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Summer Training Report at DLF Regal Gardens

Submitted to Prof- P.N Sharma

Project Report Details


Summer Internship Semester: 6th Duration: 7 weeks Period: 15th July13 to 30th Aug13 Site: DLF Regal Garden, Sector-90, Gurgaon

Name: Ram Ditta Sap-Id: 500012805 Roll No: 7310653 Branch: B.Tech (Civil Engineering )

Under the guidance of Prof. P.N Sharma For the Department of Civil Engineering, Collage Galaxy Global Group of Institutions Dinarpur (Ambala).

Acknowledgments

I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this project. I want to thank the Department of Civil Engineering, Collage Galaxy Global Group of Institution Dinarpur (Ambala) for giving me such a golden opportunity to commence this summer internship in the first instance. I am also thankful to the entire Civil Engineering Department faculty for their stimulating support. I extend my due thanks to Prof. P. N Sharma who gave me his valuable time and suggestions and guided me a lot at various stages of the Summer Training.. Especially, I would like to give my special thanks to my parents whose patient love and support enabled me to complete this work.

Site Overview
DLF Regal Garden is brand name project under the DLF Group. DLF group launched new apartments named as "Regal Garden" which is located in Gurgaon Sector-90 and offers 3/4 BHK apartments with full amenities suitable to ones requirements. DLF Regal Garden Gurgaon is as hi-tech as its inspiration .Equipped with latest technology, constructed with new age materials. Regal Garden reflects the aesthetic amalgamation of technology and nature in creating dream homes. Main features of this project are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Air-conditioned Apartments and entrances at ground floor. Air-conditioned Entrance Halls. POP punning on walls. Imported marble. Beautifully Landscaped Greens The core principle of planning is unobstructed Garden view from maximum apartments. vii. Varied choices of apartment type(s) are available in 3BHK and 4BHK options. Locational Advantages and Connectivity: Close to Multi Utility Corridor- which is the spine of DLF Gardencity. Close to Commercial Business District of Gurgaon at sectors 74A/75A. Close access from all points in Delhi and Gurgaon: i. ii. iii. From Central Delhi via 60m/150m wide NH8 merging into Multi-utility corridor via Central Periphery road. From South Delhi via 90m wide southern periphery road. From Dwarka via 150m wide northern periphery road.

The site consists of two buildings, club house and nursery school. Building 1 consists of five blocks and building 2 consists of three blocks. Building 1 consists of:

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Block A (16 storey) Block B (18 storey) Block C (28 storey) Block D (28 storey) Block E (18 storey)

Building 2 consists of: i. ii. iii. Block F (18 storey) Block G (18 storey) Block H (18 storey)

In building 1, raft foundation has been completed in blocks A, B, D and E. PCC work has been completed in Block C and raft foundation is still to be completed. In building 2, raft foundation has been completed in all the three blocks. The work of basement including slab and beam has been completed in all the three blocks. The work of retaining wall is going in full swing in both the buildings and it will be completed soon.

General floor plan specification of the flats are as follows:

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

1693sqft. Consisting of 3Bedroom+3Toilet+Hall+Kitchen. 1703sqft. Consisting of 3Bedroom+3Toilet+Hall+Kitchen. 1719sqft. Consisting of 3Bedroom+3Toilet+Hall+Kitchen. 1734sqft. Consisting of 3Bedroom+3Toilet+Hall+Kitchen. 1818sqft. Consisting of 3Bedroom+3Toilet+Hall+Kitchen. 2215sqft. Consisting of 4Bedroom+4Toilet+Hall+Kitchen.

I was assigned my summer internship programme in both the buildings but more specifically to building 1 which contains five blocks which are A,B,C,D and E. During the whole training period I got the opportunity to explore the whole site and learn almost each and every aspect of the construction that was taking place. The details of which have been included in the subsequent chapters of this report.

