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(nezue1a/Co1ombia)
Simon Jos Antonio de Ia Santisima rrinidad Bollyar y Ponte Palacios y Blanco 183 1830), universally denominated IlLibertador fhe Liberator, South America, is as interesting for his contributions to the intellectual fife raaginarion of South merica as he was instrumental to securing its mdc a pc de cc from Spa a Bolivar wa to become the founding father of fi South ricrican rcpubhcs. He was born in Caracas, \enezuela, the youngest of the a children of Jua a icente Bolisar a Ponte, a wealthy creole planter and mili olonel, and the aristocratic Maria de Ia (oncepcin Palacios y Blanco, He ned his early educ tion from family members but at age tnelve he spent mc months at the home of Simon Rodriguez, headmaster of an elementary in Carnar, s,hr bcaw lG ang menrar and friend Oser time, a nam 1 r of others taught and influenced BoIls at most notably Andrs Bello, n ith rn hc studied hstor, iterature and geography kt fourteen, he entered the itia n the kragua Valle in \ enezuela and as as promoted to second lieutenant aai ithin a year During this time, he studied mathematics, topography, and phys at an academy in his on n home, In 1 799, he traveled to Spain to continue his de vhich siere desgned to prpare him for leadership While there he fell d pcrately in lose auth and married Maria Tere a Rodriguez del loro daughter I me of Caracass most distinguished families. She died in Venezuela within a ear of their marriage and Bohvar never remarried V hile i Lurope Bolivar becam inter sted in Spanish kmeriean indenen e ace and vhen Napoleon invaded Spain, Bolivar took part in the resolutionary act vines arising at that time in Venezuela Oia April 19, 1810, revolutionaries in C racas deposed the Spanish captain general and established a goserning junta, a hich named Bobs ar commissioner to Lor don to seek British support for the as regime fhe ne v Vnezuelan co agre s prod imed independence from Spain 8, 1811 Bolivar thereupon entered military icr ice and rose rapidly to the a ak of colonel, being called on immediately to suppress a counterrevolutionary br ale t VaLenca, He as rote his first is ajc r political statement, Memoria dirigida a los dadano de Ia Nueva Granada por un Caraqueno (translated as The Carte r7ena Manifesto Mem at I addressed to the Citizens of New Granada by a Cith ze o ara as in 1812, a statement oft ae fundamental political principles tha v ould guide his future decisions and actions, Among his other significant ri r are the 1815 C arta a un caballero que tomaba gran inrers en Ia causa r in bI eana de Ia America dcl Sur Itranslated as lbs Jamaica I etter) and his d cIa lo habitantes de Rio Earibe Carupano y Cariac 3 (translated Dc tee for the Lmaneipation of the Slaves) During this period Bolivar was 1 ins lved iv the polities of the Second Republic n which h held, lost le 2 Jvlrrypw

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Tha foundational document of BolIvarh political ideology is contained in a speech he deihered to the Seond Venezuelan Congress. convened at hh behest in :sneoctura n tiiO and at which he h/cc utarnitted a ratt of propaced onstiturlon Tso sears I r he Colombian constituent ngress adopted a isthu rcted il r de it to t w firs c order it, -l hi it tc cu b je i bee to p o th i t i iepubh d Venezuela, oior in a B ado an anama. 8 n n a of he to an I derci p t A olivar a o s ned mi s eadershi c trugg, C f r idependenc n Permi \Virhmn two ears the former territory of upper leru took the name
Bolmvia and tvited Rolls r to write its conc:itution, sshose central feature ms lternie

Cussen Antonio, Bc/to and Ba/It at: Poetry and Pohti in the Spanish American Rn v/titan. Canshhdge [F- ngland: New York: Cambridge University Press. 1 92 Hamilton Jose Ignacio. Simon h/a Sc Ba va Buenos Air s: Fditorial (nm ud r ticana 00 h John St tot B var 4 V Nev ha en Sal En true Press, 2006. Sla ta hard SC / f Ba/lear Q e r ib F lege Statmo i It Texas F ni ersits r 20/aS
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presidenes. Rolls ars dream of sshat h-is cummonls came to he called Gran Coiombi[ came to grhf between 1S2 and 183(1. Faced ssith the secession of Venezuela from the C on bun unio and the oppo a of Ness C r nadan lihera s he nigmied d pr dencv i 830 d dieT vet ronths t r thu ace o r igli ci m it t it et th ii of F e sty a so h r ma lb all fl Bol houh I i its a r s g a of tI p t a! ealitics fan 3

Address to the Angostura Congress, February 15, 1819, the Day of Its Installation
citizen v under ti a t arms of eo simand, has eons ened the representatives o t ionh/ Ow eigr tr to cxcre s absolute will! I, then, count myself among Duirie Providencs most Favored beings, for I has-c had the honor of bringing together the representatis Cs at the people of Venezuela in this august Congress. si ellspririg of the legitimate authorit,, repositors of the sos em egfl wtli, and arbiter of the nations destiny in transferring to the peoples rcpresentatis cc the supreme power that had bees ntrusted to r 1611 my h t dsires, those of sin fellow itizens, and A s o Ut future e ne ions, io pe euerthir ft n your w sdom, honty d o udem e a cot phing th tI s plea a it obiigat in I free myself of th it irne i auth ft I t has o rs F 1 n d me and the unlimtted responsibil ity t ia si ighed hea lv n my sick rengths Only as unavoidabl necessitu together ith the mmpcrous svill of the F eople. woulc, his e made inc take on the at ( tid 5 rernie andd ngemons espo A: eDctio ftteRprI ijm But now I breathe a sigh of relief, returning to you this authorits than with so much risk. difficults; and pain. I hae managed to maintain ma the midst of the most horrifYing tribulations that can aPlict a social body! 1 he a of the republic, over ss F ci 1 base pres ded has nor been a mere p0! t ai teripest, r 0 a cody ssa r a opul r na ci hut it has certainly I c h gat em s falldi -u ti-eel ii rn ithasbeenthe rundationof an nfcr 1 orme i I at a over elms c h land f V i zuela One man and a r i such as I Fat dike on d h 5 put up agam it the rismentum of these de astations? Ir the midst of rhts sea of tomnie its. [ have beer nothing more than a lowly planthing of the revolutmonamv hurricane that carried me assay like a feeble straw, I base been able to do neither good nor evilirresist ible forces base directed th course of our es cnn, To attribute them to me would not he iut and svould give me an importance do not deserse Do s-on 5:tuation? Ccncult th snot hams the ah rs e 1 she pa t s uts d Happ

hallemsgc nvo din th for s ion of rdep ndent repu s among pople who had kno yr onE monar hmal govemnmc it. Even though rwo of his pr icE pal ideas for olirieal stabihtv among such peoplesnamely, a lifetime preci dencv and a league at Spanich -merican republics-were ultimately reiecred, rhe, base ha a continuing infiuene on Latin -merican political discourse. The selechons that fb!iov are from Bolivars Discurso pronunciado par el I ihertador ant el Congreso de Angostura 1 1% de febrcr d 1819, dfa de cu i talacin Address to I rgsstura or r s 0 Febr r 15 1819, 1 Da sir t i o ann S Ur C) I ncr dor C ongr so -onsti nt Bolt rode dd it set t C f B Ii ma g
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Further Reading
Acosra Saignes. Miguel. Dzaevric,t di /ibertadr,, Caracas: hnisersidad Central de Venezuela, Edicionas de a Bihlioteca [BEG. 2u02. Bohvar, Simon. 0/act comp/rra Edited by Vicente [ecuna. 3 vols. Havana: Edi torIal iex, I 3r-iding. D tO (J/iisceal Re blicantsm ard Creole Pat tic it SimOn B heat I 83 30 nd the pa 4ineraca Rera itt/on C ir it dge: Car bndg mu tst Irs 198 B hod D I Bvnor [diva both h/c C a, p a ett h/me i a i rrt 0 hio r as Ares d ma1 BihE 200 It T I a dyfSOil Longar ICer aea, data non 1a1r LA ,voeu. \ess or: man. 2(1(1 Collier, Simon Nitionalits \atianaiim. nd Supranational:sm mm. the Writ inv of Simom Bolvar, r Hfii,rnu h/mr rican Hi,tarica/ Rem/eu 63, no. 1 (lQS3n V
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himo Bo z

