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TABLE OF CONTENT

NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SUMMARY OBJECTIVE THEORY EQUIPMENTS PROCEDURES DATA AND OBSERVATIONS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES

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SUMMARY: Mini Flow Channel experiment was conducted to observe the phenomena of flow patterns around the bodies of airfoillike of different shapes. Besides that, this experiment was conducted to indicate the point of stagnation, areas of separation and eddy generation of the different models. It is conducted in order to study the phenomenon and pattern of the fluid flow over and around the submerged objects with different shapes. The shapes used in the experiment were triangular, cylindrical, aerofoil and rectangular shapes. The visualization of flow pattern is by introducing ink for visual observations of water flow along bodies and reveals special features of flow as stagnation points and separation points. Moreover, the study of influence of airfoil geometry on flow pattern is made possible by different wing shapes. The equipments used for this experiment are mini flow channel, hydraulics bench, waterand water dye. The mini flow channel consist of a transparent working section of large depth to width ratio having been varied by using of undershot and overshot gates at upstream and downstream ends, respectively. Water is fed up to the streamlined channel entry from a stilling tank to reduce the turbulent intensity. Water discharging from the channel is collected in the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench and is returned to the stilling tank for recirculation. A dye injection system is located at the vertical inlet section of the channel allowing flow visualisation in the conjunction with white background on the rear face of the channel. The streamlines defining the direction of flow in the water are rendered visible by the injection of dye at the upstream section of the channel. Different shapes are used and the pictures of the stagnation point and separation point of each shape is taken.The velocity of the flow in the channel was adjusted by turning the valve which is situated below the Hydraulics Bench. The pattern of the flow of the ink was determined by the velocity of the flow. The flow of the ink will exhibit different patterns according to the various velocities. For example, turbulent flow (dye will flow in irregular path) will occur after flowing through the submerged objects when the velocity of flow is high. Different shapes of submerged objects used will result in different flow patterns. The location of the stagnation point is also different for different shapes of object.

OBJECTIVE: i. To observe the flow around bodies of two-dimensional flow patterns over and around submerged objects of different shapes. ii. To indicate the point of stagnation, areas of separation and eddy generation of the different models.

THEORY: The study of flow around bodies of airfoil-like and other form is of great practical importance, as they are used as airplane wings and also form the basis of the design of blades for propellers, fans, pumps, steam and water-turbines. For mini flow channel experiment, only two dimensional flow patterns are considered. Streamlines in flow are defines as lines, at any instant, are tangent to the velocity vectors; there can be no flow across streamline at any point. Once streamline pattern is at hand, it is no longer necessary to include the individual velocity vector of fluid particles. The maximum pressure intensity is reached at the nose of the body, where the velocity is zero. This point is called a point of stagnation. The separation of the flow from the surface of bodies is the direct consequence of the development of the boundary layer. In laboratory experiments this layer may be very thin and its presence cannot often be detected visually; the cylinder shown in Figure 1 has a diameter of 50mm and boundary layer, which starts to develop at the stagnation point in front of the cylinder, is still less 1mm thick just ahead of the separation point.

FIGURE 1

It is possible to apply potential flow theory to the airfoil, leading to the prediction of flow pattern of the kind illustrated in Figure 2a. It is apparent that this flow pattern has peculiar features: there is a stagnation point on the upper surface of the airfoil just forward of trailing edge and flow from the underside of the airfoil to the upper surface takes place around the trailing edge. When the airfoil first begins to move, the flow pattern does in fact correspond to a potential flow. The establishment of the flow is accompanied by the development of boundary layers and friction forces build up, the flow pattern changes. The result is that, at the trailing edge, two streams of fluid that are travelling at different velocities meet. The effect is to set up a plane of intense shearing, a vortex sheet extended behind the airfoil. The shear forces set up in 2

this plane act to equalize the velocities of the two converging streams. This process takes place very quickly and is accompanied by formation of a starting vortex resulting from the curling up of the vortex sheet (Figure 2b). At a later stage the starting vortex is carried away downstream (Figure 2c), leaving behind it the vortex sheet is sketched in (Figure 2d). The effect of the interaction between two streams is to accelerate the flow of the fluid in the upper layer and to reduce the velocity in the lower layer. In accordance with Bernoulli equation, the corresponding static pressure on the upper surface is diminished and pressure on the lower surface is increased. At the same time the proportion of the fluid stream flowing above the airfoil increases, where flowing beneath decreases and the position of the forward stagnation point is displaced downward.The lift force FL only develops when the flow pattern of Figure 2dhas been established and is the consequence of the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil; this is resultant of the friction force.

FIGURE 2

FIGURE 3: These photos show the streamlines over a typical airfoil in tow tests at different angles of attack.

FIGURE 4: Flow around a cylinder.

