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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors

PEASANT MOVEMENT IN THE WEST .PUNJAB (PAKISTAN) (1947-58)


Muhammad Waris Awan* Rehana Iqbal** ABSTRACT Current paper analyses the formation, contribution and importance of Punjab Peasant Movement in social and political sectors of the province. The internal and external constraints in the development of the Peasant Movement have been examined. In this regard the challenges to the Movement in the form of actions of governments, religious leaders and the local Zamindars who acted to create hurdles in the development of the Movement need to be explored. The paper thus marks how the affiliations of the peasants with the Movement that could contribute to its success were wasted because the weak leadership could not transform it into highly result oriented struggle, as initially envisaged by the founders of the movement. The incapability of the leadership in respect of the organization of the Movement was also examined. Current study is exploratory and descriptive in nature, where the conclusions have been drawn on the basis of interviews conducted with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and the relevant literature has been reviewed for the purpose. Key Words: Peasant, Kissan, Punjab, Pakistan.

Introduction
This paper is a subaltern study of the history of the Peasant Movement is Punjab that was started in 1937 by the establishment of Punjab Kissan Committee (PKC) to safeguard the rights and interests of the peasants of the province.
*Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Sargodha **Subject Specialist, G.G.H.S. School, Chak No. 88 SB, Sargodha

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors It was very active until the partition of India in 1947. However, this movement could not increase its influence and membership in the Muslim dominated areas of the Western and the Southern Punjab.In Pakistan, the gap of inequality created by feudalism has badly influenced the political and social systems in several ways, promoting violence and intolerance in the political culture of Pakistan. After the partition, the problems of the peasants were neglected by the federal and provincial Governments. As a result of the deprivation faced by the rural community of Punjab, the revolutionary movement was bound to start. The Punjab Peasant Movement, with the help of Punjab Kissan Committee played a remarkable role to free the peasantry from landlords. It faced severe confrontation from the government as well as the landlords, whose interests were to suffer. The Peasants of the Punjab were not properly organized, class conscious, trained and guided in a suitable manner.

The Foundation of the Movement


After the establishment of Pakistan, Ch. Atta Ullah Jahania was appointed as the first Muslim General Secretary of PKC for the task of increasing the influence and membership of PKC in these areas. He, in spite of having a successful track record of organizing such movements, failed to increase the membership of the Muslim in PKC. As explained by Abid Hassan Minto, the wide influence of the Muslim landlords was a big problem in mobilizing the Muslim peasant.363But after the division of Punjab includes many other
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Interview with Abid Hassan Minto (April 04, 2008). Abid Hassan Minto was born in 1932 in Rawalpindi in a well-educated Kashmiri family. He started his efforts for the promotion of leftist ideology from the plateform of Democratic Students Federation in 1949s its co-founder and in the same year he accepted membership of Communist Party of Pakistan. His role in Progressive Writers Association (a leftwing literary organization established in 1936) is worth remembering in literary circles. He closely worked with Kissan Committees and veteran leftwing Kissan leader Ch. Fateh Muhammad. He made his mark in trade unions as well. He has successfully organized many processions and protests of workers from the leftwing plateform. He was arrested many times. He bravely ignored all the offers of the Govt. at various stages. He took active part in organizing Railway workers with famous trade union leader Mirza Ibrahim. As lawyer he got fame by winning cases of very great importance in Pakistan. He has attended many national and international conferences.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors problems, the issue of refugee settlement and evacuee property badly affected the working of Kissan Committee in the province because of the high handedness of the bureaucracy. These problems remained the greatest headache in the province till 1960.364