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14 iezuela/Cdo obia

Addren to the Angostura Co zgreo

ctiea f \ enczueIa examine the Laws of the Indies the nna s of Spain of svst m of the ormer lc;iders, the influence of religion and foreign domination; cbs rse the first acts of hc republican go ernment the fcrocits of our enm mies and the national cfara ter Do not ask me about the effects of these iphea al f e r unfortunate cc ea hardlc tfu k of me as even a simp c ins u yes ot he great irovesse s that have been at work in Venezuela noneth 1 ss ra 1 Ic m conduc I rr y pub re and ptisa e actions ate subject t he cer ore of th pcopl Re r se s i es ou a e thc or es who must judge h r sub r tF h ito i i, o impartial verdict, I will dd o Dig to xcusc i I h v at ad seid all can to defend myself, IfI deserve or ppro al ss i F a e a sed th oh ime ti le of good citizen r f r ble to me tfas zfer t wfie s n cIa gasc me, or Peate Maker, wh ch Cusdinnar a gase me ard nv or ers tfat the whole world might hcos to ai e m I pI sup e e command of Venezuda The legs s it yo it nds ret ciicat ng yo r ci he republics happiness is now yours; the angus an bala see cf our d stinks the seasure ur glory s in our hands your hands the rees thm will liberty \ f this moment the Supreme ill s al de seen e i Leader cf he Rd oF lie s nothing more than a s mple citizen and so he desires o re nai n death I will r onetheless serve in the profession of arms so long as tI etc ma; be set ies in \en zuela The fatherland has many worthy son capable of leadi s it tal nt sir es exoericnce, everything required to govern free men are iF pa nt sony V many of those here who represent the people; and be or d this sos reign body there are itizens who, in every era, hase shown braser confronting dangers prudenec n avoiding them and, finaIfi the art V gose s ng tncms lies and goserning others The e illustrious great men will certar 1 earn the otes of Cot gr ss and to them will be entrusted the go em mert that I o arrrly -nd sineerl Fave ust gisen up forever. I h cortir uario s o autfior ty b he arse md dual has frequentl neant tie end o democratic gosernmcnt Regular elections are essential in popula ecause n th ng s so da igerous as leav ng power vith a single citizen er a long use h cop eeoc e a customed o obeying him, and he iris andng th m ft rr v hi h situation u urpation b is a en tois d aid yr nr y or g ate n appropr a e zeal he gua r tee o republican liberty ir d or e t zei s sould fear w rF ea o that the ame magistrate svho has gov the is r r a long ti e wiP gover tF ens indefinitely In s r h tf n a I this a t c f r sy supp rt fat th Ii r V V nezuela I can aspi te the gl ry o be ng e un ed mor g Venezuelas siost faithful admirer fetmit me gestl r ci, exf lain s ith the frankress of at ue repub ican my re e ful op nit s d s I on citation, which I take the liberty of fo feri ig on s e enc V th sineer y a d esndor of r fe lit gs Vs it has to se r cr Tel L 1 be rg dat hat II s e the right m Fe h ard
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by the peoples representatis es. I know full well that your wisdom has no need of ad ice; and 1 hr ow also tF at my plan will perhaps seem wrong-headed, impracti ca to s ou. But Dntlemen, kindly accept this work, more the tribute of my sin cer subr ission t Congress than the result of presumptuous caprice. On the other sa id your function being the creation of a body politic, and, it could e. n n sid the creation of an entire society, complete with all the difficulties h r singular and dirheult a situation presents, perhaps the cry of a citizen can ito i of th presence of a hidden or inknown danger. ( s i ig a glar cc oser he pa t we v ill sec what constitutes the foundation of Vepub i of Ve sezuela Vii r ca has rig frc d itself from the Spanish mo sarehy, has found itself in a s similar m that of the Roman Empire when that enormous mass fell to tu p cc in d t the anc cot ivorld, Every dismembeted piece then formed an mdc nt natio i in accordance with its ituation or interests, but with the differ Cot I os pisces eturn d o reestablish their original associations We do ,n vmr t ges vsha xutecI n firm r tm w. arc rot Furopc r s e ar not Indians, but rather a race mdway between the aborigines and the r ui rierie n b b rt id Europeans b rights, we find ourselses in the of disputir g fights of posse si r with the natises and of ustaining our I i i the count fo r birth against the opposition of the invaders; thus our c ii traordinary and omplex I here s still more our fate has always a our b p irely p s r ltical cxi te see has always I een non-existent and the were put in a tatus nfcrior to servitude, the more difficulty we experi or er d in attau ing liberty because we were not only robbed of liberty but also an c iv and domestic tyranny. Permit me to explain this paradox In absolute s, the author zed nower does not acknowledge limirc The will of the desci p i t se supmme law, carried out arbitrarily by subordinates who participate in org i zed pprc sion F re son of the authority they enjoi. They arc placed in f al iv I political m litary and religious functions but in the end, the a map f 5 ersia am Persist s the pashas of the Great Lord are lurks, the sultans r are tar China did rot seat h for mandarins ir the birthplace of Ce igF s Khar, who cc it uemed China On th other hand America received yt i g om Spain, s hiD actually had dept ved Vmeriea of the pleasure and erci e cf etive tyranny n r pe mitting us ryran is s functions in our domestic aff irs nd r r riot admin stration, f hi dept vation made it umpossib e for us to lea r he con se )f publi hour ess, neither did s enjoy the personal regard that th glory of po ye rspi it the ye of the multitude and that is so important g ea resolution I will ay i once and f all we were kept separate, apart r the un s erie to the degree that it was relatis e to the science of government e lne e n p op 1 under the triple soke of ignorance tyranny and vice e F e able to equime neither knowledge nor power nor virtue Disciples of u h r ie on mast r the I sons we hase rtee ed and the examples we have s d ci are ent me v d stru iv Vs e have b en dominated more by deceit than by e nd sic h bee s dLgraded r ne b vice than bs superstition. Slavery is r amkr 4 c n pLo I d r,s ruts t f i o r