SEQUENCE OF STRUCTURE WORK


Site Clearance and Demarcation of Site Positioning of Central coordinate i.e. (0,0,0) as per grid plan Surveying and layout Excavation Laying of PCC Bar Binding and placement of foundation steel Shuttering and Scaffolding Concreting Electrical and Plumbing De-shuttering Brickwork Doors and windows frames along with lintels Wiring for electrical purposes Plastering, Flooring and tiling work Painting Final Completion and handing over the project

SITE CLEARANCE The very first step is site clearance which involves removal of grass and vegetation along with any other objections which might be there in the site location. A number of conditions determine the kind of building that may be erected on a plot of ground. These conditions may determine where on the lot it may be located. There are also covenants that are legally binding regulations. These may, for example, set the minimum size of a house, prohibit utility buildings, or ban rooftop television antennas. Zoning laws regulate the setback and other factors that play into the equation of house location on a lot. Septic tanks also require special consideration. A Certificate of Occupancy (CO) is an important piece of paper. It is the final piece of paper, the sign-off that says the construction of the building is complete and it is ready to be occupied. DEMARCATION OF SITE The whole area on which construction is to be done is marked so as to identify the construction zone. POSITIONING OF CENTRAL COORDINATE AND LAYOUT The centre point is marked with the help of a thread and plumb bob as per the grid drawing. With respect to this center point, all the other points of columns are to be decided therefore its exact position is very critical.

EXCAVATION
Prior to beginning excavation, grading, or embankment operations in any area, the following items are required to be completed: 1) Clearing and grubbing is conducted. This includes the removal of all perishable material such as tree roots, stumps, sod, weeds, agricultural debris, etc. 2) Check sections are taken and checked satisfactorily with those on the plans. 3) After the previous items have been completed, the Contractor proceeds with scalping in areas where excavations are to be made, or embankments are to be placed. Another common term for scalping is stripping. Scalping is the removal of the upper 4 in. of the soils. Removal is necessary to ensure that decayable vegetation is not incorporated into an embankment. 4) All pronounced depressions left in the original ground surface by removal of objectionable material from within embankment limits are filled with acceptable material and compacted to the density required for the embankment. 5) The final step before embankment placement is proof rolling. After proof rolling has been completed and all soft or unstable areas have been corrected, the area is ready for placement of the new embankment. Excavated material that is suitable for embankment construction is placed in the embankment before placing any borrow material. This means that ditches are excavated first, since much of common excavation is derived from ditch cuts. The construction of ditches first also provides drainage for the embankment area. The roadway embankments are maintained higher at the center to promote drainage of the roadway. Once the ditches have been completed, the Contractor begins placement of temporary erosion control

devices as soon as possible. Failure to do so may cause pollution to drainage ditches, streams, and rivers adjacent to the project. HAULING The method of hauling embankment material is determined by the Contractor and is based upon the following construction factors. Type of material Source of material Conditions or obstacles between the source and area of placement Availability of equipment The equipment used for hauling includes: Dump trucks Earthmovers Quarry trucks Earthmovers are the most frequently used means of hauling embankment material. There are various sizes and models of earthmovers. Earthmovers are used in excavating, hauling, and placement of soil materials that are adjacent to or on the contract. When common excavation is required to be hauled across a bridge structure or when borrow material is obtained from a remote source, dump trucks are used. Quarry trucks are used only in rock excavation.

SPREADING Because embankments are to be constructed in uniform layers, spreading equipment is necessary. Placing uniform layers may be done with several types of equipment or groups of equipment. The most common are the motor grader and the bulldozer. If soil conditions are suitable, earthmovers may also be considered as spreading equipment. This is done by the earthmover operator controlling the discharge of the materials in such a manner to create a uniform layer. Because soil conditions may change dramatically, the

earthmover is not considered the only spreading device necessary. A piece of equipment that may also be used during the spreading operation is the disk. Although the disc does not level the soil, this equipment is helpful in creating a uniform layer. The disc is used for: Breaking up lumps, slabs, and clods Aerating material to remove excess moisture Incorporating water to increase moisture