The Religious Leaders Obstacle the Movement


In Pakistan, the period 1947-58, was of backwardness in almost every field of life, with predominantly feudalistic and tribalistic economy. Moreover, religious parties were also the greatest supporters of feudalistic set up in Pakistan, causing further troubles fdor culmination of feudalism.365 In this regard, the role of Jamat-e-Islamifounded by Moulana Maududi (1903-1979)366 and Tehrik-e-Talu-e-Islam (Resurgence of Islam) lead by Ghulam Ahmad Pervaiz (1903-1985)367 is worth mentioning. Leaders of both these religious parties opposed land
Recently he is the elected President of Workers Peasants Party of Pakistan since March 2012. 364 Interview with I.A Rehman, Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, Lahore.IbnAbdurReman was born in 1930 in Haryana in East Punjab. He is a renowned leftwing journalist, writer and Human Rights Activist. Since 1990s he is working as Director of Human Rights Commission of Pakistan in Lahore. He regularly writes in the Daily Dawn on very important humanitarian issues. 365 Muhammad Naeem Ullah, Pakistan Jagirdari, Zamindari, Nizam Kay Shakinjay Main, Lahore, Jamhuary Publication, 2003 pp 232-50. He was born in Dehli in 1931 and migrated to West Punjab. He is an Engineer by profession but he left his profession in search of his research work on feudalism in Pakistan. He has published his work name; PAKISTAN IN THE STRANGLEHOLD OF FEUDALISM which is a real master piece from Marxist point of view. 366 Maulana Moudodi was a Sunni Muslim theologian, revivalist and political leader and founder of Jamat-e-Islami (1941) the Islamic Revivalist Party in Pakistan. 367 Ghulam Ahmad Pervaiz was retired as Federal Assistant Secretary from govt. office. He was a close companion of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), the founder of Pakistan and Great Admiror of Allama Muhammad Iqbal (18771938), a poet philosopher of Pakistan. He was a famous scholar of Pakistan who declared that Islam is not a religion of rituals and superticious beliefs and wealth are to be equally distributed among every one. He criticized religious leaders as agents of rich peoples. He said that authenticity of Hadith the collection of the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) be reviewed upon which many other scholars raised objections over the nature of his claim. He wrote many books and articles on Quranic teachings.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors reforms in their speeches and writing and supported feudalism in the country. The interesting point is that Moulana Abdul Majid Badayuni a famous Muslim scholar along with 16 other (Muslim religious leaders) and scholars issued a Fatwa368 declaring the Notes of Dissent by Muhammad Masood Khadar Poush (1916-1985)369 as un-Islamic. The fatwa was later distributed throughout the country by Zulifqar Ali Bhuttu (1928-1979) 370published to win the favours and sympathies of peasants371 and tenants372 during the general elections of 1970.373 After the partition, the problems of the peasants were neglected by all provincial Governments. The topmost demand of the peasants was the distribution of lands. The land reforms were the crying need of the time particularly in interior Sind and Southern Punjab. The peasants and agricultural laborers were purchased among landlords as a commodity. These landlords had many private
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Religious opinion of a certified jurist(Mufti) about the legality of an action under Muslim Law. 369 Masood Khadar posh, A former Beaurocrate who was appointed as a member of the inquiry commission constituted by Sindh Govt. to look into the problems of Haris in Sindh. Mr. RajorThomus an English Landlord of Sindh was appointed as president. Mr. M.A Siddiqe a local feudal along with Mr. MasudKhadarposh represented Govt. side. Mr. Masood later on served as deputy commissioner DistrictMuzafarGarh. He drafted a 39 pages Notes of Dissent, in the report prepared by the commission which was presented to the Govt. of Sindh. The amazing point is that no representation was given to the Haris for whom welfare this commission was constituted. Being a Govt. officer Mr. Masood advocated for the Haris demands. 370 Former Foreign Minister, President, Civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator, Prime Minister and founder of Pakistan Peoples Party. He got fame for his socialist political ideas. 371 Agriculture labour. 372 Somebody who rents properties for cultivation purpose. 373 In these elections for the first time after the birth of Pakistan (1947) the people of the country were given the right to vote on one man one vote basis during the reign of a Military dictator Gen. Yahya Khan. The amazing results of these elections proved a turning point in the history of Pakistan and resulted in the separation of East Pakistan under the leadership of Mujeeb-ur-Rehman, the leader of Awami League in 1971.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors prisons to punish the peasants especially in Southern Punjab. The rape of peasants women by the landlords and the police was a common practice in the province. Punjab has always been a place of small independent villages where people dwelled in their own agrarian way of life in the past. The waters of the five rivers irrigated its fertile lands, providing a stable means of livelihood. However, this prosperity invariably proved to be a liability when peace and tranquility was shattered by arbitrary occupation of lands and pulling out its indigenous masses form their right of land and property. During that time, some brave Punjabis rose and fought for their land. The Punjab peasantry of the rural area had to face many problems. For achieving their land-rights, the peasants had to struggle hard in the rural Punjab, particularly in Multan, Montgomry (Now Sahiwal), Bahawalpur (former Princely State), D.G. Khan, Shahpur (former District and now a Tehsil of District Sargodha), Gujranwala, Gujrat, Lyllpur (Faisalabad), Lahore, Rawalpindi,CambelPur (Now Attock), Jhang and Mianwali. After the partition, the peasants mobilized struggle for their rights in the whole province. Their demands for social, economic an agrarian freedom was an open secret. The downtrodden peasants of the Punjab wanted to get freedom from the unfair land policies and from the bondage of feudal landlords.374 The Punjab Peasant Movement through its component part, the Punjab Kissan Committee, played a remarkable role to free the peasantry from landlords. The district level committees of the rural Punjab launched an organized movement throughout the Punjab. They rebelled against the existing social and economic inequalities
374

Interview with Abdul Rauf Malik in 2008 at Peoples Publishing House Kissan Hall, Lahore. He was born in 1926 and joined CPP in early age. When Peoples Publishing House was established for the publishing of Radical Literature at Lahore, he was appointed its organizer by the leadership of communist party. He was a close companion of syed Sajad Zaheer;founder of communist party of Pakistan. He was arrested many times. He had published many books and wrote many articles against Feudalism. He took active part in many strikes of workers and peasants in the West Punjab. Nowadays he is a director of Peoples Publishing House. He is the brother of famous left wing writer Abdullah Malik.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors and injustices. They wanted to lay the foundations of a new social and economic order for the peasants of Punjab375. As a result of the deprivation faced by the rural community of Punjab, the revolutionary movement was bound to start. This process started with the formation of Kissan Committee of Pakistan. This committee was known by the name of Pakistan Kissan Committee. Organized struggle and peasant movement in the rural Punjab received a considerable motivation and support from the classes who were deprived of their basic rights, and were suppressed economically. In this way the PKC got momentum in almost all districts of the province.376 In the post independence period, Anti feudal peasant movements got a new momentum. There was wide spread agrarian unrests during 1948-50. However, this unrest did not bring any radical change in the system. The failure of peasant movement was due to the illusion that the peasants wanted the Islamic Justice as this slogan had raised by Muslim League during freedom movement. Therefore, they did not make any collective effort and kept on working on regional level. As Kissan Committee in East Bengal, the KissanGirga in NWFP, the KissanSabha in the Punjab and the Harri committee in Sindh were in provinces. As Kissan
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Interview with Ch. Fateh Muhammad (May 2008) from 5-Meckloard Road Punjab Kissan Committee Office, Lahore. Ch. Fateh Muhammad is recently settled in UK is a veteran leftwing Marxist Kissan leader and Trade unionist leader of Pakistan. He was born in village Chaherka near Jalander (East Pakistan) in 1925. after partition he settled in Toba Tek Sing near Lyllpur in the west Punjab. He joined CPP in 1948 and started to organize peasants and workers for the protection their rights. He was arrested many times and kept in various jails and cells. He also contested Punjab Provincial Assembly Elections in 1951. when CPP was outlawed in 1954, he joined Azad Pakistan Party of MianIftikhar-ud-Din. In the period of Ayub Khan first Military Dictator (1958-69) of Pakistan, he had successfully organized Peasant Rights Conferences against Feudalism in Pakistan. In this regard Kissan Conference of 1970 in Toba Tek Sing is worth mentioning which was attended by 3 lakh Peasants and workers from all over the contry. On October 18, 2011, he was awarded Faiz Award in London in recognition of his life long struggle against Feudalism, Imperialism and Militarinism Ferozud Din Mansoor, Constitution of Kissan committees in the Punjab, Lahore, nd, p 3-11

