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# ProjectionandTransformationCalculations.xls v3.

35 12-December-2007
This spreadsheet which will carry out common calculations with coordinates. All of the concepts and formulae given in "A gui the user manual for these calculations, are detailed in this spreadsheet. "A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain" is (www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/gps). The guide gives some important warnings about the use of its formulae, which you should be a such as scale factors, convergence and t-T in this spreadsheet that are not in the guide. The Constants sheet is where ellipsoid, projection and Helmert transformation parameters are entered. The Enter coordinates here sheet is for user input of coordinates to the calculations. Use the buttons at the bottom left of the screen to scroll through the other sheets. Each sheet carries out a different calculation. The calculations are shown in "step by step" format where all the intermedia results in single cells computed by user defined functions written in Visual Basic. The code for the user defined functions

The calculation sheets are as follows:Lat & Long Format Conversions converts between DMS format, decimal degrees and degrees & decimal minutes. Helmert Transformation transforms the user entered cartesian coordinates to cartesian coordinates on a new datum using the transformation pa XYZ to lat,long,H converts the user entered cartesian coordinates to geodetic coordinates in DMS format using the ellipsoidal parameters from lat,long to E,N projects the user entered geodetic coordinates to easting and northings using a Transverse Mercator projection and the ellips Constants. E,N to lat,long is the reverse of lat,long to E,N. lat,long,H to XYZ is the reverse of XYZ to lat,long,H. UD Funcs Transformation Example shows how a complete Helmert transformation from WGS84 geodetic coordinates to OSGB36 Eastings a carried out using the user defined functions. convergence from lat & long computes the convergence at the geodetic coordinate entered by the user. convergence from E,N computes the convergence at the easting, northing entered by the user. local scale factor from lat,lon computes the local scale factor at the geodetic coordinate entered by the user. local & line sf from E,N computes the local scale factor at the easting, northing entered by the user and also the line scale factor between eastin t-T correction from E,N computes the t-T (difference between true and projected directions) between easting, northing and easting2, northing2 true azimuth from E,N computes the true direction (after allowing for t-T and convergence) between easting, northing and easting2, northing2 Cells for user data entry are coloured Cells giving calculation results are coloured Cells which repeat the user inputted data are coloured

## Cel ls showing intermediate calculation

concepts and formulae given in "A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain", which is inate systems in Great Britain" is available from the Ordnance Survey GPS web site use of its formulae, which you should be aware of. There are also other projection functions

p" format where all the intermediate calculation results are given and they are also shown as ode for the user defined functions can be viewed and if required copied to other applications.

degrees & decimal minutes. coordinates on a new datum using the transformation parameters from Constants. es in DMS format using the ellipsoidal parameters from Constants. ing a Transverse Mercator projection and the ellipsoid and projection parameters from

om WGS84 geodetic coordinates to OSGB36 Eastings and Northings and vice versa can be

by the user and also the line scale factor between easting, northing and easting2, northing2. ions) between easting, northing and easting2, northing2 entered by the user. nce) between easting, northing and easting2, northing2 entered by the user. ls showing intermediate calculation steps are coloured

Constants

ELLIPSOID AND PROJECTION CONSTANTS Semi-major axis, a Semi-minor axis, b Central Meridan Scale, F0 True origin Easting, E0 True origin Northing, N0 aF0 bF0 6377563.396 True origin latitude, j0 6356256.910 True origin longitude, l0 0.999601271700 400000.000 -100000.000 6375020.48098897 6353722.49048791 N W 49 2 ' 0 0 " 0 0

a for OSGB36 = b for OSGB36 = a for GRS80 & WGS84 = b for GRS80 = b for WGS84 = All other parameters same

Projection Notes 1. The constants above are correct for working with the Ordnance Survey National Grid. If you want to work with OS National Grid, do not change anything in the above box. 2. It is also possible to use this spreadsheet to work with Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grids. The constants that must be entered in the yellow boxes if you want to work with UTM are given in Annex A of 'A Guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain', available from the OS GPS website www.gps.gov.uk. HELMERT TRANSFORMATION CONSTANTS ETRS89 (WGS84) to OSGB36 translation parallel to X translation parallel to Y translation parallel to Z scale change rotation about X rotation about Y rotation about Z -446.448 125.157 -542.060 20.4894 -0.1502 -0.2470 -0.8421 metres metres metres parts per million seconds of arc seconds of arc seconds of arc

