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What is vaccination?

(a) Injection of antigens/toxoids; (Antigen from) attenuated microorganism/non-virulent microorganisms/dead microorganisms/isolated from microorganism; Stimulates the formation of memory cells; max 2

A test has been developed to find out whether a person has antibodies against the mumps virus. The test is shown in the diagram.
(i) Antibodies are s ecific to mum s antigen; 2nd antibodies s ecific to mum s antibody; !

Explain why it is important to wash the well at the start of Step 4.

ii) "emoves unbound 2nd antibodies; #ther$ise en%yme may be resent/may get colour change any$ay/false ositive; 2

Explain why there will be no colour change if mumps antibodies are not present in the blood.
(iii) &o antibodies to bind (to antigen); 'herefore 2nd antibody ($ith the en%yme) $on(t bind; &o en%yme/en%yme-carrying antibody resent (after $ashing in ste ))

Explain two ways in which each of the following parasites is able to survive the hostile environment within the human body.
*ives inside host cells so avoids attac+ by host / antigens not ex osed/ hidden so roduction of antibodies slo$ed; "a idly changing surface antigens; What is an antigen? molecule / art of molecule / rotein / glyco rotein / named molecule; that stimulates an immune res onse / e,; 2 !escribe how "#lymphocytes respond when they are stimulated by antigens. divide by mitosis / form clones; roduce lasma cells; ( lasma cells) ma+e antibodies; ( lasma cells) roduce memory cells; )

Suggest which labelled component of the virus is most li$ely to act as an antigen. %ive a reason for your answer.
glyco rotein A&different sha e to body roteins / "&A and reverse transcri tase inside virus / hos holi ids same as body(s / on the surface of the virus;

Figure 1 shows an antibody molecule

Antibodies bind to antigens. Suggest how the hinge region is important in allowing an antibody to bind to more than one antigen.
(Each antibody) has two binding sites / 2 antigens can be attached; Can bind to antigens/microorganisms different distances apart/in different positions (relative to each other);

Figure 2 shows part of two different antigen molecules

Explain why the antibody in Figure 1 will bind to antigen X but it will not bind to antigen .
The binding site of an antibody has a specific shape; Only X is complementary/will fit;

!n 1"#$% Edward &enner inoculated a boy with cowpox virus. &enner later showed that the boy did not develop smallpox when he was exposed to the smallpox virus. Explain why the boy did not develop smallpox.
ntigens on two vir!ses are very similar/the same; " cells/" lymphocytes divide/clone; #rod!ce memory cells; $hich res!lt in the prod!ction of / prod!ce antibodies effective against smallpo% vir!s;

Anthrax is a disease that affects both humans and cows. Anthrax antibodies can be used to treat anthrax. Scientists get anthrax antibodies from cows that have been vaccinated against anthrax. 'a( )ows that have been given anthrax vaccine produce antibodies against the disease. Explain how.
(a) nthra% antigens detected by " cells/antigen presentation; " cell becomes activated/clonal selection/clonal e%pansion; #rod!ces (clones) of plasma cells; #lasma cells secrete (specific) antibodies; & ma%

'b( )ows produce more antibodies if they have been vaccinated against anthrax several times. Explain why
(b) 'emory cells present; #rod!ce secondary response;

((econdary response is) )!ic*er;

A woman went on a long*distance flight. +wo months later she was found to have +,. As a result% all the other passengers on the flight were tested to see if they had +, antibodies. 'i( +he passengers were tested for the presence of +, antibodies. Suggest why they were tested for +, antibodies and not +, bacteria.
ntibodies made in response to antigen; +ndicates that bacteria have entered body / passenger has been e%posed to antigen / bacteria co!ld have been removed and antibodies remain;

-hat is an antibody.
#rotein/imm!noglob!lin; 'ade by plasma cell / " cell ; (pecific to one antigen;

,eta*amyloid produced by muscle cells causes antibodies to be made. /escribe how.