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors Movement was regionally organized Govt. could handle them easily.377 After independence, during the first six years of the peasant movement, it again had to face severe repression at the hands of the Government. Afraid of the tempo of the growing revolutionary movement, Govt. unleashed repression making the functioning of various Kissan Committees impossible. In spite of this the foundation was set in terms of creation of different peasant organizations and their massive support from the masses. Subsequently various Governments were forced to take measures of land reforms such as ceiling legislations, security of tenure and rent reduction, consolidation of holding etc, but all failed to fulfill the declared objectives. On the other hand the period witnessed a largescale eviction offensive throwing millions of tenants into the position of agricultural workers. The peasant movement in rural and urban Punjab made a big impact on the masses not only in the Punjab province but also in other provinces. Hundreds of thousands of peasants actually joined the struggle for the peasants rights in the province for defending their lands and crops. Peasant movement attained wider popularity in Punjab. Millions of peasants all over the province unleashed an unprecedented struggle with the backing of the communist party of Pakistan for recovering benami land for possession and distribution of surplus lands, for loans in kind and for checking hoarding and black-marketing. In this period, more than three lakh acres of land were taken over and distributed among the landless through village level committees. Many peasants lost their lives in the battles fought on this issue, but it gave a big impetus to the Kissan movements spread in all districts.378
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Interview with HussainNaqi. A veteran leftwing Student Leader, journalist and human right activist recently associated with HRCP Lahore as National Cocoordinator. 378 Recorded Interview with RazaKazim Advocate. He is a famous leftwing political leader in Punjab, born in 1930. He joined Communist Party of Pakistan in at early age in 1948. He took very active part in Railway Workers Trade Union with Mirza Ibrahim. His services in the establishment of Kissan Committee in rural areas of the province are remarkable. He imported many

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors In the Punjab, the peasants conducted a stat-wide movement for agrarian legislation and debt-relief legislation, for the rights on Government lands against threat of central intervention. As a result of the campaign some serious measures from the Government side, in the shape of relief in revenues, and release of lands for the poor peasants or landless farmers were ensured and were distributed among them. The ceiling was revised downwards, many familybased exemptions were withdrawn and hut-dwellers were given rights on land on which they lived. Tens of thousands of agricultural labourers conducted powerful and successful struggle for better wages and living conditions. Peasants from far off places joined the meeting and adopted resolutions for the abolition of Zamindari system without compensation, participation of the local peasant committees in collection of government revenues and procurement of food grains.379 First Kissan Conference was organized by Chaudhry Fateh Muhammad, a member of communist party of Pakistan, in Toba Tak Singh in 1948, in Chak 305 J.B. It was attended by thousands of Kissan from all over Punjab. Later on the communist party of Pakistan organized its efforts and from very beginning it had started to make contacts and linkages with its workers all across the country in all provinces (including East Pakistan). They carried out different conferences in Punjab, Sindh and in the Frontier (KPK) province. Peasants from rural and urban areas of all across the province participated in this conference. It was also decided that the committees should be formed at district levels, so this gave a new dimension to the peasant movement in the Punjab and peasants
films from Russia to promote cultural relations between two countries. He was arrested many time in factitious cases. In Zias Military rule (1977-88) he was declared as Master Mind in Attock Conspiracy Case in 1984. It was alleged by the intelligence Agencies that some lower rank officers had made a plan to over through sentenced life lone prison. He is also the founder of the SanjanNaagar Institute of Philosophy and Arts (SIPA) ____A Non-profit organization working in the fields of Philosophy, Music and Philosophy based in Lahore. He has published many articles and pamphlets against Zia dictatorship. 379 A report by Ch. Fateh Muhammad, Pakistan Agriculture Problems and Kissan Movement, in Socialist Party Publications, No 3, Peshawar, 1975, p.4

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors organizations/ committees at districts level were formed in different parts of the Punjab. Local peasant organizations organized their efforts against the Batai 380and illegal taxes. Meetings and conferences were arranged to discuss the issue and to decide a concrete frame work for the abolition of these unjustified practices. This proved very significant. It insisted that the share of Betai should be distributed among the landlords and peasants in equal terms and in the fields. During the same period of time, in the wake of volatile situation created by the land reforms, to address the permanent settlement of peasants the Kissan Committee realized the importance of state of affairs and the role of Kissan Committee. For this reason, on July 14-15, 1952 a meeting of revolutionary peasant workers was convened, under the chairmanship of Syed Amir Hussain MPA from Gujrat continued for two days. A large procession of Kissans was organized by GhulamNabiBhullar president of Azad Pakistan party of Gujranwala. Following these events, the political struggle among different political parties reached its heights for the upcoming elections. On the other hand the peasantry organization also concentrated their efforts to raise their voices at national level, and was convinced that the upcoming government will definitely bring some new changes for the betterment of peasantry in Pakistan, but the things were not so different from the past. Initially, the membership was made in two different categories; i.e. collective and individual level. At individual level, the poor and middle class peasants, tenants laborers and village artisans were subject to the membership of Primary Committee. Every member was directed to fill a form and pay annual subscription. Besides those falling under the above categories, persons representing other classes in special cases were considered for membership. In such cases the membership was valid for one year only. While in the second category- agricultural laborers and middle class Kissans- incorporated in a guild or some other
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Batai is a system of the distribution of the crops at the time of yield its ratio is fixed by the land owners and the farmers in the beginning of sowing season.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors organization were given the membership on payment of one anna per anum.381 The organization of the committee in a village in which there were fifteen members a separate village Kissan Committee was set up. But the status of such a committee was not the same as that of primary committee. While there were hundred members, a primary committee may be constituted as ZailKissan Committee: provided that all members belonged to Zail.382If the members were less than a hundred in any one Zail, the Committee would go by the name of Thana Committee. If there were more than a hundred members in any one Tehsil, the committee so constituted would be designated as a Tehsil Committee, a primary committee may comprise of individual or organizational members. Each primary committee used to elect one representative for every 100 members to the General Council of the District committee. The elections would take place at the annual meeting of the Primary committee on dates fixed for the event and were proposed by the Provincial Committee. To maintain the transparency in the elections, the elections were supervised by the two representatives deputed by the District Kissan Committee.383 The annual meeting of the General Council of the District committees were held at a specified dates by the provincial committee, in which the Executive committee and the office holders were to be elected in the presence of representative of the Provincial Committee. For every 500 members it would send one representative to the West Pakistan Council. Where there were 500 members, the District Committee would elect 10 representatives.384 The process of formation of Kissan Committees was started at a very critical time in the West Punjab. The settlements of refugees and matters of Evacuee property left by the Hindus and the Sikhs created serious troubles while the atrocities of the landlords forced the tenants, workers and peasants to unite themselves for the safeguarding of their rights in the province. The workers and
381 382

383 384

Ibid, pp 12 It was an administrative unit headed by Zaildar under British rule in the Punjab. Ferozud Din Mansoor, Opit. Cit, p 17-18 Ibid