reverse signs to go from OSGB36 to ETRS Transformation Notes 1. It is very important to understand the limitations of simple datum transformations. This method does not take account of the local distortions present in coordinate reference frames (TRFs) This is especially important when one or both of the coordinate systems involved is based on a traditional triangulation network For instance, transforming between WGS84 GPS coordinates and OSGB36 National Grid will incur transformation errors of up to five metres, depending on location. Also, this method cannot convert ellipsoid heights to heights above mean sea level. For full details on the limitations of the method coded here, see the OS publication 'A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain', available free from our GPS Website (www.gps.gov.uk) or OS customer helpline. 2. The constants in the table above are suitable for transforming from WGS84 GPS coordinates to OSGB36 National Grid.

By changing the constants above, this spreadsheet may be used to convert between any two geodetic datums Some ellipsoid constants are given in 'A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain' Ordnance Survey cannot supply suitable transformation parameters for the geodetic systems of other countries -

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Constants

please make enquiries for these parameters to the national mapping agencies of the country concerned.

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Constants

49.00000000 0.855211333 -2.00000000 -0.034906585 6377563.3960 6356256.9100 6378137.0000 6356752.3141 6356752.3142 All other parameters same
Slight difference in b is due to different flattening values

e given in Annex A of

STANTS

ETRS89 (WGS84) to OSGB36 -446.448 125.157 -542.060 20.4894 -0.1502 -0.2470 -0.8421 reverse signs to go from OSGB36 to ETRS89

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## Enter your coordinates in the yellow boxes

latitude N longitude E Ellipsoidal height Easting Northing Easting 2 Northing 2 Cartesian X Cartesian Y Cartesian Z

' 52 39 1 43

" 27.253085 4.517692 24.700 651409.903 313177.270 626238.249 302646.415 3909833.018 -147097.138 5020322.478

Decimal Deg 52.65757030139 1.7179215810 metres metres metres metres metres metres metres metres

Notes 1. Type your input data in the yellow boxes only on this page. Enter either Latitude, Longitude and optional Ellipsoidal height, Easting and Northing or Earth centred Cartesian coordinates. To convert from decimal latitude and longitude or degrees lat / long and decimal minutes to the degrees, minutes and seconds forma see the "Lat & Long Format Conversions " sheet. Ellipsoidal height is only required for the Cartesian XYZ coordiante conversions. The Earth centred Cartesian coordinates are used as input to the Helmert datum transformation calculations. Look at the following sheets to see the results of the calculations. 2. Check that the appropriate parameters are set on the "Constants" sheet. 3. For two of the calculations (t-T correction and true azimuth), the eastings and northings of two points are required. For these calculations only, you must enter Eastings 2 and Northings 2 in addition to Easting and Northing 4. For background information on the calculations contained in this spreadsheet, download 'A Guide to Coordinate Systems in Great Britain' from our GPS website www.gps.gov.uk, or see any textbook on map projections or surveying computations.

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## Enter either latitude and longitude

Ellipsoidal height is optional (see notes)

## or easting and northing

2 pair of coordinates is optional (see notes)
nd

## or Earth centred Cartesian XYZ coordinates

hing or Earth centred Cartesian coordinates. minutes to the degrees, minutes and seconds format

ansformation calculations.

## download 'A Guide to Coordinate Systems map projections or surveying computations.

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Latitude & Longitude Format Conversions (Enter your coordinates in the yellow boxes)

latitude N longitude E

Degrees, Minutes & Seconds to Decimal Degrees and Degrees & Decimal Minutes Input Data Output Data Degrees & Decimal Minu Degrees () Minutes (') Seconds (") Decimal Degrees 52 39 27.253100 52.657570305556 N 1 43 4.517700 1.717921583333 E

latitude N longitude E

Decimal Degrees to Degrees, Minutes & Seconds and Degrees & Decimal Minutes Output Data Output Data Input Data Degrees & Decimal Minu Degrees () Minutes (') Seconds (") Decimal Degrees 52 39 27.253100 52.657570305556 N 1 43 4.517700 1.717921583333 E

latitude N longitude E

Degrees & Decimal Minutes to Degrees, Minutes & Seconds and Decimal Degrees Output Data Degrees & Decimal Minu Degrees () Minutes (') Seconds (") Decimal Degrees 52 39 27.253100 52.657570305556 N 1 43 4.517700 1.717921583333 E

