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PIPING

SYSTEM

CODES

A code gives guidelines about the subject.It tells rejection and acceptance part of it. EX: ASME

SEC VIII DIV 1

Standards is for specific product and gives

guarantee for quality of that product. EX: ANSI B

16.5

Regulations

rules.EX:IBR

are

government

imposed

PRESSURE PIPING CODES B 31

B 31.1

POWER PIPING.

Piping typical found in electric power generation stations, in

industrial and institutional plants, geothermal heating systems, and

central and district heating and cooling systems,

B 31.3

Piping typically found in petroleum refineries chemical, pharmaceutical , textile , paper semiconductor , and cryogenic plants, and related processing plant and terminals,

B 31.4

LIQUID HYDROCARBONS AND OTHER LIQUID .

Transporting products, which are predominately liquid between plants and terminal and within terminals, pumping ,and metering

PROCESS PIPING.

PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS FOR

stations.

B 31.5

REFRIGERATION PIPING.

Piping for refrigeration and secondary coolants.

B 31.8

PIPING SYSTEMS.

Piping transporting product which are predominately gas between

sources and terminals.including compressor, regulating,and metering station, and gas gathering pipelines,

GAS TRANSPORTATION AND DISTRIBUTION

B 31.9

Piping typically found in industrial ,institutional,commercials,and public building and in multi-unit residences

B 31.11 SLURRY TRANSPORTATION PIPING SYSTEM

Piping transporting aqueous slurries between plants and terminal,and within terminal and within terminal, pumping, and regulating stations.

BUILDING SERVICES PIPING.

SCOPE OF B31.3

a) This Code prescribes requirements for Materials and components,

design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection,

and testing of piping.

b) This code applies to piping for all fluids, including:

1)

Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals;

2)

Petroleum products;

3)

Gas, steam, air, and water;

4)

Fluidized solids;

5) Refrigerants;

EXCLUSIONS OF B31.3

This code excludes following:

Piping systems design for internal gauge pressures at or above zero but less than 105kPa (15psi), provided the

fluid handled is nonflammable, nontoxic, and not

damaging to human tissue and its design temperature is from 29 o C (-20 o F) through 186 o C (366 o F);

Power boiler s in accordance with BPV code Section-I and boiler external piping which is required to confirm to B31.1

Tubes, tube headers, crossovers, and manifolds of fired heaters, which are internal to the heater enclosure; and

Pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, compressors, and other fluid handling or processing equipment, including internal piping and connections for external piping.

DESIGN PRESSURE

The design pressure of each component in a piping system shall be not less than the pressure at the most severe condition of coincident internal or external pressure (Minimum or Maximum) expected

during service

DESIGN TEMPERATURE

The design temperature or each component in a piping system is the coincident temperature,under the coincident pressure, the greatest thickness or highest component rating is required.

MINIMUM TEMPERATURE

The design minimum temperature is the lowest component temperature expected in service.

FLUID CATEGORY ON B 31.3

CATEGORY D

A)

The fluid handled is non flammable,non toxic ,and not damaging to

human tissues.

B)

The design gauge pressure does not exceed 150 Psi and temperature is from 29 c to 186 c.

C)

Example water,air.(testing of the system not stringent.)

CATEGORY M

A fluid service in which the potential for personnel exposure is judged to be significant and in which a single exposure to a very small quantity of a toxic fluid,caused by leakage,can produce serious irreversible harm to persons on breathing or bodily contact, even when prompt restorative measures are taken.

Example .H2 SO4, CL2 Gas (Thread flanges are not recommended. Low pressure testing is also one of the requirement.

HIGH PRESSURE FLUID SERVICE K CATEGORY

If the pressure is in excess of 2500 rating for specified design

temperature and material group.

NORMAL FLUID SERVICE.

A fluid service pertaining to most piping covered by this code ie not subject to the rules for category D,category M or high pressure fluid

service.