\znlou Lolnszr

1 ineczia(oImbzc

Address

to the Ango ctura (hi;igress

destruedan amhition. intrigue, take advantage of the credulity and th inexpe rience of men ignor n of all poh a , econom or civil 1 owledge. Tfese men 1 idopt u lusioL rmlinc d c ake I a for lb ream a r patrio t sri xc gc r e for s cc I c c a hi Fm bi nd in x h u ged r by
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h ma ch h t nec F F ost r s ,hred Leers o racle. Ca dht H 5 urse. S u upted peonic. r a nhciii its ihern, er soon loss again: hceaase one svib strive in Sam tO de onstia: 5 to the iseopie that happiness vorsias ia the practice ofsir rue: that th rule of i-Os Is flare posserful than the rule of wrants, heause lass is :ts heneih fit migor; that good ill mhle, end esers tihng rnmst idd practi c and not c are ti p 1 Is of tF if at he ereise I ice is the xci o lit r r u I g tak ag C ate e or a dao th r or to o ra r hr I mum er and m ham ndueer Lhert ma s Rous s a mu. u a food lifEcult to Jigesa Our eals feinss citlzen ss ill has e to trenerhen theIr spirit long beidre shier wif he hi ri digest iihrtv 5 hexirhe n jtiousnoss Their iirnh i,mhcd hr Jo cc dos see cued s the shadow 5 of Jungons. and thm them a o tea cr Cc gastmlenee of scm rude. vs V they Dc eatahie .r mamh ing soth ns ecg r the au i tempd ihstvr V 1 the: h able of drni pLc I up r mm ho in a
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Mans ancient and naodern nations base shaken off oppressVn. but sery rare are those that base known how to enjoy a few precious moments of liberty. Too con the hare fallen back into their old political sices, because the people. drag mvmann alomag behind them [he habit u F rot t n tfe gv aires naake unaw on hem of the ch rms of honor and of national n t are dorm prosperirs, and thea stew with indifferense rh glory of lix mg in the naorement tos ari lihett under the tutelage of laws dictated he their own vs iii. The annals c the world proclaim this dreadful truth vs. I eacahie of an arsobate i:herzv: but 5 On dens. :t_ t a m\ point of acratic hem gosetnnaent nas ever asscnabled pow er. ptospertr. and perma uhat soS, at I e anae time? And on the conrrar) have we nor seen armstoetacx, non hv establish great and powerful empires for centuries and centuries? What

Lot e plate wee c r I I e V o o rger F U ate going to as the foundations bar a nascent people vs ho wiJ he able to raise them selves to the greatness that nature as determined for them ifsou pros ide them a base proportionate to the lofts eminence that awaits them, if your choice is not governed V the turelats spirit nf Venezuela, a heh should inspire in you good udgmen it shoosir the narur and forts I or emnrae at you are uoing to adopt fo f happ c the fvoo o t get ii s ight 1 epc sla ry x II b e as t of u ti n to aaa i lb at s of p cs t am s 11 en ty v h rho at of g cr an nts. Redeer o he ratios F am have c d out hr ntlv on cc F, and v u sill cc. disressed. that almo: all the earth has been, and st.iI is. the s icrimn of its gosern messrs. Vu vs ill observe many is stems for managing men, but all to oppress them: and if the habit of seeing the human race being led be shepherds of people did not ciminth rise horror 0 f sn-h a shoekina spc ctacle vs vs ould be stun ned to see u d cite se c grazma Fe urfac s glob I lossl I k des nd to or de Ford F hA oc I pF d km ts e trol o us th a o ag I u c for lax h n en denca o F inanin a certain that hue mty tea as compl even while hiroered V the hobbles pimed on it. in ..ontemplatmng husnano. in th1 statC of pmostltotion. it ceem we are iustbed n costs incin ourselses that the majorit of men believe that humnliating maxsm. namdr. that t Costs Yore to masnmasn -h ha so mt ibr. rc n so utmao the a Ai of n r di o:iid thai th axim. s to nat ci naomalit false V that t ixim crc t mc 5I r ns :r c I e r their red I
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borenxer r is more ancient than Chinas? What republic has exceeded in dura tion that of Sparta. that of Venice? Did not the Roman Empire conquer the world? Did not France hase fourteen centuries of naonarchx? \ ho is greater than England? These nations, nonetheless, base been or are anitamonarchical. Despite such cruel reFmctionc. 1 feel myself e17ed be joy because aandou strides our republic has takcn in embarking on its noble course. I or g what i most useful. enlis ened by what is most just, and aspiring to what is m t cml em, Venezuela has, in separating itself from the Spanish nation, recov red its independence, i s lbeinr quahtr. s national s aver ignts. Constitut ng itself as a denaocrattc repuhlc. it omoscrihed monarehia distinctions, nobifltw spec:al rights, privilegesit declared tire rights of man. she freedom of stork, of thought of speech. and of writing. These acts. eminently liberal, can neser be admsrcd enough for the purity that has decreed them. Placing its seal on the social act most capable of creating the happiness of a nation, the first Congress m Ven zuela has written in the annals of our legislation with indelible characters e majesty of tF e people worthily expressed I must summon all my strength to perisnc v ith all the passion of which I am capable the supreme good that is ontasned n this lmmortal code of our rights and our laws Bur how ssill I dare sas it! \dili I dare to profane the sacred table of our laws sr ith me crIticism There arc feelings that cannot be contained in the heart of a loser of the fatherand ther oserfioss. stirred be their own impetus. and despite the one who holds them. an urgent force releases them. I ana fulls cons inced bs the idea that the vernment of Venezuela naust be reformed, and that even though many illustri o s ci izens think as I do, not all hare the boldness necess my to profess publicls e adopt o a or new princples. This consideration urges me to take the iniria ire in .s matter of the greatest seriousness, one that shows excessive audacity in cn ing ads ce to the peoples counselors. [he mote 1 admIre the excellence o 6 the federal constitution of Venezuela, the mare I am perstiaded of the inapossihilits of Its applicatson to our situation. esad according no ms ryan of seeing. it is a wonder that so model in North dnseriea ontinues 0 xi t so sueessfullv and is aot turned upside dosvn at the I r ap rats c of r imp dsner cm danger. Akhough tF at pe apte i a m gulam
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node! of p 1 tica v ttuL and n or 1 en ghtcnm in not vithstandng ti at hbc ty h been F r eta Ic that Fey hay been raised r liberty and that tier are nourished ha pur hhertvin sum, cien though in many tespects chat people is unique in the history of the human tacet: is a wonder. I repeat. that such a weak and comnlcs system a federalism has been able to govern it in such ddE But b hat go crnmert s it mar c t and d Late sit arions a those a/its pas t a n t t say that it i a y e n n i a, iti c p ct o L e spar I situation art nature of s ates o e ntcl estcteu i t my r i d to different as th hrgith Arttieao and the spanish \anetican. \\huld t not bc sen difficult to apply Englands code of poEtical. civil, and religious iiherty to Spaint Then it is cxen more diffieut to adapt in \ eoeatiela the laws of Notch \netea. o/ H a sa at these laws u t he appropriate es 00 i/n S ii gr tosider vhertfc 10 c rtsc anve o S st be i ht tfc lan satin hh not. o c a a ot the pmsicsi inpearanee .t the euuntnr to the elimate. to rh ouam ot the tee f the prcpIis That they reflect rain. to ts loc,ton to 5 oar, to t,w as t lift 0 the degree af lihcrc tn eorstitutior .an prnit. the eligioo of the inhabitants. merc cit hab ts, tie ssc t nsbc theii ics the 5 r te Fat Fisgt I a t i ra cc at c lation f om tie rs fo I he nezocia onsti t on. de pie hay ag tak i 1 most pettecr constttution with rcspcr to the correctness of its principles and the heoeficcnt effe, tc of its adnsinicrtatioo, differed cssenttalh from the American in toe cardinal point cctrainy the most important one ide Congress ofaknean as. c is r but sonse of the ; t dictions of th executive ci uk rhc An po et W, iorox n subdi dc at Stanch having g an ed it rt a ollccr a bodi. the cbs suitecting it to the inconver coec of tendcting the go crnnsen t 1 periodic. suspending it. and dissols ing n whenever rs members dishand. Ot triumvIrate lacics. so to speak, unity continuitya and ndividual rcsponsibtiitv: it s incapaf Ic of pt nspt action. cot tiuuous life, r al uniformity, in mediate OVtt n tp sc svf ctnsrtte motal ii do r oonibii ad 0 id. o sotit most b dccme rul ai Although the powers of the prcsdent t f the I mmd States are r wired b excesslac tcsttictiofls, he alone exercises all the governing functions that the con stiturion rants to him. and h!s administration must nccessanily he more uni ous th i the d ssioi ration of a posse taor, a d nffij utooo Oini. nO nno f les h arou ndi d h F secorpoit di iv aedas nsrr 0 \inezoclis admial power is ikc the Amencan, dehntte .n dutatton, tern potarn. and nor tot ite. it enjoys all toe ndependcnec that befits the judiciary. 10 itS fedetal constitution, the fitsr Coognecs looked mote to the spirit ot th han idea of forn gone idisisib and centrali cd he 5( p osin e
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epubl c. Here ou legislar rs iclded to th inspetuous insistence of those ptm nei Is educed by rh d ailing i ark e f ihc American peoples happiness, chinkin that the blessings they cn oy are due eajusiach to the form of govetn 1 nsent and nor to the ehatactet and habits of the citiaens. And. indeed, the exam ple of the United States, by its singular prosperir. wa too alluring nor to be nests Fe a ic howe Who ous art 0 1 a tion H CoIl and bsolutc enjoymer soa r dv c 1 I/he o ics st the lo c that i g fly, sf nde spired b, an nt Iligen go en r rt rh t imulta ad. md al r to general rights, that forms the supreme law of the iHt idual avr I from the oinrnon will? ICho can reshr the rule of a benevolent gus cnnoscor, which. with a kill/uI. aerim, and powerful band. directs always and c;ervwhene all its sour c5 oward oeial ci trio a Fe aol i d of hut san instit inn as B t ho c en attra tiv i sag nfl t federa i e sy ten might seem and ighr actually I in wa a t cone i able f r cneaocl ns to ci oy- it suddenly Just as ssc mcrged trans chains. Xe were not prepared or so much good: good. like eric leads to death when it is sudden anti cveecsise, Out moral constitution did os.t yet havc the strength necessan to reeeisc rhe benefit cf a completch reprcsen -Bc ge ernm n so sublime that i could elI be adap ed s a republic of saints, te pie P cc t,a a o ne lcdtoen Hi 0 uppcswhareac ou worthy of ci ag prsewcd. t ormed cems rejeete in our ocial con tract To ou belongs the correction of the work of our iirsr hegislarors: I meant s to you to coset cer a part of the heauri that our political code t to sas that it fal contains because nor all hearts arc created to lose verthing beautiful, non are pablc of be ring rise ac eta c 1 lgF r of perfecric r. the look of the ,osr c the mral ty ofJc s. the 1 ine work A r rovid nec ha sent to u to wprovc mensc sublin e so hol ---would be an all-consuming flame in Con stantinople, and all AsH would be ahlaae mf this hook of pe see wcne suddenly imposed on thens as a code of religion, laws and curons Permt use to call the nenrion of Congress to a subject that may be ofsital mpo n c. Ic us ke p na I Far oo copl i or Lu opea son horn! set rha nior a ott po e of iea and Auscric, than a a emanat n r of Europe. because csen pain itself i not quite European because of ins African blood. its institutions, and irs character. In i impossible to determine with com plete prccision to svhich human family we belong. The majority of the indige Otis ha been an nhilat d rim I pear a nsix d with rI finscnican mad c d tie Ifnmcar Ia m cd viA a Isdmas nd rhc Funop as All ho the no sb of ic sage troth r o in fa he s, dif icon in or gin aid in Hoed are foreigners. ann all of rhens differ visilih in their epidermis: rism 5 dmssimilarre carries an obligation ofaronenscnr of the giearesr signiheance, lhc citizens of Veoeauela all enjt;s a perfect political equality through the ssri ur a. it erprercr sarure Alrhougi such eqoalirv ra nor ha e hec i a ttncmkF a Fm nd n i cou I woudfavchadtoc n to it mmccc c dih toce A appar a y cxi rs My opin ion is, legislators, th,,mr the fundamnral principle of our as stem depends directly and exclusively on r,sp a esrablisised .,nd praflLrd is S ,COs I,, I sat all men nC horn with
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10

