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A Basic Guide to Cosmetic & Toiletry Development John Woodruff

john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk

A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries


What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs From concept to product formulation

Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation
Example formulation techniques
john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 2

A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs From concept to product formulation
Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation

Example formulation techniques


john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 3

What is a cosmetic product?


European Regulations specify 6 functions for cosmetic products, namely:to perfume to clean to change the appearance to protect to keep in good condition to correct body odours
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To perfume
Perfume Toilet waters Mists & sprays Aromatherapy preparations Bath additives Shower gels Deodorants Body lotions These products should not penetrate the skin but perfume compounds including essential oils may do so.

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To clean
Soap Syndet bars Bath additives Shower gels Cleansing emulsions Scrubs Cleansing masks Shampoos
These products should not penetrate the skin but they do affect the skin surface (Stratum corneum SC), they can remove skin lipids, affect skin barrier properties, increase cell turn - o v er, change pH & cause loss of moisture

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To change the appearance


Decorative cosmetics

Foundation creams These products should Blushers not penetrate the skin. Lipsticks & eye shadows Fake tans Cover fine lines & wrinkles
Plump out fine lines & wrinkles* Freeze facial muscles* DHA tanning* Skin lightening* *These products need to penetrate the S.C.

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To protect
Sun protection Barrier creams Antiseptic washes Anti-oxidants* Protect immune system*
These products should not penetrate the skin.

*These products need to penetrate the S.C.

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To keep in good condition


Moisturise

Occlusive film Humectants NMF*

NMF = Urea, cholesterol, sodium lactate, lactic acid, amino acids, phospholipids, sodium PCa, water *Generally these products need to penetrate the S.C.

Anti-oxidants* Support immune system* Plump out fine lines & wrinkles*

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To correct body odours


Deodorants Antiperspirants Cleansing*
These products should not penetrate the skin. *These products may affect the S.C.

e.g.washing

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Field of application
The field of application of cosmetics is to one or more of the following: the epidermis the hair system the nails the lips the external genital organs the teeth the mucous membranes of the oral cavity
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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries


Field of Application anywhere visible, with or without swimming costumes

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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs From concept to product formulation
Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation

Example formulation techniques


john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 13

A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries

The Brief
A clear concise document produced by the marketing department after extensive market research with intended claims clearly defined.

Or
Woolly description full of pitfalls like Natural & Organic and claims changing as new ideas occur to originator.
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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries The Packaging Already identified and selected as the ideal pack form to contain and deliver the product. Or
To be decided!
Usually after 2 months stability testing on a product with a quite unsuitable rheology for the final pack choice.

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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries


The Bench Mark
An exciting & innovative product with clear functional benefits & with a similar selling price to the product required.

Or
Two or three totally different products, all 3x the selling price of the product required. Does the bench mark meet the product requirements? Claims, market niche, legislation?

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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries


The Time Table
A program agreed between all concerned, allowing sufficient time for formulation, testing and proceeding to manufacture via pilot scale batches.

Or
Marketing has a slot promised by a major store 5 months ahead. That is plenty of time surely!

Remember formulations can fail at any stage.

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Tip
Read the brief and also read between the lines:
If natural claims then reduce non-naturals to a minimum & no animal ingredients If organic avoid all proscribed ingredients
E.g. Ethoxylated materials Most preservatives / colours / minerals / petroleum-based materials etc.etc.

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Tip
Read the brief and also read between the lines:
If one customer, obey special requirements If for sensitive areas, mucous membranes etc. avoid unsuitable colours & preservatives

Mucous membranes
in the vicinity of the eyes on the lips in the oral cavity on the external genital organs
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Tip
Read the brief and also read between the lines:

Identify target consumer


Young greasy, acne
Cleanse, tone & leave alone

Old mature, dry, sensitive, lacking radiance & resilience


Cleanse, desquamate, moisturise, cover up

Middle combination skin


Protect & moisturise
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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs
From concept to product formulation
Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation

Example formulation techniques


john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 21

Sources of Information
Look at the bench mark & competitors products?
Do they deliver their claims? If so how?

