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Republic of the Philippines

Supreme Court

MANUEL G. ALMELOR, Petitioner,

G.R. No. 179620 Present:

- versus -


YNARES-SANTIAGO, J., Chairperson, AUSTRIA-MARTINEZ, CHICO-NAZARIO, NACHURA, and REYES, JJ. Prom !"ated: A " st $%, $&&'

(--------------------------------------------------( DECISION REYES, R.T., J.% MARRIAGE, in its tota!it), in*o!*es t+e s#o ses, ri"+t to t+e -omm nit) o. t+eir /+o!e !i*es. It !i0e/ise in*o!*es a tr e intert/inin" o. #ersona!ities.1213 T+is is a #etition .or re*ie/ on certiorari o. t+e 4e-ision$2$3 o. t+e Co rt o. A##ea!s 5CA6 den)in" t+e #etition .or ann !ment o. 7 d"ment and a..irmin" in toto t+e de-ision o. t+e Re"iona! Tria! Co rt 5RTC6, 8as Pi9as,


See Se#arate O#inion o. : sti-e Romero in Republic v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 1&';%<, =e>r ar) 1<, 1??;, $%' SCRA 1?'. $2$3 Rollo, ##. $$-@$. 4ated : !) <1, $&&;. Penned >) Asso-iate : sti-e :ose 8. Sa>io, /it+ Asso-iate : sti-es Re"a!ado E. Maam>on" and Art ro G. Ta)a", -on- rrin".

Aran-+ $B@. T+e CA dismissed o tri"+t t+e R !e @; #etition .or >ein" t+e /ron" remed). T&' F"()* Petitioner Man e! G. A!me!or 5Man e!6 and res#ondent 8eonida Trinidad 58eonida6 /ere married on :an ar) $?, 1?'? at t+e Mani!a Cat+edra!.<2<3 T+eir nion >ore t+ree -+i!dren: 516 Maria Pa !ina Corinne, >orn on O-to>er $&, 1?'?C 5$6 Na#o!eon Man e!, >orn on A " st ?, 1??1C and 5<6 Man e! Homer, >orn on : !) @, 1??@. @2@3 Man e! and 8eonida are >ot+ medi-a! #ra-titioners, an anest+esio!o"ist and a #ediatri-ian, res#e-ti*e!).B2B3 A.ter e!e*en 5116 )ears o. marria"e, 8eonida .i!ed a #etition /it+ t+e RTC in 8as Pi9as Cit) to ann ! t+eir marria"e on t+e "ro nd t+at Man e! /as #s)-+o!o"i-a!!) in-a#a-itated to #er.orm +is marita! o>!i"ations. T+e -ase, do-0eted as 8P-&&-&1<$ /as ra..!ed o.. to Aran-+ $B@. 4 rin" t+e tria!, 8eonida testi.ied t+at s+e .irst met Man e! in 1?'1 at t+e San 8aDaro Hos#ita! /+ere t+e) /or0ed as medi-a! st dent -!er0s. At t+at time, s+e re"arded Man e! as a *er) t+o "+t. ! #erson /+o "ot a!on" /e!! /it+ ot+er #eo#!e. T+e) soon >e-ame s/eet+earts. T+ree )ears a.ter, t+e) "ot married.%2%3 8eonida a*erred t+at Man e!,s 0ind and "ent!e demeanor did not !ast !on". In t+e # >!i- e)e, Man e! /as t+e #i-t re o. a #er.e-t + s>and and .at+er. T+is /as not t+e -ase in +is #ri*ate !i.e. At +ome, 8eonida des-ri>ed Man e! as a +ars+ dis-i#!inarian, nreasona>!) meti- !o s, easi!) an"ered. Man e!,s nreasona>!e /a) o. im#osin" dis-i#!ine on t+eir -+i!dren /as t+e

<2<3 @2@3 B2B3 %2%3

Id. at @%. Id. Id. Id.

-a se o. t+eir .reE ent .i"+ts as a -o #!e. ;2;3 8eonida -om#!ained t+at t+is /as in star0 -ontrast to t+e a!!e"ed !a*is+ a..e-tion Man e! +as .or +is mot+er. Man e!,s dee# atta-+ment to +is mot+er and +is de#enden-e on +er de-ision-ma0in" /ere in-om#re+ensi>!e to 8eonida.'2'3 = rt+er addin" to +er /oes /as +is -on-ea!ment to +er o. +is +omose( a!it). Her s s#i-ions /ere .irst aro sed /+en s+e noti-ed Man e!,s #e- !iar -!oseness to +is ma!e -om#anions. =or instan-e, s+e -a "+t +im in an indis-reet te!e#+one -on*ersation mani.estin" +is a..e-tion .or a ma!e -a!!er.?2?3 S+e a!so .o nd se*era! #orno"ra#+i- +omose( a! materia!s in +is #ossession.1&21&3 Her /orse .ears /ere -on.irmed /+en s+e sa/ Man e! 0issed anot+er man on t+e !i#s. T+e man /as a -ertain 4r. No"a!es.112113 F+en s+e -on.ronted Man e!, +e denied e*er)t+in". At t+is #oint, 8eonida too0 +er -+i!dren and !e.t t+eir -on7 "a! a>ode. Sin-e t+en, Man e! sto##ed "i*in" s ##ort to t+eir -+i!dren.1$21$3 4r. Ga!entina de! =onso Gar-ia, a -!ini-a! #s)-+o!o"ist, /as #resented to #ro*e 8eonida,s -!aim. 4r. de! =onso Gar-ia testi.ied t+at s+e -ond -ted e*a! ati*e inter*ie/s and a >atter) o. #s)-+iatri- tests on 8eonida. S+e a!so +ad a one-time inter*ie/ /it+ Man e! and .a-e-to-.a-e inter*ie/s /it+ Ma. Pa !ina Corrinne 5t+e e!dest -+i!d6.1<21<3 S+e -on-! ded t+at Man e! is #s)-+o!o"i-a!!) in-a#a-itated.1@21@3 in- ra>!e. S -+ in-a#a-it) is mar0ed >) ante-eden-eC it e(isted e*en >e.ore t+e marria"e and a##eared to >e

;2;3 '2'3

Id. Id. at $%. ?2?3 Id. 1&21&3 Id. 112113 Id. 1$21$3 Id. 1<21<3 Id. at @;. 1@21@3 Id. ( ( ( de.endant ( ( ( s ..er5s6 .rom Nar-issisti- Persona!it) 4isorder o. !a-0 o. em#at+) or nres#onsi*eness to t+e needs and .ee!in"s o. +is s#o se and -+i!dren, sense o. entit!ements or e(#e-tations o. a tomati- -om#!ian-e, mani# !ati*e and de-eit stan-e, "randiose sense o. se!.-im#ortan-e, t+e stron" need to see0 a##ro*a! and re-o"nition and to #ro*e +is se!.-/ort+ /it+ Anti-so-ia! =eat res o. irrita>i!it), *er>a! and #+)si-a! a""ression and !a-0 o. "en ine remorse. Ri"id!) #er*asi*e and e"os)ntoni- in nat re and +en-e no e..e-ti*e #s)-+iatri- t+era#e ti- moda!it) -o !d satis.a-tori!) remed) +is nremittin" #s)-+o!o"), de.endant,s #s)-+o!o"i-a! in-a#a-it) +as its ante-eden-e as ear!) as >e.ore +is marria"e. ( ( (