PIPE UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE

For t<D/6, the internal pressure design thickness for straight pipe

shall be not less than that calculated below

t =

PD

2(SE + PY)

The minimum thickness T for the pipe selected, considering manufacturer’s minus tolerance, shall be not less than t m t m = t + c Where, t m = minimum required thickness including mechanical, corrosion, and erosion allowances. t = pressure design thickness

PIPE UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE

c

T

P

= the sum of the mechanical allowance plus corrosion and erosion allowances.

= Pipe wall thickness

= internal design gauge pressure

D = outside diameter of the pipe

E

= quality factor from Table A-1A or A-1B

S

= stress value for material form Table A-1

Y

= Coefficient from Table 304.1.1, valid for t < D/6 and for material shown. The value of Y may be

interpolated for intermediated temperatures.

THICKNESS OF PIPE BEND

The minimum required thickness t m of a bend, after bending, in its finished form, shall be determined in accordance with Eq.(3c) :

t

=

PD 2[(SE/I) + (PY)]

(3c)

Where at the intrados (inside the bend radius)

I =

4(R 1 /D) 1

intrados (inside the bend radius) I = 4(R 1 /D) – 1 4(R 1 /D) –

4(R 1 /D) 2

(3d)

and at the extrados (outside bend radius)

I =

4(R 1 /D) + 1

at the extrados (outside bend radius) I = 4(R 1 /D) + 1 (3e) 4(R 1

(3e)

4(R 1 /D) + 2 and at sidewall on the bend centerline radius, I = 1.0

THICKNESS OF BLIND FLANGE

The minimum required thickness of a permanent blank shall

be calculated in accordance with Eq. (15). t m = d g (3P/16SE) + c

Where,

(15)

dg = inside diameter of gasket for raised or flat face

flanges, or the gasket pitch diameter for ring joint and fully

retained gasketed flanges

E

= quality factor from Table A-1A or A-1B

P

= design gauge pressure

S

= stress value of material from Table A-1

c

= sum of allowances

IMPACT TESTING

For carbon steels, impact testing exemption is given in fig

323.2.2a of B31.3.If a design minimum metal temperature-thickness combination is on or above the curve, impact testing is not required.

NPS- A dimension less designator of pipe .It indicates standard pipe

size when followed by the specific size designation number with out

an inch symbol (eg NPS 2, NPS 12)

NORMALISING- A process in which a ferrous metal is heated to a

suitable temperature above the transformation range and is

subsequently cooled in still air at room temperature.

POST HEATING- The application of heat to a fabricated or welded section subsequent to a fabrication, welding or cutting operation. Post

heating ,or the entire assembly may be post heated in a furnace.

POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT- Any heat treatment subsequent to welding.

PREHEATING- The application of heat to a base metal immediately

prior to a welding or cutting operation.

Galvanizing A process by which the surface of iron or steel is

covered with a layer of zinc

PREHEATING

Preheating is used, along with heat treatment, to

minimize the detrimental effects of high temperature and

severer thermal gradients inherent in welding. Requirement and recommendations : Required and recommended minimum preheat temperatures for materials

of various P-Numbers are given in table. If the ambient

temperature is below 0 o C (32 o F), the recommendation become requirements.

Preheat Zone : Preheat zone shall extend at least 25mm (1in.) beyond each edge of the weld.

HEAT TREATMENT

Heat treatment is used to avert or relieve the

detrimental effects of high temperature and severe temperature gradients inherent in welding, and to relieve residual stresses created by bending and forming.

Governing thickness : When components are joined by welding, the thickness to be used in applying the heat treatment provisions of Table 331.1.1 shall be that of the

thicker component measured at the joint.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DETAILED ENGINEERING

BID DOCUMENT

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DETAILED ENGINEERING BID DOCUMENT PRE-ENGINEERING SURVEY EQUIPMENT LAYOUT PIPING GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

PRE-ENGINEERING

SURVEY

DETAILED ENGINEERING BID DOCUMENT PRE-ENGINEERING SURVEY EQUIPMENT LAYOUT PIPING GENERAL ARRANGEMENT ISOMETRIC

EQUIPMENT

LAYOUT

BID DOCUMENT PRE-ENGINEERING SURVEY EQUIPMENT LAYOUT PIPING GENERAL ARRANGEMENT ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS MATERIAL TAKE

