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"Big List of Red Fronts." Times-Herald: Washington's Independent Newspaper 8 Dec. 1947: n. pag. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Web.

A primary source published in 1947, this article reported that the Attorney General, Tom Clark, had released a new list of subversive organizations. It is biased in support of him and the reporter wrote that Clark "deserves some applause." It describes that the list served as a guide for all loyal Americans. Reading this article gave us the insight that the list was information for the public. A precursor to a blacklist, it restricted the opportunities of many, regardless if they actually were a threat, or had had a minor association in the past. The article gave us raw evidence of Americans turning their heads, and perhaps rightfully so, at all those who were involved in organizations that posed some possible threat. As well as narrow context about the roots of McCarthyism, this passage also helped us further understand our topic's relationship to the theme: The FBI was involved in the investigation of these organizations, and this responsibility fit into the FBI's general role of investigation and was also appointed by the government.

Churchill, Ward, and Jim Vander Wall. The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI's Secret Wars Against Domestic Dissent. Boston, MA: South End, 1990. Print.

The COINTELPRO initiative was a vital part to the FBI's anti- subversive actions. The records of it are published in this book, with insightful commentary from the authors, who have both written books on this subject before. The commentary is biased because it portrays the FBI as essentially evil, and makes it's actions seem unnecessary, like the FBI did not have the responsibility to go that far. Even so, the images of the COINTELPRO records have provided us with strong primary sources that give information on the FBI's secret activities.

"Death for A-Spies: Rosenbergs Get Top Penalty in Atom Trial." Universal-International News. N.d. Public Domain Archival Stock Footage. Easy Street Productions, LLC. Web.

While researching, we often saw the case of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg mentioned, but did not look much into it. We concluded that it was necessary to gain this narrow context about how there was real threat of Soviet spies and how it contributed to the fear. This public newsreel aired in 1951 as the Rosenberg case ended and appears to have no bias. However, one could argue that is against the Rosenbergs, as they claimed innocence. We learned that the Rosenbergs leaked secrets to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. After viewing this, we have a better understanding of this case and will understand references to it and how it validated fear.

"Domino Theory Principle, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954." Domino Theory Principle, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~hst306/documents/domino.html>.

Eisenhower's Domino Theory was an important part of how American's approached Communism during the Second Red Scare. This primary source is the text of Eisenhower explaining this theory to reporters. We found it on Michigan State University's online archives, and we have been able to locate the same text in other places as well, which leads us to believe it is legitimate. Additionally, this text provided us with narrow context, on how McCarthyism fit into Communism in America.

Evans, M. Stanton. "The Truth About Joseph McCarthy & "McCarthyism"" Interview by Howard Philips. Youtube. Conservative Caucus, 19 Nov. 2012. Web. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QV4qiFNmtn8>.

Evans was a college student during the McCarthy era. He now owns the FBI files from the McCarthy Trials. He is a conservative, and the interview is published by a conservative organization.Through over a decade of collecting evidence, Evans claims he has proved that Senator Joe McCarthy was right about Soviet Agents in the U.S. government Evans justifies Senator McCarthy's hardcore anticommunism and actions. He denies that rights of innocent civilians were restricted, because fact they were soviet agents. He believed the threat of communism was real and that it was America's and the FBI's responsibility to combat it. This source is clearly biased which is important to give us a deeper understanding of why the government and FBI felt so responsible to rid the nation of Soviet and communist threat.

"Home." Our Documents -. U.S. Department of State's Information USA Website, n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.

The transcripts and actual images of Joseph's McCarthy's censure after the WelchMcCarthy hearings provide us with formal evidence of why McCarthy was censured for his acts while in court. McCarthy was condemned of acting contrary to senatorial tradition and ethics. In these documents, detailed descriptions of his wrongdoings are provided with quotations of his words during the court session which led him to being censured. We know that this source is credible because it is a primary source of records from the U.S. Department of State that displays and provides transcripts of the original legal document used in 1954.

Hoover, John Edgar. Interview by George Smathers. Florida Memory. Florida Department of State, ca. 1960. Web. <http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/232413>.

This public filmed interview by a Florida senator was found in the Florida Department of State online archive. It took place just several years after the plight of the McCarthy era. John Edgar Hoover was the director of the FBI, which had a major role in investigating suspected Communist subversion during the Second Red Scare. The interview displays his paranoia towards a forceful Communist takeover. It shows that even though the scare was over, individuals still felt threatened. The interview gave us one primary example of the fear and hatred of communism that lingered on after McCarthyism. It showed that the Red Scare survived for more than the span of about six years in which McCarthy had the United States in the palm of his hand. Hoover, John Edgar. "Testimony Before the House Committee on Un-American Activities." Washington, D.C. 26 Mar. 1947. Speech.