,zTh;i J?nizcai I cnmuela-Co!oo!lnz

.blchvzc

to

the ,4ootui (hnoo

11

equal rights to societvc noods is a notion sanctioned by the majority of learned people, as also is the n non that not all men are horn equally capable of obtain in esery soc al status for all should practice virtue and nat all practice it: all should be courac ous ard not all are all should possess talents and not all pos

s ss them F rn this dcris s the effectise difference observed among individuals of even h most lihcrj I establisl cd societS. if the principle of political equalits is generaLs rcmgized no less so is that of physical and moral inequalim Nature makes men sinequal in ability, temperament. strengths, and character. The laws ,t thu difference, because they place the iiadis idual in society so that educa 5 .orre IiOfl, the arts the scrvives, the s tm s might give him an artificially onsy e d qualits properls cal ed p utica 1 a ad sacial equalits The merging of 1 ci one a e in wh h di erstv i rease H s irtue of the propagation the p i s. is at er ncntly bene i ial a piration. By this single step, cruel lisharm n, has beet pull d up F tF c roots. Hay mans Jeal usies, rixalries, and hatreds ha been avoidedl Having dealt sshh our obligation to justice. to humanitu let us now fulfill our obligation to politics, to societs. smoothing over the difficulties that hinder a system se impie and atinral. hut o weak that the slightest misfortune disturbs it. destro s it The d aersits of origir require a uafir.itela teadv hand and an inhnitely de cam touch te guide this he erogeneaus socic a whose complex con an c is sI caned, is d v ded i I ssolvcd at the slightest disturbance. The a a n perfee sy t m of ga ci ment the one that produces the greatest possifie amount of hsppincss. the greacet amount of social security, and the greatest amount of political stahilits, By the lass that the lrst Congress decreed. we has e the tight to expect that happiness will be \enezuelas portion. and by sour lasss, we should flatter oursel, es that cecurits and stabjlimvw ill naake that happiness ternal. it falls to you t a resolve the problem. How after having brea ken all the saakles of Cu fbrmer pprssion can we do the marvelous work of preventing the remains of our ir ar chains from being transformed into arms that 11 he IT rt killcts The dies of Soar ish domination will remain a long time )efore w manage to destroy thee the eontagi n of desp turn permeates our atmosphere. and neither the fire of a at nor the medicine of our ss holesome laws has purified the Sit we breathe. Our hands are now free. and our hearts still stif fer from the sorrows of servitude, in losing his liberts, Homer said. man loses halt ht 5 spitit. I he go r nient Venezuel F is b en, is at d must he a repulalie its fotin danions us be the so i nny of F e people the divis on of power. en ii lib v. pr c ip ion f 1 c 5, ab I r of monar by and privilegcs. le reed qualir n order to c st as a svht c -so to speak- the ram of men political opinions. a-sri public practices. J hcn. extending our view 05cr rhe vast field that remains hat us to trw erse. let us las our attention on the dangers we must avoid. en history sets e us as guide 5 ioss n this path. Athens hrst gives us the most bril 5 exaib of so absifute dcusocj jc5. and it she same kmc nhens offers us ats the most isnehol ample of n xtreme w akness f thi type of go em aeon H w estbg at fG edo hi wp bId men ars and