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors members of communist party took this initiative and started to unite peasants and workers in the province. The constitution of the Punjab kissan provincial committees was drafted by Feroz-ud-Din Mansoor (1903-1959)385, Abdul GhaniQureshi386 and Syed 387 MutalabiFareedAbadi on April 4, 1949 at Lahore. The object of the Kissan Committees was to free poor peasants, agriculturerlabourers, tenants and artisans form political and economic exploitations of feudals, jagirdars388 and capitalists by forging a common front. According to the constitution all land will be distributed among the tillers and all key industries nationalized. The main objective of this organization was to create free, strong, prosperous and democratic republic of Pakistan, guaranteeing
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386 387

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Ferozuddin Mansur was born in 1903 in Shaikupura, West Punjab. He had to migrate to Afghanistan in the Hijrat Movement in 1920. He received his Revolutionary education and training from Moscow. He worked for Peasants and Workers in various capacities and was arrested many times. He worked with all leftwing parties and groups striving for the rights of workers and peasants. He was among founding fathers of the Communist Party of India. After 1947, he became the first Secretary of Communist Party in West Punjab. He was arrested many times. He was elected General Secretary of Communist Party of Pakistan in 1950. He was the leading theoretician of the CPP. He wrote many articles and pamphlets on various issues. His self criticism report is worth mentioning in which he has critically examined the role of CPP and its leadership. He died in 1959. He was deeply disappointed by the beaurocratic attitude of the members of CPP. Inspite of all, he played his role successfully for the promotion of Leftist idealogy till last breath. He was very famous leader of the communist party of India. Syed Mutalabi Fareedabadi blonged to a noble family of Faridabad (India). He was born in 1893. He received his early education from Faridabad and Lahore. Later on, he was appointed as Zaildar and Honorary Magistrate. He joined Tabligh campaign but soon fed up. He joined Communist Party of India in 1930s. He organized Mewati Peasants against the Maharaja of Alwer state in 1933-34. He also organized trade union and Kissan Committees in the Punjab. He also joined Congress Party. He came in Pakistan in 1948 and played a leading role in Pakistan Socialist Party. He was a pioneer of peasants poetry in Punjab. He authored a drama Kissan Rutt in which he depicted operations of Money lenders in Punjab. He also published a poem, Pin Hari in which he described the suffering of the peasants. Famous poem HAYYA HAYYA soon became the symbolic slogan of all the Kissan agitation in the province of Punjab. He died in 1978. Big Landlordship established under British colonial rule in India.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors absolute and complete civil liberties.389 For this purpose a provincial committee under the president ship of Abdul Aziz Qaiser was set up. Muhammad Shareef was appointed its General Secretary and in other areas of the province district committees were formulated. All these committees in their respective areas organized processions and held meetings throughout the province. In towns and small villages, Kissan cells were established like the district of Multan.390 In the provincial elections of 1951 many candidates contested elections on behalf of Kissan committees in almost all districts of the province but failed to win even a single seat due to feudals grip and government repression. However, it could be considered a good attempt in such circumstances on behalf of Kissan committees.

Establishment of Pakistan Kissan Front


After the ban on the Punjab Peasant Movement, the Azad Pakistan Party organized the Kissan movement in Punjab. Kissan front was established in 1955 by the Kissan movement for the immediate solution of the problems of the peasants. All the progressive political parties of the country were invited to participate. Its office was set up in Royal Park Lahore. Weekly Ekdam of Mian Muhammad Shafi391published various articles highlighting Kissan issues and efforts of Kissan front in the critical period of struggle in Province. This Kissan Movement in1956 was continued under the banner of the National Jamhauri Party, as a meeting was organized outside the Mochi Gate Lahore. Police reached the spot and encircled peasants since there was a ban on processions under the section 144 in the province. Forty-six leaders of peasants were arrested but they continued their struggle. The Govt. responded
389

Working condition of Agriculture Labor in Punjab, A survey Report, National Commission for Justice and Peace-Catholic Relief Services Pakistan, 2002, p 23. 390 Sheikh Muhammad Rasheed, Johd-Musalsal, Lahore The Jang Publications. 391 A well known political leader of the Punjab. He took active part in the Punjab Politics.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors positively offering facilities under Ejected Tenants Scheme and Grow More Food Schemes to the peasants in the province.392 The land reforms of 1959 were the culmination of the continued struggles of the peasants in the province during 1947-56.

Struggle and Contribution of Peasant Politics in the Punjab


One of the important features of the peasant organization of the Punjab was the policies which proved to be the symbol of unity of the peasants with the workers. It happened during 1952, when the re-grouping and re-structuring of peasant organizations n the Punjab was going on. Formation of Kissan Committees of Punjab was initiated in this meeting. Later on this committee merged with the newly formed Azad Pakistan Party. The period between 1950s and 1960s witnessed the emergence and consolidation of many political groups and economic classes. In agriculture, the hold of the large landowners may not have been broken, but it was certainly shaken enough to allow other economic categories to emerge.393 In the decade following the creation of Pakistan, the political power of the very large landlords increased. For example, very large landlords won 80 percent of the seats in the 1951 provincial election in Punjab. At the same time, the economic power of large landlords also increased substantially. In 1950, approximately 6,000 Land owners (who constituted a tiny 0.1 percent) owned 15 percent of all land in Pakistan. At the same time, the poorest 64.4 percent of the population owned another 15 percent, approximately, of all land in Pakistan. In other words, the richest 0.1 percent landlords had as much economic power as the poorest 64.4 percent. The richest 1 percent owned nearly 1/3 of land in Pakistan. In Punjab, fewer than 2,000 Land owners owned approximately 10 percent of the land.394 The area of the Punjab was not only the area that became a battle field of peasant struggle for the protection of their rights, the
392

Sheikh Muhammad Rasheed, Opit. Cit. p238 Hafiz Taqi-ud-Din, Pakistan Ki SiasiJamatainAurTehrikian, Lahore, The Classic 1995, p 307. 394 Sheikh Muhammad Rasheed, Opit. Cit. p239
393

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors situation in other provinces of the country regarding Peasant Movement was also worth mentioning. The most important of these struggles was the heroic struggle of the Bengal peasantry against the imposition of the betterment levy tax in the late 50s. This was the most important struggle under the flag of the Kissan Sabha after the epoch-making Telengana struggle. The peasants defied firings, lathi-charges, beatings and all types of repression. The peasant unity forged during the struggle was unparalleled, as the peasants united irrespective of their political affiliations. The movement ultimately forced the Government to withdraw from different unjustified and illegal regulations. These struggles achieved important gains and helped in raising the political consciousness of the peasantry. It was because of these peasant organizations and their association held conferences that the movement was able to face serious repression in the shape of mass arrests, injuring of hundreds of poor peasants etc. They fought back the repression and defended their interest.395 It was the voice of their hearts as these were the rational demands on the part of peasants and workers. For the realization of these demands, they launched a collective movement in Punjab. The government responded and presented Daultana Report to compensate peasants in Punjab. According to the report, in the province, farming is very common. Approximately more than agrarian lands are cultivated on the system of division of production (Batai). Generally, the share of tenant is 50%. In real sense, it is not 50% but it was formerly considered to be so.