The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was a subcommittee of the United States House of Representatives. It was established in 1938 to investigate suspected disloyalty and subversiveness. This primary source gave us vital information regarding rights and responsibilities. J. Edgar Hoover led the FBI during the Second Red Scare. To HUAC, he listed the responsibilities the FBI had to protect the United States from Communism, which solely included investigation. He also explained why actions needed to be taken and why it was the FBI and the government's responsibility.

Matthews, J.B. "Reds and Our Churches." The American Mercury (1953): 3-14. UNZ.org. Web. 21 Sept. 2013. <http://www.unz.org/Pub/AmMercury-1953jul-00003>.

J.B. Matthews was McCarthy's research director, so it came as no surprise when we read this article and found out it was incredibly biased. It portrayed anti- communists as heroes and communists, specifically clergymen, as enemies. It was interesting to read an article from the McCarthyism era, to give me an idea of what influenced the people of that time. Even though this article was mainly attacking clergymen, it did have some quotes from FBI director J Edgar Hoover, which helped to show how involved he was during the whole era.

The McCarthy Years. Prod. Edward R. Murrow and Fred W. Friendly. By Russ Bensley. Dir. Sam Roberts. CBS, Inc., 1991. DVD.

As a collection of primary sources with some commentary by a CBS News anchor, this documentary allowed for us to make our own conclusions about the material. It provided first hand videos of speeches that showed us how McCarthy infringed on people's rights. It also gave personal stories of people who's lives were affected by him. Although it did not talk about the FBI, Morrow's commentary gave simple broad context of how McCarthyism fit into Communism. Upon researching Edward R. Morrow we discovered that he is a "great" of broadcast journalism, and he set the standard for many others. This documentary, in addition, won an Emmy which confirmed for us that it is a strong and reliable source.

"McCarthy-Welch Exchange During the Army-McCarthy Hearings - Online Speech Bank." McCarthy-Welch Exchange During the Army-McCarthy Hearings - Online Speech Bank. American Rhetoric, 2001. Web. 11 Sept. 2013.

We found this source off of the American Rhetoric website that had a page with links to the top one hundred speeches in America. The website's creator is a graduate of the University of Texas and has his PhD in speech and communication. The McCarthyWelch Exchange was ranked on the site as the ninety-ninth best political speech in America in the 20th century. The speech is famous for exposing the recklessness of McCarthy in his pursuit to rid the U.S. of communism during the Cold War Era. This primary source included a video of the actual supreme court hearing with a transcript. For us, this source is great evidence to support the actions of McCarthy including his abuse of responsibility as an FBI leader when accusing people like Mr. Welch with almost no or illegally obtained evidence.

N.d. Photograph. The National Archives. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 6 Oct. 2013.

Taken from a Times-Herald Washington's Independent Newspaper clipping published on December 8, 1947, this primary source provided hands on knowledge about the names of "red" organizations and schools around the time of the Second Red Scare released by Attorney General Tom C. Clark. This clipping provides us with specific details that include the names of certain organizations possibly associated with communism that will allow us to do further research on our topic. The rights of many of these organizations were infringed upon, and we can use these specific cases to support our thesis about the Second Red Scare and McCarthyism. We know that this source is credible since it is an a national archive and official record of the House of Representatives.

"Speech Explaining the Communist Threat | Teaching American History." Teaching American History. Ashland University, n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.

In our search to see both perspectives of the ethics in the FBI's actions after the Second Red Scare, we found the transcripts of Senator McCarthy's speech on the Teaching American History website sponsored by Ashland University. On the topic of Communist Threat in America, McCarthy spoke on June 2, 1950 about his of opinion toward communists and expressed his concern of America falling to communism. We found that McCarthy's concern actually matched up to many Americans' concern of the spread of communism where China would fall, then the Pacific (Asia), and finally America. Seeing McCarthy's reasoning for his radical action in a public speech, we know that his words may not be necessarily accurate of his true opinion or motives since he wanted to be voted into office at the time of his speech. However, this source is a reliable, primary source that gave us further perspective on our topic.

"The Truth About J. Edgar Hoover." TIME 22 Dec. 1975: n. pag. TIME.com. TIME Inc. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.

