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# Design Calculation

Project Title:

Project No.

Checked By:
Date:

Date:

Nov/08/13

## PIPE STRESSES - WHEELS ON RIGID PAVEMENT

Earth Loading

hc
42 in.
42 in.

Pipe Size =
O.D. =

8 in.

Conc. Thick. hc =

wd = Cd w Bd^2 =
where:

120
w=
5
Bd =
Bd =
5.0
Bc = O.D. =
3.50

Bd
H

## lb/ft^3 soil unit wt.

ft. (actual width)
ft. (effective width)
ft

Bc

Cd = 1 - e^ (-2 ku'(H/Bd))
2 ku'
=

0.439
2.33 ft.
0.13 lb / in^3

H=
ku' =

## ku' = modulus of subgrade reaction

Saturated clay = 0.110
Ordinary clay = 0.130
Saturated topsoil = 0.150
Sand and gravel = 0.165
Ref. 1

5 ft.
=

Table 13 to 28

Bd
Pipe Dia.
6
8
12
16
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

5
1.42
1.75
2.5
3
3.42
4.25
4.83
5.42
5.92
6.5
7.08
7.67

6
1.5
1.83
2.58
3.08
3.5
4.33
5.17
5.75
6.33
6.92
7.42
8

7
1.58
1.92
2.75
3.17
3.58
4.5
5.33
6.17
6.67
7.25
7.83
8.42

8
1.67
2
2.83
3.25
3.75
4.58
5.42
6.25
7.08
7.67
8.17
8.75

9
1.75
2
2.92
3.33
3.83
4.67
5.58
6.42
7.25
8.08
8.58
9.08

10
1.75
2.08
3
3.42
3.92
4.83
5.67
6.58
7.42
8.17
9
9.5

15
2.08
2.42
3.33
3.83
4.33
5.25
6.17
7.08
7.92
8.83
9.67
10.5

20
2.33
2.75
3.67
4.25
4.75
5.67
6.67
7.58
8.42
9.33
10.25
11.08

## For shallow depths (< 4ft.) use :

wd = H Bc w =
978.6 lb / lin ft.
Therefore wd =
wd total =

## 978.6 lb / lin ft.

1328.6 lb / lin ft.

+ wt. of concrete =

## 350 lb / lin. Ft.

(1 of 3)

N:\civil\spreadsh\UGPipes\u-g pipe.xls

X
P4

P1

Sum loads
at this point

Wheel Loading

X
P4

P1

## From Individual Wheel Loads

Wheel
#
1
2
3
4
5
6

P
( lbs. )
17500
17500
17500
17500

X
( ft. )
0.00
7.00
21.20
20.00
0.00
0.00

A contact
( ft. ^2 )
1.92
1.92
1.92
1.92
0.00
0.00

L
( ft. )
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45

X
Ref. 2 , 4.7.2.2.2

Sum loads
at this point

P3

H/L

X/L

P2

Lr

Ref. 4

80 psi.
1.267 1.5 at surface
1.0 @ H = 5 ft.
200 lb / in^3
k mod. of subgrade reaction =
3400000 psi
Ec conc. =

Tire Pressure =
Impact Factor = Fi =

Press. Coef.

Pressure
Top Pipe (lb./ft^2)
Ref 4
1204.2
Table 1
189.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Total: = 1393.9

( C from below)

0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95

0.00
2.86
8.67
8.18
0.00
0.00

1.6
0.048
0.047
0.045
0.043
0.039
0.035
0.030
0.027
0.024
0.021
0.019
0.017
0.015
0.013
0.011
0.010

2.0
0.032
0.033
0.033
0.032
0.030
0.028
0.026
0.023
0.021
0.019
0.018
0.015
0.013
0.012
0.010
0.009

0.0825
0.013
0
0

Pressure Coeficient C
C
H/L
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
4.4
4.8
5.2
5.6
6.0

0.0
0.113
0.101
0.089
0.076
0.062
0.051
0.043
0.037
0.032
0.027
0.024
0.020
0.018
0.015
0.014
0.012

0.4
0.105
0.095
0.084
0.072
0.059
0.049
0.041
0.036
0.030
0.026
0.023
0.020
0.017
0.015
0.013
0.012

0.8
0.089
0.082
0.074
0.065
0.054
0.046
0.039
0.033
0.029
0.025
0.022
0.019
0.017
0.014
0.013
0.011