cosmeticsdesign-europe.com
Chemidex.com Cosmeticsbusiness.com Suppliers representatives & web sites Trade press & relevant articles Conference presentations Patent literature Text books
john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 22

A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs From concept to product formulation
Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation

Example formulation techniques


john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 23

The Regulations
Ignore at your peril EU 76/768/EEC The 7th Amendment
And all subsequent amendments

The Cosmetic Products (Safety) Regulations 2004 SI 2185


Customer-specific requirements
e.g. Boots GR-10

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The Regulations
EU 76/768/EEC The 7th Amendment It lists those materials that cosmetics must not contain Those materials subject to restrictions in field of application and/or maximum allowed % A positive list of colours A positive list of antiperspirant materials A positive list of preservatives A positive list of UV absorbers
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Mucous membranes
Be aware More prone to irritant reactions Restrictions on colours Restrictions on preservatives More stringent microbial rules Only ingestible products i.e.those with A.D.I., should be applied to the lips
Tip - match pH to area of application e.g. Eyes are 7+/- 0.2 / Skin is ~5.3
john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 26

A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs From concept to product formulation
Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation

Example formulation techniques


john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 27

Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries for the Global Marketplace EU / USA / Japan / Brazil etc.
Each area has own regulations
Particularly affecting
Colours Preservatives Antiperspirants Sunscreens

Also
Labelling Names of ingredients
john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 28

A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs From concept to product formulation
Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation

Example formulation techniques


john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 29

Cost effective formulation of Cosmetics & Toiletries Start with current material inventory Dont add cost without adding value
Colin Hession

Keep it simple but effective Look at methods of production


Process plant availability Heating costs / cooling costs / mixing costs / processing time costs

Fill using current machinery


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Tip
Think commercially
Use materials that are already in current stock wherever possible Use laboratory mixing equipment which represents that available in the factory Think of the likely batch sizes
Can they be made with existing equipment?

If there is a problem can the formula be revised?

Can the product be filled with existing equipment?


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Tips
Use laboratory mixing equipment which represents that available in the factory

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Tips
Use laboratory mixing equipment which represents that available in the factory

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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs From concept to product formulation
Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation

Example formulation Techniques


john.woodruff@creative-developments.co.uk 34

Stability and preservation of Cosmetics & Toiletries Preservative choice affected by


Regulations Type of product
Leave-on or Wash-off?

pH of product
pH < 6 / pH > 7

Other ingredients
Parabens inactivated by ethoxylates Phenoxyethanol thins many emulsions
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Stability and preservation of Cosmetics & Toiletries


Stability checking is essential
Minimal requirements are stability testing at 4C / RT / 40C for 3 months plus light where applicable
45C used by some companies Freeze / thaw cycles Test in final packaging A product should remain stable for minimal 36 months at RT Continuing preservative efficacy over testing period is essential PAO = Period After Opening depends on product type and packaging
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Tip
Decide which preservatives can or cannot be used
Talk to marketing. Talk to microbiologist

The choice could affect your product stability

Make selection of perfume a priority


Talk to marketing and talk to the supplier

The choice could affect your product stability

If possible incorporate these two items in development samples from the outset
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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries Formulation Techniques

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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries

Cosmetic functions
to perfume to clean to change the appearance to protect to keep in good condition to correct body odours
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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries Functional products are those for which a claim can be made, and which meet that claim. They consist of the vehicle and the active ingredient(s).
The two parts must be compatible and the final product must be pleasant to use.
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Claims substantiation
All proposed claims and methods of substantiation should be agreed at the start of product development so that a clear justification of claims can be provided from controlled laboratory trials. User trial results (responses from 50 people) or raw material data or a combination of the above can be used.
From Boots document to own label suppliers
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Functional skin care


The vehicle and the active ingredient(s).

The two parts must be compatible and the final product must be pleasant to use.
Which comes first?

Depends on many factors


Product form Packaging Claim
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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries

To keep in good condition Remove dead skin cells Protect from UV radiation Support immune system Protect from free radical species /ROS Replace lost lipids Moisturise
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A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries Narrowing the choice


Cost Supporting the claim
Check that claim support data is realistic and believable Will the product support the level of use on which claims data is based?