## dinates in the yellow boxes)

rees & Decimal Minutes Output Data Degrees & Decimal Minutes 52 39.454218333 1 43.075295000

rees & Decimal Minutes Output Data Degrees & Decimal Minutes 52 39.454218333 1 43.075295000

ds and Decimal Degrees Input Data Degrees & Decimal Minutes 52 39.454218333 1 43.075295000

Helmert Datum Transformation X 3909833.018 Y -147097.1376 Z 5020322.478 X 3909460.068 Y -146987.301 Z 5019888.070 Rotation and Scale Matrix (H) 1.0000204894 4.08261601E-06 -4.08261601E-06 1.0000204894 1.19748979E-06 -7.28190149E-07 Translation Matrix (T) -446.448 125.157 -542.06 H * Input Cartesian coords 3909906.516 -147112.4581 5020430.13 X Y Z 3909460.068 -146987.301 5019888.070 This is the input data

## This is the result of the calculation

-1.19748979E-06 7.28190149E-07 1.0000204894 Parameters (see "Constants" sheet) translation parallel to X -446.448 m translation parallel to Y 125.157 m translation parallel to Z -542.060 m scale change 20.4894 ppm rotation about X -0.1502 secs rotation about Y -0.2470 secs rotation about Z -0.8421 secs

These values are intermediate calcula formulae given in 'A Guide to Coord

See the Transformation Notes on th "Constants" page for information on limitations and accuracy of this trans

This is the result of the calculation u To see the Visual Basic code of the f Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic then view the code in "Module 1".

## e result of the calculation

ues are intermediate calculation steps for the given in 'A Guide to Coordinate Systems in Great Britain'

ransformation Notes on the s" page for information on the s and accuracy of this transformation.

e result of the calculation using user defined functions. e Visual Basic code of the functions ools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, the code in "Module 1".

XYZ to lat,long,H

Cartesian XYZ to Latitude, longitude and Ellipsoidal height X Y Z 3909833.018 -147097.1376 5020322.478 52 2 ' 15 9 " 16.606433 16.510138 Decimal Deg 52.25461289802 -2.154586149489

15

16.6721

52.25463115

## latitude longitude Ellipsoidal height

N 52 W 2 626.294 m

15 9

16.606433 16.510138

52.25461289802 -2.154586149489

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XYZ to lat,long,H

## de and Ellipsoidal height This is the input data

Radians 0.9120150444 This is the result of the calculation -0.0376046223 These values are intermediate calculation steps for the formulae given in 'A Guide to Coordinate Systems in Great Britain' 0.9120153629 The radians value of latitude is computed using a user defined function To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1". This is the result of the calculation using user defined functions. To see the Visual Basic code of the functions Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

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lat,long to E,N

Latitude and longitude to easting and northing latitude longitude Easting Northing e2 n n r h2 P M I II III IIIA IV V VI Easting Northing N 52 E 1 651409.903 m 313177.270 m 6.67053976E-03 1.67322025E-03 6.38850233E+06 6.37275644E+06 2.47081362E-03 6.48899729E-02 4.06688295E+05 3.06688295E+05 1.54040791E+06 1.56068754E+05 -2.06711230E+04 3.87512058E+06 -1.70000782E+05 -1.01344704E+05 651409.903 m 313177.270 m 39 43 27.253085 This is the input data 4.517692 This is the result of the calculation

These values are intermediate calculation steps for the formulae given in 'A Guide to Coordinate Systems in Great B The value of M is computed using a user defined function To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

This is the result of the calculation using user defined functio To see the Visual Basic code of the functions Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

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lat,long to E,N

These values are intermediate calculation steps for the formulae given in 'A Guide to Coordinate Systems in Great Britain' The value of M is computed using a user defined function To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor,

This is the result of the calculation using user defined functions. To see the Visual Basic code of the functions Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor,

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E,N to lat,long

Easting and Northing to Latitude and Longitude Easting Northing latitude longitude j' e2 n r h2 M Et VII VIII IX X XI XII XIIA latitude longitude 651409.903 313177.270 ' N 52 39 E 1 43 N 52 42 6.67053976E-03 6.38852334E+06 6.37281931E+06 2.46422052E-03 4.13177270E+05 2.51409903E+05 1.61305625E-14 3.33955474E-28 9.41985617E-42 2.58400625E-07 4.69859700E-21 1.61243166E-34 6.65773163E-48 N 52 39 E 1 43 " 27.253087 4.517692 57.278445 This is the input data

Decimal Deg Radians 52.65757030181 0.91904797787 This is the result of the calculation 1.71792158100 0.02998338788 52.7159106792 0.92006620954 These values are intermediate calc formulae given in 'A Guide to Coo

The radians value of j' and the val To see the Visual Basic code of th Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basi then view the code in "Module 1".