Man e!, .or +is #art, admitted t+at +e and 8eonida +ad some #ett) ar" ments +ere and t+ere. He, +o/e*er, maintained t+at t+eir marita! re!ations+i# /as "enera!!) +armonio s. T+e #etition .or ann !ment .i!ed >) 8eonida -ame as a s r#rise to +im. Man e! -o ntered t+at t+e tr e -a se o. 8eonida,s +osti!it) a"ainst +im /as t+eir #ro.essiona! ri*a!r). It >e"an /+en +e re. sed to +eed t+e memorand m1B21B3 re!eased >) C+rist t+e Hin" Hos#ita!. T+e memorand m ordered +im to desist .rom -on*ertin" +is o/n !)in"-in -!ini- to a #rimar) or se-ondar) +os#ita!.1%21%3 8eonida,s .ami!) o/ns C+rist t+e Hin" Hos#ita! /+i-+ is sit ated in t+e same s >di*ision as Man e!,s -!ini- and residen-e. 1;

In ot+er /ords, +e and +er .ami!) +a*e -om#etin" or ri*a! +os#ita!s in

t+e same *i-init). Man e! >e!ied +er a!!e"ation t+at +e /as a -r e! .at+er to t+eir -+i!dren. He denied ma!treatin" t+em. At most, +e on!) im#osed t+e ne-essar) dis-i#!ine on t+e -+i!dren. He a!so de.ended +is s+o/ o. a..e-tion .or +is mot+er. He said t+ere /as not+in" /ron" .or +im to ret rn t+e !o*e and a..e-tion o. t+e #erson /+o reared and !oo0ed a.ter +im and +is si>!in"s. T+is is es#e-ia!!) a#t no/ t+at +is mot+er is in +er t/i!i"+t )ears. 1'21'3 Man e! #ointed o t t+at 8eonida .o nd .a !t in t+is ot+er/ise +ea!t+) re!ations+i# >e-a se o. +er *er) 7ea!o s and #ossessi*e nat re.1?21?3 T+is same o*er!) 7ea!o s >e+a*ior o. 8eonida dro*e Man e! to a*oid t+e -om#an) o. .ema!e .riends. He /anted to a*oid an) . rt+er mis nderstandin" /it+ +is /i.e. A t, 8eonida instead -on7 red # stories

1B21B3 1%21%3

Id. at @'. 4ated O-to>er $;, 1??'. Id. 1;21;3 Id. 1'21'3 Id. 1?21?3 Id.

a>o t +is se( a! #re.eren-e. S+e a!so .a>ri-ated ta!es a>o t #orno"ra#+imateria!s .o nd in +is #ossession to -ast do >t on +is mas- !init).$&2$&3

To -orro>orate +is *ersion, +e #resented +is >rot+er, :es s G. A!me!or. :es s narrated t+at +e s a!!) sta)ed at Man e!,s +o se d rin" +is /ee0!) tri#s to Mani!a .rom Iri"a Cit). He /as a /itness to t+e "enera!!) +armonio s re!ations+i# >et/een +is >rot+er Man e! and sister-in-!a/, 8eonida. Tr e, t+e) +ad some E arre!s t)#i-a! o. a + s>and and /i.e re!ations+i#. A t t+ere /as not+in" simi!ar to /+at 8eonida des-ri>ed in +er testimon).$12$13 :es s . rt+er testi.ied t+at +e /as /it+ +is >rot+er on t+e da) 8eonida a!!e"ed!) sa/ Man e! 0issed anot+er man. He denied t+at s -+ an in-ident o-- rred. On t+at #arti- !ar date,$$2$$3 +e and Man e! /ent strai"+t +ome .rom a tri# to Ai-o!. T+ere /as no ot+er #erson /it+ t+em at t+at time, e(-e#t t+eir dri*er.$<2$<3 Man e! e(#ressed +is intention to re. te 4r. de! =onso Gar-ia,s .indin"s >) #resentin" +is o/n e(#ert /itness. Ho/e*er, no #s)-+iatrist /as #resented. RTC D+*,o*+)+o# A) de-ision dated No*em>er $B, $&&B, t+e RTC "ranted t+e #etition .or ann !ment, /it+ t+e .o!!o/in" dis#osition:
FHERE=ORE, #remised on t+e .ore"oin", 7 d"ment is +ere>) rendered: 1.
$&2$&3 $12$13

4e-!arin" t+e marria"e -ontra-ted >) +erein #arties on $? :an ar) 1?'? and a!! its e..e-ts nder t+e !a/ #-..

Id. Id. $$2$$3 Id. at @;. 4ated No*em>er 1, $&&$. $<2$<3 Id.

"#$ /o+$ 01o2 )&' 3'4+##+#45 $. 4isso!*in" t+e re"ime o. -omm nit) #ro#ert) >et/een t+e same #arties /it+ .or.eit re o. de.endant,s s+are t+ereon in .a*or o. t+e same #arties, -+i!dren /+ose

!e"a! - stod) is a/arded to #!ainti.. /it+ *isitoria! ri"+t a..orded to de.endantC <. @. Orderin" t+e de.endant to "i*e mont+!) .inan-ia! s ##ort to a!! t+e -+i!drenC and P rs ant to t+e #ro*isions o. A.M. No. &$-11-1&-SC: a. 4ire-tin" t+e Aran-+ C!er0 o. t+is Co rt to enter t+is : d"ment #on its .ina!it) in t+e Aoo0 o. Entr) o. : d"ment and to iss e an Entr) o. : d"ment in a--ordan-e t+eretoC and 4ire-tin" t+e 8o-a! Ci*i! Re"istrars o. 8as Pi9as Cit) and Mani!a Cit) to -a se t+e re"istration o. t+e said Entr) o. : d"ment in t+eir res#e-ti*e Aoo0s o. Marria"es.


U#on -om#!ian-e, a de-ree o. n !!it) o. marria"e s+a!! >e iss ed. SO OR4ERE4.$@2$@3 5Em#+asis s ##!ied6

T+e tria! -o rt n !!i.ied t+e marria"e, not on t+e "ro nd o. Arti-!e <%, > t Arti-!e @B o. t+e =ami!) Code. It ratio-inated:
( ( ( a -are. ! e*a! ation and in-de#t+ ana!)sis o. t+e s rro ndin" -ir- mstan-es o. t+e a!!e"ations in t+e -om#!aint and o. t+e e*iden-e #resented in s ##ort t+ereo. 5sic6 re*ea!s t+at in t+is -ase 5sic6 t+ere is more t+an meets t+e e)es 5sic6. Aot+ !e"a!!) and >io!o"i-a!!), +omose( a!it) ( ( ( is, indeed, "enera!!) in-om#ati>!e /it+ +etero se( a! marria"e. T+is is reason eno "+ t+at in t+is 7 risdi-tion 5sic6 t+e !a/ re-o"niDes marria"e as a s#e-ia! -ontra-t e(-! si*e!) on!) >et/een a man and a /oman ( ( ( and t+ s /+en +omose( a!it) +as tres#assed into marria"e, t+e same !a/ #ro*ides am#!e remedies to -orre-t t+e sit ation 2Arti-!e @B5<6 in re!ation to Arti-!e @%5@6 or Arti-!e BB, #ar. %, =ami!) Code3. T+is is o. -o rse in re-o"nition o. t+e >io!o"i-a! .a-t t+at no matter +o/ a man -+eats +imse!. t+at +e is not a +omose( a! and .or-es +imse!. to !i*e a norma! +eterose( a! !i.e, t+ere /i!! s re!) -ome a time /+en +is tr e se( a! #re.eren-e as a +omose( a! s+a!! #re*ai! in +a ntin" +im and t+ s 7eo#ardiDin" t+e so!idit), +onor, and /e!.are o. +is o/n .ami!).$B2$B3

Man e! .i!ed a noti-e o. a##ea! /+i-+ /as, +o/e*er, denied d e -o rse. Unda nted, +e .i!ed a #etition .or ann !ment o. 7 d"ment /it+ t+e CA.$%2$%3
$@2$@3 $B2$B3

Id. at B1-B$. Id. at @?. $%2$%3 Id. at $$. 4o-0eted as CA-G.R. SP No. ?<'1;. Penned >) Asso-iate : sti-e :ose 8. Sa>io, /it+ Asso-iate : sti-es Re"a!ado E. Maam>on" and Art ro G. Ta)a", -on- rrin".