Compatibility with vehicle Compatibility with packaging Safety assessment Patent search
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To keep in good condition

Remove dead skin cells

Wash
Scrub Tape stripping! Peels including enzymes e.g. Papain Alpha hydroxy acids AHAs
Glycolic acid / citric acid / lactic acid / malic acid / salicylic acid
Fruit acids

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AHAs: Selecting the active


Glycolic acid / citric acid / lactic acid / malic acid / salicylic acid

Proprietary mixtures e.g. Acifructol Complex ex Gattefosse

Aqua (Water) Citric Acid Citrus Grandis (Grapefruit) Fruit Extract Citrus Medica Limonum Extract Lactic Acid Malic Acid Propylene Glycol Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) Extract Vaccinium Myrtillus (Bilberry) Extract
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AHAs: Safety & legal issues


The CIR Expert Panel concluded that glycolic and lactic Acid are safe for use in cosmetic products at concentrations <10%, at final formulation pH >3.5 Boots recommendations

Glycolic acid must be less than 4% in formula and pH of final product must be > 3.8. Lactic acid must be less than 2.5% in formula and pH of final product must be > 5. If total AHAs are more than 4% then wording must appear on pack recommending consumers use products with AHAs in conjunction with sunscreen products.
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AHAs: Selecting the active


Possible choice
Glycolic acid Plus proprietary mixture
Combines effectiveness with natural claims

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AHAs: Designing the vehicle


Parameters
pH 4 5 Electrolytes Low oil content Penetration required Possible forms
o/w emulsion foaming mousse light scrub

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AHAs: Designing the vehicle


o/w emulsion
Emulsifier suitable for pH 4 5 Oil or ester resistant to acid hydrolysis Penetration enhancer ?
Balance efficacy against safety

Urea or ethoxydiglycol Or soften SC with emollients

Anti-irritation ingredient e.g. Bisabolol Perfume / Preservatives / Rheology modifier

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AHAs: Possible formulation


3.00% Glyceryl stearate 1.00% PEG-100 stearate 3.00% Caprylic / capric triglyceride 1.00% Paraffinum liquidum Aqua to 100% 0.05% Disodium EDTA 2.50% Glycolic acid 3.00% Mixed fruit acids 5.00% Ethoxydiglycol 0.50% Bisabolol 0.20% Xanthan gum Fragrance Preservatives e.g. Methyl + propyl paraben pH adjusted to 3.8 4.3
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To keep in good condition

Protect from solar radiation

Why we should do so!

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To keep in good condition

Protect from solar radiation

Sunscreen Actives
Organic screens

Less expensive Well known properties & technology But possible irritation Possibly unstable Product / pack interactions
Inorganic

Safe Broad spectrum But whitening on skin Drag on application


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UV Protect: Selecting the active


Dependent on
Required SPF Is UVA protection required? Intended market legislation? Intended vehicle & pack form
Clear gel o/w emulsion w/o emulsion Oil Spray
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UV Protect: Selecting the active


Possible answer
Organic UV absorber

plus inorganic dispersion


Not suitable for oil or clear gel

e.g. Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate UVB TiO2 dispersion in oil phase to extend UV protection into UVA or ZnO dispersion for increased UVA protection
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UV Protect: Designing the vehicle


Design parameters pH
ZnO approx 8

Effect of inorganic dispersion aid Solubility of active Skin penetration not wanted Water-resistant Pleasant to apply
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UV Protect: Possible formulation


3.00% Propylene Glycol Dicaprylate 2.00% Ethylhexyl Palmitate 5.00% Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate 1.50% Dimethicone &/or cyclopentasiloxane 0.50% Potassium Cetyl Phosphate 12.50% Titanium Dioxide dispersion in oil 3.50% Cera Alba (Beeswax) 3.50% Sorbitan Palmitate Aqua (Water) to 100% 2.00% Hydroxypropyl Starch Phosphate 2.00% Magnesium Aluminum Silicate + silica 3.50% Polysorbate 20 0.30% Sodium Lactate Fragrance / Preservatives
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To keep in good condition