COMPACTING Compacting equipment requirements vary from contract to contract. A list of the types of compactors which are most commonly used include: Three wheel roller Smooth drum vibrator roller Vibratory tamping roller Static tamping roller or sheepsfoot Crawler-tread equipment or bulldozer Mechanical tamps or vibrators

The compactor to be used is determined by the Contractor and is dependent upon several factors: Size of embankment Type of materials being compacted Conditions of materials being compacted Availability of equipment Contractor's preference

For placement of granular embankment material, three wheel and smooth drum vibrator rollers are preferred over tamping rollers. A dozer may be used in areas not accessible to conventional rollers, in building surcharges for peat excavation, or for rock embankments. Tamping vibratory rollers are preferable for shale embankment. For placement of a clay soil embankment material, large slabs, lumps, or clods are required to be broken up before compacting. Breaking may be done by disking, but often a sheep foot roller is required to break up clods and low moisture lumps.

LAYING OF PCC
Plain cement concrete (PCC) is used to provide rigid impervious bed to RCC in foundation where the earth is soft and yielding. PCC can be used over brick flat soling or without brick flat soling. Plain cement concrete can also called only "cement concrete (CC)" or "binding concrete".

GENERAL SPECIFICATION In plain cement concrete coarse aggregate should be hard durable and free from impurities. Fine aggregate should contain sharp, angular grain. Cement should be fresh Portland cement. Mixing should be done by hand mixing or by machine mixing. Laying and compaction should be done before setting of concrete i.e. within 30 min. Curing should be done for minimum 14 days. GRADE USED IN DLF Regal Garden: Plain cement concrete (PCC) of grade M10 is used at site with pertains a strength of 10 Mpa after settling.

Materials used for producing PCC:


Cement: we generally use Portland cement as bonding material in PCC. Fine Aggregate: Sand is used as fine aggregate. The FM of sand should be 1.2 to 1.5. Course Aggregate: We normally use brick chips for producing PCC. Stone chips can also be used for this purpose. The size of the course aggregate is

20mm downgrade. Water: Pure drinkable water should be used in PCC.

Tools used for producing PCC:


We normally use following tools for producing Plain Cement ConcreteWooden or Steel rammer Mixture machine (if any)

Thickness of PCC:
The thickness of PCC is normally 50mm over Brick Flat Soling (BFS). If we dont use BFS below PCC then the thickness should be 75mm. when the PCC is used in car park area then the thickness should be 75mm over BFS.

Material proportion for PCC:


The proportion of cement, sand and brick chips by volume in foundation or basement is 1:3:6. But, in car park area, the proportion should be 1:2:4.

Laying of PCC:
The entire concrete used in the work shall be laid gently in layers not exceeding 15cm and shall be thoroughly vibrated by means of mechanical vibrators till a dense concrete is obtained. Hand compaction shall be done with the help of punning rods and tamping rods and tamping with the wooden tampers so that concrete is thoroughly compacted and completely walked into the corners of the form work. The layers of concrete shall be so placed that the bottom layer does not finally sit before the top layer is placed.

Compaction shall be completed before the initial setting starts that is within thirty minutes of addition of water to the dry mixture.

PROTECTION AND CURING Freshly laid concrete shall be protected from rain by suitable covering After the concrete as begun to harden, that is about one to two hours after its laying it shall be protected with moist gunny bags, sand or any other materials against quick drying. After 24hrs of lying of concrete the surface shall be cured by flooding with water of about 25mm depth or by covering with weight absorbent materials .Curing shall be done for a minimum period of 14 days.

Checking and Inspection:


Check polythene sheet is laid over PCC bed. Check the concrete slump (maximum slump should be 75mm). Check the thickness level of PCC before casting by putting steel pegs in concreting area or putting level pillar of fresh concrete at suitable distance. Check the finish level of PCC by thread fixing with nails in form work. Inspect if the concrete is placing gently.