Man e! -ontended t+at t+e assai!ed de-ision /as iss ed in e(-ess o. t+e !o/er -o rt,s 7 risdi-tionC t+at it +ad no 7 risdi-tion to disso!*e t+e a>so! te -omm nit) o. #ro#ert) and .or.eit +is -on7 "a! s+are in .a*or o. +is -+i!dren. CA D+*,o*+)+o# On : !) <1, $&&;, t+e CA denied t+e #etition, dis#osin" as .o!!o/s:
FHERE=ORE, t+e #resent Petition .or Ann !ment o. : d"ment is +ere>) 4ENIE4. T+e Co rt A==IRMS in toto t+e 4e-ision 5dated No*em>er $B, $&&B6 o. t+e Re"iona! Tria! Co rt 5Aran-+ $B@6, in 8as Pi9as Cit), in Ci*i! Case No. 8P-&&-&1<$. No -osts.$;2$;3

T+e CA stated t+at #etitioner # rs ed t+e /ron" remed) >) .i!in" t+e e(traordinar) remed) o. #etition .or ann !ment o. 7 d"ment. a##e!!ate -o rt:
It is o>*io s t+at t+e #etitioner is E estionin" t+e #ro#riet) o. t+e de-ision rendered >) t+e !o/er Co rt. A t t+e remed) ass min" t+ere /as a mista0e is not a Petition .or Ann !ment o. : d"ment > t an ordinar) a##ea!. An error o. 7 d"ment ma) >e re*ersed or -orre-ted on!) >) a##ea!. F+at #etitioner is as-ri>in" is an error o. 7 d"ment, not o. 7 risdi-tion, /+i-+ is #ro#er!) t+e s >7e-t o. an ordinar) a##ea!. In s+ort, #etitioner admits t+e 7 risdi-tion o. t+e !o/er -o rt > t +e -!aims e(-ess in t+e e(er-ise t+ereo.. I ExcessJ ass min" t+ere /as is not -o*ered >) R !e @; o. t+e 1??; R !es o. Ci*i! Pro-ed re. T+e R !e re.ers t+e !a-0 o. 7 risdi-tion and not t+e e(er-ise t+ereo..$'2$'3

Said t+e

I**-'* Petitioner Man e! ta0es t+e #resent re-o rse *ia R !e @B, assi"nin" to t+e CA t+e .o!!o/in" errors:

$;2$;3 $'2$'3

Id. at @1. Id. at <%-<;.


O-1 R-.+#4 I. The stringent rules of procedures may be relaxed to serve the

demands of substantial justice and in the Courts exercise of equity jurisdiction. Genera!!), an a##ea! ta0en eit+er to t+e S #reme Co rt or t+e CA >) t+e /ron" or ina##ro#riate mode s+a!! >e dismissed. <&2<&3 T+is is to #re*ent t+e #art) .rom >ene.itin" .rom one,s ne"!e-t and mista0es. Ho6'/'1, .+7' 2o*) 1-.'*, +) ("11+'* ('1)"+# '8(',)+o#* . A.ter a!!, t+e !timate # r#ose o. a!! r !es o. #ro-ed res is to a-+ie*e s >stantia! 7 sti-e as e(#editio s!) as #ossi>!e.<12<13 Ann !ment o. 7 d"ment nder R !e @; is a !ast remed). It -an not >e resorted to i. t+e ordinar) remedies are a*ai!a>!e or no !on"er a*ai!a>!e t+ro "+ no .a !t o. #etitioner.<$2<$3 Ho/e*er, in Buenaflor v. Court of
$?2$?3 <&2<&3

Id. at 1&. S #reme Co rt Cir- !ar No. $-?& 51??@6. <12<13 Gabionza v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 11$B@;, : !) 1', 1??@, $<@ SCRA 1?$. <$2<$3 R !es o. Ci*i! Pro-ed re 51??;6, R !e @;, Se-. 1 #ro*ides: Se-tion 1. Coverage. K T+is R !e s+a!! "o*ern t+e ann !ment >) t+e Co rt o. a##ea!s o. 7 d"ments or .ina! orders and reso! tions in -i*i! a-tions o. Re"iona! Tria! Co rts .or /+i-+ ordinar) remedies o. ne/ tria!, a##ea!, #etition .or re!ie. or ot+er a##ro#riate remedies are no !on"er a*ai!a>!e t+ro "+ no .a !t o. #etitioner.

Appeals,<<2<<3 t+is Co rt -!ari.ied t+e #ro#er a##re-iation .or te-+ni-a! r !es o. #ro-ed re, in t+is /ise:
R-.'* o0 ,1o('$-1'* "1' +#)'#$'$ )o ,1o2o)', #o) )o $'0'"), *-3*)"#)+". 9-*)+(' "#$, )&'1'0o1', )&': *&o-.$ #o) 3' ",,.+'$ +# " /'1: 1+4+$ "#$ )'(&#+(". *'#*'. T&' '8(',)+o# +* )&") 6&+.' )&' R-.'* "1' .+3'1"..: (o#*)1-'$, )&' ,1o/+*+o#* 6+)& 1'*,'() )o )&' 1-.'* o# )&' 2"##'1 "#$ ,'1+o$* 0o1 ,'10'()+#4 ",,'".* "1' *)1+().: ",,.+'$. A* "# '8(',)+o# )o )&' '8(',)+o#, )&'*' 1-.'* &"/' *o2')+2'* 3''# 1'."8'$ o# ';-+)"3.' (o#*+$'1")+o#*. A!so, in some -ases t+e S #reme Co rt +as "i*en d e -o rse to an a##ea! #er.e-ted o t o. time /+ere a strin"ent a##!i-ation o. t+e r !es /o !d +a*e denied it, > t on!) /+en to do so /o !d ser*e t+e demands o. s >stantia! 7 sti-e and in t+e e(er-ise o. eE it) 7 risdi-tion o. t+e S #reme Co rt.<@2<@3 5Em#+asis and nders-orin" s ##!ied6

=or reasons o. 7 sti-e and eE it), t+is Co rt +as a!!o/ed e(-e#tions to t+e strin"ent r !es "o*ernin" a##ea!s.<B2<B3 It +as, in t+e #ast, re. sed to sa-ri.i-e 7 sti-e .or te-+ni-a!it).<%2<%3 A.ter dis-o*erin" t+e #a!#a>!e error o. +is #etition, Man e! see0s t+e ind !"en-e o. t+is Co rt to -onsider +is #etition >e.ore t+e CA instead as a #etition .or certiorari nder R !e %B. A #er sa! o. t+e said #etition re*ea!s t+at Man e! im# ted "ra*e a> se o. dis-retion to t+e !o/er -o rt .or ann !!in" +is marria"e on a--o nt o. +is a!!e"ed +omose( a!it). T+is is not t+e .irst time t+at t+is Co rt is .a-ed /it+ a simi!ar sit ation. In Nerves v. Civil ervice Co!!ission,<;2<;3 #etitioner 4e!ia R. Ner*es e!e*ated to t+e CA a Ci*i! Ser*i-e Commission 5CSC6 de-ision s s#endin" +er .or si( 5%6 mont+s. T+e CSC r !ed Ner*es, a # >!is-+oo! tea-+er, is deemed to +a*e a!read) ser*ed +er si(-mont+ s s#ension
<<2<<3 <@2<@3

