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5/30/2013 Darryl M Mundrick Module 7 Dissertation AlchemyStudy.com

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models

Using meditation with Eriksons stages of development can facilitate a resolution to each stages crises, and integrate the aspects of the personality into a healthier state of being.

Erik Eriksons model of the psychosocial crisis life cycle has eight stages that are progressively worked through. It consists of how personality and behavior are shaped after birth. This involves challenges to ability and cognition at specific age ranges that, if successfully negotiated, develop the skills necessary to face the next stages challenges. The skills build upon the previous ones integrating them to enable handling of the increasingly complex challenges of the successive stages. Whether through environmental challenges, or through the need to understand what is being experienced, the crisis that each stage uses as a springboard into the next, is an internal emotional conflict between dipolar attitudes Erikson called syntonic and dystonic.

These polar opposites have to be reconciled somewhere in the middle; the counterbalancing of these attitudes allows application of the proper one given any situation encountered. This becomes the foundation for the crisis and skill of the next stage to occur through. If this balance does not occur, then depending on which extreme they tend towards, they develop a behavioral tendency towards either a maladaption if syntonic, or a malignancy if dystonic. A maladaption is an overly positive attitude in regards to what experience is occurring, and a malignancy is a predominantly negative attitude. Erikson said these attitudes were shaped by how much, or how little the needs of the stages were met (Chapman, 2011).

There is a correlation that can be seen in how consciousness develops through the disciplined regular practice of meditation. In Exploring Psychology in modules: seventh edition, Myers says that most current psychologists view consciousness as our awareness of ourselves and our environment. Selective attention is the focusing of awareness (2008) beginning with stopping the internal dialogue. Once cessation of thoughts is achieved, the mind is attached to one object or idea, then continuous flow of cognition toward that object, must be accomplished, and finally complete identification is made with the idea or object (Satchidananda, 2002). When this focus of awareness is applied to the nervous system ganglia, it can be used to take the consciousness through seven stages of development. These states of mind make the person we experience. The person is the mind, and the mind is the person (Johari, 2000).

In the 1950s a study of seven practitioners of yoga meditation showed that they were able to relax into a calm state while remaining highly aware. Repeating patterns of beta brainwave rhythms of 18 20 Hz, which indicates wakefulness and alertness, and an increase in alpha and theta waves of 40 45 Hz, indicating relaxation were observed. In 1984 a study showed that EEG coherence increased between and within the cerebral hemispheres during meditation. Higher coherence means that more of the brain is being used and is associated with improved

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


quality of attention. In 2006 researcher Hankey found increased brain coherence and theorized that by activa ting larger areas of the brain, meditators are moving toward higher development of the brains potential. This activation could lead to better mental development in general (Simpkins & Simpkins, 2009).

The first stage begins in infancy, and according to Erikson, involves learning to balance trust and mistrust, to use each in the proper situation. Abuse and neglect will cause an infant to avoid risk exposure and exploration, as will being treated cruelly. Sensory distortion and withdrawal are the malfunctions at this stage (Chapman, 2011). Dr. Choquette says that the first stage of meditation on consciousness deals with security and survival. It is a focus on self. Taking care of the physical body and the situations that deal with supporting the survival of the physical body such as jobs, money, nourishment, and sleep are the focus of the first stage. Maladaptions and malignancies are present throughout the development of consciousness. In the first stage, the unresolved issues impacting survival such as addictions, withdrawal from the body and denial of basic survival needs are addressed and resolved (1995).

In the next stage self-reliance must be balanced with shame. The toddler who explores its environment is utilizing its trust in its assured survival. The toddler is realizing that there is other than itself, and self-reliance is actualized through a sense of when to hold on & when to let go. When the toddler is shown that it isnt able to do everything on its own, it experiences guilt. The malfunctions are impulsivity and compulsion (Chapman, 2011). The second stage of awareness development is relation of self and others, whether as objects or people. Choquette states that it therefore involves emotional awareness and exploring life through feeling. The establishment of healthy emotional boundaries is established here. Greed for pleasurable sensations, addictions as substitutes for love, dissociations from emotions and feeling sensations, lack of emotional boundaries and absolute thinking in polarized extremes in the forms of submissive-dominance and passivity-aggressiveness malfunctions, as with Eriksons theories, are manifestations of the relationships between self and others (1995).

In the continuation of the developmental stages, stage three in Eriksons model deals with the crisis experienced by the pre-adolescent. The ability to devise actions and projects is balanced against the feeling that its wrong to initiate things. Malfunctions in this stage are ruthlessness and inhibition (Chapman, 2011). Just as Erikson said that this stage was to devise actions and projects, Choquette says it is the stage in which the ability to make decisions, choices and utilize creative expression is realized. When resistances are overcome, there is a sense of community, belonging, and working as a team. Until malfunctions are worked through though, the person in this stage only relies upon the guidance of their own ego, which often manifest as repression and dissociation of the ids desires (1995).

Industriousness counterbalancing inferiority characterizes the fourth stage of development in Eriksons model. This is achievement of meaningful activity, the advancement of competence and skills giving satisfaction. If the

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


adolescent is unable to discover and grow in their capabilities and strengths, then inferiority and a feeling of uselessness may ensue (Chapman, 2011). At this stage, consciousness is able to enjoy situations for what they are, without expectations. Author Johari further declares that within this stage a person becomes aware of ones role, ones actions, and ones life goal, and develops a love for them self (2000). From this stages successful navigation, the person begins to see from anothers point of view, able to assume societal roles and follow behavioral rules. Malfunctions at this stage involve self destructive and negative mental dialogue, including difficulties in giving and receiving love (Choquette, 1995).

The final stage to be discussed in this paper as example is the fifth stage of Eri ksons model. The crisis here is between identity and role confusion. Identity is who a person sees them self as, and who they are in relation to the world. Role confusion occurs when the person cannot clearly perceive who they are, or how they can relate to the world (Chapman, 2011). Meditation on the nerve plexus at the throat causes clear perception about self and situations. When the dialogue in the head is made supportive and positive, then undistorted communication can be established with others (Choquette, 1995).

Although only five of the eight stages are briefly discussed within this paper, it shows a definite correlation between Eriksons psychosocial model of development and a traditional Eastern model of consciousness development. This paper has endeavored to not only show a correlation that can drawn between these two models, but suggest that through further research, a composite model could be synthesized to form a basis for a highly effective therapy in which the balancing between the psychosocial polarities can be optimized for greatest health of the adult personality. These concepts are illustrated in the following text as preliminary integrative models to use for therapy.

Muladhara, Root Support is the consciousness of time, through use of memory.

Its functions are to conduct the survival level of existence, which is accomplished through memory. This is learning by trial and error through exploration; survival, in the sense of doing what it takes to stay alive. It thereby regulates the aspects of life that are such necessities as eating; sleeping; awareness of danger; survival instinct, and fight or flight response of the limbic system. Neurologically, these behavior patterns imprint in the reptilian brain making them automatic for the greatest effectiveness in survival situations.

Muladhara radiates four vibrations that for purposes of concentrating attention are conceived of as flower petals. These vibrations are the qualities which influence a person until the four nerve ganglia at the coccyx, which are the petals anatomical manifestation, are refined by the vibrations of a higher chakra. These vibrations are:

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


Individuality; Egotism; Materialism; Dominance. In addition, one petal holds past life information, while the other three hold memories of this current life and its interrelated karmas.

The associated activity of desires in Muladharic consciousness perception is hoarding. Collecting and saving are a manifestation of this desire. In survival level consciousness there is a fear of never having enough to survive, so more is always wanted and is the primary motivation for activity. When the person is in a chronic negative state of mind, this can become the behavioral attribute of greed. In a higher and positive state, such as when the ego is refined, this hoarding desire causes a behavioral influence of patience to rule the persons perception about their potential survival.

This chakra, or energy node, gets blocked by thoughts and feelings of fear, which prevent it from distributing the earth element energies correctly within the system. Regulating your life through self discipline liberates the energies stuck in Muladhara by forming positive routines that restructure your activities and other energy expenditures to be supportive of your goals. As this becomes more pronounced, your ego realizes there is nothing to fear. It experiences that you have plenty of resources available to achieve whatever the desired goals are. Consciousness becomes stabilized in Muladhara when the four internal elements are balanced in equal proportions, negative energies are grounded out regularly so that positive energies are predominant within the organs, and you are able to easily re-center in the midst of challenges to your perceived survival. All of the persons self-discipline is intended to achieve these three abilities stated above.

This chakra distributes the earth element systemically. The vibrational qualities of this energy are stability, density, heaviness (mass), solidification, cold, and dryness. It is the passive (yin) by-product of the union of fiery energies and watery energies.

The power developed from refining the earth energy in Muladhara, and stabilizing consciousness within this center through self-discipline is the power To dare. This is courage in the form of acting without attachment to success or failure and without aversion to obstacles or the effort sacrificed in acting upon those challenges. This power of courage to dare, is symbolized as the white tiger; a disc or coin; a shield or pantacle (used for scraping the Earth to plant seeds). It allows the mystic to gather and direct energies through the harnessing of forces into determined patterns. The eight core manifestations of earth energy are as: Rebirth, or negatively as randomness; New beginnings & opportunities, or negatively as isolation; the collective wisdom of the ancestors, or as infectious disease; and as the manifestation of blessings, or negatively as disruption.

The anatomical structures of the earth element are the chiefly the lungs, the large intestine, the legs, feet, bones, flesh, hair, integumentary, skeletal and accessory systems, and the subtle energy channels (nadis/meridians).

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


When the earth energy builds up within these organs it expresses itself as related personality traits and as physical conditions. These vibrational expressions can manifest negatively or positively depending upon personal history issues from the infant stage of psyche development. Psyche; or soul, in this context as being the conglomeration of mental processes including the id, or animal consciousness composed of desires and instinctual awarenesss; the ego, or internal dialogue that interprets the ids impulses, and mediates with the third process of social programming called superego, and also the conscious and subconscious personality traits. Positively, the earth energy manifests the aforementioned Power of Courage. The energy of courage is developed through the infant aspect of consciousness being nurtured with attention. This attention demonstrates to it that it is wanted and accepted assuring it of continued safety and survival. When this nurturing of attention has not been the dominant experience, then the earth energy can build up negatively, manifesting as depression. The genitals, legs and feet are that which root and ground you into material existence, governs and regulates cellular production and somatic nourishment.

Individualized consciousness development (psyche/ jivatman) in Muladhara is the infant stage. The mother as provider of nourishment causes the most impressions that form the behavioral patterns of survival consciousness within the present life. Safety is first learned as the space around the mother. This usually occurs between birth to nine months, and produces a symbiotic bonding. Sensorial feeling is the predominant way of experiencing and perceiving. The natural course of development as the child ages is to begin expanding the safe boundaries outward from its mother through exploration. But, at this stage it is body orientated, sensorial exploration, as the infants new individuated consciousness is still only aware of itself as being what it feels. Its environment, including other beings is not experienced as separate and distinct forms. Here the new soul (psyche) is aware of itself only as the concept of a physical self.

The aspect of the soul that is the personality traits is generated by each organ radiating its elemental charge forming the aura. Since experiences and responses to them are specific and unique to each individual, so is each auric field. As awareness develops in maturity and sophistication in the higher stages of psycho-spiritual growth, this personal history of experiences forms the internal dialogue and produces the personality that interfaces with both the world, and the individuals (embodied spirit being) highest possible potential of actualization, called the Higher, or transpersonal Self.

At five to nine months, the infant starts to differentiate between its own sensations and its physical environment. Until individuated consciousness is stabilized in higher chakras through the conscious evolution referred to as spiritual discipline, the Muladharic person oftentimes feels compelled to focus his efforts on obtaining and maintaining the needs that ensure his physical security. His ego at this level is controlled by his employer or those

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


who provide his continued security. The consciousness in this state of development often functions mainly in a negative feedback loop, working constantly to maintain a homeostatic status quo.

As instinctual urges are a primary motivator for the person of Muladharic consciousness basic functions are seldom under complete conscious control, often being directed by strong imprinted patterns within the subconscious. He may thereby perceive sex as a way to ground out (thereby wasting) excess energy and to satisfy the instinctual urges. Due to the massive expenditures of energy required to maintain this state of being in constant crisis-survival mode, the person requires eight or more hours of sleep, usually on their stomach, as it induces the feeling of comfort and protection of the vulnerable abdomen.