As J. Edgar Hoover's career and life came to an end, it became apparent to the American Public that his motives were twisted and that he was power hungry and selfish. TIME magazine published this article following his death, and suggested that could have " cared less about crime than about perpetuating his crime-busting image." Learning about Hoover's secretive actions showed us that he was less concerned with protecting civil rights than power. The parts of the article that focused on the 1940s and 1950s gave us narrow context about how Hoover and the FBI restricted rights of Americans, such as wiretapping. The article most definitely shows bias against Hoover because it focuses on wrongdoings and scandal and the title implies what is said is true; it offers no counter arguments. It is a secondary source that does include quotes from men who knew Hoover. United States. Executive Order 9835. By Harry S. Truman. N.p.: n.p., 1947. The American Presidency Project. Web. 05 Oct. 2013. <http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=75524>.

The loyalty review programs formed by this executive order were vital to the FBI's development during the McCarthy Era. Through these programs, government agencies had to submit the names of suspicious people to the FBI to be investigated. In many of our sources, this executive order is talked about, so we were happy to be able to read the full text. The American Presidency Project, where the text came from, is a reliable database with many other documents published by American presidents. The order was biased heavily against Communists, as could be expected. Even so, it gave us primary information on the Loyalty Review Boards run by the FBI.

United States. Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950. By Sam Rayburn and Alben W. Barkley. N.p.: U.S. Statutes at Large, 81st Cong., II Sess., n.d. ROHAN. San Diego State

University. Web. 5 Oct. 2013. <http://wwwrohan.sdsu.edu/dept/polsciwb/brianl/docs/1950InternalSecurityAct.pdf>.

The McCarran Internal Security Act was one of the most important pieces of legislation from the McCarthy era. This document gave us the information that many of our other sources had been alluding or referring to. Being a primary source, this document was bias- free, and gave us the ability to form our own argument about it. We accessed this source through a college database, which is very reliable. This document will be a key part of our argument, as it shows in text how the government felt responsible for dealing with "subversives".

United States. Veto of the Internal Security Bill. By Harry S. Truman. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Truman Library - Public Papers of the Presidents: Harry S. Truman. 22 Sept. 1950. Web. 05 Oct. 2013. <http://trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/viewpapers.php?pid=883>.

In response to the proposed Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, Harry Truman wrote a veto to congress. The text of the veto is significant to history because it shows the other side of the argument, of how the act would hurt the American population rather than help it. Additionally it provides insights the text of the act did not. The Truman Library and Museum, where we found the text is a reliable database that includes many documents pertinent to Truman's presidency.

"VENONA Documents - April 1945." Venona Documents. National Security Agency, 15 Jan. 2009. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/declass/venona/apr_1945.shtml>.

The Venona Telegrams that were decoded by the American government were key pieces of evidence that led to the arrest of many. They were kept classified until recently, and now they can be seen on the NSA's website, which leads us to believe they are legitimate. The telegrams do not provide much context surrounding our subject, but as a primary source they are biased commentary free and they show us cause behind much of the FBI's feeling of responsibility. The NSA website in general has impressed us, and its vault of primary documents has proved to be a jackpot.

"Video: The File and McCarthyism: A Personal Odyssey | Watch The Open Mind Online | PBS Video." PBS Video. The Open Mind, 03 Aug. 1984. Web. 29 Sept. 2013.

We were very excited to find this source of an interview of a personally affected by an investigation done on him, as a communist living in America during the McCarthy

period. This video gave us real-life situation evidence of McCarthyism. The interviewee, Penn Kimball, lived in America as a non-conformist; a democrat and supporter of Roosevelt's New Deal. Although the breadth of this video concerns itself mostly around Kimball's publishing of his book The File, the video provided us with words of a person who actually lived through the area. However, we did note that there is a large bias in this video, since the interviewee spoke against McCarthy and America's unfair security system, driven by his passion for the subject that personally affected him. We found this video on the PBS website, a credible and strong site about public broadcasting. This source is a primary source of a person who lived through the McCarthy era, speaking on account of his own stories and experiences.

"Wisconsin Historical Images." Wisconsin Historical Society. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2013. <http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/whi/feature/mccarthy/timeline.asp>.

McCarthy's life starting from birth to death and major events in his lifetime are all documented in this one source, date by date. The Wisconsin Historical Society published McCarthy's Career timeline in a concise yet detailed online manner. From this secondary source, we were able to see where events like the McCarthy-Army hearing fit into the bigger picture of McCarthy's life as well as gather context about McCarthy's early life. Using this source, we were further able to chronologically discover how McCarthy allowed the FBI to infringe upon common rights of Americans. We know that the website is credible since it is a state government-run website created to provide a database for research.