G.R. No. 1@$&$1, No*em>er $?, $&&&, <@% SCRA B%<. Buenaflor v. Court of Appeals, id. at B%'. <B2<B3 iguenza v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 8-@@&B&, : !) 1%, 1?'B, 1<; SCRA B;&. <%2<%3 Gerales v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 'B?&?, =e>r ar) ?, 1??<, $1' SCRA %<'C "eo#oro v. Carague, G.R. No. ?%&&@, =e>r ar) $1, 1??$, $&% SCRA @$?C Cabutin v. A!acio, G.R. No. BB$$', =e>r ar) $', 1?'?, 1;& SCRA ;B&C A!erican Express $nternational, $nc. v. $nter!e#iate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 8;&;%%, No*em>er ?, 1?'', 1%; SCRA $&?C %onseca v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 8-<%&<B, A " st <&, 1?'', 1%B SCRA @&C Calasiao %ar!ers Cooperative &ar'eting Association, $nc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. B&%<<, A " st 1;, 1?'1, 1&% SCRA %<&C A-(ne %ee#s, $nc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 8-<BB%&, O-to>er <&, 1?'&, 1&& SCRA B?&C Gregorio v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 8-@<B11, : !) $', 1?;%, ;$ SCRA 1$&C Alonso v. )illa!or, 1% P+i!. <1B 51?1&6. <;2<;3 G.R. No. 1$<B%1, : !) <1, 1??;, $;% SCRA %1&.

d rin" t+e #enden-) o. t+e -ase. Ne*ert+e!ess, s+e is ordered reinstated /it+o t >a-0 /a"es. On a##ea!, Ner*es stated in +er #etition, inter alia:
1. T+is is a #etition .or certiorari .i!ed # rs ant to Arti-!e IL-A, Se-tion ; o. t+e Constit tion o. t+e P+i!i##ines and nder R !e %B o. t+e R !es o. Co rt. A t #er S #reme Co rt Re*ised Administrati*e Cir- !ar No. 1-?B 5Re*ised Cir- !ar No. 1-?16 #etitioner is .i!in" t+e instant #etition /it+ t+is Honora>!e Co rt instead o. t+e S #reme Co rt.<'2<'3 5Unders-orin" s ##!ied6


T+e CA dismissed Ner*es, #etition .or certiorari .or >ein" t+e /ron" remed) or t+e ina##ro#riate mode o. a##ea!.<?2<?3 T+e CA o#ined t+at I nder t+e S #reme Co rt Re*ised Administrati*e Cir- !ar No. 1-?B ( ( ( a##ea!s .rom 7 d"ments or .ina! orders or reso! tions o. CSC is >) a #etition .or re*ie/.J@&2@&3 T+is Co rt "ranted Ner*es #etition and +e!d t+at s+e +ad s >stantia!!) -om#!ied /it+ t+e Administrati*e Cir- !ar. T+e Co rt stated:
T+at it /as erroneo s!) !a>e!ed as a #etition .or certiorari nder R !e %B o. t+e R !es o. Co rt is on!) a minor #ro-ed ra! !a#se, not .ata! to t+e a##ea!. ( ( ( More im#ortant!), t+e a##ea! on its .a-e a##ears to >e im#ressed /it+ merit. Hen-e, t+e Co rt o. A##ea!s s+o !d +a*e o*er!oo0ed t+e ins >stantia! de.e-ts o. t+e #etition ( ( ( in order to do 7 sti-e to t+e #arties -on-erned. T+ere is, indeed, not+in" sa-rosan-t a>o t #ro-ed ra! r !es, /+i-+ s+o !d >e !i>era!!) -onstr ed in order to #romote t+eir o>7e-t and assist t+e #arties in o>tainin" 7 st, s#eed), and ine(#ensi*e determination o. e*er) a-tion or #ro-eedin". As it +as >een said, /+ere t+e ri"id a##!i-ation o. t+e r !es /o !d .r strate s >stantia! 7 sti-e, or >ar t+e *indi-ation o. a !e"itimate "rie*an-e, t+e -o rts are 7 sti.ied in e(em#tin" a #arti- !ar -ase .rom t+e o#eration o. t+e r !es.@12@13 5Unders-orin" s ##!ied6

Simi!ar!), in t+e more re-ent -ase o. "an v. *u!arpa,@$2@$3 #etitioner :o) G. Tan a*ai!ed o. a /ron" remed) >) .i!in" a #etition .or re*ie/ on
<'2<'3 <?2<?3

Nerves v. Civil ervice Co!!ission, id. at %1<. Id. at %1<-%1@. @&2@&3 Id. at %1@. @12@13 Id. at %1B. @$2@$3 G.R. No. 1<';;;, Se#tem>er $$, $&&@, @<' SCRA %B?.

certiorari instead o. a motion .or ne/ tria! or an ordinar) a##ea!. In t+e interest o. 7 sti-e, t+is Co rt -onsidered t+e #etition, pro hac vice, as a #etition .or certiorari nder R !e %B. T+is Co rt .o nd t+at >ased on Tan,s a!!e"ations, t+e tria! -o rt pri!a facie -ommitted "ra*e a> se o. dis-retion in renderin" a 7 d"ment >) de.a !t. I. n-orre-ted, it /i!! -a se #etitioner "reat in7 sti-e. T+e Co rt e! -idated in t+is /ise:
Indeed, /+ere as +ere, t+ere is a stron" s+o/in" t+at "ra*e mis-arria"e o. 7 sti-e /o !d res !t .rom t+e stri-t a##!i-ation o. t+e R !es, /e /i!! not +esitate to re!a( t+e same in t+e interest o. s >stantia! 7 sti-e.@< 2@<3 5Unders-orin" s ##!ied6

Meas red >) t+e .ore"oin" )ardsti-0, 7 sti-e /i!! >e >etter ser*ed >) "i*in" d e -o rse to t+e #resent #etition and treatin" #etitioner,s CA #etition as one .or certiorari nder R !e %B, -onsiderin" t+at /+at is at sta0e is t+e *a!idit) or non-*a!idit) o. a marria"e. In alazar v. Court of Appeals,@@2@@3 -itin" +aba# v. ,niversit- of

outheastern .hilippines, t+is Co rt reiterated:

( ( ( T+e dismissa! o. a##ea!s on # re!) te-+ni-a! "ro nds is .ro/ned #on. F+i!e t+e ri"+t to a##ea! is a stat tor), not a nat ra! ri"+t, nonet+e!ess it is an essentia! #art o. o r 7 di-ia! s)stem and -o rts s+o !d #ro-eed /it+ -a tion so as not to de#ri*e a #art) o. t+e ri"+t to a##ea!, > t rat+er, ens re t+at e*er) #art)-!iti"ant +as t+e am#!est o##ort nit) .or t+e #ro#er and 7 st dis#osition o. +is -a se, .ree .rom t+e -onstraints o. te-+ni-a!ities.@B2@B3

Indeed, it is .ar >etter and more #r dent .or a -o rt to e(- se a te-+ni-a! !a#se and a..ord t+e #arties a re*ie/ o. t+e -ase on t+e merits to attain t+e ends o. 7 sti-e.@%2@%3

@<2@<3 @@2@@3

"an v. *u!arpa, id. at %%B. G.R. 1@$?$&, =e>r ar) %, $&&$, <;% SCRA @B?. @B2@B3 alazar v. Court of Appeals, id. at @;1. @%2@%3 arraga, r. v. Banco %ilipino avings an# &ortgage Ban', G.R. No. 1@<;'<, 4e-em>er ?, $&&$, <?< SCRA B%%.

