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(
). ,
.

I.

, f (x), g(x) h(x)


E . ,
,
. , f ,
f (x).
.

O. c > 0, U (a) : x U (a) E |f (x)| 6 c |g(x)| (..


c a, f
c g). , f
g a, f = O(g), x a.
o, , O
O.
:


1. f (x) = x1 = O x12 , x 0, .. c = 1 : x1 6 x12 |x| < 1.


2. f (x) = x12 = O x1 , x , .. c = 1 : x12 > x1 |x| > 1.
:
1. ,
.
2. , , O, ,
|f (x)| 6


f (x)
c |g(x)| g(x) 6 c. , , .. , g(x) 0
a . , 0c = ,
00 6 c, (

). , ,
, f = O(g), x a , a
f
g. ,
.

. f = O(g), x a g = O(f ), x a, , f g
x a, f  g, x a.

: x  x 2 + sin x1 , , - ,
. ,
1



f (x)
g(x) , , ,
. x 5, ,

f (x)
1 6 g(x) 6 3 5.
, , ..
,
, .
.

. f (x) g(x) ( ),
a
f (x) = (x) g(x) , lim (x) = 1. f g.
xa

1.
2.

x6

x6 , ..

1+x4 x0

x6

1+x4 x

x2 , ..

x6
1+x4
x6
1+x4

=
=

1
1+x4
x4
1+x4

1
4
x0 1+x

x6 lim

xa

= 1.

x4
4
x 1+x

x2 lim

= lim

1
1
+1
x4

= 1.

(x)
, , : lim fg(x)
= 1,
xa
, , 0
(x)
= 1,
. , , lim fg(x)
xa

(, ).
.
1. : f g g f,
1
lim (x) = 1 lim (x)
= 11 = 1)
xa

x a ( ,

xa

2. : f g g h f h, x a
I

: U1 (a) : x U1 (a) E f (x) = (x) g(x) U2 (a) : x


U2 (a) E g(x) = (x) h(x). U (a) = U1 (a) U2 (a) ( ,
..
a). x : f = g = h.
.. lim (x) = 1 lim (x) = 1 lim = 1.
xa

xa

xa

.. .
,
.
, ,

.
- .

. , f (x) g(x)
x a, U 0 (a) : x U 0 (a) E f (x) = (x) g(x), x a, lim (x) = 0.
xa


a , ,
 f = o(g), x
1
1
2
f = o(g), x a. : x2 = o x , x x = o(x), x 0.
, g(x) 0,
(x)
lim fg(x)
= 0, .
xa

, lim f (x) = 0, lim g(x) = 0 f = o(g), f


xa
xa
, .. f g.
!
2