EQUIPMENTS: Mini flow channel, hydraulics bench, water, dye, dye injection needles, dye reservoir; 1 set of models: small and large cylinders, narrow crested and board crested weirs, crump weir, symmetrical and asymmetrical aerofoils.

PROCEDURE: 1. The water dye in dye injection system is kept on top of the tank reservoir. 2. An aerofoil is placed in the middle of the flow channel to study the flow pattern of the water at a determined angle of attack. 3. The flow velocity is adjusted accordingly by volumetric method and also the flow of the dye. The height of the stream lines are also adjusted to ensure full visibility. 4. The positions of undershot and overshot gates are examined because they determine the level of fluid in the channel and the flow velocity. 5. The nut is situated at the center and slip in any way of the four shapes object into the tank where it was initially unscrewed and after that was screwed back. 6. The knob that is below the hydraulic bench was turned to get a desire flow. After that, higher velocity was obtained by turning the knob. 7. The flow pattern was obtained and was taken a picture. 8. The tap was closed and waited for a while to empty the tank. 9. The shaped object was taken out and exchanged with other shape object. 10. Then the features of the flow pattern was analysed. 11. The experiment is then repeated with different shapes of objects.

DATA AND OBSERVATIONS:

The airfoil shape block

The round shape block

The triangle block

The vertical rectangular block

The rectangular block

DISCUSSION: This experiment was conducted to indicate the point of stagnation, areas of separation and eddy generation of the different modelsand also to observe the phenomena of flow patterns around the bodies of airfoil- like of different shapes. A clear vision on how different shaped objects immersed in a fluid influence the flow of that fluid when passing through it is observed while conducting the experiment. Only two dimensional flow pattern concepts are considered in the experiment. Fluid goes through various stages when it flows through different shaped objects. When the maximum pressure intensity is reached at the nose of the body, the velocity of the flow will be zero and this exact point is called as the stagnation point. When the fluid stream flows around a body, it tends to adhere to the surface for a portion of the length of the body. At a certain point, the thin boundary layer separates from the surface and turbulent wake is formed. When the experiment was conducted, notice that the stagnation point always takes place at the front of the body where the direction of flow is, while the turbulent wake formed is at the back of the body where the pressure is much lower than stagnation point The sketches of the flow pattern of five different shaped objects were shown and labelled in the data and observations part. The points of stagnation as well as the areas of separation are also indicated. The first model used in the experiment was aerofoil object. The front of the object was oval-shaped, like cylindrical object. When the velocity of water) was low, no turbulent wake was formed. But when the velocity increased, a turbulent wake was formed behind the object. Thus, the wake was separated into two areas which were at the top and bottom of the object after the streamlines have passed through the stagnation point.The second object which was used in the experiment was in cylindrical shape. For this, we observed that the fluid tends to adhere to the surface for the portion of length of the body. Since the cylindrical objet has a circular shape, the streamlines adhered at stagnation point were separated at two areas of separation, which was the top of the object and the bottom of the object. The next model that we used was the triangular-shaped object. When the streamlines passed through the triangular-shaped object, we were able to see that the fluids tend to adhere to the surface for the portion of length of the body. The following model used in the experiment was a cubic object. It was fixed to the channel. For this object, it was observed that when the fluid flow has a low velocity, the streamlines were close to one another. The area of separation for this was at the top of the model. The last model used in the experiment was twodifferent types of rectangular-shaped object. It was observed that when the fluid flowed with low velocity, the streamlines were close to one another. When the velocity was increased, no turbulent wake was formed and the streamlines have large gaps 7

between one another. There were very minor errors while conducting the experiment;but these errors have a very slight influence on the results of the experiment. In future, these errors should be avoided in order to obtain very accurate results.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we are able to achieve the objective of this experiment which is to observe the flow around bodies of two-dimensional flow patterns over and around submerged objects of different shapes and to indicate the point of stagnation, areas of separation and eddy generation of the different models. The phenomena of flow patterns around the bodies of airfoil-like of different shapes are observed. It can also be observed that most of the stagnation points are being formed at the nose of models and the velocity of the flow determines the formation of the streamlines of the flow. A clear picture on how different models such as triangular, cylindrical, aerofoil and rectangular are giving effects to the flow pattern of a fluid was clearly understood by conducting the experiment. Minor errors occurred while conducting the experiment and it does not affect the results in any ways.These errors should be avoided in future experiment in order to obtain a real accurate result.

REFERENCES: 1) Lab Manual for Hydrology & Hydraulic Engineering I Laboratory, 4th edition by Miss Zetyizwana Zalaluddin. 2) Hydrology & Hydraulic Engineering I Notes by Prof.Dr.Ir.LariyahMohd.Sidek 3) Applied Fluid Mechanics by Robert L.Mott