= rt+ermore, it /as t+e ne"!i"en-e and in-om#eten-e o. Man e!,s -o nse! t+at #re7 di-ed +is ri"+t to a##ea!. His -o nse!, Att). C+ristine 4 "enio, re#eated!) a*ai!ed o. ina##ro#riate remedies. A.ter t+e denia! o. +er noti-e o. a##ea!, s+e .ai!ed to mo*e .or re-onsideration or ne/ tria! at t+e .irst instan-e. S+e a!so erroneo s!) .i!ed a #etition .or ann !ment o. 7 d"ment rat+er t+an # rs e an ordinar) a##ea!. T+ese mani.est errors /ere -!ear!) indi-ati*e o. -o nse!,s in-om#eten-e. T+ese "ra*e!) /or0ed to t+e detriment o. Man e!,s a##ea!. Tr e it is t+at t+e ne"!i"en-e o. -o nse! >inds t+e -!ient. Sti!!, t+is Co rt +as re-o"niDed -ertain e(-e#tions: 516 /+ere re-0!ess or "ross ne"!i"en-e o. -o nse! de#ri*es t+e -!ient o. d e #ro-ess o. !a/C 5$6 /+en its a##!i-ation /i!! res !t in o tri"+t de#ri*ation o. t+e -!ient,s !i>ert) and #ro#ert)C or 5<6 /+ere t+e interest o. 7 sti-e so reE ire.@;2@;3 T+e ne"!i"en-e o. Man e!,s -o nse! .a!!s nder t+e e(-e#tions.

U!timate!), t+e re-0!ess or "ross ne"!i"en-e o. #etitioner,s .ormer -o nse! !ed to t+e !oss o. +is ri"+t to a##ea!. He s+o !d not >e made to s ..er .or +is -o nse!,s "ra*e mista0es. Hi"+er interests o. 7 sti-e and eE it) demand t+at +e >e a!!o/ed to *enti!ate +is -ase in a +i"+er -o rt. In Apex &ining, $nc. v. Court of Appeals,@'2@'3 t+is Co rt e(#!ained t+ s:
It is sett!ed t+at t+e ne"!i"en-e o. -o nse! >inds t+e -!ient. T+is is >ased on t+e r !e t+at an) a-t #er.ormed >) a -o nse! /it+in t+e s-o#e o. +is "enera! or im#!ied a t+orit) is re"arded as an a-t o. +is -!ient. Ho/e*er, /+ere -o nse! is " i!t) o. "ross i"noran-e, ne"!i"en-e and dere!i-tion o. d t), /+i-+ res !ted in t+e -!ient,s >ein" +e!d !ia>!e .or dama"es in a dama"e s it, t+e -!ient is de#ri*ed o. +is da) in -o rt and t+e 7 d"ment ma) >e set aside on s -+ "ro nd. In t+e instant -ase, +i"+er interests o. 7 sti-e and eE it) demand t+at #etitioners >e a!!o/ed to #resent e*iden-e on t+eir de.ense. Petitioners ma) not >e made to s ..er .or t+e !a/)er,s mista0es. T&+* Co-1) 6+.. ".6":* 3' $+*,o*'$ )o 41"#) 1'.+'0 )o ,"1)+'* "441+'/'$
@;2@;3 @'2@'3

Id. at B;@. G.R. No. 1<<;B&, No*em>er $?, 1???, <1? SCRA @B%.

3: ,'10+$:, 01"-$, 1'(7.'** +#"))'#)+o# "#$ $o6#1+4&) +#(o2,')'#(' o0 ."6:'1*, 6&+(& &"* )&' (o#*';-'#(' o0 $',1+/+#4 )&'+1 (.+'#)*, o0 )&'+1 $": +# (o-1).@?2@?3 5Em#+asis s ##!ied6

C!ear!), t+is Co rt +as t+e #o/er to e(-e#t a #arti- !ar -ase .rom t+e o#eration o. t+e r !e /+ene*er t+e demands o. 7 sti-e reE ire it. Fit+ more -on*i-tion s+o !d it /ie!d s -+ #o/er in a -ase in*o!*in" t+e sa-rosan-t instit tion o. marria"e. T+is Co rt is " ided /it+ t+e t+r st o. "i*in" a #art) t+e . !!est o##ort nit) to esta>!is+ t+e merits o. one,s a-tion.B&2B&3 T+e -!ient /as !i0e/ise s#ared .rom -o nse!,s ne"!i"en-e in Govern!ent ervice $nsurance -ste! v. Bengson Co!!ercial Buil#ings, $nc.B12B13 and Ancheta v. Guerse--*ala-gon.B$2B$3 Said t+e Co rt in Bengson:
A t i. nder t+e -ir- mstan-es o. t+e -ase, t+e r !e deserts its #ro#er o..i-e as an aid to 7 sti-e and >e-omes a "reat +indran-e and -+ie. enem), its ri"ors m st >e re!a(ed to admit e(-e#tions t+ereto and to #re*ent a mis-arria"e o. 7 sti-e. In ot+er /ords, t+e -o rt +as t+e #o/er to e(-e#t a #arti- !ar -ase .rom t+e o#eration o. t+e r !e /+ene*er t+e # r#oses o. 7 sti-e reE ire it.B<2B<3


Concealment of homosexuality is the proper ground to annul a

marriage, not homosexuality per se. Man e! is a des#erate man determined to sa!*a"e /+at remains o. +is marria"e. Persistent in +is E est, +e .o "+t >a-0 a!! t+e +ea*) a-- sations o. in-a#a-it), -r e!t), and do >ted mas- !init) t+ro/n at +im. T+e tria! -o rt de-!ared t+at 8eonida,s #etition .or n !!it) +ad Ino >asis at a!! >e-a se t+e s ##ortin" "ro nds re!ied #on ("# #o) .'4"..: 2"7' " ("*' -#$'1 A1)+(.' <6 o0 )&' F"2+.: Co$' .J It /ent . rt+er >) -itin" Republic v. &olina:B@2B@3

@?2@?3 B&2B&3

Apex &ining, $nc. v. Court of Appeals, id. at @%B. Aguilar v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 11@$'$, No*em>er $', 1??B, $B& SCRA <;1. B12B13 G.R. No. 1<;@@', :an ar) <1, $&&$, <;B SCRA @<1. B$2B$3 G.R. No. 1<?'%', : ne ', $&&%, @?& SCRA 1@&. B<2B<3 Govern!ent ervice $nsurance -ste! v. Bengson Co!!ercial Buil#ings, $nc., s #ra note B1, at @@B. B@2B@3 S #ra note 1.

