters, the pole fre*uenc. must be a. Added to the A values b. 'ubtracted from the A values c. ultiplied b. the A values d% #i ided by the G alue' 23. If 76 increases, the a. ;enter fre*uenc. decreases b% A de(rea'e' c. >olloff rate increases d. >ipples appear in the stopband 2". 6hen H is greater than 1, a bandpass filter should be built /ith a. !o/-pass and high-pass stages b% M5B 'ta,e' c. (otch stages d. All-pass stages 2#. &he all-pass filter is used /hen a. +igh rolloff rates are needed b% Pha'e 'hi+t i' i)!ortant c. A ma1imall.-flat passband is needed

d. A rippled stopband is important 2$. A second-order all-pass filter can var. the output phase from a. -0 degrees to --0 degrees b. 0 degrees to -1)0 degrees (% * de,ree' to .86* de,ree' d. 0 degrees to -%20 degrees 2%. &he all-pass filter is sometimes called a a. &o/-&homas filter b% #elay e6uali?er c. A+( filter d. 'tate-variable filter 2). &he bi*uadratic filter a. +as lo/ component sensitivit. b. Bses three or more op amps c. Is also called &o/-&homas filter d% All o+ the abo e 2-. &he state-variable filter a% =a' a lo9.!a''E hi,h.!a''E and band!a'' out!ut b. Is difficult to tune c. +as high component sensitivit. d. Bses less than three op amps 30. If <76 is limited, the H of the stage /ill a. >emain the same b. 4ouble c. 4ecrease d% In(rea'e 31. &o correct for limited <76, a designer ma. use a. A constant time dela. b% Predi'tortion c. !inear phase shift d. A rippled passband Cha!ter 11 NONLINEAR OP.AMP CIRC$ITS 1. In a nonlinear op-amp circuit, the a. ,p amp never saturates b. 8eedback loop is never opened c. ,utput shape is the same as the input shape d% O! a)! )ay 'aturate 2. &o detect /hen the input is greater than a particular value, use a a% Co)!arator b. ;lamper c. !imiter d. >ela1ation oscillator 3. &he voltage out of a 'chmitt trigger is a. A lo/ voltage b. A high voltage (% Either a lo9 or a hi,h olta,e d. A sine /ave ". +.steresis prevents false triggering associated /ith a. A sinusoidal input b% Noi'e olta,e' c. 'tra. capacitances d. &rip points

#. If the input is a rectangular pulse, the output of an integrator is a a. 'ine /ave b. '*uare /ave (% Ra)! d. >ectangular pulse $. 6hen a large sine /ave drives a 'chmitt trigger, the output is a a% Re(tan,ular 9a e b. &riangular /ave c. >ectified sine /ave d. 'eries of ramps %.If pulse /idth decreases and the period sta.s the same, the dut. c.cle a% #e(rea'e' b. 'ta.s the same c. Increases d. Is 3ero ). &he output of a rela1ation oscillator is a a. 'ine /ave b% S6uare 9a e c. >amp d. 'pike -. If A,! F 200,000, the closed-loop knee voltage of a silicon diode is a. 1 u= b% 8%: u< c. % u= d. 1" u= 10. &he input to a peak detector is a triangular /ave /ith a peak-to-peak value of ) = and an average value of 0. &he output is a. 0 b% 4 < c. ) = d. 1$ = 11. &he input voltage to a positive limiter is a triangular /ave of ) = pp and an average value of 0. If the reference level is 2 =, the output is a. 0 b. 2 =pp (% 6 <!! d. ) =pp 12. &he discharging time constant of a peak detector is 10 ms. &he lo/est fre*uenc. .ou should use is a.10 +3 b.100 +3 (% " -=? d. 10 k+3 13. A comparator /ith a trip point of 3ero is sometimes called a a. &hreshold detector b% &ero.(ro''in, dete(tor c. ?ositive limit detector d. +alf-/ave detector

