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Module 1: Overview of Smart Materials

Bishakh Bhattacharya & Nachiketa Tiwari Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Lecture #1: Introduction to Smart Material What is a Smart Material? Applications of Smart Material Smart systems using Smart M t i l Materials S Smart a t Actuators ctuato s Direct and Reverse Effects Piezoelectric Materials

Features of Smart Materials

These materials are a part of a group of materials broadly known as Functional Materials. The basic energy forms that gets interchanged are: thermal energy, electric energy, magnetic energy, sound energy & mechanical energy Analogous to Biological Materials: adaptivity, adaptivity cellular function, self sensing, actuation & control Smart sensors & actuators are highly embeddable

Smartness in a scale of intelligence

Stupid Stup d Dumb u b Foolish oo s Trivial a Se Sensible sbe Smart/Clever Intelligent Wise Present smart materials are in the range g from highly g y sensible to poorly intelligent level Passive smartness to Active Smartness; eg. of passive smartness - multiphase rocket nozzle of Space Shuttle Porous Tungsten with silver coating, Graphite, Ceramic L Layer, St Steel l Passive smartness is in open-loop!

Traditional vs. vs Smart Structure

Traditional structures Designed for certain performance requirements eg. load, speed, life span lif Unable to modify its specifications if there is a change of environment S Smart t St Structures t Can accommodate unpredictable environments Can meet exacting performance requirement Offer more efficient solutions for a wide range of applications

Smart Materials

Piezoelectric film, PVDF

SMA, Nitinol

Piezoceramic PZT Piezoceramic, SMA, , Nitinol MS Material, Terfenol-D

Wh smart Why t sensors and d actuators t t ?

Real time response Exploit functional properties Better embeddability Minimal effect on structural properties Reduction in weight g Less power consumption Better B tt reliability li bilit

Impetus to growth of smart structures

Recent advances in materials Improved I d sensor and d actuator t t technologies t h l i Real-time information processing Tape casting and screen printing technologies Integration and miniaturization

A Range of Applications

Different Strategies for Vibration Control

(iv) Active Control

Additional Excitation


(ii) System Modification (i) Excitation reduction at Source

Energy Conversion
(v) Use response as a source of excitation and convert mechanical energy to electrical energy

(iii) Source isolation by using vibration isolators, barriers or sound absorbing materials

Storage of S f Energy/ E / Use U for f Energy E Scavenging Devices

Intelligent Product: A Mobile Charger

Smart Materials for Sensing & Actuation

Output Current/ Charge Magnetization Strain Temperature Light Input Electric Field Conductivity Permittivity i Eddy Current Effect Direct PiezoElectric Effect Pyroelectric Effect Electromagnetic Effect Permeability Reverse Piezoelectricity Joule Effect Magnetostriction Elastic Modulus Ohmic Resistance ElectroOptic effect Magnet o-Optic effect Photoelastic Effect

Magnetic Field

Magneto caloric Effect


Villary Effect

Thermo-Mechanical Effect



Thermal Expansion Phase Transition Photostriction

Specific Heat



PhotoVoltaic Effect


PhotoThermal effect

Refractive index

Smart Materials as Sensors & Actuators

Input Stress Output O t t Signal

Direct Effect
Output Electric Potential

Input Stimulus

Output Strain

Reverse Effect Input:

Electric/Magnetic / Thermal

Smart Actuators
Input Parameter Electric Field Actuator Type/ Devices Piezoelectric/ Electrostrictive Electrostatic (MEMS) Electro- Rheological Fluid Magnetostrictive Magneto-Rheological Fluid Mechano-chemical Shape Memory Alloy Sh Shape M Memory P Polymer l Photostrictive

Magnetic Field

Chemical Heat


Traditional VS New Actuators

Drive Device Displacement Accuracy Torque/Generative Force Response Time Air Pressure Motor Rotation degrees 100m degrees 10m minutes 50 Nm 10 sec

Cylinder Oil Pressure Motor

100mm Rotation

10-1 N/mm2 1000 Nm

10 sec 1 sec

Cylinder Electricity AC Servo

1000mm Rotation

100 N/mm2 30 Nm

1 sec 100 msec

DC Servo


minutes 10m 0.1m 0.01m 0.01m

200 Nm

10 msec

Linear Stepper


300 N

100 msec

Voice-Coil Piezoelectric

1mm 100m 100m

300 N 30 N/mm2

1 msec 0.1 msec


100 N/mm2

0.1 msec

Ultrasonic Motor



1 Nm

1 msec

Direct Effect
All Piezoelectric Materials and PVDF g Materials Magnetostrictive Optical Fibre

Converse/Reverse Effect
Ferroelectrics Perovskites, Piezoceramics, PVDF respond to electric field by change in shape Terfenol-D, Amorphous Met-Glasses show a similar effect with the change in magnetic field Shape Memory Alloy respond in a similar manner but with the change in Thermal Field Electro/Magneto Rheological Fluids respond to electric/magnetic field by changing its viscosity

Properties of a few Smart Materials

Props. F Free strain(ppm) t i ( ) E. Mod. (GPa) Band

PZT 1000 62 .1Hz-GHz

PVDF 700 2.1 .1Hz-GHz

T-D 2000 48 .1Hz-MHz

NiTiNOL 20000 27 M 89 - A 0-10 Hz

Gauenzi, P., Smart Structures, Wiley, 2009 Cady, W. G., Piezoelectricity, Dover Publication 1950 Publication, Crawley, E. F., Intelligent Structures for Aerospace: a technology overview and assessment, AIAA, 33 (8), 1994, pp. 16891689 1699