Indeed, mere a!!e"ations o. -on.!i-tin" #ersona!ities, irre-on-i!a>!e di..eren-es, in-essant E arre!s andMor >eatin"s, n#redi-ta>!e mood s/in"s, in.ide!ities, *i-es, a>andonment, and di..i- !t), ne"!e-t, or .ai! re in t+e #er.orman-e o. some marita! o>!i"ations do not s ..i-e to esta>!is+ #s)-+o!o"i-a! in-a#a-it).BB2BB3

I. so, t+e !o/er -o rt s+o !d +a*e dismissed o tri"+t t+e #etition .or not meetin" t+e " ide!ines set in &olina. F+at 8eonida attem#ted to demonstrate /ere Man e!,s +omose( a! tenden-ies >) -itin" o*ert a-ts "enera!!) #redominant amon" +omose( a! indi*id a!s.B%2B%3 S+e /anted to #ro*e t+at t+e #er-ei*ed +omose( a!it) rendered Man e! in-a#a>!e o. . !.i!!in" t+e essentia! marita! o>!i"ations. A t instead o. dismissin" t+e #etition, t+e tria! -o rt #-..+0+'$ t+e marria"e >et/een Man e! and 8eonida on t+e "ro nd o. *itiated -onsent >) *irt e o. .ra d. In s ##ort o. its -on-! sion, t+e !o/er -o rt reasoned o t:
As insin ated >) t+e State 5#. ;B, TSN, 1B 4e-em>er $&&<6, /+en t+ere is smo0e s re!) t+ere is .ire. A!t+o "+ *e+ement!) denied >) de.endant, t+ere is #re#onderant e*iden-e eno "+ to esta>!is+ /it+ -ertaint) t+at de.endant is rea!!) a +omose( a!. T+is is t+e .a-t t+at -an >e $'$-('$ .rom t+e tota!it) o. t+e marria"e !i.e s-enario o. +erein #arties. Ae.ore +is marria"e, de.endant 0ne/ *er) /e!! t+at #eo#!e aro nd +im e*en in-! din" +is o/n -!ose .riends $o-3)'$ +is tr e se( a! #re.eren-e 5TSN, ##. <B-<%, 1< 4e-em>er $&&&C ##. ;<-;B, 1B 4e-em>er $&&<6. A.ter re-ei*in" man) .ore/arnin"s, #!ainti.. to!d de.endant a>o t t+e r mor s+e +eard > t de.endant did not do an)t+in" to #ro*e to t+e /+o!e /or!d on-e and .or a!! t+e tr t+ o. a!! +is denia!s. 4e.endant t+reatened to s e t+ose #eo#!e > t not+in" +a##ened a.ter t+at. T+ere ma) +a*e >een more im#ortant matters to attend to t+an to /aste time and e..ort .i!in" -ases a"ainst and >e e..e-ted >) t+ese #eo#!e and so, # ttin" more #remi ms on de.endant,s denia!s, #!ainti.. 7 st t+e same married +im. Reasons #on reasons ma) >e ad*an-ed to eit+er e(- !#ate or nai! to t+e -ross de.endant .or +is a-t o. initia!!) -on-ea!in" +is +omose( a!it) to #!ainti.., > t in t+e end, on!) one t+in" is -ertain K e*en d rin" +is marria"e /it+ #!ainti.., t+e smo0e o. do >t a>o t +is rea! #re.eren-e -ontin ed and e*en "ot t+i-0er, reason /+) o>*io s!) de.endant .ai!ed to esta>!is+ a +a##) and so!id .ami!)C and in so .ai!in", #!ainti.. and t+eir -+i!dren >e-ame +is inno-ent and n/i!!in" *i-tims.

BB2BB3 B%2B%3

Rollo, #. @?. Id.

Yes, t+ere is not+in" nto/ard o. a man i., !i0e +erein de.endant, +e is meti- !o s o*er e*en sma!! detai!s in t+e +o se 5 sic6 !i0e /ron"!) .o!ded >ed s+eets, et-. or i. a man is more a t+oritati*e in 0no/in" /+at -!ot+es or 7e/e!r) s+a!! .it +is /i.e 5##. ;;-'1, TSN, 1B 4e-em>er $&&<6C > t t+ese admissions o. de.endant ta0en in t+e !i"+t o. e*iden-e #resented a##arent!) s+o/in" t+at +e +ad e(tra .ondness o. +is ma!e .riends 5 sic6 to t+e e(tent t+at t/i-e on se#arate o--asions 5##. @-;, TSN, 1@ =e>r ar) $&&16 +e /as a!!e"ed!) seen >) #!ainti.. 0issin" anot+er man !i#s-to-!i#s #! s t+e +omose( a! ma"aDines and ta#es !i0e/ise a!!e"ed!) dis-o*ered nderneat+ +is >ed 5E(+i>its I8J and IMJ6, t+e do >t as to +is rea! se( identit) >e-omes stron"er. T+e a-- sation o. #!ainti.. *ers s t+ereo. o. de.endant ma) >e t+e name o. t+e "ame in t+is -aseC > t t+e sim#!e reason o. #ro.essiona! ri*a!r) ad*an-ed >) t+e de.endant is -ertain!) not eno "+ to 7 sti.) and o>s- re t+e E estion /+) #!ainti.. s+o !d a-- se +im o. s -+ a *er) nto/ard in.ide!it) at t+e e(#ense and + mi!iation o. t+eir -+i!dren and .ami!) as a /+o!e.B;2B;3

E*ident!), no s ..i-ient #roo. /as #resented to s >stantiate t+e a!!e"ations t+at Man e! is a +omose( a! and t+at +e -on-ea!ed t+is to 8eonida at t+e time o. t+eir marria"e. T+e !o/er -o rt -onsidered t+e # >!i#er-e#tion o. Man e!,s se( a! #re.eren-e /it+o t t+e -orro>oration o. /itnesses. A!so, it too0 -o"niDan-e o. Man e!,s #e- !iarities and inter#reted it a"ainst +is se( a!it). E*en ass min", ex gratia argu!enti, t+at Man e! is a +omose( a!, t+e !o/er -o rt -annot a##re-iate it as a "ro nd to ann ! +is marria"e /it+ 8eonida. T+e !a/ is -!ear K a marria"e ma) >e ann !!ed /+en t+e -onsent o. eit+er #art) /as o>tained >) .ra d,B'2B'3 s -+ as -on-ea!ment o. +omose( a!it).B?2B?3 No/+ere in t+e said de-ision /as it #ro*en >) #re#onderan-e o. e*iden-e t+at Man e! /as a +omose( a! at t+e onset o. +is marria"e and t+at +e de!i>erate!) +id s -+ .a-t to +is /i.e. %&2%&3 It is t+e -on-ea!ment o. +omose( a!it), and not +omose( a!it) per se, t+at *itiates t+e -onsent o. t+e inno-ent #art). S -+ -on-ea!ment #res ##oses >ad .ait+ and intent to de.ra d t+e ot+er #art) in "i*in" -onsent to t+e marria"e.

B;2B;3 B'2B'3

Id. at @?-B&. =ami!) Code, Art. @B5<6. B?2B?3 Id., Art. @%5@6. %&2%&3 Rollo, ##. @?-B1.