"The Atom Spy Case." FBI. FBI, 21 May 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. <http://www.fbi.gov/aboutus/history/famous-cases/the-atom-spy-case>.

Much of the cause of McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare stems from trials and events such as the Rosenberg trial. This web page published by the FBI gave us thorough information which gave us insight into how the government came about feeling the responsibility to act in response to suspected Communists. It was from cases like these that made the public and the government very wary of Soviet threats. Since the webpage was published from the FBI we trust that the information is correct. We also have noticed a bit of bias, since it shows none of the opposing argument that may have made the Rosenbergs seem innocent.

"A Brief History of the FBI." The FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation. U.S. Government, n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2013. <http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/brief-history:>.

The FBI provides a chronological history of its development and important events, with a large portion on the anti-communist affairs of the mid-twentieth century. It is extremely biased public source and hardly recognizes that it is at fault in any way. However, it is important to include this point of view in our research and learn why the FBI found it so important and beneficial to America to carry out their actions during the McCarthyist era. This source was helpful to understand why the Federal Bureau of Investigation felt responsible to investigate suspected communists. Even regarding the execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, which most people disdain, the FBI almost justifies. This source made us even more aware of the importance to continue researching sources from varied points of view in order to have a better understanding of our topic.

"The Chinese Revolution of 1949." Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <http://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/ChineseRev>.

This unbiased article on the Chinese Revolution helped provide us with very credible, in depth, and accurate information. We were interested in the Chinese Revolution because we wanted to see how it fed into the American fears of Communism, and this article helped to explain how the expansion of Communism frightened Americans. Since the article was published by the U.S. Department of State we know that it is reliable, and we were pleasantly surprised to find how unbiased it is. Perhaps best of all, is that the website gives recommended links to events around that time period, so it will help lead us to other valuable information.

"The Cold War." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Cold-War.aspx>.

This informative article is posted by the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. It is an established organization that students and scholars often refer to because of their rich source of mid nineteenth century America. Since it is published by an American organization, the facts about the Cold War may be slightly biased, however, it does not appear to be overpowering. The article was over two pages of secondary source text. Reading about the Cold War gave us broad context about the Second Red Scare. It informed us of the causes of the cold war and of the intense tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States, both which contributed to McCarthyism. DeLauder, Jesse. "The Seattle Seven: The Smith Act Trials in Seattle (19521958)." Communism in Washington State: Toward a History of Washington State Communism. Pacific Northwest Labor and Civil Rights History, Apr. 2008. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.

Sponsored by the University of Washington, the Pacific Northwest Labor and Civil Rights History website led us to a page of anticommunist trials during the McCarthy era in Washington State. One trial, called the Seattle Seven, gave us specific evidence of the FBI's questionable accusations against seven members of the Washington Press Union who were acclaimed "communist." In these trials, the FBI used the Smith Act to justify their accusations of the citizens, who had advocated an overthrow of the American government, but had not yet taken action. However, the FBI felt that under the Smith Act, they were responsible for making sure that any subversive activities were monitored and controlled. Under this foundation, the FBI's attempt resulted in protest and an invasion of rights into the lives of these seven, creating a situation questionable of legality on the government's part. This secondary source also provided us with real images from the trials as well as transcripts from the court hearings to support its credibility.

The Development of FBI Domestic Intelligence Investigations. Rep. N.p.: n.p., n.d. AARC LIbrary, 1975. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/church/reports/book3/pdf/ChurchB3_7_Development .pdf>.

Although in this massive report only a few pages related to our topic, we found it rather helpful. It helped to provide context for the FBI side of our argument, not just the McCarthyism side. It was slightly biased against intelligence agencies, but even so it provided lots of facts that may be useful for our argument. In addition to the sources being cited in the report, we have read some of the same information in other sources, which increases the credibility of this report. This report was included in a series of reports giving critical information of US intelligence agencies. The AARC LIbrary, where it was found, has over 1500 reports and books online from throughout American history.

Gordon, Tom. The Story of Us. Issue brief. Northwest Michigan College, 2010. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. <https://www.nmc.edu/tgordon/storyofus/hst112/9_a-cold-era/2nd-red-scare.html>

The website page we found this source on was a cumulative timeline of American events dating from years 1845 to 1965. The author was Tom Gordon, and the page was sponsored by Northwestern Michigan College who published this website in 2010. Throughout the website, the Cold War and reconstruction era were summarized in a brief paragraph or two. The one we specifically read into was about the Second Red Scare and gave us a basic overview of who McCarthy was. We found this paragraph to be informative but bias, with comments that strongly condemned McCarthy and his actions. However, we were able to learn a lot of information about McCarthy's "reign of terror"

and how it abruptly came to an end. This site provided a broad context picture that well summarized the Second Red Scare from its provocation to its end.