he suffered the htinsiliation of recogri iiing the inadequacy or absolute democ tacv for ruling any type of society. exen the most cultured, restrained, and lim ed he ausc it onls shines with flashes of liberty. Let us recognize, then, that on has opened the eyes of th world and has taught it hosv difficult it is to s 1 m em men H lasvs alone The Republic of sparta. which seemed no h a chimerical insesmion. pro duced more actual results than Solons ingenious work Giorys virtue. naoralirv. and. therefore, it irional happiness were the result of Lucurguss legislation. Tthoueia mso kings in a state are two mnsrers no des our it. Sparta had little to egret fron ms double nhronew bile Athens promised the more splendid fire. w nh an absol ne sose e gney. free elcetion of magistrates frequently rencwed, i d wise, and polidc law Pci istratus, usurper and tsrant, was more useful r tlse as tha a in.s law and Pen Ic lthougF also a usurper was the most use ul citizen The Republic c F Thebs did not outlast the lit es of Pehapidas and Fpaminssndas, because sometime t is mum. not principles, that form goxern flseflts lhe codes, nh systems, the statutes. wise though thes may be. are dead sorks that influence societies little. Virtuous nest, patriotic men. enlightened ns n constitute republics lhe Romar most nunioia produ ed more powei and fonnune than that of anher people of nF i orld re. nh re a as no tact distribution of powers. con sub he Sen I he fxople sow legislators. now magistrates, m w dges h parrtci{ n d in .ill nh powers. lb secutis e composed of taco ensuis. uttered the same iiwu1ivnience as rh t of Sparta. Despite its defor 5 mits, rhe republic did not suffer the dbastraus discord that all foresight would supposed inseparable from a magistra 5 composed of two i ndis iduals. quail authorized with the powers of a monarch. A government whose ole erdency was onqu d d nor em ntcndcd no Isv the four dations for its a tions happine s A rio ssn aus and purely warlike governrr cot elesated Rome the h gi c5 plen do f tim and glory and n turned th world into a aman do y a o. to sF o men of how much p linieal virtue are capable and watt insignshcaut i iutltctio.n usually arc. And aasssng from ancient times no modern, see will find Fngiaud and France antractisag th attention of all nationc and gis tag them eloquent lessons of all

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types on the suhieetofgosettinent The resolution of these two great peoples, like a tadaot meteor, has flooded the storld with such a profusion of polifcai enlightenment that nosy a l tbtnking beings hae learned what the ttghts of man 1 ate and tsh I s jones. in a a the excel 1 c if govern a consists a I of h t diet e t at. L not s 0 t pteeia c tic ttinsic 1 0 1 peCi is -r oh die Jl _f i loan cv ute. c hi e )athe cSp a so I o also F ed thei into die c I tt hit d icy hate ade tacit ephemet I trials of lihe ha e ts engr ed their Inca iaeitv to lit e ot net the ass eet trile of laws, and hate tetutncd to bury theniseiee n their tinmhois ored ptisons and hontite. Hete is the place to a peat to von. 1 ec.iatot, what the eloquent \dlnev an to coo. m tin dedication of fs Rozo: i.tJia,ii is. To the naaeent peoples o 7 the Castdian It dc to the gen ous leadets v h guide them t liberty -ma the ors and f tt irs of r it wotid r the in o d happ a sew in v tI can he e I and ii h nacqoec F ceR a e edand ene in ue state t reatit difficult s e ctt it d t t with t e, ju t igi r ate. and. a all. useto \e; Lt to t iat the cx ice of a nient doe a t cflii lst in it theon. in tts fs,tm, not it 5 2 u mechantsm. hot tahet in its heing apntoptiate to the natitte and character of the nation lot which t hung establish d. Rome and Gteai Britain an die nations that have mot dstingoished themelves amone the ancients and moderns. Both were horn to got em and be 1 tee, ot hoth we constituted r t htihliant I mit af hhetts e ithet on e id foot? o hot, t ommn I u Rep a a the tud fBtids t na oeh add igbutl tetesig d i eto F eopie who I it utp a tiach I a wy far ftet p sing to servile i a n inhet s a of the B i I govetnnteot I at. teferting ti i .o its republican aspects, and ,toiti can sve ea I a scstent a poie rioareha a hen it recognizes pooolat soveteigow. th division and halance of possets. ethI libetta. ftecdom of conscience, of ptess. and all that sohlinte n pobtics? (an there lie niote liberty tn an t pe of repuhlic? And can we expert non, rons the oeiai otder? I teeoo mend this constitution to ou as the niot not of srtving a nodel to all o aspite to I e ijovment c Fe ghts of m t o all Pt ppiness t tihie i I I agile na Wev o tc rd oral if a ad tdal I a w ste r C F H a atoms L ni as dd at ottal cp tin isi ham her c Tome pi entat a d Fe Senate it is comp d err wiseh, t a di the ao otits apptop tc to it. and is no- in need of an eseutiai tefntm feeause the nnstitudon ha ghen
,

it the origin, the fotm, and the posvems that the sedl of the people tequires iii otdet to be legitimateir and competently represented. If. instead of being elected, the Senate svere beteditats, in nie opinion it would be the foundation, e ublie. In t al tenipcst b body woold fend off the hoe tIe soul of c thur de o ona tF o e tent d oula popo t ate Ded e t d to the en r, e 01 al n itv a -a enipte ns Cf aileag n tlcjotidi i ad heit n, authe s. We mit in e u t e en ate t r it of rhets ttne ntete-t and e tantls a tc tack rhem in a hands of the r ttust ees----the indieidual hght again-st the masses. and the ma-ses against th autisot -irs. Tnerefiate .itis neeesan tlat to al govetnments a neutral bod exist that hi r.ot tsclt ahs-a,s or thL side of die offended and dtsani the offanden Thts neuttal bodz, so that it be neonal. shond not owe its ongin to election by the gosetnra t not dv the ogle. o th i ought enjos complete tndep ndene e that n at n s anstf a fC on thes o e of aotF ta Phe t ei e a t c pe n rt ipa situ i h n fit eeig,arc di CS 0 nehoHpr onse at heit.-tn c dl In fton p P 1 t intemc not I tget t I enatots it dunes, 1 and th,, F d tn Londom a c been the rr solid plhars on .shieh the edltr ot politteal and eta ii liberty ha been based. Phese etsamsi ss 11 be elected the first iime by the Congress. Eheit su.,ccsoms ththe gosemntneisr .shich -f add educate them in a the her ate ae the special college design-ad to instruct those guamdtans. footme legislators of the fatherland They would ieitn atts, -cien e. and letters. ,siish the spitit Ftom the public iv dhood tI t ould know li eamect tot dence has des It gctheyvc d f diet ou u a
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vald It so tn of ac Vse latht F h cal cin f iohilits. b- aosc as a lana r oh eqoah i g to esta lican has aid. mo do o s .aold he to desmm, c eqoalimv and I betty at one s moke. Em is arr ffi,,e fot sshieh rh.e candidates most he prepared and it is an ofdce that deniands much knowledge and the means sufficient to acauire rhis instmoeton. eiervrhing should he left the ch.ance and loin of electionsdie people easil. deceived than mtatome pemtecrcd by art; and although it is true that these see to-s ssoold m merge tro bosom of th noes. it i a a true that s oold em e o the b o fan enl ten duao n Or he tFcm t th hI ato I nco ade a h nut alw-soocooy heepl in exic t litsel moentiwuctes ith m ohhtc the ii rrt tames I ts fi henefa r say mote- 1 a matter of p a itsmemest i matter Of S ezuelas gmarirn e. it is a nuattem a naronal honor to piesemse w,mh glory, for all rinse, a race of vtrtorus. pmodenm. and hr,tse osen +o. osemeonuing a ohsmacles. has-c founded the repub lit at tin n-st t the oust hemoe sacridees, ,knd if the peopie of \driezoela do nor applaud the elesattots ot heir heiuefscrots they are onaaommhs of hetng rree an.d ncernilhn
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Aac/ress to the Angouura Congress