27.253087 4.517692

52.65757030181 1.71792158100

This is the result of the calculation To see the Visual Basic code of th Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basi then view the code in "Module 1".

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E,N to lat,long

## This is the input data

This is the result of the calculation These values are intermediate calculation steps for the formulae given in 'A Guide to Coordinate Systems in Great Britain' The radians value of j' and the value of M are computed using user defined functions To see the Visual Basic code of the functions Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

This is the result of the calculation using user defined functions. To see the Visual Basic code of the functions Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

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Latitude, longitude and Ellipsoidal height to Cartesian XYZ latitude longitude Ellipsoidal height X Y Z e n
2

## N E 24.700 3874938.850 116218.624 5047168.208 6.6705397616E-03 6.3910506260E+06

52 1 m m m m

39 43

27.253085 This is the input data 4.517692 This is the result of the calculation

These values are intermediate calculatio formulae given in 'A Guide to Coordinat

X Y Z

## 3874938.850 m 116218.624 m 5047168.208 m

This is the result of the calculation using To see the Visual Basic code of the func Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Edi then view the code in "Module 1".

## is the result of the calculation

e values are intermediate calculation steps for the ulae given in 'A Guide to Coordinate Systems in Great Britain'

is the result of the calculation using user defined functions. ee the Visual Basic code of the functions u = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor,

## view the code in "Module 1".

This sheet gives an example of how the user defined functions stored in this workbook can be used. To see the Visual Basic code of the functions, menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

A WGS84 lat, long and height (e.g. from a handheld GPS receiver) is converted and transformed in stages to an OSGB36 easting, northing and a The reverse transformation from OSGB36 to WGS84 is then performed. The results of each stage are all produced by user defined functions in single cells (i.e. there are no intermediate steps done in other cells). The outputs of the previous stage are passed as inputs to the next stage. Other parameters used are on the right of each stage.

Note : be aware when changing the layout of this sheet that all cell references are ABSOLUTE. This is so that function inputs can be easily iden

WGS 84 to OSGB36
WGS84 Latitude, longitude and Ellipsoidal height to WGS84 Cartesian XYZ
' " Dec Degs

## N E 69.391 3875311.465 116103.234 5047602.291

52 1 m m m m

39 42

28.723003 57.787253

## 52.65797861194 Input 1.71605201472 Output

Helmert Datum Transformation (WGS84 to OSGB36) X Y Z X Y Z 3875311.465 116103.234 5047602.291 3874938.849 116218.624 5047168.210 m m m m m m Input See the Transformation Notes on the "Constants" page for information on the Output limitations and accuracy of this transformation.

OSGB36 Cartesian XYZ to OSGB36 Latitude, longitude and approx ODN height X Y Z latitude longitude ~ODN height 3874938.849 m 116218.624 m 5047168.210 m
' " Dec Degs

Input

N 52 E 1 24.701 m

39 43

27.253135 4.517710

' " Dec Degs

## latitude longitude Easting

N 52 E 1 651409.903 m

39 43

27.253135 4.517710

## 52.657570315182 Input 1.717921586082 Output

Northing

313177.271 m

OSGB36 to WGS84
OSGB36 easting and northing to OSGB36 latitude and longitude easting northing latitude longitude ~ODN height 651409.903 m 313177.270 m
' " Dec Degs

Input

N 52 E 1 24.700 m

39 43

27.253095 4.517699

## 52.657570304134 Output 1.717921583102

OSGB36 latitude, longitude and approx ODN height to OSGB36 cartesian XYZ
' " Dec Degs

## N E 24.700 3874938.849 116218.624 5047168.208

52 1 m m m m

39 43

27.253095 4.517699

## 52.65757030413 Input 1.71792158310 Output

Helmert Datum Transformation (OSGB36 to WGS84) X Y Z X Y Z 3874938.849 116218.624 5047168.208 3875311.472 116103.230 5047602.299 m m m m m m Input See the Transformation Notes on the "Constants" page for information on the Output limitations and accuracy of this transformation.