Behavioral and physical imbalance patterns from this life and previous lives stored in Muladhara are those that resonate with the energy of Mangal Dev, the Spirit of the planet Mars (Johari, 2000). These Spiritual bio-psychosocial imbalances are at root cause a belief in the overwhelming hostility of the environment. Often this imprint comes about in infancy, and when it manifests in older age it can become a social phobia centered on the belief that disapproval of the selected group would lead to rejection and lack of survival. Psychologically, the root malfunction is trust issues; Feelings of emotional abandonment and a general lack of trust in self or others coming from feeling that there is something wrong with them.

According to Sonia Choquette and others, imbalances can manifest as varied addictions effecting survival needs. Among such imbalances are: chronic drug abuse, alcoholism, food or work addictions, and the craving of fats and sugars. These imbalances are further expressed in various forms depending upon whether they have occurred through an excess of energy or depletion.

In excess of energy, Muladhara is in over-activity manifesting such conditions as obesity; excessive spending; selfishness; self-indulgence; self-centeredness; paranoia; mania, including OCDs, bi-polarity, and chronic fatigue from using up energy so fast. Hoarding and greed come about in response to the weight and gravity of the overabundant earth energy causes an obsessive focus upon the things that ensure survival. Materialistic philosophy, lethargy, resistance to change and aggressiveness can come about as the qualities of stability and density of the earth element calcify the person with mundane concerns (Choquette, 1995).

Under functioning of this chakra comes about when it is deficient of energy, and can manifest such conditions as: passivity to situations, depression or anxiety as there is an insufficient amount of earth energy to handle survival matters effectively, resistance to structure, fears relating to survival come about through, but excess water element ; being underweight, and anorexia; daydreaming, lack of focus, disconnection and withdrawal from the body come about through excess air element and deficient earth element energy to maintain grounding, while

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


deficient earth element and excess fire element can lead to restlessness, inability to sit still, and self-denial of basic survival needs (Choquette, 1995).

In his paper Using the Chakra System in Psychotherapy, Author Ross Cohen quotes Ballentines 1999 work Radical Healing, saying that when energy is blocked in the first chakra, it can manifest as physical conditions such as hemorrhoids, constipation, colitis, sciatica, tight hamstrings, and varicose veins. Cohen concludes his discussion of Muladhara saying that author Prendergast, who is much cited in Cohens paper, states that over the years, the first chakra has been the most commonly blocked in his psychotherapy clients (Cohen, 2006).

In the extreme, traumas during infancy can cause extreme withdrawal contributing to such conditions as autism. When this occurs, the child has imprinted in the autonomic reflex, located in the center of the brain in such areas as the amygdala, or the medulla oblongata. These imprints form a cyclic thought pattern in the subconscious that it is not safe to explore or to interact. This could likewise produce an adualistic psychosis in which they lack physical boundaries to their sense of self (Myers). Lesser manifestations from trauma can be in the form of narcissism, childhood schizophrenia, timidity, and info phobia. The mental faculties of the infant are still quite limited through underdevelopment, so perception comes down to whether a situation is nourishing, or threatening. In the adult, this can oftentimes become the perceptual filter of good and evil concepts; whether something is acceptable or whether that person, place, thing or situation is deemed bad, and must be rejected (Wilber).

When the energies of Muladhara are balanced, the person is grounded, has good physical health, and feels safe and secure. When this state of balance is prolonged, they will develop stability within their life as a natural expression of this state of being, since they wont be neglecting crucial basic aspects of it. From this stability, prosperity will develop. They will be able to act from the experience of being in the here and now within the present, aware of being comfortably within their body. This being comfortable within ones own body is a foundational necessity for internal stillness and peace of mind.

Foods that have a strong effect upon the state of Muladhara are: red meat and animal fats, coffee and colas; including cola nuts, peppers and other hot spices, and green vegetables that are high in iron. If Muladhara is in excess, which means a blockage in the meridians that are connected to it, it causes a backup of energy within the chakra itself, which is a distributive hub of energy and perception in that state, then restriction of these foods is indicated. If the person is deficient in energy within this center, then a greater quantity of these foods should be included within the diet (Choquette, 1995).

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


When the aforementioned four petal vibrations are balanced and pulled into the chakra through meditative focus of awareness, it causes the seed sound, or bija mantra:Lang or Lam, of this chakra, and can be used to effect it (Johari, 2000).

When balanced, the healthy color of this chakra is bright red. When imbalanced though, the color that is radiated out into the aura shows the predominant manifestation of the imbalance as seen clairvoyantly by Swami Subramuniyaswami: Greenish red-rage from jealousy or envy Blackish red-hate and resentment Dull red-rage, uncontrolled passion or anger (fury) Vivid scarlet-anger seen as leaping flames Dark crimson-lust, impure and coarse passion Red rose-pure love, caring felt for a loved one Crimson red-emotional love, passion Muddy red-selfishness, base motives Pink-tolerance and compassion Pure red-love as friendship, athleticism Brown-industrious accumulation Dull brown-greed and miserliness

Svadisthana, Ones own place, is the consciousness of reasoning through the comparison and contrasting of opposites, in order to relate.

Its function is to organize information for the purposes of relating. Through this organization of the information memorized by Muladhara, a pattern is concluded of a set of dipolar extremes that form the basis of future comparisons. The organization system categorizes the information gathered by the five senses, classifying them as either pleasurable-good, or unpleasant-bad. This is accomplished upon the physical and emotional realities (Myers, 2008, Subramuniyaswami, 2002).

Neurologically these imprints occur within the thalamus through specific endorphins, and other hormone cocktails produced in response to the experiences. This causes a greater ease in repeating the response in similar circumstances by directing the voluntary muscles and nervous system to repeat the conditioned reaction (Johari, 2000).

An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


Svadisthana is the energy-consciousness center that radiates six petals as the ways in which energy and consciousness of the person centered in Svadisthana expresses reason. These six ways are: as diplomacy; as sensitivity; as cleverness; as doubt; as anxiety; and as procrastination.

The innate desire for the person in this stage is for belonging. Community is a natural human quality. This impulse often directs people to cooperate peacefully with some group so that they can have this source of belonging. Behaviors of attachment continue to occur, until this impulse is consciously directed, and then a purity of purpose manifests. Creative activities that can be a shared group experience arise from this state, such as art, music or even politics (Johari, 2000). This chakra gets blocked by feelings of guilt, which causes a diminished ability to systemically distribute the element of water. Experiences and beliefs of trust liberate energy within this state of consciousness. Taking pleasure in ones life experience, trusting that as all things and beings are aspects of God, prayers will be heard and answered and needs will be provided for. It is the surrender of attachments to results that allows effort to be pure. Such surrender of attachments includes those from the past. When a person can act freed from expectations of pleasure or displeasure; from belief in what will occur; freed from the result having personal emotional consequence, then the effort is unencumbered, and God: the Universe, can meet the effort halfway. In any given situation, a person has only to do as much as they are personally able, ask the Universe/God for the rest and then trust that the mechanism of the Universe will carry through with manifesting the result of their actions.

The person should act from their own highest potential: the best of their abilities, taking every opportunity to express the qualities of their higher Self, letting the outcome be whatever it manifests as. This utilizes, and reinforces to the subconscious the principle that as everything is God, everything is connected, and it is not all the responsibility of any one being to fix the whole world themselves. Each person can only do what they are able to, and the universe has to handle the rest. This surrendering to the Divine stabilizes consciousness within the Svadisthana level of experience (Subramuniyaswami, 2002).

As stated above, Svadisthana distributes water energy throughout the body. The qualities of energy in this vibratory state are contraction; darkness; cold; wet; and passive transmutation (such as with water eroding stone). When consciousness is stabilized within this energy center, through surrender to trusting in ones inherent divinity, and refining of the water energy, the power developed is focused mental concentration: Attention. The focusing of awareness into attention is a gradually progressive development, leading from concentration (dharana), to meditation (dhyana), to contemplation (Samadhi). Concentration is focus upon one thing for thirty seconds to a minute, without interruptions by the internal dialogue. Meditation is to focus upon one thing for ten to fifteen minutes without interruption by other thoughts. Contemplation is that universal panacea, which comes through a half hour of focus or greater.

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models

Awareness is the light of consciousness illuminating experience, and to be able focus it into attention at will is not only a prerequisite for the actualization of an individuals fu ll potential; it is a worthwhile goal for any aspirant in itself (Johari, 2000).

The power to know, is this contemplative attention of awareness. It is knowledge, as cognizance from experience and study. It is the Observation of Reality. To be able to perceive the universe as it truly is; flowing streams and transitory fields of energy. This power is symbolized by the blue/black snake or turtle; a cup or chalice; or a cauldron or womb. It is the holy grail of Arthurian legend (Chia, 1993, Bardon, 1953). Elemental water manifests positively or negatively in these eight ways: as the ending of cycles, or as death; as the reversal of fortunes, or as chaos; as wealth or as insanity; and finally as either determination, or as stubbornness (Epega, 2003).

Physiologically, Svadisthana activates between seven and fourteen years. This energy hub governs the anatomical structures of the kidneys and bladder; reproductive organs; sexual energy, the fluids in the body; semen, blood, fat, urine, mucus; the lymphatic, urinary, excretory and reproductive systems. It also is the organizer of the abdominal energy, as primordial source from which life forms originate and return to (Johari, 2000).

The toddler stage, as with the previous stage of infancy, has the experiences relating to this chakras elemental energy stored up in Svadisthanas prominent organs. The Kidneys and bladder are the anatomical structures most involved in the stage of individualized consciousness that correlates to Svadisthana. The water energy builds up with a positive charge as gentleness from experiences that teach the ego part of the soul that it is able to trust, thereby allowing healthy attachment. This produces a working knowledge of when to hold on to a person, thing, or later in life, a situation, and when to let go of it. But, when the water energy builds up with a negative charge, it is as fears from traumas at this stage of development (Chia, 1993, Bradshaw, 1990).

The toddler begins to explore its environment at nine to eighteen months of age, in an effort to expand its cognition of what is safe. Here the father-patriarchic archetype has the greatest effect upon the toddler, in the form of being the setter of limitations and boundaries. The toddler learns about its environment by walking and dealing with overcoming physical obstacles. Through this, the child is able to form the basic boundaries of its emotional self (Bradshaw, 1990).

There is an ongoing development moving out of its natural narcissism, establishing differentiation between its own emotions and those of others. Even so, emotions in regard to the mother are still of primary importance. Increasingly, the child realizes that what it feels is not always identical to what the world feels and cognition grows

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


that the world is not an extension of itself physically, or emotionally. Through this exploration and through learning to walk, emotional balance is developed, learning when to hold on, and when to let go. Later in life, this will enable a foundation for fidelity, for loving relationships, and to be able to grieve the transitions in life and move on when appropriate (Bradshaw, 1990, Wilber, 1996).

At the age of fifteen months to three years, the toddler begins understanding social order. This early cognition of social structure, and the childs own place within it, comes mostly from the father in form of simple dominant/submissive roles (Bradshaw, 1990). With its sense of self and other, the toddler is able to experience time, but not yet conceptualize it. It can experience being affected by time, but not understand how to utilize it (Johari, 2000).

Society encourages imprinting of these roles to maintain internal psychological homeostasis, and the status quo externally; a healthy individual in a healthy, smooth running society. The social element of dominant and submissive roles is built upon the toddlers understanding of walking; as a mode of progression, and as the means by which to explore its environment.

As it explores, the navigation of the obstacles it encounters are correlated by its ego as being safe to progress in, or as needing retreat to where it is safe. It is the prototype of basic linear reality that governs the popular Western cultures model of time. With successful navigation of this stage, the psyche has developed a two dimensional perception of going forward to explore what is other, or having to go back to the safety of self which has been identified with so far (Wilson, 1983)

All of the efforts in Svadisthana are to attain a balance between inner and outer worlds of experience. This drive to balance polarities can cause the ego to be controlled by the opposite sex for the chance of sexual union. Sex is desired for enjoyment, and without the spiritual discipline built in Muladhara, it is easy for a person to indulge in excess. The person who is primarily in a state of Svadisthana consciousness will often feel most comfortable sleeping in the fetal position for eight hours or more (Johari, 2000).

The patterns of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that resonate with Svadisthana and so are stored within this chakra are governed by the planet they correlate to: Mercury, and its consciousness; the Hindu deity Budhdeva. These habitual patterns guide the healthy development and functioning, or the malfunctioning of the individual in regards to relationships (Johari, 2000).

Imbalances in this chakra manifest as the disassociation from emotions and feeling sensations, and as dualistic behaviors polarized toward an extreme in such conditions as: submissiveness/passivity or

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


dominating/aggressiveness; the absolutism of all or nothing extremes, in which options are only one way or the other; lack of emotional boundaries and not knowing when to say no, or building up emotional walls to keep from getting close to people (Choquette, Wilber, 1995, ).