Guariglia, Matthew. "Visions of Red." Visions of Red. Wordpress, 27 May 2007. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. <http://blogs.dickinson.edu/hist-fbi/tag/citizens-commission-to-investigate-thefbi/>.

A secondary source published in 2012, this blog sponsored by Wordpress has un-biased information gathered from credible outside sources that are composed into a clear, wellsupported article. However, this source was not very helpful in broadening our general knowledge of our topic. It discussed the fall of McCarthyism as a result of the public's discovery of the COINTELPRO program launched under McCarthy's leadership. Fortunately, is provided us with an image of a newspaper clipping that is a primary source we can use as a visual for our website. We were also able to get some small details in an area that we hadn't read a lot about yet. We were able to get a sense of the FBI's actions in overestimating and abusing their responsibilities that were taken to an inappropriate level and how it directly infringed on people's rights to privacy.

Herman, Arthur. Joseph McCarthy : Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. N.p.: Free, 1999. Print.

This biography of sorts gave great insight into McCarthy's life. This was both a blessing and a curse, because although it gave detailed information on how he infringed on people's rights, it did not talk nearly at all about the FBI. Also, it was extremely biased, making McCarthy seem like a villain in American History while showing how significant he was. This book did not provide much context surrounding our actual topic, the second red scare, but more surrounding McCarthy's life. The author, Arthur Herman is a history professor at George Mason University, and the author of a few other history books, which helps to reassure us that it is a reliable book. Additionally, there is a bibliography in the back, which will help lead us to other sources.

Hoyt, Alia. "How McCarthyism Worked." HowStuffWorks. How Stuff Works Inc, n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. <http://history.howstuffworks.com/historical-figures/mccarthyism.htm>.

The How Stuff Works website brought us to a page about McCarthyism that provided a broad, well organized, and decently detailed eight-page overview of Joseph McCarthy's rise and fall of power and the background of McCarthyism. How Stuff Works is a website sponsored by Discovery Company. The goal of the site is to provide a "credible, unbiased, and easy-to-understand explanation of how the world actually works." Alia Hoyt is a credible contributing author of the website with an unbiased perspective.

Through this online source, we were able to obtain context and commentary of McCarthyism that put the topic into a bigger picture and elaborated on some important concepts and topics involved in McCarthyism such as the First and Second Red Scare. Along the way, the article was able to point me to other website with credible information and primary sources. We were able to find an outside source that even showed modern significance in the concept of McCarthyism. We are very pleased with and confident in this source as a whole.

Johnson, Haynes. The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism. Orlando: Harcourt, 2005. Print.

This source provides a narrative as well as historical commentary by Haynes Johnson, a Pulitzer Prize recipient for journalism. It provided some broad context of the cold war, but more importantly narrow context of the origins of McCarthyism. The narrative ends around the time of McCarthy's death, followed by an extensive portion on the legacy of this time period.The book's story is told through "the lens of its relevance to our own time," which gave us on the significance of McCarthyism in American history. It was written in 2003 when Americans feared terrorism rather than communism, but Johnson relates the two times of anxiety closely. In both situations, he argues, our civil liberties and Constitution are at stake because of this widespread fear.

Joseph, Hyder P. "Espionage Information." McCarthyism -. Advameg Inc., 2013. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

We found this source when searching for information on McCarthy's success in investigating and arresting organizations or people. Within the few specific details in this online source, we were able to find broad information on an investigation McCarthy had conducted, called the Overseas Library Program. We had never heard of this before so we found this to be a key part of the usefulness of this source. We know that the source is probably bias since it is from a website that exemplifies espionage committed throughout world history. However, the information we got from it was fact so we know that it is not as swayed as other parts of the article. This secondary source is credible since it is written by a knowledgeable attorney from Jacksonville, Florida who had a degree in history.

"Joseph R. McCarthy." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/joseph-mccarthy>.

Being a relatively brief but detailed overview, this online article from The History Channel gave me a solid understanding of what McCarthyism was. The History Channel, which has been airing for 18 years now, published many articles online that provide

accurate and valuable information. Although it did not talk about the development of the FBI, it expanded upon how Senator McCarthy infringed on the rights of many which was very interesting. The article also included links for recommended articles on the same or similar subjects, which will help further research. The History Channel in general has proved to be a quality place for information.

Lichtman, Robert M. The Supreme Court and McCarthy-era Repression: One Hundred Decisions. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2012. Google Books. University of Illinois Press. Web.