Support immune system

Abstract USP 6,843,995


The invention relates to a cosmetic preparation containing an active complex comprised of an extract from truffles (Tuberaceae) in a cosmetically acceptable gel while being stabilized. A preferred active complex is one that additionally contains a champagne product. Cosmetic preparations containing this active complex lead to an improved stimulation of the immune system, an improved regenerative effect and thus to an improved balance in the ecosystem of the skin.
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Support immune system


Possible formulation
Truffles Champagne

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To keep in good condition Anti - o xidants

Protect against free radicals

Vitamin E - Tocopherol Vitamin C Ascorbic acid & ascorbyl compounds Ferulic acid Superoxide dismutase BHT / BHA / Propyl gallate / Thio compounds Numerous plant extracts e.g. Lycopene from tomatoes Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) extract Camellia sinensis (Green tea) extract Punica granatum (Pomegranate) extract Rubus idaeus (Raspberry) leaf extract Salix nigra (Willow) bark extract
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To keep in good condition

Replace lost lipids

As skin ages the ceramide content of the SC decreases. Ceramides, cholesterol and fatty acids are effective in restoring lost lipids and the barrier functions of the skin. Ceramides AKA Sphingosines (9 identified) Fatty acid = linoleic acid particularly effective Together with cholesterol, lamella structures are formed, which penetrate upper SC.

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To keep in good condition There is a water - g radient from the lower levels of the skin to its surface where it evaporates as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) There is a decrease in moisture content from the base layers to the surface (70%- >10%) As skin ages it loses more moisture but all skin may be subject to increased moisture loss through environmental conditions Moisturising is the basic requirement for nearly all skin care products

Moisturise

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Moisturise
Select the active
The choice of moisturising ingredients is very wide Petrolatum & other oils & fats form an occlusive film, virtually preventing TEWL Lanolin has moisture holding properties and can penetrate upper SC

