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: Classification of Motives and Hierarchy of Needs

Classification of Motives Motives, needs, wants and even desires are often spoken interrelated. Human motives stem from the need for things to keep an organism alive and necessary for survival. These primary motives are called physiological motives. These are also referred to as biological, organic and basic motives which are directly related to the normal body functions e.g., need for food, water and exertion of waste, rest and sleep; protection from heat and cold and avoidance of pain. Sexual motive is less considered a primary motive because the species cannot reproduce and survive if the sexual motive is not satisfied. Most of the primary motives are based on the body's need to maintain a certain level of essential life requirements like sugar in the blood to provide nourishment for the cells and sufficient waterin the body. These requisite levels are regulated by the homeostatic mechanism to restore the proper equilibrium which is essential for human survival. Physiological Motivation Need for Food Hunger is believed to arise when there is a rhythmic contraction of the empty stomach. Internal processes involve a reaction of the hypothalamus to the chemical state of the blood which is the biological control center of hunger. Hunger for specific foods have been traced to cultivated tastes and some the feeding system to specific bodily needs. Hunger is regulated by two systems - the feeding system that initiates eating when food is needed and the other one stops eating when enough food has been satiated with. Need for Water People can live for many days or even weeks without food, but they cannot survive without water. Hunger and thirst have different degree of intensity and cause different responses. The need for water can be powerful factor in controlling the direction of behavior. The most obvious aspect of thirst is dryness of the throat and mouth, which signals a need for water. The hypothalamus uses these cues in regulating drinking - mouth dryness, loss of water by cells and reduction in blood volume. The thirst drive is a regulatory mechanism which serves in controlling the intake of water into the body, maintaining a constant water content.

Need for Sleep and Rest The need for sleep and rest has to be considered in relation to muscle movement for it gradually become fatigued. Strenuous activities hasten the fatigue effects as the chemistry of the blood is changed in the various occasions. One observable change that usually takes place is the accumulation of a substance called in the muscles as continuously contract and as a result stimulates the nervous system directly and activates certain receptors. In some cases, fatigue is not due to physical exertion, but from emotional factors like frustration, worry, anxiety, apprehensions or boredom. When fatigue was the result of emotional problems, rest alone will not bring life. On the other hand, if fatigue is physically induced, rest naturally brings a cessation of stimulation of fatigue and impels the organism to seek it. Sleep motive Is related to rest need, but it is not the same with it. An individual may rest but not sleeping. During the state of sleepiness, the nerve and brain centers are directly stimulated by chemical conditions of the body. The muscles are also involved because there is a general relaxation of the body during sleep. Need for Proper Temperature Organism respond to stimulation in the environment by way of striving to maintain the amount of temperature at a satisfactory level. This is regulated within the limits by the physiological mechanism of homeostasis. The temperature must not be too high or too low. If the body temperature tends to rise high, perspiration takes place and evaporation of liquid cools the body. If the temperature falls, the individual trembles and steps up metabolism. The hypothalamus in the brain is the center for the regulation of the body temperature. Sex Need Hormones secreted by the gonads or sex glands - testes in the male and ovaries in the female, are basically responsible for sexual motivation. Sex needs stems from physiological processes and renders the organism's behavior selective and directional. The internal processes of sex need involve the secretion of androgen for males and estrogen for females. The sexual motivation in human beings is not entirely due to sexual hormones. There are a number of variations in the frequency of sexual activity and at the same time in the incentive that sets off sexual interest. Culture and different environments affects to a great extent sexual interest and activity. Studies based upon questionnaire data reveal that there is a great variation among men in frequency of sexual activity. Pain Drives Pain usually signals a danger to the organism. The moment pain is experienced; the tendency is a quick reaction to move away from the stimulus.