FOUNDATION
Foundation is a system or arrangement of structural members through which the loads are transferred to supporting soil or rock. Function of a foundation is to transfer the structural loads from a building safely into the ground. A larger and heavier building of masonry, steel, or concrete would require its foundations to go deeper into earth such that the soil or the rock on which it is founded is competent to carry its massive loads; On some sites, this means going a hundred feet or more below the surface. Because of the variety of soil, rock, and water conditions that are encountered below the surface of the ground A building consists of superstructure, substructure and the foundations Shallow and Deep whose selection depends on whether the load transfer is at deeper depths or shallower depths. Need for these two types soil strength, ground water conditions, foundation loads, construction methods and impact on adjacent property At our site, Raft or mat foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the entire area of the structure. Mat foundations, also called on-grade mat foundations for expansive soils, are used to distribute heavy column and wall loads across the entire building area, to lower the contact pressure compared to conventional spread footings. Mat foundations can be constructed near the ground surface, or at the bottom of

basements. In high-rise buildings, these foundations can be several meters thick, with extensive reinforcing to ensure relatively uniform load transfer.

Normally raft foundation is used when large load is to be distributed and it is not possible to provide individual footings due to space constraints that are they would overlap on each other. Raft foundations have the advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area. In laying of raft foundation, special care is taken in the reinforcement and construction of plinth beams and columns. It is the main portion on which ultimately whole of the structure load is to come. So a slightest error can cause huge problems and therefore all this is checked and passed by the engineer in charge of the site.

RAFT FOUNDATION INSTALLED IN BLOCK D

CONCRETING
READY-MIX CONCRETE (RMC)
Ready-mix concrete is concrete that is manufactured in a factory or batching plant, according to a set mix design, and then delivered to a work site, by truck mounted intransit mixers. This results in a precise mixture, allowing specialty concrete mixtures to be developed and implemented on construction sites. The first ready-mix factory was built in the 1930s, but the industry did not begin to expand significantly until the 1980s, and it has continued to grow since then. A medium seized RMC batching plant with German computing technology is present near the site. Ready mix concrete is sometimes preferred over on-site concrete mixing because of the precision of the mixture and reduced work site confusion. However, using a pre-determined concrete mixture reduces flexibility, both in the supply chain and in the actual components of the concrete. Ready Mixed Concrete is also referred as the customized concrete products for commercial purpose the Ready-mix Concrete plant offers different concrete according to the sites mix design standard. The ready mixed concrete company is required to equip themselves with upto-date equipment, such as transit mixer, concrete pump, and Concrete Batching Plant, which needs visualized production management software and also PLC controller. Ready Mixed Concrete, or RMC as it is popularly called, refers to concrete that is specifically manufactured for delivery to the customer's construction site in a freshly mixed and plastic or unhardened state. Concrete itself is a mixture of ordinary Portland cement, water and aggregates comprising sand and gravel or crushed stone. In our work site, each of these materials is

procured separately and mixed in specified proportions at site to make concrete. Ready Mixed Concrete is issued and delivered by volume - usually expressed in cubic meters by the RMC plant executives to specific tower for concreting purposes. Ready Mixed Concrete is manufactured under controlled operations and transported and placed at site using sophisticated equipment and methods. Ready-mix concrete (RMC) is a ready-to-use material, with predetermined mixture of cement, sand, aggregates and water. It is delivered to a worksite, in transit mixers capable of mixing the ingredients of the concrete en route or just before delivery of the batch. This results in a precise mixture, allowing specialty concrete mixtures to be developed and implemented on construction site. It also decreases labour, site supervising cost and project time, resulting in savings. Proper control and economy in use of raw material results in saving of natural resources. It assures consistent quality through accurate computerized control of aggregates and water as per mix designs. It minimizes cement wastage due to bulk handling and there is no dust problem and therefore, pollution-free.