1". &o /ork properl., man. I; comparators need an e1ternal a. ;ompensating capacitor b% Pullu! re'i'tor c. 7.pass circuit d. ,utput stage 1#. A 'chmitt trigger uses a% Po'iti e +eedba(b. (egative feedback c. ;ompensating capacitors d. ?ullup resistors 1$. A 'chmitt trigger a. Is a 3ero-crossing detector b% =a' t9o tri! !oint' c. ?roduces triangular output /aves d. Is designed to trigger on noise voltage 1%. A rela1ation oscillator depends on the charging of a capacitor through a a% Re'i'tor b. Inductor c. ;apacitor d. (oninverting input 1). A ramp of voltage a. Al/a.s increases b. Is a rectangular pulse (% In(rea'e' or de(rea'e' at a linear rate d. Is produced b. h.steresis 1-. &he op-amp integrator uses a. Inductors b% The Miller e++e(t c. 'inusoidal inputs d. +.steresis 20. &he trip point of a comparator is the input voltage that causes a. &he circuit to oscillate b. ?eak detection of the input signal (% The out!ut to '9it(h 'tate' d. ;lamping to occur 21. In an op-amp integrator, the current through the input resistor flo/s into the a. Inverting input b. (oninverting input c. 7.pass capacitor d% 5eedba(- (a!a(itor 22. An active half-/ave rectifier has a knee voltage of a. =A b. 0.% = c. ore than 0.% = d% Mu(h le'' than *%7 < 23. In an active peak detector, the discharging time constant is a% Mu(h lon,er than the !eriod b. uch shorter than the period c. 2*ual to the period d. &he same as the charging time constant

2". If the reference voltage is 3ero, the output of an active positive limiter is a. ?ositive b% Ne,ati e c. 2ither positive or negative d. A ramp 2#. &he output of an active positive clamper is a% Po'iti e b. (egative c. 2ither positive or negative d. A ramp 2$. &he positive clamper adds a% A !o'iti e d( olta,e to the in!ut b. A negative dc voltage to the input c. An ac signal to the output d. A trip point to the input 2%. A /indo/ comparator a. +as onl. one usable threshold b. Bses h.steresis to speed up response c. ;lamps the input positivel. d% #ete(t' an in!ut olta,e bet9een t9o li)it' Cha!ter 18 OSCILLATORS 1 . An oscillator al/a.s needs an amplifier /ith a% Po'iti e +eedba(b. (egative feedback c. 7oth t.pes of feedback d. An !; tank circuit 2. &he voltage that starts an oscillator is caused b. a. >ipple from the po/er suppl. b% Noi'e olta,e in re'i'tor' c. &he input signal from a generator d. ?ositive feedback 3. &he 6ien-bridge oscillator is useful a% At lo9 +re6uen(ie' b. At high fre*uencies c. 6ith !; tank circuits d. At small input signals ". A lag circuit has a phase angle that is a. 7et/een 0 and :-0 degrees b. <reater than -0 degrees (% Bet9een * and .2* de,ree' d. &he same as the input voltage #. A coupling circuit is a a. !ag circuit b% Lead (ir(uit c. !ead-lag circuit d. >esonant circuit $. A lead circuit has a phase angle that is a% Bet9een * and 32* de,ree' b. <reater than -0 degrees c. 7et/een 0 and --0 degrees d. &he same as the input voltage %. A 6ien-bridge oscillator uses a. ?ositive feedback

b. (egative feedback (% Both ty!e' o+ +eedba(d. An !; tank circuit ). Initiall., the loop gain of a 6ien-bridge oscillator is a. 0 b. 1 c. !o/ d% =i,h -. A 6ien bridge is sometimes called a a% Not(h +ilter b. &/in-& oscillator c. ?hase shifter d. 6heatstone bridge 10. &o var. the fre*uenc. of a 6ien bridge, .ou can var. a. ,ne resistor b% T9o re'i'tor' c. &hree resistors d. ,ne capacitor 11. &he phase-shift oscillator usuall. has a. &/o lead or lag circuits b% Three lead or +a, (ir(uit' c. A lead-lag circuit d. A t/in-& filter 12. 8or oscillations to start in a circuit, the loop gain must be greater than 1 /hen the phase shift around the loop is a. -0 degrees b. 1)0 degrees c. 2%0 degrees d% 86* de,ree' 13. &he most /idel. used !; oscillator is the a. Armstrong b. ;lapp (% Col!itt' d. +artle. 1". +eav. feedback in an !; oscillator a. ?revents the circuit from starting b% Cau'e' 'aturation and (uto++ c. ?roduces ma1imum output voltage d. eans 7 is small 1#. 6hen H decreases in a ;olpitts oscillator, the fre*uenc. of oscillation a% #e(rea'e' b. >emains the same c. Increases d. 7ecomes erratic 1$. !ink coupling refers to a. ;apacitive coupling b% Tran'+or)er (ou!lin, c. >esistive coupling d. ?o/er coupling 1%. &he +artle. oscillator uses a. (egative feedback b% T9o indu(tor' c. A tungsten lamp d. A tickler coil