Consent is an essentia! reE isite o. a *a!id marria"e. To >e *a!id, it m st >e .ree!) "i*en >) >ot+ #arties. An a!!e"ation o. *itiated -onsent m st >e #ro*en >) #re#onderan-e o. e*iden-e. T+e =ami!) Code +as en merated an e(-! si*e !ist o. -ir- mstan-es%12%13 -onstit tin" .ra d. Homose( a!it) per se is not amon" t+ose -ited, > t its -on-ea!ment. T+is distin-tion >e-omes more a##arent /+en /e "o o*er t+e de!i>erations%$2%$3 o. t+e Committees on t+e Ci*i! Code and =ami!) 8a/, to /it:
: sti-e Ca" ioa remar0ed t+at t+is "ro nd s+o !d >e e!iminated in t+e #ro*ision on t+e "ro nds .or !e"a! se#aration. 4ean G #it, +o/e*er, #ointed o t t+at in Arti-!e @%, t+e) are ta!0in" on!) o. I-on-ea!ment,J /+i!e in t+e arti-!e on !e"a! se#aration, t+ere is a-t a!it). : d"e 4i) added t+at in !e"a! se#aration, t+e "ro nd e(isted a.ter t+e marria"e, /+i!e in Arti-!e @%, t+e "ro nd e(isted at t+e time o. t+e marria"e. : sti-e Re)es s ""ested t+at, .or -!arit), t+e) add t+e #+rase Ie(istin" at t+e time o. t+e marria"eJ at t+e end o. s >#ara"ra#+ 5@6. T+e Committee a##ro*ed t+e s ""estion.%<2%<3

To reiterate, +omose( a!it) per se is on!) a "ro nd .or !e"a! se#aration. It is its -on-ea!ment t+at ser*es as a *a!id "ro nd to ann ! a marria"e.%@2%@3 Con-ea!ment in t+is -ase is not sim#!) a >!an0et denia!, > t one t+at is -onstit ti*e o. .ra d. res#ondent .ai!ed to #ro*e. In t+e United States, +omose( a!it) +as >een -onsidered as a >asis .or di*or-e. It indi-ates t+at E estions o. se( a! identit) stri0e so dee#!) at one

It is t+is . ndamenta! e!ement t+at

Arti-!e @%. An) o. t+e .o!!o/in" -ir- mstan-es s+a!! -onstit te .ra d re.erred to in N m>er < o. t+e #re-edin" Arti-!e: 16 Non-dis-!os re o. #re*io s -on*i-tion >) .ina! 7 d"ment o. t+e ot+er #art) o. a -rime in*o!*in" mora! t r#it deC $6 Con-ea!ment >) t+e /i.e o. t+e .a-t t+at at t+e time o. t+e marria"e, s+e /as #re"nant >) a man ot+er t+an +er + s>andC <6 Con-ea!ment o. se( a!!) transmissi>!e disease, re"ard!ess o. its nat re, e(istin" at t+e time o. t+e marria"eC or @6 Con-ea!ment o. dr " addi-tion, +a>it a! a!-o+o!ism, or +omose( a!it) or !es>ianism e(istin" at t+e time o. t+e marria"e. %$2%$3 Min tes o. t+e 1B@t+ Meetin" o. t+e Ci*i! Code and =ami!) 8a/ Committees +e!d on Se#tem>er %, 1?'%, ?:&& a.m. at t+e Con.eren-e Room, =irst =!oor, Aa-o>o Ha!!, U.P. 8a/ Com#!e(, 4i!iman, N eDon Cit). %<2%<3 Id. at 1$. %@2%@3 Id.

o. t+e >asi- e!ements o. marria"e, /+i-+ is t+e e(-! si*e se( a! >ond >et/een t+e s#o ses.%B2%B3 In Crutcher v. Crutcher,%%2%%3 t+e Co rt +e!d:
Unnat ra! #ra-ti-es o. t+e 0ind -+ar"ed +ere are an in.amo s indi"nit) to t+e /i.e, and /+i-+ /o !d ma0e t+e marria"e re!ation so re*o!tin" to +er t+at it /o !d >e-ome im#ossi>!e .or +er to dis-+ar"e t+e d ties o. a /i.e, and /o !d de.eat t+e /+o!e # r#ose o. t+e re!ation. In t+e nat ra! -o rse o. t+in"s, t+e) /o !d -a se menta! s ..erin" to t+e e(tent o. a..e-tin" +er +ea!t+.%;2%;3

Ho/e*er, a!t+o "+ t+ere ma) >e simi!ar sentiments +ere in t+e P+i!i##ines, t+e !e"a! o*ertones are si"ni.i-ant!) di..erent. 4i*or-e is not re-o"niDed in t+e -o ntr). Homose( a!it) and its a!!e"ed in-om#ati>i!it) to a +ea!t+) +eterose( a! !i.e are not san-tioned as "ro nds to se*er t+e marria"e >ond in o r 7 risdi-tion. At most, it is on!) a "ro nd to se#arate .rom >ed and >oard. F+at /as #ro*en in t+e +earin"s a /uo /as a re!ati*e!) >!iss. ! marita! nion .or more t+an e!e*en 5116 )ears, /+i-+ #rod -ed t+ree 5<6 -+i!dren. T+e > rden o. #roo. to s+o/ t+e n !!it) o. t+e marria"e rests on 8eonida. Sad!), s+e .ai!ed to dis-+ar"e t+is on s. T+e same .ai! re to #ro*e .ra d /+i-+ # r#orted!) res !ted to a *itiated marita! -onsent /as .o nd in )illanueva v. Court of Appeals.%'2%'3 In )illanueva, instead o. #ro*in" *itiation o. -onsent, a##e!!ant resorted to >ase!ess #ortra)a!s o. +is /i.e as a #er#etrator o. .ra d !ent s-+emes. Said t+e Co rt:
=a-t a! .indin"s o. t+e Co rt o. A##ea!s, es#e-ia!!) i. t+e) -oin-ide /it+ t+ose o. t+e tria! -o rt, as in t+e instant -ase, are "enera!!) >indin" on t+is Co rt. Fe a..irm t+e .indin"s o. t+e Co rt o. A##ea!s t+at #etitioner .ree!) and *o! ntari!) married #ri*ate res#ondent and t+at no t+reats or intimidation, d ress or *io!en-e -om#e!!ed +im to do so, t+ s K A##e!!ant an-+ored +is #ra)er .or t+e ann !ment o. +is marria"e on t+e "ro nd t+at +e did not .ree!) -onsent to >e married to t+e a##e!!ee. He
%B2%B3 %%2%%3

;' A8R $d '&;. <' So. <<; 51?&B6. %;2%;3 Crutcher v. Crutcher, id. at <<;. %'2%'3 G.R. No. 1<$?BB, O-to>er $;, $&&%, B&B SCRA B%B.

-ited se*era! in-idents t+at -reated on +is mind a reasona>!e and /e!!"ro nded .ear o. an imminent and "ra*e dan"er to +is !i.e and sa.et). ( ( ( T+e Co rt is not -on*in-ed t+at a##e!!ant,s a##re+ension o. dan"er to +is #erson is so o*er/+e!min" as to de#ri*e +im o. t+e /i!! to enter *o! ntari!) to a -ontra-t o. marria"e. It is not dis# ted t+at at t+e time +e /as a!!e"ed!) >ein" +arassed, a##e!!ant /or0ed as a se- rit) " ard in a >an0. Gi*en t+e r diments o. se!.-de.ense, or, at t+e *er) !east, t+e #ro#er /a) to 0ee# +imse!. o t o. +arm,s /a). ( ( ( A##e!!ant a!so in*o0ed .ra d to ann ! +is marria"e, as +e /as made to >e!ie*e >) a##e!!ee t+at t+e !atter /as #re"nant /it+ +is -+i!d /+en t+e) /ere married. A##e!!ant,s e(- se t+at +e -o !d not +a*e im#re"nated t+e a##e!!ee >e-a se +e did not +a*e an ere-tion d rin" t+eir tr)st is .!ims) at >est, and an o tri"+t !ie at /orst. T+e -om#!aint is >ere.t o. an) re.eren-e to +is ina>i!it) to -o# !ate /it+ t+e a##e!!ee. ( ( ( (((( ( ( ( T+e .ai! re to -o+a>it >e-omes re!e*ant on!) i. it arises as a res !t o. t+e #er#etration o. an) o. t+e "ro nds .or ann !!in" t+e marria"e, s -+ as !a-0 o. #arenta! -onsent, insanit), .ra d, intimidation, or nd e in.! en-e ( ( (. Sin-e t+e a##e!!ant .ai!ed to 7 sti.) +is .ai! re to -o+a>it /it+ t+e a##e!!ee on an) o. t+ese "ro nds, t+e *a!idit) o. +is marria"e m st >e #+e!d.%?2%?3

Geri!), t+e !o/er -o rt -ommitted "ra*e a> se o. dis-retion, not on!) >) so!e!) ta0in" into a--o nt #etitioner,s +omose( a!it) #er se and not its -on-ea!ment, > t >) de-!arin" t+e marria"e *oid .rom its e(isten-e. T+is Co rt is mind. ! o. t+e -onstit tiona! #o!i-) to #rote-t and stren"t+en t+e .ami!) as t+e >asi- a tonomo s so-ia! instit tion and marria"e as t+e .o ndation o. t+e .ami!). ;&2;&3 T+e State and t+e # >!i- +a*e *ita! interest in t+e maintenan-e and #reser*ation o. t+ese so-ia! instit tions a"ainst dese-ration >) .a>ri-ated e*iden-e.;12;13 T+ s, an) do >t s+o !d >e reso!*ed in .a*or o. t+e *a!idit) o. marria"e.