15

A heredilarv senate. I repeat, v ill be the fundamental base of the legislative branch and Lonssquen 1 will be the base of the entire gov rnment. Further more, it Wi I iw as a eurtetw igFt o the o er ment and o the people, it sill he an n r wed ower t a oftens th hi tws that these eternal risals t row at o n,thei. 1 trugl s the calr of third pair omes to be the iiistrumei reconni i oni thus, e Senate o ene1Ucla wi be rh rcsrrain :tw bolt ifl this structure a delicate nd sc uwcptih1c to iolcnt influencen-___it nil! be the iris rhar will ealm the temoesr and maintain harmony among the laths and head ofth hods polite. No tirraIus will be abe to orrupt a Iegiiativc body endowed wit! the high st honor d endent r self ala e faring H true tF people expect n noth n, is he go -nn n a dy t a no th r bjectise than F inn e r principl I v and p pamti H en principle of good and that citally it sted in t e xisten t a societ v sose unfor urate or favorable oueomes t hares. It has been aid w th great raon that the upper houe of England i- valuable us the nation because it offers a bulwark of liberty: and I add. \eneauelac senate would not only be a bulwark of liberty but aiso a support car pcrpeturnin th republic. The Br h eXeCut power r hued th all the pert nent st ereign thor t u he is also ne rcled b niple inc of dikes, barriers, nd stockes He s tke eade ft s go err teflt b s tinisters a id subordinates depend laws r p a his th r tss bee s bet ha p rsonal espoesi htlitv. and n t esen the very commands o[ royal authorits exempt them front this responsbilitw He is the supreme commander of the army and th navy; be makes peace and declares svar: hut it is Parliament that annually decrees the amounts th se militars- forces must b paid. Although the rriounals and udges depend or h at, the law emanate ftc is the Parliament that enacts them \Vith t ic goal f c tralizing F power th p uson of th king is fly olabie and sacred: and while nsf ad mars free t ha ds v ith s hieh te must work are bound, 5 h o etc he En F as three for rndahle ri las his cabinet, wfieh must nswer to h people ar o Pulis n nt the uppe. house, tieh defends the :Isterests of tac people as representati -e of the nobility of which it is composed: and the House oI(ommons, which serves as organ and tribune for the British people. .foreocr. as iudgcc are responsible tor compliance with the laws. they do not depart from them and the administrators of the public treasurs. being rosecuted ot only f Fe r own r tions ho sen for those infractions that F wet t mel Os ni s, re ear ul itt o t ii approp iate public funds, H v es m F te e n th a u ft e uti e p0 e n England one eat find nc thi g that v old keep c n from cot luding that i is the most per fect model. Cc it lbr kingdom, he t for an aristocras, be t for a democracy. Let Li apply th- eXecutive rower ro \nezucla in rite person of a president. whether tamed ha the people or H its represeniadves. and we will base taken a meat step tCWdtt :t:ticnal happiness Whiche r citiicn I Is these nuns. Fe Ii find F iris If aided by the r titu it bar o tF gc d b 0 sat w a es F eau e
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schenes er he suhordtnates himself to the laws. his ministers will cooperate with f. on the contrars, he attempts to contravene the laws, his own ministers hint; 1 will leave him isolated in the midst of the republic and will even bring charges

j , 5 ain t him before the Senate, The ministers, as the ones responsible for trans g essions oirmitted. are the ones who govern, because then are the ones who par for rhos transgressions. Not the least ads antage of this system is the obliga utne passer to take the most 5 it places on the functionanes closest to the exe interested and actis e role in the gosernmest deliberations and to consider their particular deparrmc nrs as their own. It mat happen that the president s nor a man of great raicnrs nor great sirrues, yet despite the lack of these essential qual ic the president will carry out his dutie in a satisfactmt way, for in such ease m ni try operating on its o sn, ca ries the burden of start. exorbitant as rite authorty of Lnglands executixe power might seem per is not CXCCSsit e for the \ enezuelan republic Here Congress has rid the it s Fal Ends tad esen the heads fth magistrates This deliberarise body has assumed pan of the executis e function. against the principle of Niontecquieu. who cays that a representatixe body must nor make am acme resolutionst must make laws and 5cC whether those it tstakes are eairied on \orhtng is so contrary to F irons anong the h nehe of govenment as their conflation Nothing is so da ero s r garding the peop e as weakre s 10 the executise, and if in a king d a it is be r udg d nece sari to concede many power u he executive, repuhl these posse ire infinitely more indispensable i Let us focas our atrenton on this difference. and we ssii 1 lind that the balance of powers must be distributed in two ways, In republils the executne must be stronger because eseitrhing onspires against it. while in monarchies the legisla rise must be strongest, because eservthing conspiles in the monarchs favor, The erarlon peoples express for the royal magistrac is a fascination that has the ful cffcet of inewa in the superstitious reseet rendered to that authonim o I h splendor of ii e throne of fit town, of the purple the formidable support F sobilirs lends it; rite rtmensc richw mtire generations accumulate in one sin gu dtnasrs: the fraternal proiecrion all the ktngs receiss from each other. are sert caosdei able advantages fas-oring royal authorits and maktng it almost limitless. I hew same ads nrages are. eoitequenriss the ones that confirm the need to grant areater authorts to a republican magistrate than a eonsttutional prince possesses. A iepublean magist ate is an mdi idtial isolated within a soelets charged with containing the re adeney of the people toward license and the propensity of
dgcs an adir nistrators toward abu ing thc lass
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e islatise hc d to the Senat to the people; he s a man resisting the combined attack ot the opinions, of the interests, and of the passions of the ocial srate. a ho. a Cat not says, does nothing more than struggle continually ss ida the
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nd r lesire to avoid b 1 d c t fi all ar cM cc nul rode of other arhl ne ig can sctve to cotreer rh k ess r rid C I In nded F h ortve power more proporrtona r t res cance v a w siel F c gt I ,anrh, the jodiciarts and the peopL F C 0) IC v ill t essartly s r t one don nor pot at the excattie a a hat teao perain to him ,hessili inevitably jail tOtO is ott si s r ibuse that it t -he death of tin gosernn-enr sshosL heirs are anatci a pation. and a r,nns, I here s a dc-ire to restrain the aseeottsc with res:tCoons and hoin n.-notlsing could he more reasonabiebur ste should be caatur rhar the boflds intended to restrain are strone. Cettat,is. hot nor cousreic tsg. Let the entire svstetn or gosetnment. then become stteogrhened, and let oa!anee he 0 aahiished its such a sav that a wtii nor he iost and in such a way that its own tragilttr sill nor cattle its decline. For the ate reason that no other fistrn ofgosernment is so steak as denoeescr. its struetate nsost be of the greatest -oundness.attd ts institutsons n.,ust b.c es abated for srahilin If it is sot, ste eats count on having established an experinsent in go nnnsenr and not a permanent system: we can count n an nngosetnahie. torrsubrnoos. and anatchic odierv not on a scial establi-brncnr s here happiness. peaa. and iutiee hr v Orl
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u nor be p-resompr000s. I egusiators: let us be moderate in our aspitaIt is inmprohahle that we oiL attain is hat she human tace has nor a hieeed. o nat me erearcst and stisest nations have nor aehteeedonhm ted iberny. ahsolute democracy, are the reefs on which all repohhcan hopes ha e fondeted, Take a h oh ar ancient republics nstsdern republics, nascent repubm: a O5t all haee temp in to establish thensseIs a as absolute dctnocracies, r I dnsosu all have b cmi ftusnrined in their honot aide aspuratic ns, Mc s h v i for lcgitinsatt r molts md social perfection ate certainly laudab e b m F h t sid nscn t cadr possess all the ,stsdom, that thex e moe, p r F ol eli need to link power to ju mc I Oil cc r n g f r I and happi. exercising all s r t r eneLttela alt eady e rF e I v r a o let nscheekrhem n r essu i ha haformocg F r c c abt d d donotsum r to a ndosr i c rr . 5 tOO
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ha all a of go err t aent and administration acquire the degree Mv a as a in am balance rot only among the member makt ig or of vigor f ho il o m ng Fe dt fetent parts making up our soct q It met up the gosc tE r a airs mng o a p lineal sy stem loosens op because o a mit would riot insolve the social hod,s dissolortor h o s r ig t p did if s tts sscaknesses T r1 human race on battlefields or fields k rI nwmbcrs aid its Ii n mconsiderate and blind legislators o ho the i ga t to tomult unrealtsrtc Institotions. with n experiment in v,iidh could t n they hclicsed ntlser- hr aOs, paacing peoples sought oherri. haec sonse by arms. worlds hI the anarchy tit ro &-potrstn. frotn de-potisnt to anateherhec ate from alternately aspirations, constituting rhem wrth have eoaent moderate ishu been fat srv -sat auid tltcir Jtcnmstanccs. o:sformtheir mean-. theut -pint. that o a t. s3ie5 lest hr oorsclses abuse impossible. raisin aspitc the region the us not to let alstays to absolute than descends ofatanni. Fton liberty one tall tse of iihenn those is benseen too p0-set, and supreme social the mean exrtcnte to ahsoinre pernicious uniinsttcd theortes liheta. prodoce the brract idea of Let to !therrs: interest reason posser prescribe. La ssith s the hissirs that public atsd con-train to cou:srtait& the n.itional ssrL isuthius the limits that a rea-onahie poe.er indicates rot n Let cisil ad criminal Iegr.lation. analogous r,s sut current conOtution, rule inseeriousbe met odicial rsmver. and then there is pi he hal,unce, not a dash that in,snedes the -rares progress. and not the kind of eonspie:irx that hobbles n. 0 rather tints binds sod of a nationee spirit ts required to form a -able goeetnnsenr. a foundation The national spirit that has as its ab-eethe a consistent tendency rassard rico nian pounrs. usamein to moder nc the general ssili and to liunit pobLe authority. The il ee too points ate dititeulm ti define, hot one boundaries that heor u l o the r teem nsosr he reciprocal resrtietion and con insagtne than ol d n an nit mr degree possible. friction heneeen the general so as t c c aentranion m knowledge is acquired imperceptihls still and lcgtcimaa ub m ao through prm t r od F e s eslighrenunent is sshar broadens tI progress of p e e I c k is liar broadens the progres nlmahrcntr Misc ag trates, are the nobl pa i d Ia o o F nezoelans love c f r F ep t o thact xc t land hive been rc t aid w lo as i me dc ao 31 1 cc F t niagtstrare F cause ett b C for r teba 1 ssn,beao thyc e s tout dt 0 ft S go d o e f a C En c 0CC i m e ys --.trtsind idu or uan gr ip fltc V t,b v I eric g u ext act on r na nt ooF ii is t sg boos tutu a hole, rh makeup of Ic ro F s as F e tIs go, it vhole, and the nati S into a isbn units, The blood of our c a r s ty t g is iattotts F it on h s dis.dJ rite btancl a xi o t