Excess of water energy in this chakra can manifest narcissism in which the ego perceives the world as an extension of itself; Addictions to pleasure or pain as sensory stimulation that generates emotional stimulation. Sexual addictions, obsessive attachments, and excessive mood swings are dysfunctions which can be caused by an excess of water. Being prone to indulgence in excess of things, extreme physical or emotional sensitivity, and emotional dependency or instability can be manifestations from excess water as well, but, so too can feeling degratory shame, feeling unworthy of good things because of a low self worth, and poor boundaries (Choquette, 1995,Wilber, 1996).

Water deficiencies lead to the dysfunctions of borderline dissociative pathologies. Conditions such as emotional numbness and fear of feeling, can lead to being overly intellectual and analytical which can occur through strong air influence when water is deficient. Avoidance of pleasure and of sexuality can manifest from this state too (Choquette, 1995, Wilber, 1996). Fear of change, poor social skills, boredom, and rigidity of body, beliefs and behavior can come through a strong earth influence upon a deficient water state, as can a lack of desire, passion or excitement (the metaphorical stick in the mud). Fire acting upon lack of water can manifest as bullying, insensitivity, being overly controlling, critical and judgmental. Feeling lost in emotions and overwhelmed by the lack of emotional boundaries is common for this state. In general, the ego is constantly tormented by being invaded by the world (Choquette, 1995).

Cohen quoting author Myss about the physical diseases which can manifest from imbalances in Svadisthana, have among them ovarian and prostate cancer, the fibroids being due to creative energy not being utilized well; and cites Ballentine saying: a person may also experience STDs, menstrual pain, cystitis, infertility, and/or impotence (Cohen, 2006).

When in a balanced state, Svadisthana supports the experiences of having an ability to embrace change, a sense of graceful physical movements, emotional insight, and a nurturing of self and others. When this chakra is in a balanced state, healthy boundaries with an ability to enjoy pleasure without getting lost in it, sexual satisfaction and passion are just some of the benefits (Choquette, 1995).

Sweets are the foods that resonate with Svadisthana. These include chocolate, berries and melons, honey, and ghee. It also includes bread and butter, milk, and tomatoes (Johari, 2000).

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


When this chakra is functioning in a balanced state, its six petals resonate harmonically producing the sound of the bija mantra vam, or vang, and a clear orange light (Johari, 2000). Imbalances of this chakra however show up as the colors as seen by the clairvoyant vision of Swami Subramuniyaswami (1999): Light orange red- the color of love of intellectual superiority Reddish orange- pride and love of power Bright orange- intellectual aggressiveness

Manipura Gem city, is the consciousness of the personal force of will.

The function of this chakra is to direct the subtle and physiological fires within the system. The same force of decision making that guides fire within the system as distribution of muscular heat, or that of digestion (Johari, 2000), also is the impetus that imposes order upon chaos through conceptual mapping with symbol systems (Wilber, 1996). The ability to transmit information that will last requires a symbolic construct which the mind is only capable of beginning within this stage of development (Wilson, 1983).

These systems of perception, learning, and believing are called reality tunnels, or paradigms. In discussing Dr. Timothy Learys concepts about breaking deep mental conditioning, Futurist author Robert Anton Wilson says of the reality tunnel concept that it is an individuals set of reference points, a subconscious set of mental "filters" formed from their beliefs and experiences causing each individual to interpret the same world differently. The popular modern term is paradigm. He goes on to say that these patterns are imprinted within the Left frontal cortex (1983).

There are 10 distinct expressions radiating off of the vibration of Manipura, each an aspect of willpower. Five of these petals control the lower two chakras of memory and reason, and the other five petals control the two chakras above Manipura, the centers of personal love, and understanding: divine love (Johari, 2000).

The most common behavioral attributes of this consciousness are the desire for achievement of fame, immortality of ones name being remembered, and power over the external world. Whenever the person centered within this consciousness appears to have the progress of these desires impeded or threatened, then anger can quickly manifest. A more positive result of these desires can commonly be hard work and effort made to fulfill them. The exercising of willpower, making choices, assuming responsibility, and expressing creativity are all controlled by the fires of Manipura (Johari, 2000).

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This chakra gets blocked by shame and self-disappointment (Choquette, 1995). Consciously directing willpower in acts of selfless service liberates the energies in this chakra. This aligns you with harmony. All karmic lessons here are about harmony. It is necessary to consciously redirect the internal fires to spiritual ends, such as in Kundalini yoga, or Taoist internal alchemy, to stabilize consciousness within Manipura (Johari, 2000). Harmony: between heart and mind; inner and outer; between thoughts and emotions; between, most importantly, ones own inner desires and the Universes process of unfoldment. This is the expression of living in the awareness of divine guidance supporting our lives. This awareness generates a charisma of confidence. When the various levels are aligned, opportunities and good fortune manifest more easily from resistance being overcome through a reconciliation of opposites.

When energy is in an active, agitated state of vibration, mystics call it fire, recognizing the predominant qualities of expansiveness, light, heat, and active transformation (Bardon, 1958). Refining the energy of fire, and also stabilizing consciousness within Manipura causes the power of fire to begin developing. Consciousness is stabilized here by harmonizing the various levels of ones multi-dimensional being together. This causes the person to have security in their personal identity (Johari, 2000).

This power of fire aforementioned, is known as to Will. This power to Will, is the agitated state of energy refined to higher frequencies and guided by manipuric consciousness. The positive qualities of love and joy which radiate from the heart and small intestines are, in the form of the personal will, aligned with the cosmic principles, so that microcosm and macrocosm work towards the same goal (Johari, 2000). This power of willing consciously directed change to manifest is also called Intent (Castaneda, 1998). The power of Joy: to Will, is symbolized by the red phoenix; a wand or a staff. It is your purpose, aim, and determination focusing the transformations of energy to be consciously directed into a predictable result.

In the objective world, fire manifests in four positive ways, and as four negative reflections of those ways: as the open flow of energy, such as birth, or as arrogance; as fulfillment of potential, or as not fulfilling the potential; as the clearing away of obstacles, or as tragedies; and as insight and illumination, or as ignorance and self-deception (Abimbola, 1997).

The physiological activation of Manipura chakra is during the years between fourteen and twenty-one years of age, as the onset of puberty. The anatomical structures of Manipura are the heart, small intestine, liver spleen, stomach and pancreas, the digestive system, and the head and spine, as That which decides (Johari, 2000). The heart pumps blood, keeping it circulating through the whole body. The blood cells carry oxygen, which the cells require as food. Greater blood flow to a localized area increases the heat in that area. The liver and spleen store and purify blood, while the stomach and pancreas catalyze the breakdown of food into useful ingredients

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which is then actually digested through absorption in the small intestine (cite A&P textbook). As the primary organs involved in the fiery processes of the body, the heart and small intestines store the majority of the negative and positive fiery energies of experiences.

The soul, or psyche, develops within the preschool or childhood stage at this psychological level. The individualized consciousness has developed only a simple identity up until this point. This basic level of identity comes about over a few years and 3 sub-stages.

Starting around 7 months, the faculty of identity begins developing the formation of images in the conscious mind. This capacity of abstraction allows a person to conceptualize information in the form of meaningful symbols which can be taught to others and passed on through the years. From two to four years, this really kicks in with the ability to form symbols, and at four to seven years, this representational mind of concepts and abstractions develops (). The more that the self of individualized consciousness, the soul, identifies with this representational mind, the more it represents itself as symbols, concepts and language. More commonly, this is called the intellectual mind (Wilber, 1996).

This intellectual mind is the internal dialogue which is the constant flow of description of the selfs experiences. Everyone is their own narrator it seems. At this stage, the sense of time is grasped with the internal dialogue enabling anxiety over the future, and memories of the past. The concept of a linear progression in which a point A is moved from, towards a point B through a direct causal relationship, causes the perception of a Euclidean three dimensional space (Wilson, 1983).

While psychologically the soul can only conceive of di-polarity in the previous state and stage of development that is Svadisthana, perceiving dichotomous relationships such as black-white; up-down; and left-right (Johari,2000), in childhood stage, and indeed, that of Manipuric consciousness, the faculty of progression adds the dimension of forward-backward motion (Wilson, 1983). Manipuric consciousness always seeks progress and development; motion that is, in some form or state (Johari, 2000). This author feels that it does this to constantly attempt to find new points of equilibrium at higher levels, such as is described by author Ken Wilber in his discussion of nested hierarchies (Wilber, 1996).

Conceptualization also allows the self to see from anothers point of view. This enables the self to determine who it is, and how it wishes to live its life (Myers, 2008). This is the beginning of understanding social roles, which will become more fully developed in the following chakras psychological state (Johari, 2000). Here though, exploration of social roles begins with the choosing of behavioral models. Identification by imitation of anothers image and deciding upon preferences develops strength of purpose, giving a reference point for starting projects

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and making choices in the best ways to proceed with those projects. A person who can fully utilize the faculties of Manipura is able to bring a chosen order to the seeming chaos of events (Bradshaw, 1990).

The psychological power developed through refining the self at this stage is successful stochastic processing. A seemingly random series, out of which conscious selections are made, is called a stochastic process (Myers, 2008). In mathematics this non random pattern is called information; coherence, or organization (Wilber, 1996). The byproduct of this internal dialogue is what author Carlos Castaneda referred to as self reflection. Self reflection is a maze by which what we believe we see projected upon events of the world (1998). This becomes justification for ones actions when the first chakras imprints determine a threat to life, the second chakras imprints say a threat to status, or the third chakras imprints determine a threat to beliefs (Wilson, 1983). Whenever self reflection is triggered, it validates and reinforces the behavioral patterns that are recorded within each chakra. The behavioral patterns within each chakra altogether make up the personal history that the individual identifies with, and their internal dialogue refers to for validation of beliefs. The karmic patterns within Manipura chakra vibrate with the resonance of Surya dev, the intelligence of the sun (Johari, 2000).

When consciousness and energies of an individual are focused, or centered, within Manipura, the person can see sex as a release from tension, and as a means to acquire a sense of authority, and control. When sleeping, the person at this state of psychological or spiritual growth will often find comfort in sleeping on their right side, between four to six hours. The egoic self is self centered in a narcissistic way, with all their efforts being directed toward personal gain and power (Johari, 2000).

Imbalances with Manipura chakra lead to psychoneurosis. The representational mind can repress and dissociate itself from lower chakra impulses. Within the individual this is neurosis, but, within the community it takes the form of ecological crisis.

Excess of energy can manifest as a variety of conditions among them the negative personality traits of over aggressiveness, feelings of intellectual superiority, and of rage. Dominator behavior with tendencies towards being controlling, competitive, arrogant, and stubbornness are common. Unhealthy levels of ambition, hyperactivity and feeling compulsions to achieve occur from too much fire energy as well. Due to this, a person with an excess of fire can often feel attracted to sedatives (Choquette, 1995).

Dysfunctions due to a deficiency of fire energy, can cause a feeling of life being draining, being overcome by lethargy, chronic fatigue syndrome, and having a tendency to feel cold (due to a lack of energy). When the complication is compounded by an excess of another element (caused by over-activity in another chakra), then it impacts Manipura in additional ways. From an influence on the system by an excess of water and deficiency of fire,

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comes passivity; submissiveness; low self esteem; a general lack of confidence; weak willpower, a lack of self discipline, and indecisiveness. When it is overabundance of air that is impacting the deficiency of fire, then the person can feel inclined to put blame for events on others because they feel powerless; the ego can become the decision maker, and so egocentricity can plague them, as can a mindset of victimization; anxiety can be suffered, and solving challenges through manipulation can be a favored strategy for problem resolution. Finally, with an influencing stimulus of earth excess upon a fire deficiency, such conditions as passive aggressiveness, having poor digestion, being generally lazy, and a lack of assertiveness can be suffered. The person may have a lack of concentration, being overly focused upon the past or future to the detriment of the present, and may feel drawn to embrace philosophies of rationalism or materialism. Due to the general feeling of lack of energy that comes with a deficiency of fire, a person with this dysfunction can be drawn to the use of stimulants (Wilber, Choquette, 1996, 1995).

Physical conditions that can manifest from energy being imbalanced within Manipura are stomach conditions, peptic ulcers, diabetes, and adrenal dysfunction (Cohen, 2006).

When Manipura is in a balanced state, there is good self discipline, confidence and the ability to take risks. The person finds they are energetic, and is spontaneous in their decisions, warm to others, humorous and playful. Responsibility is natural coming as a positive expression of self (Choquette, 1995).