Feudalism: A Challenge to Peasant Struggle


The state of Pakistan had been controlled by narrow elite. Major stakeholders in the state business, agricultural sector and the industries have been feudal Lords. They played an authoritative role in the affairs of the state. Since 1947, the feudal class had dominance over the provincial and federal Assemblies. It has dominated party politics in the country. The feudal class was extremely conservative, oppressively status-quo-oriented, and, in
395

Abid Hassan Minto, Optic. Cit.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors nearly all cases it was totally resistant to change. At least on the local level, the worst and the most coercive form of feudalism reflected itself in the treatment of tenants, peasants and labor class (low-caste professionals and artisans), women and other dependents.396 The British were always on the back of the feudals who always supported them in their vested interests. The feudals owed their prominence to the British who had granted land in return for loyalty and support. In Pakistan, the gap of inequality created by feudalism had badly influenced the political and social systems more than the loyalties to Islam and community. Three types of impacts of feudalism on society are visible in Punjab. Firstly, a large proportion of agricultural population remained remarkably nonpolitical. Secondly, the feudalistic style of politics and power has promoted violence and intolerance in the political culture in Pakistan. Thirdly, because of the dominance of landlords on the politics, the political parties of Pakistan have changed into a oneman show. And the shifting of political loyalties is also the result of the control of landlords on politics.397 These feudal always opposed land reforms and all other efforts regarding the betterment of the peasants in the Constitutional Assembly of Pakistan and the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab. These feudal have always given a tough time to all those, who voiced for the welfare of peasantry and labor in Pakistan.

The Agrarian Reforms


Pakistan has had a long and varied history of land reforms. Many attempts have been taken without any serious purpose, and most of them failed.398 The first step in this regard was taken y the Muslim League Government in East Pakistan. The Muslim League
396

Lawrence Ziring, Pakistan in the 20th Century, A Political Studies, Oxford 1997, p 20.

397

Lawrence Ziring, Pakistan in the 20th Century, A Political Studies, Oxford 1997, p 20. 398 Zaidi S, Akbar, Issue in Pakistans Economy, Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2000. p 27.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors passed the East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act in 1950 and with one radical step the ceiling of land holding was fixed at 33 acres only and the tenants were given security of tenure, subletting and absentee landlords were forbidden. The land and water taxes had remained as high as under the British rule. Furthermore, the government levied a tax for the benefit of refugees in the shape of 12.5 percent increase on the land and water taxes399. The tax increase was followed by an increase in rents. The 1950 Punjab Tenancy Amendment & Punjab Protection and Protection of Tenure & rights Ordinance 1950 were enforced in Punjab after the approval of the legislative assemblies. But the government and the landlords lobby started a systematic repression and launched actions against any movement that did not spring from the vital economic needs and desires of the people.400 During that particular period of time, in early 1950s provincial governments tried to abolish some of the malinger landlords or rent collectors, but they met little success in this task. On the one hand there was a tendency on the part of the landlords to evict sharecroppers and to take up direct cultivation with wage labour and, on the other, the rich and the better-off middle peasants were trying to increase their cultivated holdings by renting land. The feudalism remained the root cause of Pakistans malaise; it has appeared in different forms.401 The landlords by the virtue of their ownership and control of such a vast amounts of land and human resource, were powerful enough to influence the distribution of water, fertilizers, tractor permits and agriculture credit and consequently exercised
399

Ibid. Abid Hassan Minto, Opit. Cit. 401 Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din speech to the National Assembly of Pakistan on 13 February 1957. He was born in Lahore in a rich Arian family in 1907. He was very active leader of leftwing. He started his political career from the plate from of Congress till 1946 when he joined Muslim League and was offered the portfolio of Federal Minister For Rehabilitation of Refugees. In 1949, he demanded Radical land Reforms in Punjab. Consequently, he resigned from his Ministry and finally he was expelled from party. He established Azad Pakistan Party in 1950. He was also the owner of famous Paper The Pakistan Times which always favoured social justice and Agrarian Reforms in the country. Finally the progressive papers were taken over by Ayubs Military Govt. He died in 1962.
400

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors considerable influence over the revenue, police and judicial administration of the area. The landlords thus, remained the lord or master, such absolute power can easily corrupt, anti is no wonder that the feudal system existed from the century is humanly degrading.402 Conclusion In the light of above discussion it can be concluded that the peasants of Punjab joined various activities of the Kissan Movement but it failed because the peasants were not properly organized. They were not class conscious, trained and guided, in a suitable manner. Moreover the feudal Government was bent upon to crush the peasants movement; therefore the whole machinery as well as the secret agencies were working against this movement. In local areas, the religious heads who depended upon the local Zamindars for their living, during their sermons, advised the workers, peasants and tenets for patience. They openly opposed the movement and land reforms and even issued Fatwas against these. In these circumstances the common peasant did not continue their support for the movement and only a small number of them struggled for their rights. Kissan Movement failed to unite all the sections of working classes into a unified mass movement. Although the movement had a visionary approach having precedents of proved success in various parts of the world, the same could not produce the desired results in Punjab due to weak leadership.

402

Ibid.