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gt c.rnment. Lt us ton tat their to uni(yr them: our laws arc terrible relics of all anueitt and modem despousins. may this monstrous edifice be demolished. fall iovn. and esen it ruins brak apart. and let us raise a temple to justice: and under the auspices of justicic holy inspiration. let us issue a imczuelan code of laws. Ifwe wish to mnsult monumtnts and models of legislation. Great Britain, France. and North America oi&r admirable ones. Popular eduatLw nun be the firstborn conarn of the Congreth paternal lose. Moral!rr and enlighrcntnent arc a tepublic s polar points. morality and cnligha.nmert ate our first .cccsidn. let us take from .4tkns its Areopaguc. and thc guardians tmm its cuctms and laws: let us take horn Rome it. censors ard domcsth. tribunals: an r aking a holy ailian,.e of the moral institutions. isreestal.Iichirithc. ,idd ideaofapeopletFi d an ontentitself xingfrceand b csinsteadtob ii ou Ltu takt from saussre ran is rd ingotthce u j mgs fountainof usgi t u pub tue utlipo cr,vo ckm.rn Iallbethc 1 ic 1 anoea o icr U) rit gooa acu e arnrcpuolican n .t, fl oi tat c tr p a so tt vet ht.cduca onof .crnat na str an, o purificavha i icrpubli iasbeen ci r oa d denou cngj attul egmm.coldi ss rio o tF atherLind. iziss.andituen. ggtrc it passjudgmentor t prircipesofcornip in onpeniousecarol a or actinghabitswithii rip aites,justaslaws unish trimes with paw u pen_ltiesnor onl) what of d them. but also what mocks rhtm: not or.lv v hat attacks them. but also ybar weakens them: not only . hat sioLte the ,.oistiuitiop. but also what violates public respect. This truly hol tribunal iurisdiction must be absolute with respect to education and insuucton. .iiil adsv.wy rq,arding penalties and punishmtnts. But the annals or registers in which it ill record in acts and deliberations, the moral prindples and the actions of citizens. will be books of virtue and vice. These will be books that the people will onsult tur rheir Jections. magistrates for their resolutions. nd iudges for theft verdicts For all that it might be fianfui. an institution of 4 L kind :s intrnireh, muie sible than orb is that ume a int and modirn gislators baic tsrablish d i i ess urihty to the human c iskrroa.lr tb i a lanthatlreverenty ubir nyourwis Ou will obsn t 1 hasdictatedit pr p it toyou the d i of ciute at id passse. 1 han tr ccl t ncc uigc iationai o a i.h tY ndunnr 0 K U an wcdge. dmu a v-r at e s a rspn of oat i, s I or vt is no ittcult thin a cI, a ii thc ih )rableandbpp) Bsplaciigrasonablc nd r ntrestri cn r i pri i i and electoral ass nbhg, ct up the I eagainstpop a c ing the tumult o aid lid trend that a .imts has imprint r r ciet.tions and has as to eque ice tied that

t uric of gosernment, kr ft F imordial at is the oIa peoples I bern or of its slavery ct gcncratise g 4 thev ht of Congress to in the balane of p3v,ss b die number of .idding a 1 , ture the of the Senate. and I base tried to give a fRed foundation to legislators of the ration and imbue bud it with the regard so err important kr this irst