PIPING GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS

LAYOUT PIPING GENERAL ARRANGEMENT ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS MATERIAL TAKE OFF PURCHASE SPECIFICATION PIPE SUPPORT

MATERIAL TAKE OFF

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS MATERIAL TAKE OFF PURCHASE SPECIFICATION PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT

PURCHASE

SPECIFICATION

DRAWINGS MATERIAL TAKE OFF PURCHASE SPECIFICATION PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY
DRAWINGS MATERIAL TAKE OFF PURCHASE SPECIFICATION PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY
DRAWINGS MATERIAL TAKE OFF PURCHASE SPECIFICATION PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY

PIPE SUPPORT

GAD

TAKE OFF PURCHASE SPECIFICATION PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY INSTALLATION

PIPE SUPPORT

OFF PURCHASE SPECIFICATION PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY INSTALLATION FABRICATION DRAWINGS

PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY

PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY INSTALLATION FABRICATION DRAWINGS FABRICATION DRAWINGS

INSTALLATION

FABRICATION

DRAWINGS

PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY INSTALLATION FABRICATION DRAWINGS FABRICATION DRAWINGS

FABRICATION

DRAWINGS

PIPE SUPPORT GAD PIPE SUPPORT PRE-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY INSTALLATION FABRICATION DRAWINGS FABRICATION DRAWINGS

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD)

- BLOCK DIAGRAM SHOWS UNIT OPERATIONS AND UNIT PROCESSES INVOLVED.

-SHOWS ALL MAJOR EQUIPMENT AND MAIN PIPING AND ITS FLOW. BASED ON THIS PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM ENGINEER PREPARES PIPING &

INSTRUMENTION DIAGRAM.

PIG

Device that moves through the inside of a pipeline for the purpose of cleaning .

NEED OF PIG A PIPELINE:

Remove any debris left in the line from the new construction

To maintain line efficiency

Types of pigs 1) cleaning pigs:equipped with wire brushes or blades to do the cleaning 2) sealing pigs:used during hydrostatic testing of pipelines

LAUNCHER & RECIEVER

Pig launchers are used to launch the pig into the pipeline & receiver to receive pigs after

they have made successful run

Shall be installed horizontally with 5° slope in the direction of flow

Internal dia of launcher/receiver shall be atleast

2” higher than the pipe dia •F.B valves on launcher/receiver must be round All distribution/collection header shall have their

dead ends blind flange

SCRAPPER TEE

Purpose of scrapper tee is not to allow passage of pipe scrapper / pig on to the branch pipe.

Consists of concentric barrel tees

Suitable for pigging operation with process hydrocarbon/raw sea water

Inside dia shall be same as that of inside dia of riser to

maintain smooth pigging operation. Maximum opening shall be provided through slots to limit the pressure drop.

Total opening shall be 1 to 1.5 times branch pipe area

FLANGE

SOCKOLET BRANCH PIPE PIG DETECTOR SCRAPPER TEE
SOCKOLET
BRANCH
PIPE
PIG DETECTOR
SCRAPPER TEE

TYPICAL SCHEMATIC OF PROCESS LINE.

LIFT GAS. SERVICE. HEADER. VENT HEADER. OIL MIXTURE CRUDE FROM SERVICE CONDENSATE DRUM. DRAIN. HEADER.
LIFT GAS.
SERVICE.
HEADER.
VENT HEADER.
OIL MIXTURE
CRUDE
FROM
SERVICE
CONDENSATE DRUM.
DRAIN.
HEADER.
GAS
TEST
PIPE
SEPERATOR.
SEPERATOR.
OIL
+
C I
GAS FROM
WATER
SERVICE GAS HEADER.
+
GAS
PRODUCTION MANIFOLD.
HEAT EXCHANGER.
LAUNCHER
HEATED GAS
C I
CRUDE OIL MIXTURE
TO CONSUMER
(OIL+WATER+GAS)
LINES.
CHRISTMAS
TREE.

OIL WELL

GAS TO VENT HEADER.