Foods that effect Manipura are apricots; oranges; cranberries; papaya; sweet potatoes and carrots, and animal products such as eggs; fish, and chicken. Deficiency requires greater intake of these foods, while an excess of fire requires a diminishment of the same foods (Choquette, Johari, 1995, 2000).

The core sound of Manipura when it is in a balanced state, with all the petal vibrations resonating in harmony is the tone sounding like ram, or rang. In the aura, this appears as a bright yellow light, but, imbalances appear as the colors of (Subramuniyaswami, 1999): Sickly lemon yellow-intellectual superiority Bluish golden yellow-pure love for all of humanity Golden yellow-pure intellectual attainment

Anahata, the un-struck sound, is the consciousness of direct cognition and comprehension.

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The function of Anahata is to direct prana, the subtle electromagnetic energy considered in Hinduism to be the universes life-force carried through the air and vital breath, throughout the biological and energetic systems systemically, to the five regions of action. Udana: the prana in the head and throat that converts sound to speech and music. Prana, is the life force within the heart, lungs, and air flowing through the nasal passages. It is the primary life breath, the energy before it adapts to a specific function within the organism Samana: is the life force between the heart and navel, which separates nutrients from waste. Apana, is the prana between navel and rectum, it fills up to discharge the undigested waste in the small intestine, ejaculation of semen, and supports the elevation of kundalini. Vyana, is what prana becomes when it fills the systems of circulation to relegate circulatory, lymphatic and nervous systems (Johari, 2000).

When, in adolescence the sexual impulse awakens, imprinting occurs in the left neo cortex (Wilson, 1983). This sexual impulse serves to redirect vyana prana into sexual energy, mixing with apana prana for climax. This sexual energy also is used by the body to energize the representational mind with innovativeness thru combining with udana and samana pranas (Johari, 2000). This sexual impulse is also ardently constrained by many societies through cultural and social taboos, dictating the proper and improper use of this impulse and energy. These taboos serve to direct the energetic impulse to support the status quo of whichever socio-cultural group the adolescent belongs to (Wilson, 1983).

Anahata chakra radiates twelve vibratory petals. Each is an expression of an archetypal cognition pattern, which ancient Greeks correlated to the twelve clusters of stars we know as the Zodiac. Pythagoras taught that these twelve archetypal perspectives are a microcosmic relation to the vibrations (energies) of the macrocosmic zodiac constellations. This is an expression of the Hermetic axiom as above, so below, found in the concept that it is the macrocosmic daimon, the higher Self, which cognates through the vehi cle of the psyche (the soul), which acts as an intermediary between the cosmic self and the terrestrial self.

Michael S. Schneider speaks about Barthelemy lAnglais statements of intent in relation to the higher Self in his book on sacred geometry A beginners guide to constructing the universe, in which he states that: The red energy of Aries embodies the Intent I seek my Higher Self. The scarlet (red-orange) energy of Taurus embodies I seek my Higher Self through what I have. The orange energy of Gemini embodies the Intent I seek my Higher Self through what I think. The amber (orange-yellow) energy of Cancer embodies the Intent I seek my Higher Self through what I feel. The yellow energy of Leo embodies I seek my Higher Self through what I create. The yellow-green energy of Virgo embodies I seek my Higher Self through what I learn.

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The emerald green energy of Libra embodies the Intent I seek my Higher Self through what I balance. The turquoise (green-blue) energy of Scorpio embodies I seek my Higher Self through what I desire. The blue energy of Sagittarius is embodied in the Intent I seek my Higher Self therefore I am. The indigo (blue-violet) energy of Capricorn is embodied in: I seek my Higher Self through what I use. The violet energy of Aquarius is embodied in the Intent I seek my Higher Self through humanity. The crimson (violet-red) energy of Pisces is embodied in the Intent I seek my Higher Self, and I dont seek my Higher Self (1995).

Consciousness in this state tends to focus upon activities in which goal orientation is primary, with an awareness being placed upon ones own actions, and purpose in life; ones destiny-the purpose of ones incarnating when and where they did. This leads to desires of motion, of doing something worthwhile, seen in the attributes that attend a consciousness focused in this state, such as, restlessness, activity, and bodily respiration (Johari, 2000). This destiny that each person comes to Earth having chosen to fulfill is that person s own personal path to reunion through realization with your Higher Self. Each human being is only a projection of specific aspects of their Higher Self into the material dimensions (Epega, 2003).

The air energy of Anahata is blocked by grief, and is freed-up, liberated, by personal love in its highest state, that of integrity. All karmic lessons here are about integrity.

Integrity is here conceived of as the maintaining of conscious awareness that as all that exists is God, so too is each individual person, including oneself, is also an aspect of God. Furthermore, this concept is held consciously while relating to internal and external experiences. With integrity, a person begins to view, and perceive the inherent divinity within each person, place, thing or situation, and to see them as an expression of the One Being. Hindus call this One Being, Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, when relating to It as the source of consciousness. When relating to this Ultimate Reality as the source of substance It is referred to as ParaShakti (Johari, 2000).

The air energy builds up negative or positive charges within the liver and gall bladder due to the experiences of the related psychological stage. The positive air energy builds up as kindness, but the negative energy stores up as anger.

This air element is the energetic qualities of heat and moistness, lightness, amorphousness, changeability and mercuriality. It is the active (yang) byproduct of the union between fire and water, and so intermediates between the extremes.

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When air energy is refined here, and consciousness is stabilized through integrity within this center, then the power to be silent is developed. This is the positive energy of air in the liver being expressed externally. This externalization of the virtue of kindness is full control over quieting the internal dialogue, and also the natural impulse to refrain from boasting, gossiping, condemning, criticizing or complaining. This in turn develops a penetrating clarity of thought (Chia, 1993).

This power to be silent, is symbolized by the green dragon, or a dagger or sword. It enables you to realize the fourth power of the awakened soul: Imagination, the power of creation through mental images. Externally, the four negative and positive ways that air manifests in the world are as opportunity for inner transformation, or as crisis/conflict; as outer transformation, or as egotism; as the power of the Word (vibration directed by Intent), or as abusiveness; and as abundance, or greed (Abimbola, 1997).

The anatomical manifestations of air are the liver, heart, lungs, diaphragm, respiratory, circulatory and immune systems. The neuro-motor signals, movements within the body and outside of it, and the chest and arms as that which expresses or manipulates thought and feeling; powers of healing manifest from Anahata for this reason. Physiological functions of Anahata activate from twenty one to twenty eight years of age. Psychologically, it is the adolescent stage of development. Kindness is developed as the adolescent is trained thoroughly and kindly in preparation for the work that it will be engaged in within adult life. The psychological development occurs most often in adolescence, before the physiological developments of the period between twenty one and twenty eight (Johari, 2000).

At this stage, commonly between six to fourteen years of age, the cognitive mind develops, allowing the individual to conceptualize anothers viewpoint, to form mental rules, assume societal, behavioral and other mental roles. The three stages following infancy teach the psyche skills that allow it to be effective in increasingly complex ways, or traumatized by negative experiences, causing the person to be resistant to these aspects of life (Bradshaw, 1990).

The psyche learns to give and receive caring, acceptance and to accept responsibility for its own actions. What is important to the individual at this stage is how they fit into their socio-cultural roles, and having social acceptance. They are able to identify psychologically with energies and cognition of the Anahata state of being, to the degree that they feel acceptance with others who have related roles and with the performance of their own roles (Bradshaw, 1990, Myers, 2008).

Through identification with roles, the psyche learns to recognize other psyches in the context of social groups. This causes an ethnocentric paradigm in which the individual is still the most important person, but, is now able to

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extend this state to the groups that they have identified with. Formation of a healthy and balanced adult personality is the purpose of the psychological function of this chakra, wherein the child is trained and guided by society into developing the skills which will enable it to fulfill its destiny in adulthood, and thereby further the progress of society. This includes the crucial skill of making choices and accepting responsibility for the consequences of those choices.

The adolescent is instructed and guided in this preparation for adult life, in the ways that the society deems healthy and desirable. To this end, social attempts to restrain or control mating and reproduction are imposed at this stage, in the forms of taboos and morality, so that the desired heredity traits will be reinforced in the future populace. The social and cultural laws and regulations are taught at this point, in order to control the psychospiritual unfoldment of the Manipura chakra. When it is left unrestrained, the psychological function of Manipura can accelerate with increasing rapidity thoughts change too quickly to allow a continuity of concentration, or of remembrance, making a cohesive train of thought very difficult (Wilber, 1996). There are many functions and qualities interlinked between Anahata and Manipura chakra.

It is Anahata that intermediates the higher Self with the lower self of ego development. So, it is in Anahata that direct communications from the higher Self are consciously experienced for the first time in the form of subjective love. I love this; that; or them. If a person loves themselves, they can love others. The higher Selfs influence here can also be expressed as abundance and prosperity; as good health; as experiencing and receiving the love of others. Whereas in previous chakras, sex was motivated by self centered concerns, in this chakra it is out of enjoyment of companionship and nurturance (Johari, 2000).

In the above context, the Integrity spoken of earlier is seen to be love for ones own self, and is the motivation and reason to act in good character and to embody the highest potential in every circumstance. Up until this chakra, the ego has been controlled mostly by the traumas of the subconscious. Now, it is equally influenced by the psyche as much as it is the shadow (Wilber, 1996, Wilson, 1983).

In Muladhara chakra, the person developed focus through self-discipline, allowing them to efficiently redirect their energies towards their goals and the supreme goal of elevation. Using internal balance, being grounded, and acting from ones center, is the most efficient way to focus ones efforts in action to a chieve the desired goals. These skills are all developed and applied through self-discipline to each of the four aspects a person can categorize their life into: Past/future/present/afterlife; physical/emotional/intellectual/spiritual; infant/ toddler/child/adolescent-the categorization of anything into a group of four to be able to compare and contrast similarities and differences. This also enables taking the relevant information and organizing it into a linear step progression to be able to act upon.

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In Svadisthana the person learns to surrender the ego & id driven desires of the small self to align with their destiny, the Higher Selfs purpose. This humbleness allows a person to ask and accept the universes support in their endeavors. Through aligning their harmonized internal elements with the highest potentials of the same elements externally in the macrocosm, the person is able to manifest the most positive outcome for themselves. The fire chakra allows the person to develop harmony by balancing polarities, seeing that seemingly disparate things can be distinct and individual without being in conflict. When the individual manifestations are seen as separate in expression, but whole in origin, then they can be experienced as two aspects of one thing. When being perceived as a whole, parts can reconcile their paradoxes by being the third, greater possibility. When the person centered in Anahata chakra sleeps, it will generally be for four to six hours, on their left side. They will find it more comfortable due to the predominance of pinglala nadi; the right side solar channel of masculine energy.

The karmic patterns that are stored within Anahata chakra are those that resonate with Shukradev, the consciousness of the planet Venus (Johari, 2000). According to psychologist S. Choquette, an excess of energy in Anahata chakra can manifest as inferiority complexes, such as: over-extending oneself for others; codependency; failure and self sabotage out of the fear of the changes that success will cause; timidity and jealousy caused by poorly developed boundaries; and in some cases nymphomania.

Choquette and other authors further assert that, when there is a deficient amount of energy within this chakra, dysfunctions such as the following arise: With a deficiency of air, and a predominance of earth energy, there can be a feeling of being alone and isolated from others; being withdrawn; lack of emotional connection and empathy, leading to intolerance and being critical; having a difficulty in receiving from others; sexual repression and moral authoritarianism; whenthe predominance is of water energy, and a deficiency of air, then, anti-social thoughts and behaviors; W. fears of intimacy; W. cold hearted condemnation; F. exploitative and manipulative personalities.

Physical illnesses from an imbalanced Anahata have among them heart disease; breast cancer; asthma; bronchitis and many of Western cultures chest dysfunctions which can be triggered by poor dietary health and stressors (Cohen, 2006).

When balanced, Choquette states that Anahata chakra generates a caring and compassionate person, who loves themselves, is centered, peaceful, and accepting of whatever life manifests.

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Choquette further states that foods with energy correlating to Anahata; are plums, cherries, strawberries, whole grain, brown rice, seeds, and soy products.