CEMENT
Portland cement is composed of calcium silicates and Aluminates and Alumino Ferrite It is obtained by blending predetermined proportions limestone clay and other minerals in small quantities which is pulverized and heated at high temperature around 1500 deg centigrade to produce clinker. The clinker is then ground with small quantities of gypsum to produce a fine powder called Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). When mixed with water, sand and stone, it combines slowly with the water to form a hard mass called concrete. Cement is a hygroscopic material meaning that it absorbs moisture in presence of moisture it undergoes chemical reaction termed as hydration. Therefore cement remains in good condition as long as it does not come in contact with moisture. If cement is more than three months old then it should be tested for its strength before being taken into use. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has classified OPC in three different grades The classification is mainly based on the compressive strength of cement-sand mortar cubes of face area 50 cm2 composed of 1 part of cement to 3 parts of standard sand by weight with a water-cement ratio arrived at by a specified procedure. The grades are (i) 33grade (ii) 43grade (iii) 53grade The grade number indicates the minimum compressive strength of cement sand mortar in N/mm2 at 28 days, as tested by above mentioned procedure. When water is mixed with cement, the paste so formed remains pliable and plastic for a short time. During this period it is possible to disturb the paste and remit it without any deleterious effects. As the reaction between water and cement continues, the paste loses its plasticity. This early period in the hardening of cement is referred to as setting of cement.

Initial and final setting time of cement


Initial set is when the cement paste loses its plasticity and stiffens considerably. Final set is the point when the paste hardens and can sustain some minor load. Both are arbitrary points and these are determined by Vicat needle penetration resistance Slow or fast setting normally depends on the nature of cement. It could also be due to extraneous factors not related to the cement. The ambient conditions play an important role. In hot weather, the setting is faster, in cold weather, setting is delayed Some types of salts, chemicals, clay, etc if inadvertently get mixed with the sand, aggregate and water could accelerate or delay the setting of concrete.

Storage of Cement
It needs extra care or else can lead to loss not only in terms of financial loss but also in terms of loss in the quality. Following are the dont that should be followed Do not store bags in a building or a godown in which the walls, roof and floor are not completely weatherproof. Do not store bags in a new warehouse until the interior has thoroughly dried out. Do not be content with badly fitting windows and doors, make sure they fit properly and ensure that they are kept shut. Do not stack bags against the wall. Similarly, dont pile them on the floor unless it is a dry concrete floor. If not, bags should be stacked on wooden planks or sleepers. Do not forget to pile the bags close together Do not pile more than 15 bags high and arrange the bags in a headerand-stretcher fashion. Do not disturb the stored cement until it is to be taken out for use. Do not take out bags from one tier only. Step back two or three tiers.

Do not keep dead storage. The principle of first-in first-out should be followed in removing bags. Do not stack bags on the ground for temporary storage at work site. Pile them on a raised, dry platform and cover with tarpaulin or polythene sheet.

Coarse Aggregate
Coarse aggregate for the works should be river gravel or crushed stone .It should be hard, strong, dense, durable, clean, and free from clay or loamy admixtures or quarry refuse or vegetable matter. The pieces of aggregates should be cubical, or rounded shaped and should have granular or crystalline or smooth (but not glossy) non-powdery surfaces. Aggregates should be properly screened and if necessary washed clean before use. Coarse aggregates containing flat, elongated or flaky pieces or mica should be rejected. The grading of coarse aggregates should be as per specifications of IS-383. After 24-hrs immersion in water, a previously dried sample of the coarse aggregate should not gain in weight more than 5%. Aggregates should be stored in such a way as to prevent segregation of sizes and avoid contamination with fines. Depending upon the coarse aggregate color, there quality can be determined as: Black => very good quality Blue => good Whitish =>bad quality

Fine Aggregate
Aggregate which is passed through 4.75 IS Sieve is termed as fine aggregate. Fine aggregate is added to concrete to assist workability and to bring uniformity in mixture. Usually, the natural river sand is used as fine aggregate. Important thing to be considered is that fine aggregates should be free from coagulated lumps.

Grading of natural sand or crushed stone i.e. fine aggregates shall be such that not more than 5 percent shall exceed 5 mm in size, not more than 10% shall IS sieve No. 150 not less than 45% or more than 85% shall pass IS sieve No. 1.18 mm and not less than 25% or more than 60% shall pass IS sieve No. 600 micron.