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Book Review: Thomas Hylland Eriksen, Ellen Bal, & Oscar Salesmink (Eds), A World of Insecurity: Anthropological Perspectives on Human Security. London & New York: Pluto Press, 2010. Pages 300, and price US$ 33.
In today globalized world, States shall be measured through their level of human security they provide to their people. We can hypothesize that more the higher the level of human security, the more the popularity and the stability of the Government. On the other, we can safely hypothesize that the more higher the level of human insecurity, the more fear of Government unpopularity and collapse. The increasing world security has many dimensions. The military and defense dimensions dominate the subject particularly after the 9/11 episode. Political dimension has also been much discussed. Economists have been highlighting that insecurity greatly reduces the success of the economic objectives. For example, off and then it was being argued in Pakistan that the War on Terror has resulted in the loss of around $US 80 billion since 2001. Poverty has increased. Trade faced odds. Human development tremendously suffered. These setbacks are the hardest ever hit the economy of the country in the past any time. The concept of human security emerged in the UN Report of 1994 and found that the human security was much more complex than it appears on the surface. The book under review discusses the anthropological viewpoint of human insecurity. Human insecurity is an expanded concept. It shifts security from States to individuals. The book is divided into three parts and topics are contributed by different writers. Editors of the book teach at the University of Oslo and Amsterdam University. With their understanding of the discipline of anthropology, they came up to throw light on the issue of human insecurity. Part one looks at the political economy of human development. Part two highlights the issue of identity. While the last past throws light states of insecurity. Thomas Hylland Erksen explains the concept of human security and says that the subject matter has been explained by classical thinkers in their own fashion and time. Modern analysts also use the term in a wide range of manner. The

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors term human security tends to harmonize (p.1). Generally, it was being observed that human security might be an economic term that addresses their socio-economic needs. The writer says that the term human security is more relevant to anthropologists to study than other disciplines that are based upon qualitative approach. They can better present the picture than security analysts and economists, he claims. The work directly addresses questions concerning how various dimensions of human security interacts with. This book shows that how much people are willing to invest in human security (p.5). Wars, crimes, environmental damages, individualization, and ideological tendencies increase human insecurity (Ibid). The book also discusses factors leading to strengthen their sense of security. Looking at different theme of the books, we can say that the lives of the Pakistanis are extremely insecure and dangerous if the Americans continue to hound them toward the so-called War on Terror. Thus insecurity has risen speedily in Pakistan after 2001. Ton Salmon concludes that the immediate future of the Bolivians is in danger and the country is an example of a worst-case scenario in human insecurity. Insecurity is in multiple shapes and forms. Not only economic system introduces insecurity, political system in Bolivia also increases human insecurity (p.39). Bernhard Venema, while investigating the insecurity amongst Berber tribes in Morocco, says that the people confronted with colonialism first and later on with a hegemonic State, struggling to create human security (p.61). He says that privatization has affected the cohesion of the Berber tribal society to a large extent. The writer states that the cultural repertoire of militant Islam has gained more importance amongst urban centers (p.62). Marjo de Theije and Ellen Ball investigate uncertainties at the core of the lives of migrated Brazilian gold-miners in Surinam. They say that gold-miners face serious health hazards and lack of a proper legal coverage (p.81). Writers are optimistic that their hardwork could reduce risk factor. Ellen Bal and Kathinka SinbaKerkhoff focus on migration and ethnicity and see how human insecurity impacts upon them by taking the case of descendants of

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors British-Indians in Surinam and the Netherlands and see how Diaspora faces insecurity in foreign lands. They says the Diasporas security depends on their individuality and belongings that they attached to their motherland no matter they live in Surinam or the Netherlands (p.110). Edien Bartels, Kim Knibbe, Martin de Koning, and Oscar Salesmink in their essay emphasize on the intricate core relationship between human security and cultural identity by discussing the case of the Dutch Muslims and native Dutch through the parameter of fear and freedom. They argue that identity gives more sense of physical security. They say that without identifications and classifications such as Muslims and infidels and the arbitrary violence of the attacks in New York (9/11), bombing in Madrid (11 March 2004), London bombings (7 July 2005) as well as the murder of Theo van Gogh in Amsterdam (2 November 2004) cannot be understood (p.117). They further argue that both Muslims and their fellow migrants to Dutch society cannot be excluded as a potential threat to the security (p.128). The choice between Dutch or Islamic values and norms increase such vulnerabilities in society. Writers say that young Muslims want full citizenship rights by also claiming to be fully included as Muslims in Dutch society (Ibid). Tolerance can play some role to bridge differences between us (Dutch) and them (Muslims). The Dutch model of relationship between Dutch and Muslims can be applicable to other European countries (p.129), writers consent. Lenie Brouwer points out that online culture among refugees in other countries creates a sense of belonging and security with their families in native countries (p.133). Andre Droogers discusses the question of identity and security among the Pomeranian Lutheran migrants in Brazil. He says that constant struggle for security may become part of migrants mindset. He concludes that there is a delicate relationship between security and insecurity (p.177). Marion den Uyl discusses notion of belonging in Amsterdams multicultural neighborhood and identifies negative notions of non-Western poor, black, and criminal migrants that forced the native-whites to leave the area. This is another type of insecurity problems in many Western societies. Sandra Evers says

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors that the power establishment in Seychelles instills security concepts to build a nation of comrades by promising physical, food, social, and identity security under the socialist model (p.236). The writer points out that the benefits offered by the Government proved to be a decisive factor in ensuring human security. Dick Kooiman in his essay maintains that during the transfer of power in British India in 1947, sense of insecurity tremendously increased among the Princely States under Maharajas and Nawabs (pp.241-2). The writer analyzed the case of the Travancore Princely State. Oscar Salemink in his essay makes contrast between the issue of spiritual and human security in contemporary Vietnam. He says that human security can only make sense if properly contextualized (p.285). The book looks essential for students of security, developmental studies, and, indeed, anthropology. Although the book chiefly discusses the human insecurity in Sweden, Holland, Brazil, Bolivia, India, Seychelles, Surinam, Vietnam, and SubSahara Africa particularly Morocco, policy-makers can also take enormous guidelines from the study to address the issue of human insecurity in various countries as intricacies are similar of the issue and many useful policy conclusions could be drawn. Food, joblessness, health, environment, freedom, community engagement, and political discourse, invite scholars to discuss about the issue of human insecurity in the tribal areas in Pakistan where general security and lives of people were perpetually threatened by US military actions and drone attacks in the name of beefing up their security by destroying lives of hundreds of thousands of native dwellers since the decade. As War On Terror has brutalized their culture, norms, values, spiritual cohesion, it would be a long task to rebuild a secure society in tribal areas. The people of tribal areas eagerly desire for freedom from fear and freedom from want. They are yearning for existential security. Dr Ahmad Rashid Malik is an Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Preston University, Islamabad.