WGS84 Cartesian XYZ to WGS84 Latitude, longitude and Ellipsoidal height X Y Z latitude longitude Ellipsoidal height 3875311.472 m 116103.230 m 5047602.299 m
' " Dec Degs

Input

N 52 E 1 69.402 m

39 42

28.722980 57.787042

k can be used.

## SOLUTE. This is so that function inputs can be easily identified.

o OSGB36

oidal height to WGS84 Cartesian XYZ User inputs DMS and Height. Decimal degrees and height are the input to the user defined functions. The DMS values are converted to decimal using standard Excel functions Ellipsoid parameters (WGS84) a= 6378137.000 b= 6356752.314

ation (WGS84 to OSGB36) Transformation (WGS84 to OSGB36) translation parallel to X = -446.448 translation parallel to Y = 125.157 translation parallel to Z = -542.060 scale change = 20.4894 rotation about X = -0.1502 rotation about Y = -0.2470 rotation about Z = -0.8421

itude, longitude and approx ODN height The decimal degrees and height are the output of the user defined functions. The decimal values are converted to DMS using standard Excel functions Ellipsoid parameters (OSGB36) a= 6377563.396 b= 6356256.910

to OSGB36 easting and northing The decimal degrees are the input to the user defined functions. The decimal values are converted to DMS using standard Excel functions

Ellipsoid and projection parameters (OSGB36) a= 6377563.396 b= 6356256.910 f0 = 0.999601272 e0 = 400000 n0 = -100000 j0 = 49.00000 l0 = -2.00000

o WGS84
OSGB36 latitude and longitude The eastings, northings and approx ODN height are input by the user. User defined functions convert them to dec degrees. The decimal degrees are converted to DMS using standard Excel functions Ellipsoid and projection parameters (OSGB36) a= 6377563.396 b= 6356256.910 f0 = 0.999601272 e0 = 400000 n0 = -100000 j0 = 49.00000 l0 = -2.00000

ODN height to OSGB36 cartesian XYZ Decimal degrees and height are the input to the user defined functions. The DMS values are converted to decimal using standard Excel functions Ellipsoid parameters (OSGB36) a= 6377563.396 b= 6356256.910

ation (OSGB36 to WGS84) Transformation (OSGB36 to WGS84) translation parallel to X = 446.448 translation parallel to Y = -125.157 translation parallel to Z = 542.060 scale change = -20.4894 rotation about X = 0.1502 rotation about Y = 0.2470 rotation about Z = 0.8421

itude, longitude and Ellipsoidal height The decimal degrees and height are the output of the user defined functions. The decimal values are converted to DMS using standard Excel functions Ellipsoid parameters (WGS84) a= 6378137.000 b= 6356752.314

## convergence from lat & long

Grid convergence from Latitude and Longitude latitude longitude convergence n r h2 XIII XIV XV convergence N E 2 6.38850233E+06 6.37275644E+06 2.47081362E-03 7.95024505E-01 9.82300034E-02 2.02438381E-03 2 52 1 ' 57 39 43 " 26.556114 27.253085 4.517692 Decimal Deg 2.95737669840 This is the input data

Radians 0.051615961 This is the result of the calculation These values are intermediate calcul

57

26.556114

2.95737669840

This is the result of the calculation u To see the Visual Basic code of the f Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic then view the code in "Module 1".

Notes Grid convergence is the angle FROM the meridian line through a point TO the North-South grid line at the same point. A positive

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## This is the input data

This is the result of the calculation These values are intermediate calculation steps

This is the result of the calculation using a user defined function. To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

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## convergence from E,N

Grid convergence from Easting and Northing Easting Northing convergence j' n r h2 Et XVI XVII XVIII convergence 651409.903 313177.270 2 52 6.38852334E+06 6.37281931E+06 2.46422052E-03 2.51409903E+05 2.05594320E-07 4.57174659E-21 1.60898687E-34 2 ' 57 42 " 26.556148 57.278445 This is the input data

Decimal Deg Radians 2.957376708 0.05161596077 This is the result of the calculation 52.7159106792 0.92006620954 These values are intermediate calculat

The radians value of j' is computed us To see the Visual Basic code of the fu Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic E then view the code in "Module 1".

57

26.556148

2.957376708

This is the result of the calculation usi To see the Visual Basic code of the fu Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic E then view the code in "Module 1".