## Total Wheel Pressure at Top of Pipe =

X/L
1.2
0.068
0.065
0.061
0.054
0.047
0.042
0.036
0.031
0.026
0.023
0.020
0.018
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.011

2.4
0.020
0.021
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.021
0.019
0.018
0.016
0.015
0.014
0.012
0.011
0.010
0.009

2.8
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.015
0.014
0.014
0.013
0.012
0.011
0.010
0.009
0.008

3.2
0.006
0.004
0.005
0.008
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.010
0.009
0.008
0.008
0.007

3.6
0.002
0.001
0.002
0.005
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.007
0.007

4
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.003
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006

1393.9 lb / ft.^2

Pipe Stresses
Pipe Dia. O.D. =
42
0.50
Wall thickness t =
X65
Pipe Grade =
SMYS = 65000
Pipe Operating Pres. = 1000.0
0.8
SMYS design factor F =

## Young's Mod. E = 30000000 psi.

0.3
Poisson's Ratio =
Coef. Thermal Exp. = 0.0000065 per deg F

in.
in.
psi.
psi.

## Temp. @ Pipe Installation =

Max./Min. Operating Temp. =

10
170

deg. F
deg. F

Ref. 2

2756.3 psi.

978.6 psi.

## Use largest Value set SHe =

+ wt. Concrete = She tot. =

2756.3 psi.
2756.9 psi.

w=

## Khe = soil/pipe stiffness coef. =

4500 Fig. 3
(set E' = 1.0)
t / d = 0.011905
Fig. 4
Be =
0.21
(Soil Type B for trenches)
where H/Bd = 0.665714
(for trenched constuction)
Ee =
1
lamda = unit wt. Soil =
120
lb / ft^3
D=
42
in

where:

(2 of 3)

where:
Cyclic Circumferential Stress
SHh = KHh GHh R L Fi w
=
86.10 psi.

## Cyclic Longitudinal Stress

SLh = KLh GLh R L Fi w
=
55.96 psi.

## Internal Pressure Circumferential Stress

Shi = p (D - t ) / 2 t
=
41500 psi.

Fig. 14

## KHh = circumf. stiffness factor =

12.5
where: t / d = 0.011905
GHh = geometry factor =
GHh
Pipe dia.
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

3-4
1.45
1.28
1.08
1.12
1.07
1.01
0.96
0.92
0.87
0.85

R = pavement factor =
L = Axle configuration =

0.96

Set Er = 10

from Fig. 15

Fig. 15

6
8
1.15
0.9
1.05
0.85
0.95
0.77
0.85
0.73
0.8
0.68
0.76
0.64
0.72
0.6
0.69
0.55
0.66
0.51
0.63
0.47

10
0.7
0.67
0.63
0.58
0.54
0.5
0.46
0.43
0.41
0.38
Ref. 2

0.90
0.65

==>

Table 2

## Limits of Calculated Stress

KLh = long. Stiffness factor =
GLh = geometry factor =
SHi (Barlow) = p D / 2 t
< or = F E T SMYS (natural gas)
< or = F E SMYS (liquids)
where:F = design factor =
E = joint factor =
T = temp. derating =

SHi (Barlow) =
<=
<=

0.8
1.0
1.0

42000 psi
52000 (nat. gas)
52000 (liquids)

Ref. 3
Ref. 2

OK
OK

Fig. 16

10
where t / d = 0.011905

GLh
Pipe dia.
6
10
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

3-4
1.55
1.23
1.15
1.1
1.02
0.94
0.86
0.78
0.7
0.62
0.54

0.78

Set Er = 10

from Fig. 17

H, soil cover
6
1.45
1.1
1.02
0.93
0.87
0.8
0.73
0.65
0.58
0.51
0.44

( ft. )
8
1.35
1
0.88
0.83
0.75
0.69
0.63
0.58
0.52
0.46
0.41

Fig. 17

10
1.25
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.57
0.53
0.48
0.44
0.4
0.36
0.32

## 2.) Check Total Effective Stress

Seff =SQRT [ 1/2 ( (S1 - S2)^2 + (S2 - S3)^2 + (S3 - S1)^2)] < or = SMYF F
S1 = SHe + SHr + SHi =
44343 psi
S2 = SLr - Es Coef. Thermal Exp. (T2 - T1) + poisons ratio ( SHe + SHi) =
S3 = - P =
-1000.0 psi
S eff =

32130 psi

< or =

52000 psi

44533 psi

References:
1. )

## Concrete Pipe Design Manual ACPA 5th Printing June 1980

2. )

API Recommended Practice 1102 Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways 6th Editition 1993

3. )

## CAN/CSA Z183 - M90

4. )

PCA Vertical Pressure on Culverts Under W heel Loads on Concrete Pavement Slabs

5. )

## PCA Concrete Floors on Ground

(3 of 3)

Design Calculation
Project Title:

Project No.