This reaction is referred to as withdrawal reflex. Experiences that bring pain makes the organism avoid pain. The free nerve endings that are widely distributed throughout the skin, blood vessels and internal organs are sense organs for pain. The sense organs are stimulated by extremes in the temperature, irritating sounds, offensive smells and injury to the tissues of the body. The organism strives to remove the injurious stimulus by way of looking ways to relieve pain. Maternal Motivation The first stage on maternal motivation is attachment and protection characterized by unconditional love and care. The mother handles the infants nutrition and temperature needs, provides it with security through physical support and protects it from threats and injury and other dangers to life. Physiological Motive Psychological motives are not directed to the survival of the organism. These are needs in the sense that the individuals happiness and well-being depend to a large extent to these psychological motives. It is assumed that some psychological motives are inborn, while others seem to be learned from past experiences. Psychological needs include (1) need for affection, (2) need for activation (5) need for security. Need for Affection. Man is a social being. He needs to belong and enjoys the company of friends who are warm and affectionate. During infancy and formative years, this need is usually satisfied by caring parents who provide and sustain emotional security that will determine to a large extent, his personal adjustment later life. Assured of the care and the love of those close to him, he is fortified with the trust and confidence that he is acceptable to individuals that he can depend on for the satisfaction of his needs. A healthy climate of the home can provide for the emotional stability of the child. A home which fosters love, affection and amity undoubtedly will give the child the solid foundation that will develop his wholesome personality and in effect, make him a worthy member of a bigger society. This need is satisfied by the development of meaningful personal relations with other groups of individuals. Need for Achievement The achievement motivation is premised on the fact that man needs to experience a certain degree of achievement necessary for himself whether in school, sports, occupation, business and other competitive activities for self-esteem and social approval. People who are high in achievement motivation, generally choose challenging activities. For him, the harder the conflicts, the more glorious the triumph. When success is achieved, he enjoys the fruits of his effort.

Research findings reveal that not only is the fear of failure common but also the feat of success. An individual is said to fear success if he is overly concerned about the pressure and responsibilities associated with success or is concerned that success would eventually lead to his rejection by other people. Need for Independence Man is endowed with superior intelligence and the desire to assert himself and seek freedom from restricting stimulus is innate in all organisms. He wants to move or go about freely with his own movements and purposes to seek his happiness in accordance with accepted moral standards. Need for Status A number of individuals are motivated to work hard to achieve a certain level of status in life. Status is a prestige dimension which is the distinction or reputation arising from success, achievement, rank, power or wealth. An individuals particular status motives depends on his own values and philosophy. This type of need produces satisfaction, self confidence and selfworth. Need for Security People seek freedom from physical threat, risk and deprivation and of fear of losing a job or shelter. They are motivated to strive for something that secures or makes them safe. They defend on other people and conditions for security. The feeling involves on being able to hold on what an individual has, e.g. money, job and partners love and affection. The presence or lack of security affects the ability to satisfy his needs. As a motive, it might be the source of various personal unhappiness that eventually lead to social unrest. Security is important in an individuals life for it establishes his physical, emotional and social life. Need Hierarchy Theory The need hierarchy theory is based on the assumption that people are motivated to satisfy a number of needs that money can satisfy directly or indirectly. The hierarchy of needs theory is considered one of the most widely identified theories of motivation put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the context of hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest. He further concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivation.

The Need Hierarchy. The basic human needs placed by Maslow in ascending order of importance is shown.

1. Physiological Needs. These are the basic needs for sustaining life such as food, water, air, shelter and sleep. Maslow noted that until these needs which are necessary to maintain life are satisfied, other needs will not motivate people in any kind of activity for their satisfaction.

2. Security of safety needs. These are needs to be free from any physical danger, threat and deprivation and of the fear of losing a job or shelter. 3. Affiliation or acceptance needs. People are social beings; and therefore they need to belong and to be accepted by others. This need is satisfied by the development of meaningful personal relations with other groups of individuals.

4. Esteem Needs. Maslow views that one people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they aspire to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This type of need produces satisfaction such as power, prestige, status, self-confidence and self worth. 5. Need for self actualization. Maslow regards this need as the apex of all needs in the hierarchy. This is a desire and aspiration of an individual to become what one is capable of becoming-to maximize ones potential and to accomplish something that is worthy of recognition. Maslows concept of hierarchy of needs has been subjected to considerable researches by various scholars in the field of psychology. They found little evidence to support Maslows theory that human needs form a hierarchy. They noted, however, that there were two levels of needs- biological and other needs. Other needs would emerge only when biological needs are satisfied. Moreover, they also found out that the highest level and the strength of needs varied with different individuals; in some individuals, social needs predominated; while in some, self-actualization needs were the strongest.