'acrophage presents antigen; ",cell activated/ clonal selection; -ivide/clonal e%pansion; #rod!ces plasma cells; #lasma/ " cells ma*e specific antibodies;

+he glycoprotein was present on the surface of the modified harmless virus. !t is important that the glycoprotein was on the surface of this virus% not inside it. Explain why.
Acts as antigen; Stimulates immune res onse/antibody roduction; Immune system only detects molecules on surface;

Scientists in0ected four mon1eys with this new 2assa fever vaccine and in0ected two control mon1eys with a saline solution. After 23 days% the scientists gave all six mon1eys the 2assa fever virus. +he four mon1eys that had been given the 2assa fever vaccine remained healthy. +he two control mon1eys became ill with 2assa fever. +he scientists waited 23 days before giving the mon1eys the 2assa fever virus. Explain why.

Allo$s time for memory cell formation;

+he four mon1eys given 2assa fever vaccine remained healthy. Explain why
.emory cells resent; Stimulate antibody formation very ,uic+ly; S ecificity of antibodies; /liminate virus before it can cause sym toms;

A human baby has antibodies in its blood when it is born& giving it a form of natural immunity to some diseases. These antibodies come from its mother.'ame the type of natural immunity described above. Antibodies transferred from the mother to the baby is an example of PASSIVE immunity The antibodies from the mother will give the baby immunity to only some diseases. Explain why. (nly) the diseases*pathogens*antigens the mother has been exposed to*has antibodies for*only some antibodies can be transported across to baby*ref to specificity A breast#fed baby gets antibodies from its mother+s mil$. Some of these antibodies are then absorbed through the lining of the gut. Antibodies are proteins. Suggest how the baby+s gut allows the absorption of these antibodies. 1 Not digested/hydrolysed; 2 En yme not produ!ed / pre"ented from #or$ing; % &arrier/!hannel proteins; ' A!ti"e transport/fa!ilitated diffusion/endo!ytosis; What is an antigen? (oreign )substan!e*/non+self/!auses an immune response/antibody produ!tion / found on ba!terium/pathogen/"irus; %ive one feature of the structure of proteins that causes them to be antigens. )Infinite* "ariety/spe!ifi! shape/tertiary/%, stru!ture ,accines contain antigens from disease#causing organisms. Some vaccines contain dead organisms& but the rubella vaccine contains a live& non#virulent strain of the disease#causing virus. Explain the advantage of using a living virus &an repli!ate/reprodu!e; -reater )primary* response/antibody produ!tion /more memory !ells produ!ed/longer lasting immunity/fe# boosters re.uired; 2 (Reject faster* a non#virulent virus/ &annot !ause /less li$ely to !ause the disease/only mild symptoms o!!ur -utation of a virus can reduce the ability of the immune system to destroy the virus before it enters a body cell of the host. Explain how. &hange in antigen/shape/ne# antigen on "irus; Not re!ognised by 0/plasma !ells 1 !ells /no memory !ells / no antibodies present;

Ne# antibodies/ne# 0 !ells/1 !ells need to be produ!ed/time to ma$e antibodies !escribe how " lymphocytes are involved in the immune response. Antigen presented by ma!rophages; 2 lympho!yte #ith !omplementary antibody )on its surfa!e* binds to antigen; 2 lympho!yte di"ides by mitosis/forms !lone; Plasma !ells se!rete/release antibody )into blood*; 3emory !ells formed;