WATER DISCHARGE TO SEA.

LINES. CHRISTMAS TREE. OIL WELL GAS TO VENT HEADER. WATER DISCHARGE TO SEA. TO PROCESS PLATFORM

TO PROCESS

PLATFORM

(OIL+WATER+GAS)

PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION

DIAGRAM

THIS IS A DETAILED DIAGRAM WHICH IS DEVELOPED BASED ON PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM. IN THIS DIAGRAM ONE WILL COME TO KNOW ABOUT THE EXACT NUMBER OF FLUID SERVICES INVOLVED APART FROM MAIN PROCESS FLUID. ALSO THIS DIAGRAM WILL HELP PIPING ENGINEER IN DEVELOPING HIS PIPING ARRANGEMENT.

THE INFORMATION WHICH THIS DIAGRAM WILL

PROVIDE TO PIPING IS

- CONNECTING POINTS OF THE PIPE

-SIZE OF PIPE

- MATERIAL CLASS OF PIPE

- FLUID SERVICE OF THE PIPE

- UNIQUE LINE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER

- INSULATION

- CONNECTING POINTS OF A PIPE

-VALVES, INSTRUMENTS AND SPECIALITIES INVOLVED IN

THE PIPELINE.

- PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE FOR THE EQUIPMENTS.

-ALWAYS A P&ID IS ACCOMPANIED WITH LEGEND P&ID

IN WHICH ALL SYMBOLS (USED IN P&ID) ARE

EXPLAINED.

LINE NUMBER DESIGNATION

1.5”-DH-A1N-1129-

SIZE FLUID SERVICE
SIZE
FLUID SERVICE

LINE NUMBER

MATERIAL CLASS

LINE

LIST

PROVIDES SUMMARY OF ALL PROCESS PARAMETERS OF SYSTEM. IT IS PREPARED FROM P&ID.

PROVIDES INFORMATION ON :

-

LINE NUMBER

-

FLUID IN

SYSTEM -

-

SERVICE CLASS -

HEAT TRACING

-

PAINTING

-

LINE SIZE

-

FLUID PHASE

-

OPERATING & DESIGN PRESSURE , TEMPERATURES

-

STRESS RELIEVING REQUIREMENT

 

-

RADIOGRAPHY REQUIREMENT

-

PWHT REQUIREMENT

-

TEST FLUID & TEST PRESSURE

 

-

INSULATION REQUIREMENT

 

LINE

LIST

LINE LIST

EQUIPMENT LAYOUT

THIS DIAGRAM INDICATES THE POSITION OF EQUIPMENT IN THE PLANT. ALL EQUIPMENTS ARE

LOCATED WITH THEIR CO-ORDINATES OR THEY ARE

LOCATED FROM GRID REFERENCE POINTS. FOR EACH EQUIPMENT ITS TAG NUMBER IS ATTACHED. THIS DRAWING IS PREPARED BY PIPING ENGINEER WITH

THE HELP OF PROCESS ENGINEER

PIPING ENGINEER FURTHER DEVELOPS HIS GENERAL ARRANGMENT DIAGRAM BASED ON THIS.

PIPING GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DIAGRAM

THIS DIAGRAM SHOWS THE ROUTING OF PIPE AS

PER THE P&ID WITH RESPECT TO EQUIPMENT AND EXISTING STRUCTURE.

INFORMATION

PROVIDED :

-

EQUIPMENT LOCATION & ORIENTATION

-

LINES WITH LINE NUMBERS

-

INSTRUMENT TAG

-

ROUTING OF PIPE BETWEEN EQUIPMENTS

-

LOCATION OF

EXISTING EQUIPMENT &

INTERCONNECTING PIPING

-

ELEVATION OF PIPE LINES

PIPING

SUPPORT

GAD

-

SHOWS TYPES

OF SUPPORT

AND THEIR

LOCATIONS

IN THE

PIPE

LINE

-

REFER STANDARD PIPE SUPPORT SKETCHES -

GIVEN BY CONSULTANT

 

-

THERE

CAN

BE

SPECIAL TYPE

OF

SUPPORTS

ALSO.