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Moisturise
Select the active
Glycerin & other hygroscopic humectants attract water to themselves; with more moisture on the skin there is a reduction in loss through evaporation Proteins hold moisture and are substantive to skin NMF duplicates the skin moisturising system Lamellar structures penetrate SC, restoring its natural barrier properties
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1,2,6-Hexanetriol Chitosan Lauroyl Glycinate Lactose PEG-8 Lauryl Methyl Gluceth-10 Hydroxypropyldimonium PEG-9 Chloride 2,3-Butanediol Chitosan PCA Acetamide MEA Cholesterol/HDI/Pullulan CopolymerLupine Amino Acids PEG-90 Adansonia Digitata Fruit Extract Choline Chloride Lysine PCA Polyamino Sugar Condensate Adenophora Stricta Root Extract Copper PCA Maltitol Polyglyceryl Sorbitol Agarose Corn Glycerides Manganese PCA Polyglyceryl-10 Dipalmitate Alanyl Glutamine Diglycerin Mannitol Polyglycerylmethacrylate Albatrellus Confluens (Mushroom) Extract Dimethyl Imidazolidinone MEA-Hydrolyzed Silk Potassium Lactate Albumen Extract Dimethylsilanol Hyaluronate Menthyl PCA Potassium PCA Alcaligenes Polysaccharides Erythritol Methoxy PEG-10 PPG-10 Methyl Glucose Ether Algae Ethoxydiglycol Oleate Methoxy PEG-100 PPG-20 Methyl Glucose Ether Aloe Andongensis Extract Ethylhexyl PCA Methoxy PEG-16 PPG-24-PEG-21 Tallowaminopropylamine Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice Fructose Methoxy PEG-40 PPG-6-Sorbeth-245 Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts Glucamine Methyl Gluceth-10 PPG-6-Sorbeth-500 Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice Gluconic Acid Methyl Gluceth-20 Propylene Glycol Alpha-Glucan Oligosaccharide Glucosamine Orange Peel Wax Saccharide Hydrolysate Amidinoproline Glucose Panthenol Saccharide Isomerate Anserine Glucose Glutamate PCA Saccharomyces Lysate Extract Arginine PCA Glucuronic Acid PEG-10 Sesame Amino Acids Bacillus/Rice Bran Extract/Soybean Extract Glycereth-12 Ferment Filtrate PEG-10 Propylene Glycol Sodium Aspartate Backhousia Anisata Leaf Extract Glycereth-20 PEG-100 Sodium Behenoyl Lactylate Banksia Spinulosa Flower Extract Glycereth-26 PEG-12 Sodium Cocoyl Lactylate Benzyl Hyaluronate Glycereth-7 PEG-135 Sodium Glucuronate Bidens Pilosa Extract Glycereth-7 Caprylate/Caprate PEG-14 Sodium Lactate Bifida Ferment Extract Glycerin PEG-15 Butanediol Sodium PCA Bifida/Soybean Extract Ferment Glycol PEG-16 Sorbeth-20 Bis-hydroxyethyl Tocopherylsuccinoylamido Hexacosyl Hydroxypropane Glycol PEG-18 Sorbeth-30 Bis-PEG-18 Methyl Ether Dimethyl Silane Hydrogenated Honey PEG-180 Sorbeth-40 Bittern Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysate PEG-2 Lactamide Sorbeth-6 Bixa Orellana Seed Oil Hydrolyzed Corn Starch PEG-20 Sorbitol Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein/PEG-20 Acetate PEG-200 Copolymer Sucrose Black Strap Powder Butyl Ethyl Propanediol Hydroxyethyl Sorbitol PEG-240 TEA-Lactate C30-45 Alkyl Methicone Hydroxypropyltrimonium Honey PEG-32 TEA-PCA Calcium Fructoborate Inositol PEG-4 Trehalose Dihydrate Calcium PCA Lactamide MEA PEG-40 Urea Caprylyl Glycol/Glycerin/Polyacrylic Acid Lactamidopropyl Copolymer Trimonium Chloride PEG-55 Urea-D-Glucuronic Acid Carnitine HCI Lactic Acid PEG-6 Xylitol Caryocar Coriaceum Seed Oil PEG-60 Xylitylglucoside Cellulose Succinate PEG-75 Yeast Polysaccharides

Moisturising

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Moisturise
Narrowing the choice
The brief Target skin type & area of application Claims The cost Petrolatum / glycerin etc are cheap Ceramides / yeast ferments etc are expensive

Botanicals have consumer appeal


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Moisturise
Narrowing the choice
The pack form Spray / bottle / tube / jar The vehicle Gel / lotion / cream Other actives Multi-functional

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Moisturise
Narrowing the choice
If a gel
What thickening system? Carbomers / cellulose / mineral / alginates? pH restraints? Clarity required? Oils & Fragrance create problems Compatibility issues?
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Moisturise
Narrowing the choice
If a gel
What thickening system? Exposed to light? Photo-degradation Thinning and/or discolouration Preservative system? Mixing requirements? Heating / cooling / high shear / slow mixing
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Moisturise
Narrowing the choice
Select gel form
Carbomer
pH 5.5- 7.5 No electrolytes Water - s oluble actives Chelate ions Protect against UV Cold mixing possible High shear not required
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Moisturising gel
Carbomer based
Chelate + UV Absorber (EDTA2Na +B4) + Neutraliser (e.g. NaOH or TEA or AMP) + Preservative system (e.g. Parabens) Humectant (e.g. Glycerin or PG or Sorbitol) Active e.g.
Aloe barbadensis leaf juice Hydrolysed wheat protein
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Moisturise
Narrowing the choice
If a lotion

What emulsifying system?


Anionic / cationic / non - ionic w/o or o/w or w/Si/w pH restraints? Compatibility issues? Fragrance / polar & non - p olar oils Stability Preservative system? Mixing requirements Heating / cooling / high shear / slow mixing
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Moisturise
Narrowing the choice
If a cream
What emulsifying system?