When in harmony, the sound vibration of Anahata is the bija mantra Yam in the Vedic system, and Yang in the Tantric, and is a bright green (Johari, 2000). Imbalances however, according to Sri Subramuniyaswami in his work Merging with Siva, manifest as the following colors within the aura: Muddy green- avarice, jealousy and resentment Soft green- love of nature and outdoor life Pale green- healing inclinations and healthiness Light green- sympathy, altruism and charity Emerald green- confidence and humility Yellow green- intellectual tolerance Dull yellow green- tact, diplomacy Dull green- insincerity and shiftiness Slate green- low character, trickery and deceit Dark brownish green- jealousy, envy and malice

Vishuddha, or sheer purity, is the consciousness of divine/universal love experienced through perceiving from the soul.

The function of Vishuddha is to align internal vibrations with their external equivalents. This is communication as communion; the giving and receiving of information.

In the current development of mans neurology, the majority of people do not form neurological imprints beyond that of Anahata. If this state should happen to imprint a circuit, then it happens within the right brain affecting the first chakra imprint in the limbic system, and the second chakra imprint in its control of the genitals (Wilson, 1983). Imprintings of the chakras above Anahata come through experiences activating the spiritual aspects of those chakras, and individuals who have done so become increasingly rare the higher in the chakra system one considers (Wilber, 1996, Wilson, 1983).

There are sixteen vibrations radiating from Vishuddha. Each petal of vibrations embodies one of the sixteen archetypal patterns, which are the four elemental forces forming the basis of energy interaction having been permuted with one another, four ways each (Epega, 2003, Schneider, 1995).

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The four earth patterns are Rebirth, or negatively as randomness; new beginnings & opportunities, or negatively as isolation; the collective wisdom of the ancestors, or as infectious disease; and as the manifestation of blessings, or negatively as disruption.

The four patterns of water are the ending of cycles, or as death; as the reversal of fortunes, or as chaos; as wealth, or as insanity; and finally as either determination, or as stubbornness. Fire has these four patterns: the open flow of energy, such as birth, or as arrogance; as fulfillment of potential, or as not fulfilling ones potential; as the clearing away of obstacles, or as tragedies; and as insight and illumination, or as ignorance and self-deception.

Finally, the four archetypal patterns of air are: opportunity for inner transformation, or as conflict/crisis; as outer transformation, or as egotism; as the power of the Word (vibration directed by Intent), or as abusiveness; and as abundance, or as greed (Epega, 2003, Schneider, 1995).

Akasha or Ether is the Primordial substance out of which all matter fields of existence were created. It has the energetic qualities of being all-penetrating and intense. When the spleen and stomach are filled with the positive energy of Akasha, the virtues of openness and fairness, they manifest this power of projection that is its omnipenetration and intensity. This power is symbolized by the Golden Phoenix; a ring; or a mantra. It enables Consciousness to realize and experience its own multi-dimensionality. This hyper/multi/pan dimensionality is the macrocosm and microcosm interacting.

Vishuddha is the chakra of sound, and the origin of all four elements. Sound becomes Akasha which gets expressed as the four base energetic states called fire, air, water and earth by Plato (Schneider, 1995). At the turn of the twentieth century, physicists referred to this same substance as ether; an insubstantial, invisible medium by which particles could interact (). The vibrational qualities of Akasha are that it is all penetrating and intense. Vishuddha gets blocked by lies and self deceptions. These are the negative perceptual realities that people create for themselves within their internal dialogue, which acts as a filter for their experiences of the world (Wilson, 1983). The energy flow is liberated by the truth of direct apprehension, as the realization of how cosmic principles work in ones life becomes fully developed. This unfolds as a person begins to see the inherent significance within each distinct entity, whether they are person, place or thing. The experience that the Divine is within each particular person or object, separate, only in its individuality as unique expression of the One Being (Subramuniyaswami, 1999).

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The physiological function of Vishuddha activates at twenty eight to thirty-five years. The anatomical structures of this chakra are the oral cavity, tongue, larynx, pharynx, true and false vocal cords, and the three sets of cephalic lymph nodes ; the tonsils (Johari, 2000).

Psychologically, it is the teenage stage of development. Starting at around eleven to twenty-six years of age, it becomes paramount to the emerging psyche to establish a conscious identity from out of the various possible roles it has to choose from. There is an unfolding of abstract thinking during this stage, which the psychological community refers to as formal operational awareness, that leads to identification with social role preferences as the self (Bradshaw, 1990, Meyer, 2008).

For the teen psyche, motivations for decisions about identity come through dreaming, idealizing, and experimentation. With the ability to identify with abstract possibilities, there comes a capability to also understand another persons point of view (Bradshaw, 1990). This conceptualization of different possibilities is called process orientation (Meyer, 2008). With the emerging understanding which comes through process orientation, it is possible to realize that the view of the group which has been identified with is not the only correct one. Introspection then becomes possible (Wilber, 1996).

While it is normal for the majority of people to go through these five stages in their lifetime, humanity has not on average progressed beyond this fifth stage. Those individuals who do begin to develop past this fifth stage find their perspective changing to a more globally aware state, which author Ken Wilber describes as world centric. The persons identification expands to include larger contexts. Understanding that there is a planetary interdependence between all environments and organisms, the person becomes aware of, and concerned with the larger patterns that inter-connect multiple groups (Wilber, 1996, Wilson, 1983).

In a social context, the world centric person realizes that while all individuals are entitled to equal quality of treatment, and to equal opportunity, that not all paradigms and beliefs are of equal quality. The lower chakra, id driven desires are valid stages of growth, but, being ego centrically concerned, are of lesser quality than those paradigms motivated by higher chakra orientations and ideals. The third chakra drive to rule and to have personal authority can be beneficial, but is of a lower quality than a fourth chakra drive to eliminate poverty. The world centric view is thinking in terms of the total field, that any specific point (whether an individual, a circumstance, etc) resides within (Johari, 2000, Wilber, 1996).

At this stage, since circumstances are rarely ideal, a negative imprint can often occur, causing a frightening, and anxiety filled experience, having sensory and sexual discomfort. Furthermore, imprinting for stage five occurs within the limbic system, which governs very basic and primal survival emotions. When this circuit negatively

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imprints, it occurs in the amygdala which is the part of the brain dealing with fear and aggression, instead of the more desirable imprinting of the fifth circuit in the hypothalamus which, among its many functions, acts as a pleasure center (Wilson, 1983, Myer, 2008).

A positive fifth circuit imprint gives an experience of sensory enrichment and sensual bliss. When fully active, this imprint causes bliss in all five senses. In the European mystical system of Alchemy, when in relation to the alchemists internal experience, this was known as fermentation. The refined but still separate parts of the alchemist have been broken down losing their sharp distinctions, and through fermentation are merging into one combined personality of wholeness (Wilson, 1983, Schneider, 1995). The negative imprint experience has been called through the ages, by such names as the Dark Night of the Soul, putrefaction, and crossing the Ab yss (Wilson, 1983). Prolonged sexual stimulation without orgasm can produce this imprint in men, while in women it can occur through multiple orgasms (Chia, 1993).

When the consciousness becomes centered within Vishuddha, and is stabilized there, effort becomes focused upon realizing and understanding the knowledge of the underlying principles of things, and in objective, universal truths. Sexual activity is experienced as being satisfaction through sound. The person sleeps alternating the sides lain upon, and only remain asleep for four to six hours on average due to the vast energy being stored within the body. The sides slept upon are alternated as yin and yang are being balanced within the system (Johari, 2000). Karmic habitual patterns in Vishuddha resonate with the energy of the planet Jupiter and the Mahadeva Brihaspati, the consciousness of Jupiter (Johari, 2000).

When the spleen and stomach are filled with the prevailing positive emotional energy of openness and fairness, then the consciousness the person embodies through Vishuddha is divine love, or as it is also called, unconditional love (Johari, 2000). When this consciousness is held, and the person is fully immersed within the Akasha element, then the interaction between this consciousness and energy can be expressed as telepathy, clairaudience, or even as access to the akashic records; the memory of the universe (Choquette, 1995). When the spleen and stomach are predominantly filled with the negative emotional energies of stress, worry, and anxiety, then this consciousness is often expressed as enmity, shyness, fear, and attachment (Chia, 1993).

Author Wilber states that dysfunctions in this state come in the form of identity neurosis, also called identity crises. This is often the adoption of a negative identity through identification with what the person is not. Such thoughts as Im not strong enough, smart enough, good looking enough, become the reference point, making a framework upon which is built the further beliefs that will enable expressing this root negative thought in the various conditions the person may find themselves in. Conditions regarding survival, relationships, sphere of

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influence, and even what spiritual concepts are embraced are referred back to these core thoughts. Is the persons god all-loving, personally interested, and bestowing beneficence, or is it an angry, punishing god easily offended that the person believes in. What a person believes about themselves often comes through in how they expect the world to treat them.

The results of these systems of thoughts are such behaviors as: not participating in life, criticizing and condemning others, and being terrified of a life that the person feels unprepared for. As the psyche reaches the teenage stage of development, observation of external conditions is combined with analytical faculties, often resulting in the gradual realization that their childhood role models, especially the parents, dont h ave all the answers; are flawed; and arent always able to see past their own issues (Wilber, 1996).

Teens can often rebel in response to this dysfunction in their families, society, and world events as a sense of disillusionment comes about from the realization that their perfect role models are perfect only inside their own minds, and therefore cant resolve all their problems and conflicts. Disillusionment can intensify into feeling isolated with the conclusion that, since those that the teen had looked to for answers as a child, have failed to live up to their expectations of perfection, and since the role models dont have the answers, the teen feels they can only rely upon themselves (Bradshaw, 1990).

As the primordial first substance, Akasha doesnt build up like the previous four elements; it is the underlying substance from which the elements manifest. As such, when dysfunction is due to excess energy within Vishuddha, it comes about from an excess of fire, the major yang, or water energy, the major yin, added to the chakra. Choquette says that the conditions which can manifests are those such as resulting from an excess of fire in the chakra; negative and excessive internal dialogue, excessive speaking, gossiping, stuttering, and excessive loudness. An excess of water added to the chakra can produce difficulty with silence and with being silent, and the inability to keep confidences (1995).

Manifestations due to a deficiency of Akasha energy in Vishuddha come in the forms of; an excess of earth energy and deficiency of Akasha can produce repressed self expression, difficulty with expressing thoughts in language, difficulties in listening and in speaking truth, and tone deafness. An excess of air and deficiency of Akasha, can cause such conditions as degrading and confusion inducing internal voices, and being excessively secretive (Choquette, 1995).

Choquette further states in her work,that the foods which effect the vibration of Vishuddha chakra are; ginseng, ginkgo biloba, barley, reishi mushrooms, wheat grass, bananas, kelp and Echinacea (1995). As with the previous

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chakras, she recommends eating more of these foods for those suffering from deficiency of energy in this chakra, and less of these foods for those with an overabundance of energy in Vishuddha (1995).

Author Cohen states, based upon Ballentines work that the illnesses which can manifest from energy being blocked at the throat are such as: thyroid issues; TMJ; laryngitis; goiter; and stiffness in the neck, and furthermore that oftentimes when the issues leading to expression or communication are resolved, the conditions will soon clear as well (Cohen, 2006).

In a balanced state, Vishuddha supports; having a full clear voice, clear communication, good sense of timing and rhythm, and living life creatively (Choquette, 1995). While the healthy, balanced chakra appears as a bright blue, Swami Subramuniyaswami gives the manifestation within the aura for imbalances as the three states: Light cobalt blue- high spiritual feelings Light aqua blue- high level morality Slate blue- as religious feelings ruled by fear

In A brief history of everything, author Ken Wilber states that the interdisciplinary philosophy of Integral psychology (later renamed Transpersonal psychology) treats issues relating to this stage this author is referring to as the infant issues within Muladhara chakra, with Pacification therapy and Physiological therapy. Transpersonal psychology uses the therapy of structure building techniques; which differentiates, or stabilize the boundaries of the self to treat issues that this author is identifying with toddler stage of development and the second chakra. This will allow the psyche to progress into the next stage, and to identify with the mental conceptual self that is the psychological development of the third chakra, but in accordance with the proposition of this paper, it is put forth that this stage can be treated in similar fashion to that of the previous one. Transpersonal psychology uses uncovering techniques to treat the conditions of the stage of development this author is referring to as manipuric, assisting in unrepressing individual nature (neurosis), or external nature manifesting as ecological crisis.

Transcendental psychology treats the psychological conditions this author is calling the adolescent Anahata issues, with Scripting therapy and Narrative therapy, in order to change the stories the person tells themselves about a situation, and who they are in relation to that situation. Transpersonal psychology lists the treatment for dysfunctions at this psychological depth as being best handled through introspective therapy from psychoanalysis (Wilber, 1996). Within this paper, a synthesized approach is being proposed, using the model below.