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I-Lc.ir 4 n 5t.n a tnt ia .t the. oznt.il ui.. i eapcus .gfi - rnn JI crs,4 4s gi inpur tail instiu&.n irti AtiaiiLn C.ni .s...
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the sUstS ut its suarugn functions. separating eseutise kim legislatise iunsd,a,on by vey well-defined limits. T base not tried to diside but rather to hind with bonds of harmony born of indtpcndtaethcse supreme powers whose prolon.d clash has alwas s Je.rriei one of the co coers. .ithougl I sect to conf..r upon the eauthc a greater number ufposs. han the ones it enjoyed e.rl 1 hase not wished to thercpublic.buttah op vntrhedespotism uthoriaadespottc xx r drdeliberatior b oi iganimmcdia- an ofa ideofdespouc. itudasinvlrik 1 y narchbisfol wi y ig I idbymoi 1 Inrequ yofudges rair ses,ar anesslegl 1 is. w r l.ae hemjs .g s 1w a ii tI anti ct c wi 1 e rt.hcua itth r c ucsted c orotcn imenta sfromw i di s Ifecb.atc I a I a iginintlit noiSpanisi 1, 1 likeume,i c vod or allagesand mailmen ssoko aswellasoftalent,c ileprducnonsacwell sirrisagant ones, no nt of genius a ill as m e in of capri.x. 1 his monster encs.lop.dia. with ten thousand heacs. which until now has iadicial been the scourge of the 3panish peoples. is the most rehnea torture that heavens anger has permitted to ran down on this untirtunat empi e. Rctlecting on how effectisely to legend ate the charasi and practices that war and tyranny haic given us. I base rclt msself so bold is to invent a moral Innch of government, drawn from rhe obscure depths ,1 antiquity and from those forgotten laws that once sustained virrue amotig breeks and Romans. It might well be regarded as a naive delirium, but it is not :i,osiblc. and I flatter mcself that you will nor ..orn entirely , thouaht that. by experience and enlightenment nnfr x ise say et&ctne. Horrified by th d a nt that has reigne d u rtign among us ause of the sub 1 haracterizes th I r hat &o nment. 1 hase tentrali a compelle uiiitinofallth , 3IVenez 1 o uig.t g rcPsisibl cpb . i i rcIeemr ucbr c t th op tefrt act. ) r 1 duty , oust d c ft upictuxe )liucal,I r nisriarior t ci I r v vould bet d .isryourim omuhandd t uo ix e,asprecious it is urgent. Con I e secretaries of st 1g o Congress an c.ount ot theirs at ou ci ;mnic pros iding at the 51 1 imc the documents wd .archr.rc.s that i ill bt .ll:strjdon gist an oat mderranaing .it the republLs
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I would nor speak to you of the most r1ota1c acts ot ms command if these were not of concern to the maon of\neiuclans, it is a matter, gentlemen, of the mo t im aertant resolutions f th nost re nt perio I troucus and a a s slas w e ed e ard of 5 venezuela with its black r anti and r sks a a t rrna e ouds that threatu ed a flood of tire. tmplued h prow i of thc G u of ito 11 nlrr, and then redemption dis persed the storms. Slaver- broke r shackles, and \nezucla has scen itself with ness ons. grateful suns who base cons erted she instruments of their captivity into sveapos of liberty. Ccrtainle. those ss ho before ss crC iaves are now free: thow who lefure S5crc enem:e Of stepmother are defenders of a fatherland. To commer o sot: the u t Ce. neces t and cha f this m asure is superfluous nn ye r a ti st ra of he Ic t ar acu and f ILiti, ashen so i kn a th t or e a ro be I e rd asl e a he sawc t me without at the arne tine i laring na ral, pout nd us r I lease he reform or resoca don of aP rr.s Ststutcs and decree to your sovecgn decision: but I plead for the confirmation of the ahoiutc liberty of the 1 a.es as I would plead for mx life and the life of he reptrhltu. 10 prc-Js: you svita the m1iwr, history o Venezuela sould be to remind you of tF h story of r bhcan F a in amor g he ancicr t t would b to tell you that Re c uel F a r tered at a gr d se r e of sacriflew made on the It r c lb t \otb it o er F r a sublur e honor offered to the bencfac o of F F uman r uld fill h ble h ts ci our a a r us ward r \ot fighting for posser nor for fir tune. nor even for glory, btit onle for liherta. the title of Liberators it the Republic is their well-deserved tess ad. I, then. found ing a sacred sOciLtV wish these illustrious young men, have instituted the Order nfl iherators of Vene7uela. Legislators! ida too belongs the power to granr hon. ars and d stations: y us is the duty of exer sing this august act of national grad to 4r v Fe Fete t t I th r i t e nd a ent hay d e t d themse ye of II enjo m r s, of al the aods ha tF es pr ou L posses ed men v o have 1 experienced host eros I torfible s is. srifferi g he most p inIFti depr vations f the s-arhcrl and hase come to deserse and the hcrshest tinner-n: men no thy 0 the got crnmentd attention. hc. a consequence. i have ordered them compensated with the nations rcs nues. if on the part of the people i hate acquired ant type 5 of merit, I beg its repres ntarives to hear my supplications a the reward for my unssorth ices. I fi arres d the d ibu ion 1 n t nal re enues in cc ard it lay th ha c d crc d i tb a e A the rep hue fbt the be e uLtra I
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Inasmuch as through numerous triumphs ste have managed to overcome the Spanish armie the court of Madrid, desperate. has tried in vain to take by prse the e ns iences of the generous sovereigns who just extirpated usurpation
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an in Europe and who should be the protectors of the legitimaca and j se cc of the American cause. Incapable of attaining our submission with their ms Spain verts to her insidious polics, unable to conquer us, she has resorted to suspicious cunning. Fernando has humiliated himself to the point of confess ing that he has need of foreign protection to return us to hi ignominious yoke, 5 incapable of imposing on us! \Fncrzuela. assured that to a nke that all power i s possesses forces sufficient to repel her oppressors. has pronounced through tIc ilstturtent of government her firme t resolution to fight to the finish, to dc d hr politi al life no only against Spain, bu against all men if all men degr ded that they embraced the defense of an allc.onsuming govern v re whose only moving parts are an exterminating s vord and the flames of the e Inquisitiona government that no longer svants dominion, but deserts: not cit ies. but ruins: not vassal, but tombs. The declaration of the Republic ofsbnezu cia is the most glorious, most herorc, most worthy act of a free people: it is the act that. already sanctioned by the unanimous sxpression of the people of\dneiueia, a ad asith rhc greatest satisfi c ion. 1 ha tlae hono of offering o Congress. Since the se end era of the republic our army has lacked military resources. It a. alway been as thout arms It has always Ia Led ammunition. It has alway b e poorl eq pped. N as the dde ading soldier of independe ace arc not only armed ss ith ustice. but also with torce. Our troops can compare thenaselaes fasorably with the must select of Europe. inasmuch as there is no lolager inequal its in tlac means of destruction. \Xe owe these great ads antages to the limitless liberality of a few generous foreigraers who laas e seen humanity naoan and the se of reason perisla, and who base not siewed it a quiet spectators, but hate q with th r protecti e as istanc. and has-c I nt o lae republic svhatever it to it aLe s phlantbropic princ pIes tr umph. These friends of humanity e e Lnaenie gua diara sp rits and to them we owe at eternal debt of gratitud .tiso owe them a r ligious fulfill runt of the sacred obl gations that we a d h -e incurred nina nltena. The national debt- Legislators, is the repository of the faith, rlae laonot. and the gratitude of Venezuela. Respect it like the Holy Ark that contains non so naueh the rights of our benefactors, as the giors of our faith fulness, Let u sooner die than break a pledge that ased the fatherland and the of our F ldnen. u aiflcario a of N Granada and Venezuela nto a great state has beer F iforra avis of t a p oples and go e nmerts of these upublics. I he for r of war sas verified th uniora so earned for by all (.olornhians: we are in fact, united. These fraterrai peoples have already entrusted to you their interests. and
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