Anionic / cationic / non - ionic w/o or o/w or w/Si/w pH restraints? Compatibility issues? Stability Use of hydrocolloid Preservative system? Mixing requirements Heating / cooling / high shear / slow mixing
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Moisturising emulsions
Aqueous Phase Oil phase Emulsifier system Rheological modifier Preservative system Active ingredients Fragrance
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Moisturising emulsions
Aqueous Phase Humectant / Moisturiser CTFA makes no difference but JW thinks of humectants as hygroscopic materials used as much to keep the product moist as for moisturising skin. Humectants Glycerin / Sorbitol / Propylene glycol / Polyethylene glycol (PEG) & various sugars Moisturisers Innumerable 398 from Acetamide MEA to Zymomonas Ferment Extract in CTFA Dictionary, including sea water! Actives Most actives are water-soluble Preservative system
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Oil Phase: Selecting the emollients: Cognis

Cascading theory means select a number of emollients so that the sensorial feel is spread throughout the time of application. Cosmetics should feel good!

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Oil Phase: Selecting the emollients: Degussa


surface tension [mN/m] 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 25 21 20 19 18 17 2 1 22 16 3 4 5 9 7 6 8 12 11 13 10 14 17 18 15 19 21 23 24 PP = pour point, CP = cloud point 20 No. INCI Name PP (CP) [ C] 1 Cyclopentasiloxane <-30 2 Diethylhexylcarbonate <-30 3 Isopropyl Myristate 8 4 Hexyl Laurate -11 (-2) 5 Isopropyl Palmitate 14 6 Decyl Cocoate 16 7 Ethylhexyl Palmitate 1 -6 8 C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate 9 Ethylhexyl Stearate 8 10 Cetearyl Ethylhexanoate 0 (2) 11 Cetyl Ethylhexanoate -2 (5) 12 Decyl Oleate -6 (4) 13 Cetearyl Isononanoate 9 (12) 14 Isocetyl Palmitate 0 15 Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride -4 16 Cetyl Dimethione 14 (18) 17 PPG-3 Myristyl Ether 0 (3) 18 Mineral Oil -19 19 Octyldodecanol -30 (-20) 20 Avocado Oil < -30 21 PPG-11 Stearyl Ether -11 (-1) 22 Dimethicone 0 (13) 23 PPG-14 Butyl Ether < -30 24 Triisostearin < -30 25 Cetyl Dimethione -5 Size of circles: proportional to spreadability Color of circles: polar non-polar

caring, rich

light, light, fresh fresh

10

viscosity [mPas]

100

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Moisturising emulsions
Oil Phase
Watch out for
Rancidity Oil phase incompatibilities e.g.
Waxes crystallising Dimethicone / Mineral oil Melt & mix oil phase together; is it clear? Does it stay homogenous when cooled?

Dragging / greasiness / odours


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Moisturising emulsions
What emulsifying system?
Anionic
o/w More commonly associated with cleansing surfactants SLS - irritant TEA-Stearate OK for cleansers / not leave-on Potassium cetyl phosphate forms liquid crystals, worth attention
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Moisturising emulsions
What emulsifying system?
Cationic
w/o More commonly associated with hair conditioning Irritancy concerns However at least one material supplier is promoting their use with the following claims:Cationic O/W emulsifier based on renewable raw materials with excellent emulsifying properties

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Moisturising emulsions
What emulsifying system?
Cationic
Excellent emulsification behaviour Light emulsions, matte finish Powdery, smooth and dry skin feel after application Low greasiness, stickiness or tack Inherent moisturisation Substantive to skin Extraordinary and unique skin feel

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Moisturising emulsions
What emulsifying system?
Non-ionic
o/w or w/o Selection using HLB system possible Sorbitan esters / ethoxylated pair
e.g. Sorbitan stearate / Polysorbate - 2 0

Alkoxylated alcohols
e.g. Ceteareth - 2 0 But move against ethoxylates!
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Moisturising emulsions
What emulsifying system?
Recent introductions of sucrose esters and understanding the benefits of liquid crystal formation is driving new formulations

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Moisturising emulsions
Benefits of liquid crystal formation
Water, fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides and ceramides form the lamellar (layered) gellike lipid system of the horny layer.