REINFORCEMENT
Steel reinforcements are used, generally, in the form of bars of circular cross section in concrete structure. Plain concrete without steel or any other reinforcement is strong in compression but weak in tension. Steel is one of the best forms of reinforcements, to take care of those stresses and to strengthen concrete to bear all kinds of loads. Mild steel bars conforming to IS: 432 (Part I) and Cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars conforming to IS: 1786 (grade Fe 415 and grade Fe 500, where 415 and 500 indicate yield stresses 415 N/mm2 and 500 N/mm2 respectively) are commonly used. Grade Fe 415 is being used at DLF Regal Garden site .This has limited the use of plain mild steel bars because of higher yield stress and bond strength resulting in saving of steel quantity. Some companies have brought thermo mechanically treated (TMT) and corrosion resistant steel (CRS) bars with added features. Bars range in diameter from 6 to 50 mm. Cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars start from 8 mm diameter. For general house constructions, bars of diameter 6 to 20 mm are used. Transverse reinforcements are very important. They not only take care of structural requirements but also help main reinforcements to remain in desired position. They play a very significant role while abrupt changes or reversal of stresses like earthquake etc. They should be closely spaced as per the drawing and properly tied to the main/longitudinal reinforcement.

Terms used in Reinforcement


Bar-bending-schedule Bar-bending-schedule is the schedule of reinforcement bars prepared in advance before cutting and bending of bars. This schedule contains all details of size, shape and dimension of bars to be cut. Lap length Lap length is the length overlap of bars tied to extend the reinforcement length. Lap length about 50 times the diameter of the bar is considered safe. Laps of neighboring bar lengths should be staggered and should not be provided at one level/line. At one cross section, a maximum of 50% bars should be lapped. In case, required lap length is not available at junction because of space and other constraints, bars can be joined with couplers or welded (with correct choice of method of welding). Anchorage Length This is the additional length of steel of one structure required to be inserted in other at the junction. For example, main bars of beam in column at beam column junction, column bars in footing etc. The length requirement is similar to the lap length mentioned in previous question or as per the design instructions. Cover block Cover blocks are placed to prevent the steel rods from touching the shuttering plates and thereby providing a minimum cover and fix the reinforcements as per the design drawings. Sometimes it is commonly seen that the cover gets misplaced during the concreting activity. To prevent this, tying of cover with steel bars using thin steel wires called binding wires (projected from cover surface and placed during making or casting of cover blocks) is recommended.

Covers should be made of cement sand mortar (1:3). Ideally, cover should have strength similar to the surrounding concrete, with the least perimeter so that chances of water to penetrate through periphery will be minimized. Provision of minimum covers as per the Indian standards for durability of the whole structure should be ensured. Shape of the cover blocks could be cubical or cylindrical. However, cover indicates thickness of the cover block. Normally, cubical cover blocks are Structural element Footings (raft) Columns Slabs Beams Retaining wall Cover to reinforcement (mm) 50 40 20 25 25 for earth face 20 for other face

Things to Note Reinforcement should be free from loose rust, oil paints, mud etc. it should be cut, bent and fixed properly. The reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in position by providing proper cover blocks, spacers, supporting bars, laps etc. Reinforcements shall be placed and tied such that concrete placement is possible without segregation, and compaction possible by an immersion vibrator. For any steel reinforcement bar, weight per running meter is equal to d*d/162 Kg, where d is diameter of the bar in mm. For example, 10 mm diameter bar will weigh 1010/162 = 0.617 Kg/m

Three types of bars were used in reinforcement of a slab. These include straight bars, crank bar and an extra bar. The main steel is placed in which the straight steel is binded first, then the crank steel is placed and extra steel is placed in the end. The extra steel comes over the support while crank is encountered at distance of (1-distance between the supports) from the surroundings supports. For providing nominal cover to the steel in beam, cover blocks were used which were made of concrete and were casted with a thin steel wire in the center which projects outward. These keep the reinforcement at a distance from bottom of shuttering. For maintaining the gap between the main steel and the distribution steel, steel chairs are placed between them.