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Muladhara outline and guided meditation for calcinating infant issues and for soul retrieval/re-membering. Lead the client through the following meditation, with a soft, gentle, and steady voice that inspires trust, pausing for 10 or 15 seconds with each question or instruction, in order to allow them time to respond:

Feel the surface underneath you. Physically relax your body. Guide patient through the progressive relaxation of muscles technique.

Listen to the sounds in your environment. Pay attention to each sound and notice what is happening around you. Feel it, accept it, & dissolve into the background.

Feel the air as you slowly inhale and exhale (Repeat the instructions for inhaling & exhaling a few times slowly allowing the patient time to follow the instructions). Feel the coolness of the air entering your nostrils? Do you feel the warmth of the air as it leaves your body? Breathe in purplish black Akasha, the primordial substance, filling up your body like a balloon. Exhale all stress and anxiety, and feel yourself emotionally and mentally relaxing (Repeat the instructions inhaling & exhaling a few times). As you inhale and exhale, feel yourself sink into the soft, loving, gentle embrace of the ground. Have patient inhale and exhale like this for several repetitions.

You surface out of the deep blue indigo ocean onto a beach. What are you wearing? What does it smell like? What do you hear? Can you feel the beach under your feet? Are you wearing shoes?

Walk along the beach till you see a break in the trees that is the mouth of the path, and travel the path into woods. Walk along the path to the foot of the mountain. Describe the path. What do you see? What do you hear? You continue along the path until you see an opening in the mountain. Next to the mouth of the cave is a shrine for the ancestors. Stop at this shrine. You notice you have a bag with you. Reach in, and pull out whatever it is that you brought for your ancestors. Place this down on the shrine, and call upon your ancestors. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your infant stage of consciousness into your totality.

Walk into the cave. What do you see?

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What do you smell? Do you hear anything? Do you see a guide? Do you see a pathway?

Introduce yourself and state your intention, such as: I wish to be healed of all the issues, traumas, and fragmentation of my infancy & to reclaim all the energies and fragmented aspects from infancy to reintegrate them harmoniously with my totality. Then ask your guide to take you on a journey to heal this condition.

Ask the patient periodically what are you experiencing now? (Throughout the meditation check what the person feels, smells, sees, hears at various points in order to integrate and internalize the senses.)

When you finally arrive form a dialogue with your child aspect. Tell your infant who you are, and that youve come to reclaim them, and bring them home with you. Hold your infant self close to you. Now that you are looking into the eyes of your infant self, you recognize that those times you felt pain, were hungry, scared, or lonely, it was this part of you needing comfort. As you think about this, your infant self smiles up at you. That smile tells you that the times you felt like people were letting you down and you didnt feel pr otected, those experiences led to the feelings of being overwhelmed by needs; fears of poverty; feeling like the world is against you and cant be trusted or like you had to stay angry to fight against the world.

You have gifts for your infant self too. Each one symbolizes a transformation. Hold your infant self in the crook of your arm, and pull each toy out with your free hand. Hand your infant each toy in turn, one at a time. The first one that you take out is a metal pantacle: a shallow bowl used to scrape the Earth to plant seeds. Tell your infant self this is to dare. As your infant accepts it, think about how it symbolizes the power of courage. From now on whenever elemental earth will manifest externally, it will always manifest as rebirth, new beginnings and opportunities, the collective wisdom of your ancestors, and as blessings manifesting. This power allows you to collect & distribute energies by harnessing forces into patterns. The pantacle absorbs into your infant self.

Take out the next item: its a plastic disc about the size of a dinner plate. You see that theres a star etched on it. As your infant takes the toy from you, think about how it symbolizes that you and your infant self are whole again, and that with this integration whatever circumstances come up, you will always remain grounded, centered, and all your elemental energies will be balanced. You feel safe now to let the imbalances that were the root causes of

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any addictive patterns of unhealthy behavior dissipate. Anywhere you have been blocked by thoughts and feelings of fear, you will now be able to trust and mistrust when appropriate. It absorbs into your infant self, and their eyes sparkle with happiness.

Take out the third toy: a rubber coin about as big as the infants head. Give this to your infant self and think about how the coin symbolizes that how you are capable of ensuring your survival. Trust in the community you have built for yourself, and the greater community of the Universe as a self-aware being. We are all One in the Universes selfawareness. There is always enough, and when you stop resisting and standing in your own way, the Universe provides for you, whenever asked. It is alright to share, and to let things go. We are all expressions of the Universe in Its process of unfolding and learning about itself. This greater community of a benevolent, interested Universe allows us to relax and not have to be paranoid about who or what might threaten our survival. Change can be beautiful and wondrous, look for the ways in which improve your life.

Give the fourth toy to your infant: a toy shield. This symbolizes that you are going to keep him or her safe from now on. Taking care of any needs and protect him from being hurt, as you exercise appropriate trust or mistrust based on your experiences, you will gain confidence in yourself and self-discipline will develop. Resistance to change and resistance to structure will gradually lessen as you experience that your environment is safe. It will feel safe to let go of thoughts and habits of greed, or excessive spending; hoarding or self indulgence.

The last toy is a stuffed white tiger. As you hand it to your infant self, its met with an excited joy. Think about how the tiger symbolizes being proactive in your goals, excited about your life and future, and focusing your attention for as long as you wish. You are capable of managing your own survival and can let go of being limited to materialism, being disconnected or withdrawn from the body, being self-centered or denying your bodys basic needs. As you expend energy in acts of aggression to push away the world to feel safe, chronic fatigue and lethargy will become less frequent, and you will have extra energy to direct towards activities that support your goals. This will continue to grow as you experience that the Universe provides what you need when stop resisting what you ask for. We are distinct in our consciousness, but connected in our substance.

Ask the child to enter your heart chakra and reintegrate with you. Ask your guide to lead you back to the opening in the cave. Find your way back onto the beach. Slowly, open your eyes wiggle your toes and move your fingers. Sit up slowly, and do recapitulation breathing.

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Castanedas Toltec Recapitulation (Pranayama)

Complete Breath / Yogic Breath for concentration and improved clarity on a past event. Inhale: fill up the abdomen first, then the lungs. Hold the breath. Exhale from the lungs down through the abdomen compressing the abdomen to the spine.

Inhalation pulls and attracts: for recovering energy lost in an experience that leaves one incomplete. It recovers luminous fibers. With the spine straight, eyes closed, face forward, and lungs empty. Without inhaling, turn the head until facing over the right shoulder. From the right shoulder, turn the head one hundred eighty degrees with slow, deep breath filling the lungs completely with air until facing over the left shoulder. Hold the breath. From the left shoulder, turn the head ninety degrees to forward while holding the breath. While facing forward, exhale.

Exhalation breathing - separates and detaches: used when other peoples energetic filaments have become attached to our luminosity (foreign attachments), to end oaths; promises no longer needed. (Left hand can hold Taoist mudra of scissors) Face forward and inhale slowly. Hold the breath. Turn the head ninety degrees to the left shoulder. Slowly turn the head one hundred eighty degrees to the right shoulder while exhaling. At the right shoulder, lungs are empty of air. Repeat until the body tells you to stop (Sanchez).

Cycle the microcosmic orbit: bringing energy from perineum, up the spine to crown of the head, and down the midline of the front of the body back to the perineum. Continue this loop a few times.

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Svadisthana outline and guided meditation for dissolution of toddler issues for soul retrieval/re-membering.

Feel the surface underneath you. Physically relax your body. Guide the patient through the progressive relaxation of muscles technique.

Listen to the sounds in your environment. Pay attention to each sound and notice what is happening around you. Feel it, accept it, & dissolve into the background.

Feel the air as you slowly inhale and exhale (Repeat the instructions inhaling & exhaling a few times). Can you feel the coolness of the air entering your nostrils? Do you feel the warmth of the air as it leaves your body? Breathe in purplish black Akasha, the primordial substance, filling up your body like a balloon. Exhale all stress and anxiety, and feel yourself emotionally and mentally relaxing (Repeat the instructions inhaling & exhaling a few times). Breathe in the thick viscous energy of Akasha. As you inhale and exhale, feel yourself sink into the soft, loving, gentle embrace of the ground. Have patient inhale and exhale like this for several repetitions.

You surface out of the deep blue indigo ocean onto a beach. What are you wearing? What does it smell like? What do you hear? Can you feel the beach under your feet? Are you wearing shoes? Walk along the beach till you see a break in the trees that is the mouth of the path, and travel the path into woods.

Walk along the path to the foot of the mountain. Describe the path. What do you see? What do you hear? You continue along the path until you see an opening in the mountain. There is a red glow emanating softly from within. Next to the doorway is a shrine for the ancestors. Stop at this shrine. You notice you have a bag with you. Reach in, and pull out whatever it is that you brought for your ancestors. Place this down on the shrine, and call upon your ancestors. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your (list stage of consciousness being integrated) into your totality. Pass by the door, & walk up the mountain path further. Svadisthana cave has soft and clear orange light pouring out of it.

Outside the cave entrance there is a shrine to the five visible planets of our solar system and the Sun and Moon, with the Sun at the center and the five planets and Moon surrounding him. Sun has four faces, one for each of the elements. Put offerings of grains and a few coins on the shrine and pray for blessings.

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Walk into the cave. What do you see? What do you smell? Do you hear anything? Do you see a pathway? Do you see a guide?

Intermittently ask what the person feels throughout the guided meditation such as: What are you experiencing now? (What the person feels, smells, sees, hears at various points in order to integrate and internalize the senses.) This will help to refocus their attention to experiencing the images.

Introduce yourself to your guide and state your intention, such as I intend to reclaim all the energies and fragmented aspects from toddlerhood and reintegrate them harmoniously with their totality and ask your guide to take you on a journey to heal this condition. Gently ask the person what their experiencing, allowing them to describe what their senses say.

When you finally arrive at your inner child aspect, you will begin to form a dialogue with your toddler.

Slowly approach your toddler self. Introduce yourself, and then pick them up and gently hug them. Tell your toddler how happy you are to have found them again, how you can take care of them and protect them, that you love them, and are excited to have them back in your life; that you want them to reintegrate with you, and come home with you. Now they can exercise trust and feel pleasure when its appropriate; now its safe to experience emotions and to feel sensations without guilt or need for extremes to justify those feelings.

Set your toddler down and say that you understand that the dominant-aggressive roles and the passivesubmissive roles were just so it would feel safe for them to feel their emotions. Take out the first toy for them: a plastic cup with sparkly jewels. This cup symbolizes the power to Know. It is the knowledge that is gained through awareness from experience and learning. This knowledge gives one the ability to observe reality clearly. You recognize that there is an appropriate time to hold on or let go of any attachment, and your judgments of when to hold on or let go is something you can trust in. As your toddler self takes this cup, it absorbs into them, creating a pleasant coolness in you.

Pull the next gift out of your bag, its a childs costume of your totem animal (or favorite animal) thats just the right size for your toddler self. They put it on with a big smile, feeling that they are able to be secure within it, womb-like. Think about how this enveloping clothing is a boundary that allows you to feel safe to say no, when you feel you need to. Think about how its alright to have boundaries that make you feel comfortable. A healthy

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ego boundary allows you to recognize that there are other individual beings who feel and perceive which are independent of your ego, and are worthy of consideration.

The next toy you take out is a plastic cauldron big enough for your toddler self to sit in, which is what they immediately do. You recognize that it symbolizes experiencing how change opens up possibilities for good fortune through using trust and healthy boundaries. It is a symbol of being able to safely recognize and experience your own emotions and feelings. It allows you to experience social situations as explorations and opportunities for connections with other individuals. You recognize now the boundaries between your emotions and those of the world surrounding you.

The last toy you have for your toddler self is a plushy stuffed black snake riding on top of a blue turtle. As you hand it to your smiling toddler self you know that whenever the energies of water manifest externally for you from now on, they will manifest as the ending of cycles; as the reversal of misfortunes; as wealth; and as determination. You give yourself permission now to feel pleasure, passion, desire and excitement, being able to trust that you can discern the appropriate amounts and situations for these. Enjoy the feeling of your body moving in balance and with grace. Pay attention to how emotionally independent you feel.

Ask your toddler self to enter into your heart chakra and reintegrate with you.

Ask your guide to lead you back to the opening in the cave. Find your way back onto the beach. Slowly, open your eyes, wiggle your toes, and move your fingers. Sit up and do recapitulation breathing.

Castanedas Toltec Recapitulation (Pranayama)

Complete Breath / Yogic Breath for concentration and improved clarity on a past event. Inhale: fill up the abdomen first, then the lungs. Hold the breath. Exhale from the lungs down through the abdomen compressing the abdomen to the spine.