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Book Review: Social Work education in countries of the East: Issues and Challenges This book is a contribution of 33 prominent professors of Social Work from all over the world. It consists of 33 chapters and 20 of these are related to Pakistan. It is edited by Dr. Selwyn Stanley, Department of Social Work, School of Psycho-Social Science, University of Ply Moth, United Kingdom. It is published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York, in 2011. The profession of Social Work has taken roots as one that enables people to deal with various complex circumstances. The ultimate goal is to usher a better quality of life and promote psycho-social functioning of people and their environment by an improved social order. Social Work education is hence the crucible where ones professional repertoire is molded and the professional acquires knowledge, skills and attitudes which are so vital for effective and ethical practice according to the local socio-cultural values and norms. This requires proper social work training to meet the challenges of the 21st century. This book, Social Work education in Countries of the East: Issues and Challenges, provides a flavor of social work from the 33 countries of the East. It gives an overview of local issues, historical background of the countries, policies, programmes, current trends and challenges in the context of social work education. The book also examines the ways in which social work education occurs within the religious, cultural and governmental systems functioning in the respective country. Some common concerns like lack of regulatory bodies, lack of political commitments, appropriate supervision in placement of agencies and issues related to the role clarity, status and recognition of the respective countries are discussed in the book. It also presents a scenario of optimism and of conscious efforts to maintain and improve academic standards and placement services for students. The contributors of the book have discussed lobbying and advocacy strategies with government bodies and social work education in local socio-cultural development. Chapter 20 is encompasses development of social welfare and social

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors work in Pakistan, written by Dr. Gheyas Uddin Siddiqui. This chapter highlights historical background of Pakistan, people and population, major characteristics of the population of Pakistan, concept of social welfare in Islam and all important Islamic institutions. The development of social welfare institutions and their programmes, the importance and steps taken for social work education after independence have also been discussed. The challenges for social work development in Pakistan, such as over population, poverty, illiteracy, corruption, drug abuse, terrorism, problems of national integration, women rights and social empowerment, the universal declaration of human rights are also discussed in the same chapter. It has been observed that trained and skilled professional social workers are required to improve upon the existing situation of social work in Pakistan. The book under discussion provides an overview about social work education and development in 33 countries of the world which include America, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Cyprus, Chavchavades, England, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Turkey, UAE, Uzbekistan and Vietnam. This is the first book which provides very significant information regarding history of social welfare programmes of these countries. It may be useful for the students of the social work, researchers, educators associated with the social work organizations, planners, policy makers and general readers. The abstract of the book can be watched on Novas website at http://www.novapublishers.com

Professor Dr. Gheyas Uddin siddiqui is Chairman, Department of Social Work, University of Sargodha.

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Joint Statement following the meeting between the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and the Minister of External Affairs of India. (September 2012)
1. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan Ms Hina Rabbani Khar and the Minister of External Affairs of India Mr SM Krishna met in Islamabad on September 8, 2012, for a meeting to review progress in the Dialogue process. 2. The Ministerial level talks were preceded by a meeting between the Foreign Secretaries of Pakistan and India on September 7, 2012. 3. The talks were held in a cordial, candid and constructive atmosphere. 4. The Ministers reviewed the status of bilateral relations and expressed satisfaction on the holding of meetings on the issues of Counter-Terrorism (including progress on Mumbai trial) and Narcotics Control; Humantarian issues; Commercial & Economic cooperation; Wullar Barrage / Tulbul Navigation Project; Sir Creek; Siachen; Peace & Security including CBMs; Jammu & Kashmir; and promotion of Friendly Exchanges. 5. The Ministers noted that the dialogue process is guided by the commitment of leadership of the two countries, expressed at the highest level, to find peaceful and mutually acceptable solutions to all outstanding issues and to build a relationship of trust and all round cooperation between Pakistan and India. 6. The Ministers expressed satisfaction at the increase in high level bilateral exchanges between the two countries since their last meeting in New Delhi in July 2011, namely, leadership level meetings between President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh at New Delhi and

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors Tehran in April and August 2012, the first ever bilateral visit of the Speaker of Lok Sabha to Pakistan at the invitation of the Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan, visit of the Commerce Minister of Pakistan to India, after 35 years, in September 2011, another visit by the Commerce Minister of Pakistan to India in April 2012, and the first ever bilateral visit of the Commerce and Industry Minister of India to Pakistan in February 2012. The Ministers underlined the importance of continued high level exchange between the two countries. 7. The Ministers held substantive discussions on the whole range of issues within the framework of the Dialogue process and expressed satisfaction over the progress achieved since their last review meeting in July 2011. 8. The Ministers reaffirmed the importance of carrying forward the dialogue process with a view to resolving peacefully all outstanding issues through constructive and result oriented engagement, and to establish friendly, cooperative and good neighborly relations between Pakistan and India. 9. The Ministers agreed that terrorism poses a continuing threat to peace and security. They reaffirmed the strong commitment of the two countries to fight terrorism in an effective and comprehensive manner so as to eliminate the scourge in all its forms and manifestations. 10. The Ministers noted the commitment given by Pakistan during the Interior/ Home Secretary talks in May 2012 to bring all the perpetrators of the Mumbai terror attacks to justice expeditiously in accordance with due process of law. 11. The Ministers noted that during the Interior/ Home Secretary talks in May 2012 Indian side had conveyed that the investigation in the Samjhauta Express blast case is still

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors ongoing and updated information will be shared with the Pakistan authorities, through diplomatic channels when the investigation is completed. 12. The Ministers welcomed the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on Drug Demand Reduction and Prevention of Illicit Trafficking in Narcotics Drugs/ Psychotropic Substances and Precursor Chemicals and related matters between the Anti Narcotics Force of Pakistan and Narcotics Control Bureau of India in September 2011 and expressed the hope that the MoU will help enhance mutual cooperation between Pakistan and India through effective and sustained steps to control the growing menace of drug trafficking. 13. The Ministers welcomed the release of prisoners and fishermen, including those suffering from ailments, in the past year or so. They agreed that the Agreement on Consular Access should be implemented in letter and spirit including immediate notification of arrests by either side, consular access to all persons within three months of arrests, release of prisoners within one month of completion of sentence and confirmation of their national status. The Ministers also welcomed the continued work of the Judicial Committee and agreed with the need to implement its recommendations on various aspects of release and repatriation of prisoners and fishermen of each country by the other and adoption of the humane approach in dealing with cases of fishermen and prisoners, especially women, elderly, juvenile, and those terminally ill or suffering from serious illness or physical/ mental disability. 14. The Ministers noted that talks were held between the Director General of the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency and the Director General of the Indian Coast Guard in New