1). &o var. the fre*uenc. of an !; oscillator, .ou can var. a. ,ne resistor b. &/o resistors c. &hree resistors d% One (a!a(itor 1-. ,f the follo/ing, the one /ith the most stable fre*uenc. is the a. Armstrong b% Cla!! c. ;olpitts d. +artle. 20. &he material /ith the pie3oelectric effect is a. Huart3 b. >ochelle salts c. &ourmaline d% All the abo e 21. ;r.stals have a ver. a. !o/ H b% =i,h A c. 'mall inductance d. !arge resistance 22. &he series and parallel resonant fre*uencies of a cr.stal are a% <ery (lo'e to,ether b. =er. far apart c. 2*ual d. !o/ fre*uencies 23. &he kind of oscillator found in an electronic /rist/atch is the a. Armstrong b. ;lapp c. ;olpitts d% Auart? (ry'tal 2". A monostable ### timer has the follo/ing number of stable statesG a. 0 b% " c. 2 d. 3 2#. An astable ### timer has the follo/ing number of stable statesG a% * b. 1 c. 2 d. 3 2$. &he pulse /idth out of a one-shot multivibrator increases /hen the a. 'uppl. voltage increases b. &iming resistor decreases c. B&? decreases d% Ti)in, (a!a(itan(e in(rea'e' 2%. &he output /aveform of a ### timer is a. sinusoidal b. triangular (% re(tan,ular d. elliptical

2). &he *uantit. that remains constant in a pulse-/idth modulator is a. ?ulse /idth b% Period c. 4ut. c.cle d. 'pace 2-. &he *uantit. that remains constant in a pulse-position modulator is a. ?ulse /idth b. ?eriod c. 4ut. c.cle d% S!a(e 30. 6hen a ?!! is locked on the input fre*uenc., the =;, fre*uenc. a. Is less than f0 b. Is greater than f0 c. 2*uals f0 d% E6ual' +in 31. &he band/idth of the lo/-pass filter in a ?!! determines the a% Ca!ture ran,e b. !ock range c. 8ree-running fre*uenc. d. ?hase difference Cha!ter 14 REB$LATE# PO0ER AMPLI5IERS 1. =oltage regulators normall. use a% Ne,ati e +eedba(b. ?ositive feedback c. (o feedback d. ?hase limiting 2. 4uring regulation, the po/er dissipation of the pass transistor e*uals the collector-emitter voltage times the a. 7ase current b% Load (urrent c. Zener current d. 8oldback current 3. 6ithout current limiting, a shorted load /ill probabl. a. ?roduce 3ero load current b% #e'troy diode' and tran'i'tor' c. +ave a load voltage e*ual to the 3ener voltage d. +ave too little load current ". A current-sensing resistor is usuall. a. Zero b% S)all c. !arge d. ,pen #. 'imple current limiting produces too much heat in the a. Zener diode b. !oad resistor (% Pa'' tran'i'tor d. Ambient air $. 6ith foldback current limiting, the load voltage approaches 3ero, and the load current approaches a% A ')all alue b. Infinit.

c. &he 3ener current d. A destructive level %. A capacitor ma. be needed in a discrete voltage regulator to prevent a. (egative feedback b. 21cessive load current (% O'(illation' d. ;urrent sensing ). If the output of a voltage regulator varies from 1# to 1".% = bet/een the minimum and ma1imum load current, the load regulation is a. 0 b. 1L (% 1H d. #L -. If the output of a voltage regulator varies from 20 to 1-.) = /hen the line voltage varies over its specified range, the source regulation is a. 0 b% "H c. 2L d. #L 10. &he output impedance of a voltage regulator is a% <ery ')all b. =er. large c. 2*ual to the load voltage divided b. the load current d. 2*ual to the input voltage divided b. the output current 11. ;ompared to the ripple into a voltage regulator, the ripple out of a voltage regulator is a. 2*ual in value b. uch larger (% Mu(h ')aller d. Impossible to determine 12. A voltage regulator has a ripple re0ection of -$0 d7. If the input ripple is 1 =, the output ripple is a. -$0 m= b% " )< c. 10 m= d. 1000 = 13. &hermal shutdo/n occurs in an I; regulator if a. ?o/er dissipation is too high b% Internal te)!erature i' too hi,h c. ;urrent through the device is too high d. All the above occur 1". If a linear three-terminal I; regulator is more than a fe/ inches from the filter capacitor, .ou ma. get oscillations inside the I; unless .ou use a. ;urrent limiting b% A by!a'' (a!a(itor on the in!ut !in c. A coupling capacitor on the output pin d. A regulated input voltage 1#. &he %)II series of voltage regulators produces an output voltage that is a% Po'iti e b. (egative c. 2ither positive or negative d. Bnregulated