%?2%?3 ;&2;&3

)illanueva v. Court of Appeals, id. at B%?-B;&. P+i!i##ine Constit tion 51?';6, Art. II, Se-. 1$ #ro*ides: Se-. 1$. T+e State re-o"niDes t+e san-tit) o. .ami!) !i.e and s+a!! #rote-t and stren"t+en t+e .ami!) as a >asi- a tonomo s so-ia! instit tion. ( ( ( Art. LG, Se-s. 1-$ #ro*ides: Se-. 1. T+e State re-o"niDes t+e =i!i#ino .ami!) as t+e .o ndation o. t+e nation. A--ordin"!), it s+a!! stren"t+en its so!idarit) and a-ti*e!) #romote its tota! de*e!o#ment. Se-. $. Marria"e, as an in*io!a>!e so-ia! instit tion, is t+e .o ndation o. t+e .ami!) and s+a!! >e #rote-ted >) t+e State. ;12;13 "olentino v. )illanueva, G.R. No. 8-$<$%@, Mar-+ 1B, 1?;@, B% SCRA 1.


In a valid marriage, the husband and

ife jointly administer and

enjoy their community or conjugal property. Arti-!e ?% o. t+e =ami!) Code, on re"imes o. a>so! te -omm nit) #ro#ert), #ro*ides:
Art. ?%. T+e administration and en7o)ment o. t+e -omm nit) #ro#ert) s+a!! >e!on" to >ot+ s#o ses 7oint!). In -ase o. disa"reement, t+e + s>and,s de-ision s+a!! #re*ai!, s >7e-t to re-o rse to t+e -o rt >) t+e /i.e .or a #ro#er remed), /+i-+ m st >e a*ai!ed o. /it+in .i*e )ears .rom t+e date o. t+e -ontra-t im#!ementin" s -+ de-ision. In t+e e*ent t+at one s#o se is in-a#a-itated or ot+er/ise na>!e to #arti-i#ate in t+e administration o. t+e -ommon #ro#erties, t+e ot+er s#o se ma) ass me so!e #o/ers o. administration. T+ese #o/ers do not in-! de t+e #o/ers o. dis#osition or en- m>ran-e /it+o t t+e a t+orit) o. t+e -o rt or t+e /ritten -onsent o. t+e ot+er s#o se. In t+e a>sen-e o. s -+ a t+orit) or -onsent, t+e dis#osition or en- m>ran-e s+a!! >e *oid. Ho/e*er, t+e transa-tion s+a!! >e -onstr ed as a -ontin in" o..er on t+e #art o. t+e -onsentin" s#o se and t+e t+ird #erson, and ma) >e #er.e-ted as a >indin" -ontra-t #on t+e a--e#tan-e >) t+e ot+er s#o se or a t+oriDation >) t+e -o rt >e.ore t+e o..er is /it+dra/n >) eit+er or >ot+ o..erors.

A simi!ar #ro*ision, Arti-!e 1$@;$2;$3 #res-ri>es 7oint administration and en7o)ment in a re"ime o. -on7 "a! #artners+i#. In a *a!id marria"e, >ot+ s#o ses e(er-ise administration and en7o)ment o. t+e #ro#ert) re"ime, 7oint!). In t+e -ase nder re*ie/, t+e RTC de-reed a disso! tion o. t+e

-omm nit) #ro#ert) o. Man e! and 8eonida. In t+e same >reat+, t+e tria! -o rt .or.eited Man e!,s s+are in .a*or o. t+e -+i!dren. Considerin" t+at t+e marria"e is #+e!d *a!id and s >sistin", t+e disso! tion and .or.eit re o.

Art. 1$@. T+e administration and en7o)ment o. t+e -on7 "a! #artners+i# #ro#ert) s+a!! >e!on" to >ot+ s#o ses 7oint!). In -ase o. disa"reement, t+e + s>and,s de-ision s+a!! #re*ai!, s >7e-t to re-o rse to t+e -o rt >) t+e /i.e .or #ro#er remed), /+i-+ m st >e a*ai!ed o. /it+in .i*e )ears .rom t+e date o. t+e -ontra-t im#!ementin" s -+ de-ision. In t+e e*ent t+at one s#o se is in-a#a-itated or ot+er/ise na>!e to #arti-i#ate in t+e administration o. t+e -on7 "a! #ro#erties, t+e ot+er s#o se ma) ass me so!e #o/ers o. administration. T+ese #o/ers do not in-! de dis#osition or en- m>ran-e /it+o t a t+orit) o. t+e -o rt or t+e /ritten -onsent o. t+e ot+er s#o se. In t+e a>sen-e o. s -+ a t+orit) or -onsent, t+e dis#osition or en- m>ran-e s+a!! >e *oid. Ho/e*er, t+e transa-tion s+a!! >e -onstr ed as a -ontin in" o..er on t+e #art o. t+e -onsentin" s#o se and t+e t+ird #erson, and ma) >e #er.e-ted as a >indin" -ontra-t #on t+e a--e#tan-e >) t+e ot+er s#o se or a t+oriDation >) t+e -o rt >e.ore t+e o..er is /it+dra/n >) eit+er or >ot+ o..erors.

Man e!,s s+are in t+e #ro#ert) re"ime is n/arranted. T+e) remain t+e 7oint administrators o. t+e -omm nit) #ro#ert). =HEREFORE, t+e #etition is GRANTED. T+e a##ea!ed 4e-ision is REVERSED and SET ASIDE and t+e #etition in t+e tria! -o rt to ann ! t+e marria"e is DISMISSED. SO ORDERED.

RUBEN T. REYES Asso-iate : sti-e FE CONCUR:

CONSUELO YNARES>SANTIAGO Asso-iate : sti-e C+air#erson


MINITA V. CHICO>NA?ARIO Asso-iate : sti-e


ATTESTATION I attest t+at t+e -on-! sions in t+e a>o*e 4e-ision +ad >een rea-+ed in -ons !tation >e.ore t+e -ase /as assi"ned to t+e /riter o. t+e o#inion o. t+e Co rt,s 4i*ision.


C+air#erson CERTIFICATION P rs ant to Se-tion 1<, Arti-!e GIII o. t+e Constit tion and t+e 4i*ision C+air#erson,s Attestation, I -erti.) t+at t+e -on-! sions in t+e a>o*e 4e-ision +ad >een rea-+ed in -ons !tation >e.ore t+e -ase /as assi"ned to t+e /riter o. t+e o#inion o. t+e Co rt,s 4i*ision.

REYNATO S. PUNO C+ie. : sti-e