014173
Date:

Checked By:
Date:

Nov/08/13

## Underground Pipe Stress Check - UGP 1

PIPE STRESSES - WHEELS ON UNPROTECTED FILL

Earth Loading
42 in.
42 in.

Pipe Size =
O.D. =

Bd

Ref. 1
1666.6 lb / lin ft.
120 lb/ft^3 soil unit wt.
w=
5 ft. (actual width)
Bd =
Bd =
5.0 ft. (effective width)
Bc = O.D. =
3.50 ft

wd = Cd w Bd^2 =
where:

Bc

Cd = 1 - e^ (-2 ku'(H/Bd))
2 ku'
=

0.556
H=
ku' =

3 ft.
0.13 lb / in^3
ku' = modulus of subgrade reaction
Saturated clay = 0.110
Ordinary clay = 0.130
Saturated topsoil = 0.150
Sand and gravel = 0.165
Ref. 1
Table 13 to 28

## Bd max. = Transitional trench width from table below

5 ft.
=
Bd = Max. effective transitional trench width
Bd
Pipe Dia.
6
8
12
16
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

5
1.42
1.75
2.5
3
3.42
4.25
4.83
5.42
5.92
6.5
7.08
7.67

6
1.5
1.83
2.58
3.08
3.5
4.33
5.17
5.75
6.33
6.92
7.42
8

7
1.58
1.92
2.75
3.17
3.58
4.5
5.33
6.17
6.67
7.25
7.83
8.42

8
1.67
2
2.83
3.25
3.75
4.58
5.42
6.25
7.08
7.67
8.17
8.75

9
1.75
2
2.92
3.33
3.83
4.67
5.58
6.42
7.25
8.08
8.58
9.08

10
1.75
2.08
3
3.42
3.92
4.83
5.67
6.58
7.42
8.17
9
9.5

15
2.08
2.42
3.33
3.83
4.33
5.25
6.17
7.08
7.92
8.83
9.67
10.5

20
2.33
2.75
3.67
4.25
4.75
5.67
6.67
7.58
8.42
9.33
10.25
11.08

## For shallow depths (< 4ft.) use :

wd = H Bc w =
1260.0 lb / lin ft.
Therefore wd =

## 1260.0 lb / lin ft.

(1 of 3)

N:\civil\spreadsh\UGPipes\u-g pipe.xls

Wheel Loading

P4

P1

Sum loads
at this point

## From Individual Wheel Loads

X
P4

80 psi.
1.2
1.5 at surface
1.0 @ H = 5 ft.

Ref. 2 , 4.7.2.2.2

P
( lbs. )
17500
17500
17500
17500

X
( ft. )
0.00
7.00
21.20
20.00
0.00
0.00

A contact
( ft. ^2 )
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.82
0.00
0.00

r
( ft. )
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.00
0.00

H/r

P2

P3

Ref. 4

Wheel
#
1
2
3
4
5
6

Sum loads
at this point

Tire Pressure =
Impact Factor = Fi =

P1

X/r

Press. Coef.

Pressure
Top Pipe (lb./ft^2)
1202.7
27.6
13.8
13.8
0.0
0.0
Total: = 1258.0

( C from below)

3.94
3.94
3.94
3.94
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

0.087
0.002
0.001
0.001

0.00
9.19
27.83
26.26
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

Pressure Coeficient C
C
H/r
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0

0.0
1.000
0.911
0.646
0.424
0.284
0.200
0.146
0.110
0.087
0.057
0.040
0.030
0.023
0.018
0.015

1.0
1.000
0.425
0.350
0.250
0.198
0.145
0.110
0.101
0.081
0.054
0.039
0.029
0.023
0.018
0.015

2.0
0.000
0.010
0.500
0.075
0.075
0.070
0.066
0.060
0.054
0.041
0.032
0.025
0.020
0.016
0.014