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Moisturising emulsions
Non-ionic liquid crystal forming emulsifiers
Cetearyl glucoside Cetearyl olivate / Sorbitan olivate Sucrose cocoate / Sorbitan stearate Sorbitan stearate / Sorbityl laurate Cetearyl polyglucoside Polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate Cetearyl polyglucoside / polyglyceryl-2 dipolyhydroxystearate
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Moisturising emulsions

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Moisturising emulsions
Liquid crystals are states of matter that exist in between the solid and the ordinary liquid phase. The main characteristic of the phase is the existence of partial ordering (positional and orientational) like that of the crystal phase but the phase has the ability to flow like a liquid.
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Moisturising emulsions
Oil Phase
Refer to Cognis cascading theory of emollients Degussa selection chart Cyclopentasiloxane stops soaping up Vegetable oils are polar (& popular) Capric/caprylic triglyceride is good stuff Cetyl or cetearyl alcohol and/or glyceryl stearate helps stabilise LC structures
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Moisturising emulsions
Rheology modifier
Xanthan gum Minerals e.g. Bentonite / Veegum / Laponite Carbomer Acrylates copolymer Sclerotium Gum Mannan Modified starch Gum tragacanth Alginates Silica Cellulose derivatives
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Moisturising emulsions
Preservative system Affected by other ingredients pH Market trends Active ingredients Affected by marketing claims Other ingredients pH Fragrance No Fragrance / Perfume / Essential Oils Affected by named allergens
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Moisturising emulsions: possible formulation

7.00% Caprylic/capric triglyceride 2.50% Cetearyl alcohol 5.00% Prunus amygdalus dulcis (Sweet almond) oil 1.50% Cyclopentasiloxane 0.01% Ceramide 0.10% Tocopherol Aqua (Water) to 100% 0.08% Disodium EDTA 1.50% Cetearyl polyglucoside (emulsifier) 0.20% Xanthan gum 0.50% Niacinamide 5.00% Glycerin 1.00% Sodium PCa 3.00% Aloe barbadensis leaf juice 2.00% Punica granatum (Pomegranate) extract Preservatives / Fragrance / pH adjusters

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DLC Question
A major brand of moisturising lotion lists its ingredients as Aqua, Cetyl Palmitate, Glycerin, Paraffinum liquidum, Petrolatum, Cetyl Alcohol, Glyceryl Hydroxystearate, Stearic Acid, Steareth 100, Dimethicone, Octyldodecyl Myristate, Fragrance, Potassium Hydroxide, DMDM Hydantoin, Iodopropynyl Butylcarbamate, Tetrasodium EDTA, Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer, Carbomer, Red 4.
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DLC Question
Claims are:Softens and smoothes for radiant skin. Light, Non - Greasy Formula. Dermatologist Tested. Non - C omedogenic (Won't Clog Pores). Moisturizes- Penetrates quickly, providing your skin with immediate surge of active moisture to soothe dryness without greasy feel. Improves- Helps your skin replenish its own essential fluids so skin is softer, smoother and more supple. Restores- Works like the essential fluids abundant in young skin to help restore skin to its natural beauty and diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
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DLC Question
Using your knowledge of ingredients briefly describe the function of each ingredient in this product, give your best guess for the % by weight of the individual ingredients and in no more than 100 words write a label description of the properties of this product aimed to sell it to a consumer.

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DLC Question
Aqua Cetyl Palmitate Glycerin Paraffinum liquidum Petrolatum Cetyl Alcohol Glyceryl Hydroxystearate Stearic Acid Steareth 100 Dimethicone
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Octyldodecyl Myristate Fragrance Potassium Hydroxide DMDM Hydantoin Iodopropynyl Butylcarbamate Tetrasodium EDTA Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer Carbomer Red 4
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DLC Question
It is your task as head of product development to reformulate this product in order to make strong moisturising claims and to avoid using materials that are no longer perceived as appealing to consumers. There are no financial restraints on the material costs. Finally, list the reformulated product ingredients in descending order of concentration, show their approximate % in the new formula and rewrite the label copy to appeal to the target consumer.
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If you get it right!

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And if you get it wrong!

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