Inhalation pulls and attracts: for recovering energy lost in an experience that leaves one incomplete. It recovers luminous fibers. With the spine straight, eyes closed, face forward, and lungs empty.

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Without inhaling, turn the head until facing over the right shoulder. From the right shoulder, turn the head one hundred eighty degrees with slow, deep breath filling the lungs completely with air until facing over the left shoulder. Hold the breath. From the left shoulder, turn the head ninety degrees to forward while holding the breath. While facing forward, exhale.

Exhalation breathing - separates and detaches: used when other peoples energetic filaments have become attached to our luminosity (foreign attachments), to end oaths; promises no longer needed. (Left hand can hold Taoist mudra of scissors) Face forward and inhale slowly. Hold the breath. Turn the head ninety degrees to the left shoulder. Slowly turn the head one hundred eighty degrees to the right shoulder while exhaling. At the right shoulder, lungs are empty of air. Repeat until the body tells you to stop (Sanchez).

Cycle the microcosmic orbit: bringing energy from perineum, up the spine to crown of the head, and down the midline of the front of the body back to the perineum. Continue this loop a few times.

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Manipura outline for guided meditation to separate the School-age inner child issues for soul retrieval/remembering. Lead the client through the following meditation, with a soft, gentle, and steady voice that inspires trust, pausing for 10 or 15 seconds with each question or instruction, in order to allow them time to respond: Feel the surface underneath you. Physically relax your body. Guide patient through the progressive relaxation of muscles technique. Listen to the sounds in your environment.

Pay attention to each sound and notice what is happening around you. These are normal noises of the environment. You are safe. Relax, & feel the noises dissolve into the background. Feel the air as you slowly inhale and exhale. Can you feel the coolness of the air entering your nostrils? Do you feel the warmth of the air as it leaves your body (Repeat the instructions inhaling & exhaling a few times)? Breathe in the thick viscous energy of Akasha. Guide patient through the progressive relaxation of muscles technique. Feel yourself sink into the soft loving gentle embrace of the ground.

You surface out of the deep blue indigo ocean onto a beach. What are you wearing? What does it smell like? What do you hear? Can you feel the beach under your feet? Are you wearing shoes? Walk along a path to the foot of the mountain. Describe the path. What do you see? Do you hear anything? You continue along the path until you see an opening in the mountain. What does it look like? There is a red glow emanating softly from within the cave.

Next to the mouth of the cave is a shrine for the ancestors. Stop at this shrine. You notice you have a bag with you. Reach in, and pull out whatever it is that you brought for your ancestors. Place this down on the shrine, and call upon your ancestors. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your childhood stage of consciousness into your totality.

Walk past the cave. Up the path is the orange cave of Svadisthana . Pass by this cave, and walk further up the mountain to a yellow glowing cave. Next to the cave, carved into the side of mountain is a shrine for the ten MahaVidya who are Tantric Goddesses of Universal Wisdom. Each embodies a cosmic principle or law that is expressed throughout both the macrocosm and the microcosm. Pray for the ten MahaVidya to bless you with success in healing, with restoring and reintegrating of your entire school age inner child self fragments. Now pray to understand, be wise in and be in harmonious alignment with these ten cosmic laws. Make offerings.

The cave glows softly with a yellow light: enter in. What do you see?

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What do you smell? Do you hear anything? Do you see a pathway? Do you see a guide?

Introduce yourself and state your intention, such as I wish to be healed of all the issues, traumas, and fragmentation of childhood & to reclaim all the energies and fragmented aspects from childhood to reintegrate them harmoniously with my totality. Then ask your guide to take you on a journey to heal this condition.

What are you experiencing now? (Ask what the person feels, smells, sees, hears at periodic points throughout the meditation in order to integrate and internalize the senses.)

When you finally arrive at your inner child school age aspect, form a dialogue with the child aspect. Introduce yourself to them, and as you approach them, take out the first gift you brought them. Its a magic wand (if they ask out of unfamiliarity, tell them a stage magicians wand, or a Harry Potter type wand). Think about how this wand symbolizes the power that causes your purpose, aim & determination to direct the transformations of energy: this is called Intent. Intent is the conscious use of divine laws to direct the transformations of energy. It is feeling confident to take responsibility for your life and your actions. Toss it playfully to your childhood self. As they catch it, you can see the self confidence awaken in their eyes. You see that you are the one with power over your life, and are the one responsible for your actions, that no one can make you a victim.

Ask your childhood self to show you a magic trick. Congratulate them on whatever they show you, telling them how much you like it. Tell them that you are now ready to be the role model, and that you are ready to move past the limits shame kept you from exceeding. You feel a state of indescribable harmony dawn within yourself. Take out the next gift, a toy spear. Think about the symbolism of the spear: the will and drive to succeed for the benefit of all, without over extending yourself. Using a spear requires a clear focus in the present, in the here and Now. When thrown the spear is like a lightning bolt, striking from far away with a concise concentration of force. This is like having a flash of insight that causes you to completely understand the meaning in any symbol or metaphor.

The next gift that you have for child self is a neon yellow flashlight. You think about how this is a symbol of shining the light of understanding on the darkness of what is unknown. That even as you are the meaningful symbol of adulthood to your child self now, they are the aspect of you that is your representational and intellectual mind which forms symbols and gives personal meaning to images. This aspect of you describes experiences to your memory as reference points for personal identification.

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The last toy that you give your childhood self is a stuffed plushy red phoenix. It symbolizes the energies of fire only manifesting as the open flow of blessings, as the fulfillment of your potential, the clearing away of obstacles, and as insight and illumination. Tell your childhood self that Its safe for you to be gentle and patient, but to use aggressiveness for constructive problem solving. You can now perceive the capabilities and virtues of others, without the need to control or dominate them.

When you are finished, ask your childhood self to enter into your heart chakra and reintegrate with you. Ask your guide to lead you back to the opening in the cave. Find your way back onto the beach. Slowly, open your eyes, wiggle your toes, and move your fingers. Sit up and do recapitulation breathing.

Castanedas Toltec Recapitulation (Pranayama)

Complete Breath / Yogic Breath for concentration and improved clarity on a past event. Inhale: fill up the abdomen first, then the lungs. Hold the breath. Exhale from the lungs down through the abdomen compressing the abdomen to the spine.

Inhalation pulls and attracts: for recovering energy lost in an experience that leaves one incomplete. It recovers luminous fibers. With the spine straight, eyes closed, face forward, and lungs empty. Without inhaling, turn the head until facing over the right shoulder. From the right shoulder, turn the head one hundred eighty degrees with slow, deep breath filling the lungs completely with air until facing over the left shoulder. Hold the breath. From the left shoulder, turn the head ninety degrees to forward while holding the breath. While facing forward, exhale.

Exhalation breathing - separates and detaches: used when other peoples energetic filaments have become attached to our luminosity (foreign attachments), to end oaths; promises no longer needed. (Left hand can hold Taoist mudra of scissors) Face forward and inhale slowly. Hold the breath. Turn the head ninety degrees to the left shoulder. Slowly turn the head one hundred eighty degrees to the right shoulder while exhaling.

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At the right shoulder, lungs are empty of air. Repeat until the body tells you to stop (Sanchez).

Cycle the microcosmic orbit: bringing energy from perineum, up the spine to crown of the head, and down the midline of the front of the body back to the perineum. Continue this loop a few times.

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Anahata outline for guided meditation and conjunction of the issues of adolescence for soul retrieval/remembering.

Lead the client through the following meditation, with a soft, gentle, and steady voice that inspires trust, pausing for 10 or 15 seconds with each question or instruction, in order to allow them time to respond:

Feel the surface underneath you. Physically relax your body. Guide patient through the progres sive relaxation of the muscles technique. Listen to the sounds in your environment. Pay attention to each sound and notice what is happening around you. Feel it, accept it, & dissolve into the background.

Feel the air as you slowly inhale and exhale (Repeat the instructions inhaling & exhaling a few times). Can you feel the coolness of the air entering your nostrils? Do you feel the warmth of the air as it leaves your body? Breathe in purplish black Akasha, the primordial substance, filling up your body like a balloon. Exhale all stress and anxiety, and feel yourself emotionally and mentally relaxing (Repeat the instructions inhaling & exhaling a few times). As you inhale and exhale, feel yourself sink into the soft, loving, gentle embrace of the ground. Have the patient inhale and exhale like this for several repetitions.

You surface out of the deep blue indigo ocean onto a beach. What are you wearing? What does it smell like? What do you hear? Can you feel the beach under your feet? Are you wearing shoes? Walk along the beach till you see a break in the trees that is the mouth of the path. Travel the path into woods. Walk along the path to the foot of the mountain. Describe the path. What do you see? What do you hear? You continue along the path until you see an opening in the mountain. Next to the mouth of the cave is a shrine for the ancestors. Stop at this shrine. You notice you have a bag with you. Reach in, and pull out whatever it is that you brought for your ancestors. Place this down on the shrine, and call upon your ancestors. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your adolescent stage of consciousness into your totality.

Continue up the path till you see the cave of Svadisthana with its bright orange glow. Leave an offering at the shrine for the planets, and invoke their blessings. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your adolescent stage of consciousness into your totality. Continue along the path until you see the Yellow glow of Manipura cave. Go up to the shrine of the 10 Goddesses of Wisdom: the MahaVidya. Leave an offering to them and invoke their blessings. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your adolescent stage of consciousness into your totality.

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


Walk further up the path until you come to a waterfall. A stone walkway accented in metal leads over the chasm to the cave. Soft, clear green light issues out of the mouth of this cave which is on a ledge, and behind the waterfall. The waterfall refracts this green light into a prismatic rainbow spray.

The cave is encircled by an archway that has carvings of the 12 zodiac symbols. This archway is a shrine to the 12 energies of the zodiac. Like a stone wheel, you can turn this shrine rotating it to cause any sign to be at the top, in ascendance. Each glows with one of the colors of the 12 banded rainbow. Leave an offering and pray for success in healing, recovering and reintegrating your adolescent self in totality. Walk into the cave. What do you see? What do you smell? Do you hear anything? Do you see a guide? Do you see a pathway? Introduce yourself to the guide and state your intention, such as I wish to be healed of all the issues, traumas, and fragmentation of adolescence. I wish to reclaim all the energies and fragmented aspects from adolescence to reintegrate them harmoniously with my totality. Ask your guide to take you on a journey to your adolescent self to heal this condition.

Periodically ask the patient: What are you experiencing now? (Ask what the person feels, smells, sees, hears at various points in order to integrate and internalize the senses.)

When you arrive, start dialoguing with your adolescent self: Tell your adolescent self who you are, how very happy you are to see them, that you have missed them, and that you wish to bring them home with you.

Bring out the first gift that you have brought your adolescent: a finely carved wooden dagger. You consider how it symbolizes the 4 power of the awakened soul: imagination. Imagination is the power of creation through mental images, and is referred to as: to be Silent. When the mind is quieted of its chatter, it possesses a penetrating clarity, and awareness becomes connected to what it observes: This is attention. The shape of the dagger is like four roads intersecting.
th

The next toy that you bring out and give to your adolescent is a plastic sword. You recognize that it symbolizes reintegration of parts into wholeness. It is balanced so as to maintain the weight of significance in the center. This makes it easier to accept what manifests within your life, and acceptance leads to inner peace. The sword is

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


elemental air manifesting in the world as opportunity for inner transformation, as outer transformation, as the power of the Word, and as abundance.

The last toy that you bring out and give to your adolescent self is a plastic green dragon. Think about how this dragon is a symbol of being mentally and emotionally independent, while maintaining a balanced connection with your community of friends and family. This connection with community gives us support in our survival and allows us to transcend the feelings of separation and isolation that is an illusion of third dimensional existence. The sense of connection and harmonious union we get from community, gives us the model for the various aspects of ourselves and how they can be connected into a functioning whole.

When you complete this communion with your adolescent self, ask them to enter into your heart and reintegrate with you. Ask your guide to lead you back to the opening in the cave. Find your way back onto the beach. Slowly, open your eyes wiggle your toes and move your fingers. Sit up and do recapitulation breathing.

Castanedas Toltec Recapitulation (Pranayama)

Complete Breath / Yogic Breath for concentration and improved clarity on a past event. Inhale: fill up the abdomen first, then the lungs. Hold the breath. Exhale from the lungs down through the abdomen compressing the abdomen to the spine.