Although we have been discussing often that citizen's rights were infringed upon, while making this generalization diagram, it became clear that we needed more samples." The Supreme Court and McCarthy-era Repression" gave us just the narrow context we needed about specific cases during the McCarthy era. This public secondary source has little reason to distort and supports its arguments with laws and rules that were broken or decisions were made under in the Supreme Court. It will help us further our understanding of rights and responsibilities by giving us information on rights violations. Robert M. Lichtman is a Washington, D.C. lawyer for nearly thirty years that has practiced in San Francisco since 1986. "McCarthy Era." Tracked in America:. ALCU, 2012. Web. 06 Oct. 2013.

The Tracked in America Website, credible by sponsorship of the the American Civil Liberties Union, was a very useful source to us in several ways. The website provided us with a chronological timeline of major events surrounding and during the McCarthy Era. Most of these events are known to us, but the timeline put them in an easily comprehensible format that gives us an idea on what we need to further research and what we already know a lot about. This website also provided us with primary sources of the personal stories from Vincent and Conn Hallinan, Eric Hellangren, and Charles Muscatine, all of whom had their rights infringed by FBI investigations and the HUAC. Their stories were portrayed through pictures and recordings of their personal experiences of feeling as though they were constantly under FBI surveillance.

McDonough, John. "Reliving The Scare: Looking Back On 'Red Channels'" NPR. NPR, 22 June 2010. Web. 06 Oct. 2013.

We found this secondary source on the NPR website, as an audio broadcast with transcripts. Although the recording was just a short five minutes, we were able to gather firsthand knowledge about the Red Channels during the early fifties and their subtle, yet damaging effects on the lives of many famous people during the McCarthy Era. Through the personal story of Marsha Hunt, a victim of the Red Channel's claims, we learned about the dirty ways that the FBI would accuse people based on little evidence, and the

struggle people had of trying to have their name cleared once they, or someone in their family, had been accused. The NPR website is a highly credible source with no reason to distort information, and claims that its mission is to "create a more informed public."

Robarge, David. Rev. of Chasing Spies: How the FBI Failed in Counterintelligence But Promoted the Politics of McCarthyism in the Cold War Years. Intelligence in Recent Public Literature n.d.: n. pag. Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 6 Oct. 2013. <https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csistudies/studies/vol47no3/article07.html>.

David Robarge is on the CIA history staff. This government sponsored secondary source is a review of "Chasing Spies" which focuses mainly on the FBI's transgressions during the McCarthyism years. Robarge tends to agree with Athan Theoharis in that the FBI's actions were ineffective because they were illegal and wrongly aimed. The review provided several vital quotes from the book, in most probability, the strongest points of the book. Although Robarge criticizes the book's explanation of Hoover's impact on the current FBI and failure to answer all questions, we focused mainly on the information that was provided in the review. Not many of our previous sources had information on the wrongdoings of the FBI constitutionally, and had focused on the effects on civilian life. This review pointed us in the direction of investigating further the FBI's illegal actions and how they stunted their success.

Roberts, Sam. "A Decade of Fear: How 'McCarthyism' Turned American against American in the Decade after World War II." New York Times Upfront. Student Edition, 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.

The author of this online magazine source, Sam Roberts, is the New York Times' Correspondent of Urban Affairs and graduated from Cornell University in 1968. Roberts has received numerous awards, such as the Peter Khiss Award, for his reporting and journalism skills, as well as the publishing of his many books. This secondary source gave me additional insight into Joe McCarthy and his affect on turning Americans against each other during his "witch hunt." It also provided me with insightful context about the First Red Scare during before the McCarthy's "reign," as well as other cases of McCarthyism present before and after the term was coined. Dating back to 1798, we were also able to see how John Adam's creation of the Alien and Sedition Acts created an environment where someone like McCarthy could continually feed off of fear of the people and justify his lawfulness in accusing communists without evidence. I also was able to read about Bush and his close encounter with McCarthyism after the 9-11 attacks. I was able to recognize from this article that McCarthyism seems to thrive when America feels endangered by foreign terrorist threats and panic in the midst of finding a safe solution. This panic causes them to assume higher responsibilities than they would

normally need to have, often infringing on personal rights of others to ensure their own safety.

Schmidt, Regin. Red Scare: FBI and the Origins of Anticommunism in the United States, 19191943. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum, University of Copenhagen, 2000. Print.