Notes Grid convergence is the angle FROM the meridian line through a point TO the North-South grid line at the same point. A positive

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## This is the input data

This is the result of the calculation These values are intermediate calculation steps The radians value of j' is computed using a user defined function To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

This is the result of the calculation using a user defined function. To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

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## local scale factor from lat,lon

Local scale factor from Latitude and Longitude latitude longitude factor n r 2 h XIX XX factor N E 1.00037733 6.38850233E+06 6.37275644E+06 2.47081362E-03 1.84422569E-01 -1.03620198E-02 1.00037733 52 1 39 43 27.253085 This is the input data 4.517692 This is the result of the calculation These values are intermediate calculation steps

This is the result of the calculation using a user defined functi To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

Notes Local scale factor is the scale distortion inherent in the map projection at a point

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lculation steps

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## local & line sf from E,N

Local scale factor from Easting and Northing Easting Northing factor j' n r h2 XXI XXII factor 651409.903 313177.270 1.00037732 ' " 52 42 57.278445 6.38852334E+06 6.37281931E+06 2.46422052E-03 1.22811183E-14 2.53854231E-29 1.00037732 This is the input data

This is the result of the calculation Decimal Deg Radians These values are intermediate calculation 52.715910679 0.9200662095 The radians value of j' is computed using To see the Visual Basic code of the functi Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Edito then view the code in "Module 1".

This is the result of the calculation using a To see the Visual Basic code of the functi Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Edito then view the code in "Module 1".

Notes Local scale factor is the scale distortion inherent in the map projection at a point For a long line the scale factor at the mid point should be calculated. For lines up to 30km in length this will give a result with If still greater accuracy is required compute a line scale factor using Simpson's Rule as shown below. The line scale factor between Point 1 (East1, North1) and Point 2 (East2, North2) is the projected distance between the points divided by the true (geodesic) distance. Line scale factor = (1/6)(F1 + 4Fm + F2) Where F1 = scale factor at Point 1; F2 = scale factor at Point 2 and Fm = scale factor at mid point between Point 1 and Point e.g.: 1.00037732 = Scale factor at Point 1 (East1,North1) 1.00022969 = Scale factor at Point 2 (East2,North2) 1.00030156 = Scale factor at mid point of Point 1 (East1,North1) and Point 2 (East2,North2) 1.00030221 = Line scale factor for line between Point 1 (East1,North1) and Point 2 (East2,North2)

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## e result of the calculation ues are intermediate calculation steps

ns value of j' is computed using a user defined function e Visual Basic code of the function ools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, the code in "Module 1".

e result of the calculation using a user defined function. e Visual Basic code of the function ools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, the code in "Module 1".

ength this will give a result with an error not exceeding 1 to 2 ppm.

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## t-T correction from E,N

t-T correction from Eastings and Northings Easting Northing Easting 2 Northing 2 (t1 - T1) (t2 - T2) Nm M j' n r XXIII 651409.903 313177.270 626238.249 302646.415 0 -0 ' 0 0 " 6.482943 6.259111 Decimal Deg 0.00180081737 Radians 0.00003143019240

-0.00173864187 -0.00003034502515

6.855171

52.66857088

0.919239974

## (t1 - T1) (t2 - T2)

0 -0

0 0

6.482943 6.259111

0.00180081737 -0.00173864187

Notes t-T correction is the difference between true direction and projected direction due to the curving of straight lines on the projection

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## This is the input data

This is the result of the calculation These values are intermediate calculation steps The radians value of j' and the value of M are computed using user defined functions To see the Visual Basic code of the functions Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

This is the result of the calculation using a user defined function. To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

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## true azimuth from E,N

True Azimuth from eastings and northings Easting Northing Easting 2 Northing 2 True Azimuth(1 to 2) Grid Bearing(1 to 2) C1 (t1 - T1) True Azimuth(1 to 2) 651409.903 313177.270 626238.249 302646.415 250 247 2 0 250 ' 15 17 57 0 15 " 10.839516 50.766311 26.556148 6.482943 10.839516 Decimal Deg Radians 250.253010977 4.367739005 247.2974351 4.316154474 2.957376708 0.051615961 0.001800817 0.000031430 250.253010977

Notes The true azimuth from one point (easting, northing) to a second point (easting 2, northing 2) is computed by applying the convergence and t-T corrections to the grid bearing.

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## This is the input data

This is the result of the calculation These values are intermediate calculation steps

This is the result of the calculation using a user defined function. To see the Visual Basic code of the function Menu = Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor, then view the code in "Module 1".

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