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f (i) = min 0.

85f c b = A (i) H N* c f (i)



2 (i1) 1

, 2f c

(15) (16)

where: f (i) = maximum bearing strength of the concrete at b the i-th iteration
1) A (i) = bearing area at the i-th iteration equal to A (i 1 H

A (i) = assumed H-shaped bearing A H at the i-th H iteration The value of A H can be further refined until the difference between the values obtained from two subsequent iterations can be considered to be negligible. The use of the iterative process allows to obtain the smallest possible value of A H which yields thinner base plate thicknesses. Ignoring to refine the value of A H would simply lead to a more conservative plate design. The value of a 3 is then obtained from equation (14) observing that A H can be expressed as (refer to Fig. 11): A H = 2b fca 3 + 2a 3(d c 2a 3) = 2b fca 3 + 2d ca 3 4a 2 3 where: a 3 = cantilevered langth A H = assumed H-shaped bearing area d c and b fc = depth and width of column and solving for a 3 yields: a 3 = 1 (d c + b fc) (d c + b fc) 2 4A H 4 (18) (17)

The Stockwell-Murray Method is recommended by DeWolf in Refs [21] and [22] and introduced in the AISC(US) Manuals in 1986. [7] [1] notes that there are cases where the value under the square root of equation (18) becomes negative. In such cases other design models should be adopted. Ref. [21] extends the application of Murray-Stockwell Model to channels and hollow section members as shown in Figs. 12, 13 and 14. For these sections the value of the bearing area A (1) (to be utilised in the first 1 and A (1) ) and the iteration while calculating f (1) H b expressions of the cantilevered length a 3 and of the H-shaped area A H are summarised in Table 2. [21][26] The same iterative procedure, as outlined for H-shaped sections, can be adopted to refine the value of A H if the calculated f b is less than 2f c. a3

a3 a3

Figure 12 Murray-Stockwell Model: Assumed pressure distribution Channels (Ref. [26])


The plate is now designed in accordance with AS4100 [11] as a cantilevered plate of length a 3 supporting a uniform pressure equal to the converged value of the maximum bearing strength of the concrete previously calculated: 2 0.9 f yi t 2 a2 N* a i 3 m* = c 3 = m s c = f b 2 AH 2 4 The maximum axial load is then calculated as: A 0.9f yi t 2 i H N* c 2a 2 3

a3 a3 a3


Figure 13 Murray-Stockwell Model: Assumed pressure distribution - RHS and SHS (Ref. [26])
d3 a3

or equivalently the minimum required plate thickness t i is determined as: ti a3

2N * c 0.9f yi A H



The value of the cantilevered plate length a 3 should be measured from the centre-line of the columns plate elements as shown in Fig. 11.[21]. Nevertheless in the formulation presented here, as also carried out in [32] and [21], the full flange thickness is included in the calculation of the cantilevered plate length a 3. This only leads to a slightly more conservative design.

Figure 14 Murray-Stockwell Model: Assumed pressure distribution - CHS (Ref. [26])