This incredibly in- depth book was not quite what we expected. The book was nearly all on the First Red Scare, with only a chapter at the end giving information on the Second Red Scare. It did, however, end up being very helpful by identifying other sources and giving important context information on how McCarthyism fit into the Red Scares in America. Since the book included many annotations and all of the sources cited, we believe it provided us with accurate information, and it had a surprisingly small amount of bias. The author, Regin Schmidt, is a researcher at the University of Copenhagen in the history department, and this book was chosen for the Choice Outstanding Academic Books in 2002.

Schrecker, Ellen. "The Growth of the Anti-Communist Network." St. Martin's Press, May 2007. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/anticom-network.html>.

Ellen Schrecker, the author of this excerpt, has proven herself to be one of the leading experts on our topic. In this excerpt, she provided thorough context information on how McCarthyism fit into anti communism in America. It was slightly biased towards believing that the government overreacted. It also gave us insight as to why the government felt the responsibility to act on the littlest suspicions. Schrecker explains how the American fear of Communist had been around for a while before even the first red scare, but when it really got out of control was during McCarthyism.

Schrecker, Ellen. Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Boston: Little, Brown, 1998. Print.

Ellen Schrecker is widely recognized as a leading historian on McCarthyism. After earning her doctorate at Harvard University, she has taught at five universities, including three Ivy League schools. Her most famous work, "Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America", was published in 1998 and draws on many primary sources. Schrecker lived through the Second Red scare, and has been described as "the dean of the anti-antiCommunist historians." The book definitely is written with a negative tone towards McCarthyism and its infringement on civil liberties, but does not deny that the United States faced some threat. This source provided extensive narrow content about McCarthyism's actions and effects. The book contains photographs and numerous specific examples which will help us understand our topic as a whole, but also give us

specific and notable information. It also gave us ample insight on the long lasting impact that this era had on America.

Schrecker, Ellen. "McCarthyism: Political Repression and the Fear of Communism." Social Research 71.4 (2004): 1-27. ELibrary. Web. 29 Sept. 2013.

Ellen Schrecker, the author of a few other very helpful articles, has once again produced an essay that gave us intelligent and accurate information. This article, a scholarly journal, included numerous stories of different people who's rights were infringed by the government because the government felt it had a responsibility to act. It gave ample narrow context, explaining how the Second Red Scare fit into Communism as a whole. Lastly, Schrecker included her works cited at the end, which will help lead us to many primary sources.

Schrecker, Ellen. "Communism and National Security: The Menace Emerges." The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. N.p.: St. Martin's, 1994. N. pag. Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/mccarthy/schreker1.htm>.

This excerpt by Ellen Schrecker is a public secondary source. As an established historian on this time period, Schrecker appears to have no reason to distort. The passage explains how Communist spies were a real threat and that sabotage was possible. It also suggests that many accusations were exaggeration which concerned policymakers. This accounted for a crack-down on unions. This source helped us answer the question "why?" regarding the strict policies enacted during the Second Red Scare. It made us more aware of the threat to national security that communists did pose, but also that the exaggeration restricted the rights of many innocent citizens.

Schroeder, Christy. "Red Scare Propaganda in the United States: A Visual and Rhetorical Analysis." Thesis. Georgia State University, 2007. English Honors Theses. Department of English at Digital Archive at Georgia State University. Web.

Christy Schroeder's thesis provides an in depth discussion on propaganda and the two Red Scares in American history, but we only focused on the Second Red Scare portions. Although there is no apparent reason to distort, it inevitably seems critical of the American government for using propaganda. It is a secondary source, and although Schroeder was a student when this was published so shows little past reliability, this work has been accepted for inclusion in English Honors Theses.This source gave us insight on how propaganda was used to create a widespread American hatred and fear of communism. Schroeder provides propagandist images and explains specific elements that

were used to make communists look inferior and evil. It also discussed civil rights, and how although America portrayed itself as pluralistic and progressive, in reality the civil rights of many were violated.

"Senator Joe McCarthy and the Red Scare." Mount Holyoke College, n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2013. <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~lillsie/McCarthyism/homepage.html>.

Although this source hardly mentioned the FBI, it gave valuable in-depth information on Senator McCarthy. It was completely unbiased, and it included only hard facts and dates. Not only did it give biographical information, it gave insight to what lead to his downfall as well. It was useful especially in the early stages of research because it helped provide information without influencing me to agree or disagree with an argument. Since it was published under Mount Holyoke College, a highly selective women's college, we can be confident in trusting the information. Plus, the sources were included in the web page, which made it that much more credible.

"A Short History of the Department of State." U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2013.