1$. &he %)II-12 produces a regulated output voltage of a. 3 = b. " = (% "1 < d. "0 = 1%. A current booster is a transistor in a. 'eries /ith the I; regulator b% Parallel 9ith the IC re,ulator c. 2ither series or parallel d. 'hunt /ith the load 1). &o turn on a current booster, /e can drive its baseemitter terminals /ith the voltage across a. A load resistor b. A 3ener impedance c. Another transistor d% A (urrent.'en'in, re'i'tor 1-. A phase splitter produces t/o output voltages that are a. 2*ual in phase b. Bne*ual in amplitude (% O!!o'ite in !ha'e d. =er. small 20. A series regulator is an e1ample of a a% Linear re,ulator b. '/itching regulator c. 'hunt regulator d. 4c-to-dc converter 21. &o get more output voltage from a buck s/itching regulator, .ou have to a. 4ecrease the dut. c.cle b. 4ecrease the input voltage (% In(rea'e the duty (y(le d. Increase the s/itching fre*uenc. 22. An increase of line voltage into a po/er suppl. usuall. produces a. A decrease in load resistance b% An in(rea'e in load olta,e c. A decrease in efficienc. d. !ess po/er dissipation in the rectifier diodes 23. A po/er suppl. /ith lo/ output impedance has lo/ a% Load re,ulation b. ;urrent limiting c. !ine regulation d. 2fficienc. 2". A 3ener-diode regulator is a a% Shunt re,ulator b. 'eries regulator c. '/itching regulator d. Zener follo/er 2#. &he input current to a shunt regulator is a. =ariable b% Con'tant c. 2*ual to load current d. Bsed to store energ. in a magnetic field 2$. An advantage of shunt regulation is a% Built.in 'hort.(ir(uit !rote(tion

b. !o/ po/er dissipation in the pass transistor c. +igh efficienc. d. !ittle /asted po/er 2%. &he efficienc. of a voltage regulator is high /hen a. Input po/er is lo/ b. ,utput po/er is high (% Little !o9er i' 9a'ted d. Input po/er is high 2). A shunt regulator is inefficient because a. It /astes po/er b. It uses a series resistor and a shunt transistor c. &he ratio of output to input po/er is lo/ d% All o+ the abo e 2-. A s/itching regulator is considered a. Huiet b% Noi'y c. Inefficient d. !inear 30. &he 3ener follo/er is an e1ample of a a. 7oost regulator b. 'hunt regulator c. 7uck regulator d% Serie' re,ulator 31. A series regulator is more efficient than a shunt regulator because a. It has a series resistor b. It can boost the voltage (% The !a'' tran'i'tor re!la(e' the 'erie' re'i'tor d. It s/itches the pass transistor on and off 32. &he efficienc. of a linear regulator is high /hen the a% =eadroo) olta,e i' lo9 b. ?ass transistor has a high po/er dissipation c. Zener voltage is lo/ d. ,utput voltage is lo/ 33. If the load is shorted, the pass transistor has the least po/er dissipation /hen the regulator has a% 5oldba(- li)itin, b. !o/ efficienc. c. 7uck topolog. d. A high 3ener voltage 3". &he dropout voltage of standard monolithic linear regulators is closest to a. 0.3 = b. 0.% = (% 1 < d. 3.1 = 3#. In a buck regulator, the output voltage is filtered /ith a a% Cho-e.in!ut +ilter b. ;apacitor-input filter c. 4iode d. =oltage divider a 3$. &he regulator /ith the highest efficienc. is the a. 'hunt regulator b. 'eries regulator (% S9it(hin, re,ulator d. 4c-to-dc converter

3%. In a boost regulator, the output voltage is filtered /ith a a. ;hoke-input filter b% Ca!a(itor.in!ut +ilter c. 4iode d. =oltage divider 3). &he buck-boost regulator is also a. A step-do/n regulator b. A step-up regulator c. An inverting regulator d% All o+ the abo e