An antigen in a vaccine leads to the production of antibodies. !escribe the part played by " lymphocytes in this process. ma!rophages present antigens to 2 lympho!ytes; antigen binds to/is !omplementary to re!eptors on lympho!yte; binds to a spe!ifi! lympho!yte; lympho!ytes be!ome !ompetent/sensitised; )2* lympho!ytes reprodu!e by mitosis / )2* lympho!ytes !loned; plasma !ells se!rete antibodies; .nfluen/a viruses have two proteins on their surface& 0A and 'A. These proteins allow the viruses to bind to receptors on the surfaces of cells lining airways and lungs. Explain how 0A and 'A proteins bind specifically to receptors on the surfaces of cells. Proteins ha"e spe!ifi! tertiary stru!ture/%, shape; &omplementary to/fits shape of re!eptor; When an organism is infected with two different strains of influen/a virus& base se1uences from genes can sometimes be transferred between the two strains. A new virus caused an influen/a epidemic in human populations in 2345. .ts 0A gene contained 2647 bases and 2487 of these were the same se1uence as a bird influen/a virus gene. -ost people in 2345 were susceptible to influen/a caused by the new virus. Explain why/ Se.uen!e of bases !odes for a se.uen!e of amino a!ids/primary stru!ture; 4% different amino a!ids/4%4 5bird flu6 amino a!ids )in ne# protein*; Ne# primary stru!ture alters the tertiary stru!ture/%, shape; Ne# shape binds more effe!ti"ely to re!eptors )on !ells of lungs and air#ays*; 7A proteins !an a!t as antigens; Ne# shape not re!ognised by antibodies/memory/2!ells; ,accines provide protection against disease. What is a vaccine? &ontains antigen/proteins / dead/#ea$ened mi!roorganism/pathogen/"irus/ba!teria; Stimulates produ!tion of antibodies/plasma !ells/memory !ells

The only vaccine used against pulmonary tuberculosis is the "9% vaccine. Scientists have carried out trials on a :booster+ vaccine& -,A57A. This :booster+ vaccine is designed to increase the immune response to the "9% vaccine. (ne trial involved measuring the increase in the number of memory T cells in three groups of adult volunteers following different vaccination programmes. ; %roup A < in=ected with "9% ; %roup " < in=ected with -,A57A ; %roup 9 < in=ected with "9% and& two wee$s later& in=ected with -,A57A Suggest two factors the scientists should have considered when selecting adult volunteers for this trial. Age> Sex> Ethinicity> All healthy * not on other medication> 'ot previously vaccinated*infected with T"> The adults in group 9 produced the greatest increase in the number of memory T cells. Suggest what this shows about the "9% and -,A57A vaccines. 9ontain the same antigens> Ag#Ab "inding Antigen 0as complementary shape) * due to specific) tertiary structure * variable region of antibody) !estruction of phagocytes lines 4<7) causes the lungs to be more susceptible to infections. Explain why. ?hagocytes engulf*ingest pathogens*microorganisms*bacteria*viruses> ?hagocytes destroy pathogens*microorganisms*bacteria*viruses> @ung diseases are caused by pathogens*microorganisms*bacteria*viruses> ?hagocytes and lysosomes are involved in destroying microorganisms. !escribe how. ?hagocytes engulf pathogens*microorganisms> Enclosed in a vacuole * vesicle* phagosome> @ysosomes have en/ymes> That digest*hydrolyse molecules*proteins*lipids* microorganism> A person may develop influen/a twice within a short time. Ase information from the pie chart to explain why. %et another strain * there are different strains> Therefore does not have memory cells against second strain The information in the pie chart is valuable to companies who ma$e influen/a vaccines. Ase your $nowledge of antigens to explain why. ,accines only wor$ against certain strains>

"ecause the antigens they possess are different> Enables company to target strain li$ely to be prevalent later * most common strain Ag#Ab binding Same sugars*antigens on bacteria*nerve cells> "ind with antibody*form antigen#antibody complex> 0ave complementary shape*fit binding site Explain why these antibodies are referred to as monoclonal
(Antibodies) produced from a single clone of B cells / plasma cells; OR (Antibodies) produced from the same B cell / plasma cell;

+ests using monoclonal antibodies are specific 'line "(. 4se your 1nowledge of protein structure to explain why
(Specific) primary structure / order of amino acids; (Specific) tertiary / 3D structure; (So) Only binds to / fits / complementary to one antigen

+he tests using monoclonal antibodies allow vets to identify brucellosis while they are still on a farm. Explain the advantages of this.
(Rapid) treatment of carriers / infected cattle / disease; an isolate / cull carriers / infected cattle; !nfected (dairy) products not sold / consumed / trac"ed; Reduces spread of disease; #o need to "ill / pre$ents the death of non%infected animals;