Inhalation pulls and attracts: for recovering energy lost in an experience that leaves one incomplete. It recovers luminous fibers. With the spine straight, eyes closed, face forward, and lungs empty. Without inhaling, turn the head until facing over the right shoulder. From the right shoulder, turn the head one hundred eighty degrees with slow, deep breath filling the lungs completely with air until facing over the left shoulder. Hold the breath. From the left shoulder, turn the head ninety degrees to forward while holding the breath. While facing forward, exhale.

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


Exhalation breathing - separates and detaches: used when other peoples energetic filaments have become attached to our luminosity (foreign attachments), to end oaths; promises no longer needed. (Left hand can hold Taoist mudra of scissors) Face forward and inhale slowly. Hold the breath. Turn the head ninety degrees to the left shoulder. Slowly turn the head one hundred eighty degrees to the right shoulder while exhaling. At the right shoulder, lungs are empty of air. Repeat until the body tells you to stop (Sanchez).

Cycle the microcosmic orbit: bringing energy from perineum, up the spine to crown of the head, and down the midline of the front of the body back to the perineum. Continue this loop a few times.

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


Vishuddha outline for guided meditation and fermentation of the issues of teenage years for soul retrieval/remembering.

Lead the client through the following meditation, with a soft, gentle, and steady voice that inspires trust, pausing for ten or fifteen seconds with each question or instruction, in order to allow them time to respond from their hypnogogic state:

Feel the surface underneath you. Physically relax your body. Guide patient through the progressive relaxation of the muscles technique.

Listen to the sounds in your environment. Pay attention to each sound and notice what is happening around you. Feel it, accept it, & dissolve into the background.

Feel the air as you slowly inhale and exhale (Repeat the instructions inhaling & exhaling a few time s). Can you feel the coolness of the air entering your nostrils? Do you feel the warmth of the air as it leaves your body? Breathe in purplish black Akasha, the primordial substance, filling up your body like a balloon. Exhale all stress and anxiety, and feel yourself emotionally and mentally relaxing (Repeat the instructions for inhaling & exhaling a few times). As you inhale and exhale, feel yourself sink into the soft, loving, gentle embrace of the ground. Have patient inhale and exhale like this for several repetitions.

You surface out of the deep blue indigo ocean onto a beach. What are you wearing? What does it smell like? What do you hear? Can you feel the beach under your feet? Are you wearing shoes?

Walk along the beach till you see a break in the trees that is the mouth of the path. Travel the path into woods. Walk along the path to the foot of the mountain. Describe the path. What do you see? What do you hear?

You continue along the path until you see an opening in the mountain. Next to the mouth of the cave is a shrine for the ancestors. Stop at this shrine. You notice you have a bag with you. Reach in, and pull out whatever it is that

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


you brought for your ancestors. Place this down on the shrine, and call upon your ancestors. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your teen stage of consciousness into your totality.

Continue up the path till you see the cave of Svadisthana with its bright orange glow. Leave an offering at the shrine for the planets, and invoke their blessings. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your teen stage of consciousness into your totality.

Continue along the path until you see the Yellow glow of Manipura cave. Go up to the shrine of the 10 Goddesses of Wisdom: the MahaVidya. Leave an offering to them and invoke their blessings. Tell them to give you success in healing yourself through reclaiming and integrating your teen stage of consciousness into your totality.

Walk further up the path, soon you will come to a waterfall. A stone walkway accented in metal leads over the chasm to the cave. Soft, clear green light issues out of the mouth of this cave which is on a ledge, and behind the waterfall. The waterfall refracts this green light into a prismatic rainbow spray. The cave is encircled by an archway that has carvings of the 12 zodiac symbols. This archway is a shrine to the 12 energies of the zodiac. Like a stone wheel, you can turn this shrine rotating it to cause any sign to be at the top, in ascendance. Each glows with one of the colors of the 12 banded rainbow. Leave an offering and pray for success in healing, recovering and reintegrating your teen self in totality.

Walk past the green cave of the heart chakra. There are stairs cut into the mountainside. Follow these up to a ledge with a glowing bright blue cave mouth. Walk into the cave. What do you see? What do you smell? Do you hear anything?

This chakra is the interior hollow space of the mountain. There is a guide who has been awaiting your arrival. Introduce yourself to the guide and state your intention, such as I wish to be healed of all the issues, traumas, and fragmentation of my teenage years & I reclaim all the energies and fragmented aspects from being a teen so as to reintegrate them harmoniously with my totality.

A thin bridge suspended within the space connecting the ledge to a pagoda style temple on a platform suspended by spider web network of cables at the center of the mountain. This temple has a black and violet egg at top, whose top end connects with a vast ceiling nearly out of sight. Now ask your guide to take you to your teen self within the temple.

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models

Ask intermittently: What are you experiencing now? (Ask what the person feels, smells, sees, or hears at various points in order to integrate and internalize the senses.)

Cross the bridge to the temple.

There are 16 steps up to the large blue metal doors of the pagoda. As you step on it, each step glows a specific color and plays a musical note.

Inside, you see that the floor of the temple is inlaid with precious stones. The circumference is 16 lotus petals. Inside of these is an octogram in the form of the Taoist bagua, which is eight sets of three solid or broken lines in red and blue.

Within this octogram is a circle divided into four quadrants, each a different color, like an equally divided pie chart. This circle is further composed of four concentric rings.

Suspended from the ceiling by thin cables hangs a slab altar of blue stone, almost chest high. On the altar top is a wand and a candle, a cup filled with water, a knife and a block of incense, and a dinner plate made of steel with a six pointed star etched into it. On the plate is fresh fruit and bread with salt. Under the altar hangs a censor with lit charcoal for the incense.

Reclaiming your teenager self: The teenage self can be found by heading to the back of the temple, out the doorway and up the spiral stairs about four stories to the next floor.

In the center of this room is a pool of liquid with an orb hanging above it, which you come to realize, is the moon. The ceiling of this room glitters in the candlelight from thousands of diamonds set in patterns of constellations mimicking the night sky.

From the moon, a liquid slowly drips into the pool below it. The air is filled with a sweet, fresh smell.

At the edge of this pool, is your teen self. Walk up and introduce yourself.

Your teenage self is the culmination of the previous four childhood stages. You developed all of your aspects by this stage, and needed to find a way to express this, to be able to find your place in the world. Your conscious

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


awareness developed to the degree where identity could be independent of the roles that authority figures had required of you, and the desire became finding a role within a group that was correct for your ideals.

Tell your teenage self that you accept them as they are, and for what they wish to be. Tell them you accept the purpose that you incarnated into the world for, and value their insight in how to fulfill that purpose.

You bring out the first gift that youve brought your teen self: a yellow phoenix carved into the back of a nice leather jacket. The yellow phoenix symbolizes directing the transformation of the energies in your organs so that your organs are always filled with positive virtue energy. It is also experiencing life with openness and fairness. The yellow phoenix mediates between all of the aspects of your being and enables them to easily communicate with you in a way that supports your health, and highest potential.

The next gift is a metal half of a circle. As you reach it out to your teen they smile, producing the other half, and join the two together in a moebius strip. Its large enough to fit on top of your teens head. You recognize that this is symbolic of healing and reintegrating yourself in wholeness and unity. As teenage you puts this circlet on their head, you know that you can live your life as a creative expression of your higher self.

The last gift you brought your teen self is a golden Key. You recognize this key as symbolic of freedom of expression, independence, and being the key to opening all opportunities. You see your teen transform from being the Guardian of threshold, into the Doorkeeper of the threshold. They will be your guide in the wonder of higher being and living a life of your highest creative potential; this key also unlocks your psychic potential for telepathy, clairaudience, and access to the akashic records to support the fulfillment of your destiny.

Give your liberated teenager a hug, ask them to rejoin you, and welcome them into your heart chakra. Return to the main floor of the temple. This completes the putrefaction stage. Now, offerings are made to your higher Self, to begin the fermentation: the conscious communion with your highest possible potential.

Go up to the altar and Invoke your higher Self using the tools on the altar. Raise the fire wand and say: I seek my Higher Self. The red energy of Aries beams from above into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self through what I have. The scarlet (red-orange) energy of Taurus beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self through what I think. The orange energy of Gemini beams into the cup of water.

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models


I seek my Higher Self through what I feel. The amber (orange-yellow) energy of Cancer beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self through what I create. The yellow energy of Leo beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self through what I learn. The yellow-green energy of Virgo beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self through what I balance. The emerald green energy of Libra beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self through what I desire. The turquoise (green -blue) energy of Scorpio beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self therefore I am. The blue energy of Sagittarius beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self through what I use. The indigo (blue-violet) energy of Capricorn beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self through humanity. The violet energy of Aquarius beams into the cup of water. I seek my Higher Self, and I dont seek my Higher Self. The crimson (violet -red) energy of Pisces beams into the cup of water.

Put the wand down, and pick up the dagger. Plunge the tip into the cup of water and say (therapist says the following phonetic phrase slowly, giving each word five seconds pause afterward, so that the client can keep up.): Oh-eee-pay, tay- ah-ah, pweh -doh -kay, Oh-roh, eee-bah-heh, ah-oh-zohd-pee, Ehm-pweh-heh, are-sell, guy-ohl, Eh-more, dee-ahl, hetch-teh-gah.

Put down the dagger, pick up the plate, raise above your head, and say to your higher self that you offer the food upon it to your higher self. Touch the plate to your forehead (pause), to the crown of your head (pause), and to the back of your neck.

Set it down on the altar, eat some of the food, and drink all of the water. Leave the temple. Travel down the mountain and Find your way back onto the beach. Slowly, open your eyes wiggle your toes and move your fingers. Sit up and do recapitulation breathing.

Castanedas Toltec Recapitulation (Pranayama)

Complete Breath / Yogic Breath for concentration and improved clarity on a past event. Inhale: fill up the abdomen first, then the lungs. Hold the breath. Exhale from the lungs down through the abdomen compressing the abdomen to the spine.

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models

Inhalation pulls and attracts: for recovering energy lost in an experience that leaves one incomplete. It recovers luminous fibers. With the spine straight, eyes closed, face forward, and lungs empty. Without inhaling, turn the head until facing over the right shoulder. From the right shoulder, turn the head one hundred eighty degrees with slow, deep breath filling the lungs completely with air until facing over the left shoulder. Hold the breath. From the left shoulder, turn the head ninety degrees to forward while holding the breath. While facing forward, exhale.

Exhalation breathing - separates and detaches: used when other peoples energetic filaments have become attached to our luminosity (foreign attachments), to end oaths; promises no longer needed. (Left hand can hold Taoist mudra of scissors) Face forward and inhale slowly. Hold the breath. Turn the head ninety degrees to the left shoulder. Slowly turn the head one hundred eighty degrees to the right shoulder while exhaling. At the right shoulder, lungs are empty of air. Repeat until the body tells you to stop (Sanchez).

Cycle the microcosmic orbit: bringing energy from perineum, up the spine to crown of the head, and down the midline of the front of the body back to the perineum. Continue this loop a few times.

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An Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy using Eastern and Western Models

References
Abimbola, W. (1997). Ifa will mend our broken world. AIM Books Bardon, F. (1956), Initiation into Hermetics. Merkur publications Bradshaw, J. (1990). Homecoming: Reclaiming and Championing Your Inner Child. Bantam Publications, New york Castaneda, C. (1998). Magical Passes. HarperCollins Publishers Chapman, A. (2011). Erikson's psychosocial development theory. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory.htm Chia, M. (1993). Awaken Healing Light of the Tao. New York: Aurora Press Choquette, S. (1995). The psychic pathway. New York: Crown Trade Paperbacks. Cohen, R. (2006). Using the Chakra System in Psychotherapy. Portland: mail@ross-cohen.com Epega, A (2003). Ifa: the Ancient Wisdom. Afthelia A. Epega Johari, H. (2000). Chakras: energy centers of transformation. Rochester: Destiny books. Myers, D.G. (2008). Exploring psychology in modules, seventh edition . New York: Worth Publishers. Satchidananda, S. (2002). Integral yoga: the yoga sutras of Patanjali. Buckingham: Integral Yoga Publications. Schneider , M. (1995). A Beginner's Guide to Constructing the Universe: The Mathematical Archetypes Of Nature, Art and Science A Voyage From 1 To 10. Harper Perennial Simpkins, C., & Simpkins, A. (2009). Meditation for therapists and their clients. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Subramuniyaswami, S. (2002). Merging with Siva. Himalayan Academy, USA, India. Thibodeau & Patton (2007). Anatomy and Physiology, sixth edition. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier Wilber, K. (1996). A Brief History of Everything. Shamballah Publications Wilson, R. (1983). Prometheus Rising. New Falcon Publications

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