ISOMETRIC

DRAWING

LINE

- Operating and Design

- Operating and Design pressure

DIAGRAM OF PIPING, SHOWS FOLLOWING :

temperature

- Insulation required

-

Thermal tracing

- Hydro test pressure

-

Bill of material

- Inch-dia,

Inch Meter

-

Piping Class

- Pipe support

locations

-

Service of fluid

- Points of weld, its marking

-

Pipe support type

1)

Activities in ISO’S

Numbering of shop joint & offshore joints in

successive numbers 2) Numbering of spool according to the individual spools

3) Check the BOM according to the item

no.,inch,schedule&description 4) According to the pipe size,the no.of shop,offshore joints are added in the table inside the isometric.

5) Inch meter,inch dia is calculated

6) Inch meter =pipe length in meter x pipe size in inch 7) Inch dia =pipe size in inch x no.of joints 8) No.of spools are noted in the table

9) For the continuing sheets,the numbering of shop

joints,offshore & spool numbers will also be continuous.

PIPE

SUPPORTS

- PROVIDE SUPPPORT SO THAT, PIPE DOES NOT SAG OR BEND

- SUPPORT LOCATIONS

ARE

IDENTIFIED

AND

STRESS

ANALYSIS

OF

PIPE

IS UNDERTAKEN

- SUPPORT

LOCATION DEPENDS

DIAMETER AND

THICKNESS

ON

PIPE

- EXPANSION

BELLOW

FOR

PIPE FOR WHICH

OPERATING TEMPERATURE IS HIGH

- VARIOUS STANDARD SUPPORTS ARE AVAILABLE

- THERE ARE SPECIAL

SUPPORTS ALSO

MATERIAL

TAKE

OFF

- THIS DOCUMENTS GIVE THE TOTAL MATERIAL

REQUIREMENT FOR THE JOB WHICH INCLUDES PIPES,

FITTING, FLANGES, GASKETS, FASTENERS, VALVES,

SPECIALITY ITEMS, STRUCTURES ETC.

- MAIN MTO FOR TOTAL JOB REQUIREMENT

- HYDRO - TEST MTO ( AT YARD, AT OFFSHORE )

- SPARES MTO (WHEN CLIENT REQUIRES)

- CONTINGENCIES CONSIDERED (DIFFERENT FOR NEW BUILDING or REVAMP JOBS)

PRE ENGG

SURVEY

- FINALISE

DATE

OF

SURVEY, TAKE CLIENT

PERMISSION & MAKE OFFSHORE

PASS

- FORM

THE TEAM WITH : INSTALLATION

CONTRACTOR, DESIGN CONSULTANT, MFF MEMBERS

- CARRY OFFSHORE SCOPE OF WORK, DESIGN

STANDARD, CHECK LIST FOR SURVEY

- CARRY OUT RELEVANT

- CHECK

SURVEY & COLLECT ALL DATA

LIFTING CAPACITY OF EXISTING DECK & MONO RAIL

CRANE

- CHECK IF

EXISTING

EQUIPMENT HAS

DISMANTLED

TO

TAKE OUT

TO BE

PRE ENGG

SURVEY

-

CHECK,

IF BREAK DOWN AREA

IS NEEDED

-

CHECK, IF ANY STRUCTURAL MEMBER IS TO

BE CUT TO TAKE OUT AN EUQIPMENT

-

CHECK IF TUGGER LINE / PAD EYE IS NEEDED

TO BE USED TO LIFT OR SHIFT WEIGHT

-

CONSIDER APPROACH OF BARGE OR SUPPLY VESSEL TO REQUIRED LOCATION WITH LOAD

-

ON COMPLETION OF SURVEY, INSTALLATION

CONTRACTOR / DESIGN CONSULTANT IS TO MAKE

A PRE- ENGG

SURVEY REPORT

PRE ENGG

SURVEY

- SUBMIT REPORT TO CLIENT FOR INFORMATION AND TO SHOW MISMATCH, IF ANY, BETWEEN

ACTUAL

& BID PACKAGE DATA.