We decided to research American Foreign Policy before and during the Cold War era in order to gain further insight as to why the FBI and government felt such a large responsibility for keeping communists out of the country. This government-sponsored website gave us a plethora of United States foreign policy of Containment toward Western Europe and Asia. We gathered lots of context from a reliable secondary source that regarded the Second Red Scare and McCarthyism. We can use this information to give us understanding of the FBI's actions in the United States during the McCarthy era. Simkin, John. "McCarthyism." Spartacus Educational. N.p., 1997. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAfbi.htm?menu=USAred>.

We were able to find extensive information on McCarthyism. The website has over one hundred links to information on important figures, groups, and events. We mainly focused on the FBI section but were able to gain information from other sections as well.This public secondary source addressed the important figures in the bureau during this politically heated time. It appears to have a bias against the FBI, as most of the information given is about secrecy and manipulation. We were able to learn about a different aspect of the FBI than we have seen in other sources, including the leaders' views towards other figureheads such as Martin Luther King Jr. In addition, Edgar J. Hoover and his secret files were discussed along with other leaders of the FBI and their scandals. Reading this article showed us the wrongdoings of the FBI and how their actions were unconstitutional.

Tanenhaus, Sam. "Un-American Activities." The New York Review of Books, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2000/nov/30/un-americanactivities/?pagination=false>.

"Un-American Activities" is a very well thought out review of "Joseph McCarthyReexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator". It provided simple yet in depth summaries of many chapters, and it gave criticisms of the author that were interesting to read. Hearing a different perspective on the same subject helped to show us that there can always be more than one way to look at something, which reminded us to be wary of bias when researching. Since this review came from The New York Review of Books, a well established magazine, and it has sources cited at the end, we felt confident that this review gave us legitimate information. "Teaching With Documents: Telegram from Senator Joseph McCarthy to President Harry S. Truman." Telegram from Senator Joseph McCarthy to President Harry S. Truman. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2013.

The online National Archives website provided us with a source this secondary source about the events leading up to McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare. This article gave me new information about Communists like Klaus Fuch and Alger Hiss, whose cases we now can research for further background on McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare. We were also led to two primary sources: McCarthy's documented telegraph to President Truman, and Truman's unsent response. The national archives website is a credible source, with official documents from the government that exist at the archive, but online. Trueman, Chris. "The Red Scare in the 1920." The Red Scare in the 1920. N.p., 2000. Web. 29 Sept. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/red_scare_1920s_America.htm>.

In search of a source that provided us with context about before the Second Red Scare, we came across this secondary source online. After using it, we able to gather notes about America during the 1920's and leading up to the Second Red Scare. This source spoke about the curtailing of American rights under the law toward other communists prior to the Red Scare and Second Red Scare. It specifically gave examples of the Judicial Branch turning its eye away from the actions of the FBI in fear and hatred of the anarchists and communists, who made up .01 percent of the American population. The author of the History Learning Website, Chris Trueman, graduated with a Bachelors in history and Master's degree in management, from England. Trueman stated that his goal was to tell history as "unbiased and objective as possible in presenting the facts and interpreting events." This source is a credible work that gave me deeper insight into America's opinion toward Communists, prior to the Cold War.

Watson, Jerilyn. "American History: Life in the 1950s." VOA. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2013. <http://learningenglish.voanews.com/content/america-nineteen-fifties-familylife/1263187.html>.

This secondary source immerses the reader in what it was like to live in the 1950s. The passage is actually aimed at foreigners to gain insight on American culture. However, It has no bias and covers both the positive and negative aspects of life, such as popular culture and the Cold War. It includes photographs from the time period of political happenings. The broad context that this source gave is useful to us in understanding what life was like other than the fearful atmosphere. We learned that although the entirety of America faced threats from the Cold War and and anxiety from McCarthyism, some found escapism and tried to ignore the situation by finding light in work, the booming economy, suburban life, and popular culture. This source is crucial to our understanding of America as a whole during the 1950s, rather than just how McCarthyism affected the lives of many.

Weiner, Tim. Enemies: A History of the FBI. New York: Random House, 2012. Print. Enemies by Tim Weiner is a very comprehensive history of the FBI's formation and development. Weiner has written a few other books on topics such as the CIA and the pentagon, and Enemies has received very high ratings. That being said, it was slightly biased although it had the facade of being just facts. Many facts we knew were left out and some small facts were made to seem like bigger deals, all so that J Edgar Hoover looked like a hero. Despite this, the information was quality, especially the chapter that wove McCarthy and the FBI together. There were many examples of the FBI infringing on rights, and of Hoover trying to gain more responsibility. This book provided a lot of good information that will add to our argument.