GENERAL REINFORCEMENT Reinforcement cover: We generally call it clear cover. Clear cover is the distance between reinforcement and outer face of RCC member. This distance varies depending on the RCC member size and location. Common clear cover value of different RCC members are given below: Pile:- 3" (75 mm) Pile cap:- 3" (75 mm) Footing:- 3" (75 mm) Column below ground: 2.5" (62 mm), Column above ground: 1.5" (37 mm) Shear wall below ground: 2.5" (62 mm) Shear wall above ground: 1.5" (37 mm) Beam below ground: 2.5" (62 mm),

Beam above ground: 1.5" (37 mm) Slab below ground: 2" (50 mm) Slab above ground:- 0.75" (20 mm) Stair: 0.75" (20 mm) Retaining wall's earth face: 1.5" (37 mm), opposite face: 1" (25 mm). Door-window lintel: 0.75" (20 mm) Sunshade: 0.75" (20 mm)

Hook and bend : Stirrup's hook angle: 135 degree. Stirrup hook length: 9D or, not below 3" (75 mm), (D= dia of bar), End hook of beam reinforcement: 12D End hook of slab top reinforcement: 12D L bend for vertical reinforcement of column: not below 18" (450 mm). Main steel anchorage length for cantilever is 69D.

Weight of steel 8 mm dia bar: 0.12 kg/rft, 10 mm dia bar: 0.19 kg/rft, 12 mm dia bar: 0.27 kg/rft, 16 mm dia bar: 0.48 kg/rft, 20 mm dia bar: 0.75 kg/rft, 25 mm dia bar: 1.25 kg/rft, Standard steel bar length: 40 rft. Weight of steel bars can be calculated by this formula, d2/162, result will be in kg/meter, where d is diameter of bar in millimeter.

Reinforcement placing 1st stirrup of beam should be placed within 2" (50 mm) distance from support. Steel bar larger than 36 mm shouldn't be lapped. More than 50% of bars shouldn't be lapped in one place. No lapping shouldn't be placed in tension zone. For one ton steel bars 8 kg binding wire is required. A square column should have minimum 4 numbers of bars and a round column should have minimum 6 numbers of bar. Steel bar size for chair shouldn't be less than 12 mm diameter. Bar Bending Schedule For calculation of steel reinforcement in the structure, Bar Bending Schedule is prepared. It gives the cumulative details of steel bars used of all sizes and shapes for a final calculation of steel amount.

FORMWORK AND CASTING OF COLUMNS, BEAMS AND SLABS


Formwork is an ancillary construction, used as a mould for a structure. Into this mould, fresh concrete is placed only to harden subsequently. The construction of formwork takes time and involves expenditure up to 20 to 25% of the cost of the structure or even more. The operation of removing the formwork is known as stripping. Stripped formwork can be reused. Reusable forms are known as panel forms and nonusable are called stationary forms. Timber is the most common material used for formwork. The disadvantage with timber formwork is that it will warp, swell and shrink. Application of water impermeable cost to the surface of wood mitigates these defects. A good formwork should satisfy the following requirements: It should be strong enough to withstand all types of dead and live loads. It should be rigidly constructed and efficiently propped and braced both horizontally and vertically, so as to retain its shape. The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of cement grout. Construction of formwork should permit removal of various parts in desired sequences without damage to the concrete. The material of the formwork should be cheap, easily available and should be suitable for reuse. The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line and levels should have plane surface. It should be as light as possible. The material of the formwork should not warp or get distorted when exposed to the elements. It should rest on firm base.