- NEGOTIATE

WITH CLIENT FOR

EXTRA COST

&

TIME (IF SOME WORK IS TO BE DONE OUT OF

SCOPE)

- DECIDE THE ACTIVITIES FOR PRE-SHUT-DOWN, SHUT-DOWN AND POST-SHUT-DOWN PERIOD, IN

DISCUSSION WITH INSTALLATION CONTRACTOR

AND ONGC PLATFORM PEOPLE.

PRELIMINARY

DATA

FROM

DESIGN CONSULTANT

- IN GENERAL,

A DESIGN CONSULTANT IS

EMPLOYED FOR BASIC & DETAILED

ENGINEERING

- CONSULTANT REVISES P & ID (REFER NEXT SHEET) & GAD, MAKES ISOMETRICS, PREPARES STRESS ANALYSIS REPROT, PIPE SUPPORT DRAWINGS & STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS BASED ON SURVEY DATA

- ALL DOCUMENTS ARE SUBMITTED TO CLIENT / CLIENT’S CONSULTANT FOR THEIR APPROVAL

- FIRST MTO IS MADE & CHECKED BY MFF ENGG PERSONNEL, USE THIS MTO FOR ORDERING.

PRE INSTALLATION

SURVEY

- DURING THIS SURVEY, REVISED

DRAWINGS

CHECKED WITH EXISTING PLATFORM ONCE AGAIN.

CONDITION ON

- CHECK FOLLOWING :

- DIMENSIONS

- FEASIBILITY

- HOOK- UP POINTS

OF

- EASE

- ANY OTHER POINTS - MISSED EARLIER

OF

CONSTRUCTION

INSTALLATION

ARE

PRE INSTALLATION SURVEY

- A

PRE - INSTALLATION REPORT

INSTALLATION

CONTRACTOR

IS MADE BY

- ISSUES

MARINE

LIKE

SHUT-DOWN REQUIREMENT

SPREAD ARE

HIGHLIGHTED

- REPORT

IS

APPROVAL

SUBMITTED TO CLIENT FOR

- IF NECESSARY, MTO IS REVISED

AGAIN

AND

MARKING OF SHOP JOINTS

Shop joints are the welding joint done at shop. For

joining pipe to pipe, pipe to fittings, pipe to flanges shop joints are marked. Shop joints are done to minimize the erection joints. ( Normally joints after

rolling of pipe or joints connecting to existing flange of

equipment should be avoided at shop ).

MARKING OF ERECTION OR FIELD

JOINT

Erection or field joints are the welding joint done during erection. The following points to be followed for deciding erection joint

1.

The spool length shall be such a way decided that there is

no damage to other pipes while erecting ( Normally upto 6 mtr. ).

2.

The spool length shall be decided so that it is easily

transportable.

3.

To avoid distortion in spools more shop joints shall be avoided ( Straightness after welding shall be checked by fabricator ).

4.

If there is branch connection and there are chances of damage to it, then branch connection shall be erection joint.

MARKING OF OFFSHORE JOINTS

Joints made at offshore are known as offshore joints.

1. Piping Hook up connection between deck and bridge shall be offshore joint.

2. Piping connection in between new erected equipment at offshore with existing deck piping.

3. Some piping work is kept under hold at Onshore because of equipment installation at Offshore.

4. Some piping below Cellar Deck may be avoided at Onshore to avoid problem during deck installation.

5. If the instrument to be connected is of long delivery and to be erected at Offshore then the joint shall be Offshore joint.

t h t t f
t
h
t
t
f
t h t t f t h = Header thickness t f = Fillet size (
t h t t f t h = Header thickness t f = Fillet size (
t h t t f t h = Header thickness t f = Fillet size (
t h t t f t h = Header thickness t f = Fillet size (
t h t t f t h = Header thickness t f = Fillet size (

t h = Header thickness t f = Fillet size ( 0.7 x t h or 6mm whichever is less) t = Full penetration weld size = (t h ) t w = Minimum total weld size = (t + t f )

THANK

YOU

THANK YOU