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors Delhi in July 2012 and agreed to the importance of continuing their meetings. They further directed that the issues relating to fishermen as contained in para-10 of the Joint Statement issued after the Interior/Home Secretaries talks between Pakistan and India in March 2011 would be further examined by the relevant authorities of the two countries. 15. The Ministers welcomed the decision during the last meeting of the Home/ Interior Secretaries of the two countries in May 2012 to initiate discussions in order to strengthen mutual cooperation in criminal matters. 16. The Ministers attached importance to promoting Peace and Security, including Confidence Building Measures, between the two countries and agreed to convene separate meetings of the Expert Groups on Nuclear and Conventional CBMs, in New Delhi in the second half of December 2012. 17. The Ministers held discussions on the issue of Jammu and Kashmir and agreed to the need for continued discussions, in a purposeful and forward looking manner, with a view to finding a peaceful solution by narrowing divergences and building convergences. 18. The Ministers reviewed the existing Cross-LoC CBMs and acknowledged that the ceasefire was holding since 2003. They also reviewed the implementation of the decisions taken regarding travel and trade across the Line of Control (LoC) in their last meeting in July 2011. They expressed satisfaction at the increasing number of people of Jammu and Kashmir who are able to avail of the facility to travel across LoC, and also at the growing Cross-LoC trade benefitting them on both sides of the LoC. They also welcomed the enhancement of the number of days for

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors conducting trade across LoC from two to four per week, as had been agreed by them. Taking note of the recommendations made by the Joint Working Group ( JWG) on Cross-LoC CBMs in its meeting in Islamabad on July 19, 2012, the Ministers decided the following: Cross-LoC Travel: (i) Cross-LoC travel would be expanded on both sides of LoC to include visits for tourism and religious pilgrimage. (ii) Tourist and Pilgrimage sites will be designated on both sides of the LoC and information will be available with the designated authorities. (iii) Such visits will be conducted by designated Tour Operators in groups not exceeding 15 persons. (iv) Permits for such visits will be single entry, non-extendable and valid for up to 15 days. (v) Travel for tourism or pilgrimage will be arranged during summer season i.e. April to October. (vi) Crossing for such visits will initially be from Chakothi-Uri and Rawalakot-Poonch Crossing points. (vii) Both sides will facilitate speedy clearance of applications for travel across LoC. The process time should not be more than 45 days. (viii) Both sides will extend necessary assistance to valid entry permit holders to cross the LoC in emergency situation on crossing as well as non-crossing days. This will be facilitated by designated authorities. Cross-LoC Trade: (i) List of 21 products of permissible items for Cross-LoC trade will be respected by both sides.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors (ii) Regular meetings between the traders on monthly basis on both sides will be facilitated. (iii) The designated authorities will resolve operational issues concerning Cross-LoC trade through regular meetings. (iv) Improvement of roads and bridges for Cross-LoC trade will be facilitated. (v) Transportation links on operational crossing points will be upgraded. (vi) Both sides agreed to facilitate the exchange of business delegations. 19. It was agreed that the JWG on Cross-LoC CBMs will meet on a bi-annual basis to review existing arrangements and suggest additional CBMs and measures for Cross-LoC travel and trade. 20. Both sides agreed to the need for promoting friendly exchanges between the two countries. They also discussed measures for promoting cooperation in various fields including facilitating visits to religious shrines, media exchanges, holding of sports tournaments and cessation of hostile propaganda against each other. 21. The Ministers welcomed the signing of the new Visa Agreement which liberalises bilateral visa regime and introduces a number of measures aimed at easing travel of business persons, tourists, pilgrims, elderly and children, thereby facilitating contacts between peoples of the two countries, who should remain at the heart of the relationship between Pakistan and India. 22. The Ministers welcomed the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of culture between the Pakistan National Council of the Arts and the Indian Council for Cultural Relations.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors 23. The two sides exchanged views on Siachen, Sir Creek and Wullar Barrage/ Tulbul Navigation Project, agreed that there is the need to effectively address these issues by finding mutually acceptable solutions and reiterated their commitment to do so. They also reaffirmed the importance of abiding by the provisions of the Indus Waters Treaty. 24. The Ministers expressed satisfaction at the progress registered towards normalizing bilateral trade and commercial relations. The Ministers firmly reiterated that both sides will scrupulously adhere to the roadmap drawn up by the two Commerce Ministries for full normalization of trade relations. They agreed that a strong and enhanced economic partnership is in the interest of peoples of both countries. 25. The Ministers welcomed reactivation of the Pakistan-India Joint Commission, in accordance with their decision taken last year. They Co-Chaired the Plenary of the Joint Commission, which met for the first time after 2007. They expressed satisfaction at the meetings of all eight Technical Level Working Groups and noted that these Groups have made a number of suggestions for exploring mutually beneficial cooperation in areas of agriculture, education, environment, health, information and broadcasting, information technology and telecommunication, science and technology and tourism. They took note of and approved the Report by the Foreign Secretaries, which is annexed. 26. The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to the goals and objectives of SAARC and agreed to make joint efforts to promote cooperation for regional development in the SAARC framework.

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Social Capital and Work Performance of Doctors 27. The Ministers agreed to the launch of the next round of Secretary level dialogue on all eight segments, as contained in para-4 above. Schedule for these meetings will be worked out through diplomatic channels. They further agreed that all these meetings will be held prior to their next review meeting in New Delhi in 2013. 28. The External Affairs Minister of India called on the President and the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

The Text of the Joint Statement issued after the twoday talks between Indian Foreign Secretary Ranjan Mathai and his Pakistani counterpart Jalil Abbas Jilani.
During the second-round of the resumed dialogue process, the Foreign Secretaries of India and Pakistan met in New Delhi on July 4-5, 2012 for bilateral talks on Peace and Security including CBMs, Jammu & Kashmir and Promotion of Friendly Exchanges. The talks were held in a frank and constructive atmosphere. Both sides reiterated their desire to carry forward the dialogue process in a purposeful and result-oriented manner. The issue of Peace and Security, including CBMs, was discussed in a comprehensive manner. Both sides emphasized the need to promote greater trust and mutual understanding through constructive dialogue. The Foreign Secretaries reviewed the ongoing implementation of the already adopted Nuclear and Conventional CBMs. It was decided that separate meetings of the Expert Level Groups on Nuclear and Conventional CBMs will be held to discuss implementation and strengthening of the existing CBMs and suggest additional mutually acceptable steps that could build greater trust and confidence between the two countries, thereby contributing to peace and security. The dates for the meetings of Expert

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