## Total Wheel Pressure at Top of Pipe =

X/r
3.0
0.000
0.001
0.005
0.012
0.020
0.026
0.029
0.031
0.031
0.028
0.024
0.020
0.017
0.014
0.012

4.0
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.004
0.007
0.010
0.013
0.015
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.015
0.013
0.012
0.010

5.0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.009
0.011
0.010
0.011
0.010
0.009
0.009

6.0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.007
0.007

7.0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006

1258.0 lb / ft.^2

Pipe Stresses
Pipe Dia. O.D. =
Wall thickness t =
Pipe Grade =
SMYS =
Pipe Operating Pres. =
SMYS design factor F =

42
0.50
X65
65000
1000.0
0.8

## Young's Mod. E = 30000000 psi.

0.3
Poisson's Ratio =
Coef. Thermal Exp. = 0.0000065 per deg F

in.
in.
psi.
psi.

## Temp. @ Pipe Installation =

Max./Min. Operating Temp. =

10
170

deg. F
deg. F

Ref. 2

3675.0 psi.

1260.0 psi.

3675.0 psi.

## Khe = soil/pipe stiffness coef. =

4500 Fig. 3
(set E' = 1.0)
t / d = 0.011905
Fig. 4
Be =
0.28
where H/Bd = 0.85714
(Soil Type B for trenches)
(for trenched constuction)
Ee =
1
lamda = unit wt. Soil =
120
lb / ft^3
(2 of 3)
D=
42
in

where:

w=

where:

where: t / d =

12.5
0.0119

Fig. 14
Set Er = 10

=
89.95 psi.

## Cyclic Longitudinal Stress

SLh = KLh GLh R L Fi w
=
58.46 psi.

## Internal Pressure Circumferential Stress

Shi = p (D - t ) / 2 t
=
41500 psi.

## GHh = geometry factor =

GHh
Pipe dia.
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

3-4
1.45
1.28
1.08
1.12
1.07
1.01
0.96
0.92
0.87
0.85

R = pavement factor =
L = Axle configuration =

0.96

from Fig. 15

H, soil cover
6
1.15
1.05
0.95
0.85
0.8
0.76
0.72
0.69
0.66
0.63

Fig. 15

( ft. )
8
0.9
0.85
0.77
0.73
0.68
0.64
0.6
0.55
0.51
0.47

10
0.7
0.67
0.63
0.58
0.54
0.5
0.46
0.43
0.41
0.38
Ref. 2
Table 2

1.10
0.65

==>

## Limits of Calculated Stress

KLh = long. Stiffness factor =
1.) Check Pressure Stress using Barlow formula
GLh = geometry factor =
SHi (Barlow) = p D / 2 t
< or = F E T SMYS (natural gas)
< or = F E SMYS (liquids)
where:F = design factor =
E = joint factor =
T = temp. derating =

SHi (Barlow) =
<=
<=

0.8
1.0
1.0

42000 psi
52000 (nat. gas)
52000 (liquids)

Ref. 3
Ref. 2

OK
OK

GLh
Pipe dia.
6
10
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

3-4
1.55
1.23
1.15
1.1
1.02
0.94
0.86
0.78
0.7
0.62
0.54

0.78

Fig. 16

10

from Fig. 17

H, soil cover
6
1.45
1.1
1.02
0.93
0.87
0.8
0.73
0.65
0.58
0.51
0.44

( ft. )
8
1.35
1
0.88
0.83
0.75
0.69
0.63
0.58
0.52
0.46
0.41

Fig. 17

10
1.25
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.57
0.53
0.48
0.44
0.4
0.36
0.32

## 2.) Check Total Effective Stress

Seff =SQRT [ 1/2 ( (S1 - S2)^2 + (S2 - S3)^2 + (S3 - S1)^2)] < or = SMYF F
S1 = SHe + SHr + SHi =
45265 psi
S2 = SLr - Es Coef. Thermal Exp. (T2 - T1) + poisons ratio ( SHe + SHi) =
S3 = - P =
-1000.0 psi
S eff =

32555 psi

< or =

52000 psi

44811 psi

References:
1. )
2. )
3. )
4. )

## Concrete Pipe Design Manual ACPA 5th Printing June 1980

API Recommended Practice 1102 Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways 6th Editition 1993
CAN/CSA Z183 - M90
PCA Vertical Pressure on Culverts Under Wheel Loads on Concrete Pavement Slabs

(3 of 3)