Economy in Formwork
The following points are to be kept in view to effect economy in the cost of formwork: The plan of the building should imply minimum number of variations in the size of rooms, floor area etc. so as to permit reuse of the formwork repeatedly. Design should be perfect to use slender sections only in a most economical way. Minimum sawing and cutting of wooden pieces should be made to enable reuse of the material a number of times. The quantity of surface finish depends on the quality of the formwork. Formwork can be made out of timber, plywood, steel, precast concrete or fiber glass used separately or in combination. Steel forms are used in situation where large numbers of re-use of the same forms are necessary. For small works, timber formwork proves useful. Timber Formwork: Timber for formwork should satisfy the following requirement: It should be well seasoned, light in weight, easily workable with nails without splitting, free from loose knots. Timber used for shuttering for exposed concrete work should have smooth and even surface on all faces which come in contact with concrete. Normal sizes of members for timber formwork: Sheeting for slabs, beam, column side 25 mm to 40mm thick and beam bottom Joints, ledges Posts 50 x 70 mm to 50 x 150 mm 75 x 100mm to 100 x 100 mm

Plywood Formwork Resin bonded plywood sheets are attached to timber frames to make up panels of required sizes. The cost of plywood formwork compares favorably with that of timber shuttering and it may even prove cheaper in certain cases in view of the following considerations: It is possible to have smooth finish in which case on cost in surface finishing is there. By use of large size panels it is possible to effect saving in the labour cost of fixing and dismantling. Numbers of reuses are more as compared with timber shuttering. For estimation purpose, number of reuses can be taken as 20 to 25. Steel Formwork This consists of panels fabricated out of thin steel plates stiffened along the edges by small steel angles. The panel units can be held together through the use of suitable clamps or bolts and nuts. The panels can be fabricated in large number in any desired modular shape or size. Steel forms are largely used in large projects or in situation where large number reuses of the shuttering is possible. This type of shuttering is considered most suitable for circular or curved structures. Steel forms compared with timber formwork: Steel forms are stronger, durable and have longer life than timber formwork and their reuses are more in number. Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater ease and speed. The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms is good and such surfaces need no further treatment. Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete. Steel formwork does not shrink or warp.

Construction of formwork: This normally involves the following operations: Propping and centering Shuttering Provision of camber Cleaning and surface treatment Order and method of removing formwork: The sequence of orders and method of removal of formwork are as follows: Shuttering forming the vertical faces of walls beams and column sides should be removed first as they bear no load but only retain the concrete. Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next. Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily loaded shuttering should be removed in the end. Rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading conditions allow early removal of formwork. The formwork should under no circumstances be allowed to be removed until all the concrete reaches strength of at least twice the stresses to which the concrete may be subjected at the time of removal of formwork. All formworks should be eased gradually and carefully in order to prevent the load being suddenly transferred to concrete.

Details at section (A)

Figure 2(a): Elevation

Figure 2(b): Details of timber formwork for circular RCC column

Column casted at Block D

Plywood and Battens being installed onto the column bars.

STRIPPING TIME OR REMOVAL OF FORMWORK

Structural Component Footings Sides of beams, columns, lintels, wall Underside of beams spanning less than 6m Underside of beams spanning over 6m Underside of slabs spanning less than 4m Underside of slabs spanning more than 4m Flat slab bottom

Age 1 day 2 days 14 days 21 days 7 days 14 days 21 days

CONCLUSION
As an undergraduate of the University of K.U.K., I would like to say that this training program was an excellent opportunity for me to get to the ground level and experience the things that we would have never gained through going straight into a job. I am grateful to the University and DLF Group for giving us this wonderful opportunity. The main objective of the industrial training is to provide an opportunity to undergraduates to identify, observe and practice how engineering is applicable in the real construction industry. It is not only to get experience on technical practices but also to observe management practices as well and to interact with fellow workers. It is easy to work with sophisticated machines, but not with people. The only chance that an undergraduate has to have this experience is the industrial training period. I feel I got the maximum out of that experience. Also I learnt the way of work in an organization, the importance of being punctual, the importance of maximum commitment, and the importance of team spirit. I have gained lots of insight, practical knowledge and experience needed to be successful in a great engineering challenge, as in my opinion, Civil Engineering is after all a Challenge, and not a Job.