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Forming, Storming, Norming Performing and Adjourning

Managers are peopl do things right, while leaders are pe who do the right thi Warren Bennis, Ph "On Becoming a Lea
Glen B. Alleman Niwot, Colorado January 2004

A team has A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and a common approach for which they hold themselves mutuall accountable.

Forming team members are introduced Storming the team transitions from as is to Norming the team reaches consensus on the process Performing the team has settled its relationsh expectations Adjourning the team shares the improved pro with others

Staged Development of Teams

The Forming, Storming, Norming, Perfor stages are seemingly obvious but are in difficult.
Participants want to move to the Performing without passing through the first three stage The Forming stage is relatively easy. The Storming stage is difficult and many time cause of the teams failure. Performing seems easy once the storming pr complete.

Staged Development of Teams

The Real problem is how to identify wh stage is complete:
The team members agree that the stage is co The team coach agrees the stage is complete The team simply moves on to the next stage

The definition of the exit criteria betwe stages needs to be worked out prior to t teams reaching the end of the stage.
This again seems obvious but is also very diff

The polite stage in which the team sta form. Everyone is trying to figure out what the concept is. Initial silent leaders may take the rein. The team is usually positive for the mo for the initial meetings. No one has offended anyone at this poin

Forming includes feelings and behaviors
Excitement, anticipation, and optimism. Pride in being chosen for the project. A tentative attachment to the team Suspicion anxiety about the job. Defining the tasks and how they will be accomplished. Determining acceptable group behavior. Deciding what information needs to be gathe Abstract discussions of the concepts and issu for some members, impatience with these discussions. There will be difficulty in identify some of the relevant problems.

Because there is so much going on to di members' attention in the beginning, th accomplishes little, if anything, that con it's project goals. This is perfectly norma Exit Criteria?

The honeymoon is over. The silent leaders may be clashing for co of the group. People disagree and may blame the tea concept, saying it doesnt work. Management needs to do a lot of coachi get people to work past their differences take separate 1on1s with people.

Storming includes feelings and behavior
Resisting the tasks. Resisting quality improvement approaches su by other members. Sharp fluctuations in attitude about the team project's chance of success. Arguing among members even when they ag the real issues. Defensiveness, competition, and choosing sid Questioning the wisdom of those who selecte project and appointed the other members of team. Establishing unrealistic goals. Disunity, increa tension, and jealousy.

The above pressures mean that team m have little energy to spend on progressi towards the team's goal. But they are beginning to understand on another. This phase sometimes takes 3 meetings before arriving at the Norming Exit Criteria?

The team is starting to work well togeth has turned around from the storming p They may start to brag up the team co to others who arent in the team and wil very positive about their role/team grou Often, the team will bounce back and fo between storming and norming whe issues crop up.

Regressions will become fewer and fewe the team will bounce back to norming quicker manner as the team matures. The natural leaders at this stage may no the ones who were visible in stages 1 & (those people may no longer have the unofficial lead roles within the team. This team still takes management direct but not as much as storming.

Norming includes feelings and behaviors of:
An ability to express criticism constructively. Acceptance of membership in the team. An attempt to achieve harmony by avoiding confli More friendliness, confiding in each other, and sh personal problems. A sense of team cohesion, spirit, and goals. Establishing and maintaining team ground rules a boundaries.

As team members begin to work out their differ they now have more time and energy to spend project. Exit Criteria?

This is the level where the team is a hig performance team. They can be given new projects and task accomplish them successfully, and very fall back into the storming phase. At this level, the team is taking on new on their own, and selling it to other team

At this level, the team can usually take o new member or two with little trouble as regressing goes. They are a complete self-directed team require little, if any, management directi In many organizations, this can take 6 m or longer to reach this state this stage.

Performing includes feelings and behavi
Members have insights into personal and gro processes, and better understanding of each strengths and weakness. Constructive selfchange. Ability to prevent or work through group pro Close attachment to the team.

The team is now an effective, cohesive You can tell when your team has reache stage because you start getting a lot of done. Exit Criteria?

The team briefs and shares the improve process during this phase. When the team finally completes that la briefing, there is always a bittersweet se accomplishment coupled with the reluct say goodbye. Many relationships formed within these continue long after the team disbands. Exit Criteria?

Teams versus Work Groups

Roles and Responsibilities Groups
Individuals establish a set of behaviors called roles. These roles set the expectations governing the relationships between the group members. The search for role definition serves as a source of confusion and conflict.

Teams have a sha understanding of perform their role For example:
Time keeper Score keeper Leader Facilitator

Teams versus Work Groups

Identity Groups Groups do not have a cohesive identity. It is difficult to establish a sense of cohesion that characterizes a team. Teams Teams have an i A team has a cle understanding a what constitutes teams work a is important.
They can describ picture of what t needs to achieve the norms and v that will guide th

Teams versus Work Groups

Groups Groups lack a source of cohesion. Being a member of a group still leaves the person alone and an individual. Teams Teams have an es shows a sense of and camaraderie.
Esprit is the spirit, state of mind of th It is the overall consciousness of t that a person iden and feels a part of

Individuals begin we more than

Teams versus Work Groups

Facilitating Groups Groups tend to get bogged down with trivial issues. Teams Teams use facili keep the team o right path.

Teams versus Work Groups

Groups The communications with a group tend to be centered on individuals. Individual positions are more important than a team opinion. Defending ones opinion becomes an end unto itself. Teams The team is comm open communicat Team members fe can state their opi thoughts, and feel without fear. Differences of opi valued and metho managing conflict understood. Through honest a feedback, membe

aware of their stre and weaknesses a members.

Teams versus Work Groups

Groups Most groups are extremely rigid. This rigidity is due to many causes:
Defense of individual positions Individual reward systems

The strengths of each individual is difficult to capitalize on since someone has to give up a role to allow another to assume that role.

Teams Teams, provide fl and perform differ and maintenance as needed. The responsibility development and is shared. The strengths of e member are ident used.

Acknowledgement of Sources
This set of slides is a compendium of ide Collecting of good ideas and repurposing seems to add value to new readers who not have encountered these ideas in the The concepts of teaming and the proces team building can be traced to many au John Kotter is one source everyone shou consult. Although these ideas appear obvious, th in fact quite difficult to put into practice.