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Module 1: Overview of Smart Materials

Bishakh Bhattacharya & Nachiketa Tiwari Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Lecture #1: Introduction to Smart Material What is a Smart Material? Applications of Smart Material Smart systems using Smart M t i l Materials S Smart a t Actuators ctuato s Direct and Reverse Effects Piezoelectric Materials

Features of Smart Materials


These materials are a part of a group of materials broadly known as Functional Materials. The basic energy forms that gets interchanged are: thermal energy, electric energy, magnetic energy, sound energy & mechanical energy Analogous to Biological Materials: adaptivity, adaptivity cellular function, self sensing, actuation & control Smart sensors & actuators are highly embeddable

Smartness in a scale of intelligence


Stupid Stup d Dumb u b Foolish oo s Trivial a Se Sensible sbe Smart/Clever Intelligent Wise Present smart materials are in the range g from highly g y sensible to poorly intelligent level Passive smartness to Active Smartness; eg. of passive smartness - multiphase rocket nozzle of Space Shuttle Porous Tungsten with silver coating, Graphite, Ceramic L Layer, St Steel l Passive smartness is in open-loop!

Traditional vs. vs Smart Structure


Traditional structures Designed for certain performance requirements eg. load, speed, life span lif Unable to modify its specifications if there is a change of environment S Smart t St Structures t Can accommodate unpredictable environments Can meet exacting performance requirement Offer more efficient solutions for a wide range of applications

Smart Materials

Piezoelectric film, PVDF

SMA, Nitinol

Piezoceramic PZT Piezoceramic, SMA, , Nitinol MS Material, Terfenol-D

Wh smart Why t sensors and d actuators t t ?


Real time response Exploit functional properties Better embeddability Minimal effect on structural properties Reduction in weight g Less power consumption Better B tt reliability li bilit

Impetus to growth of smart structures


Recent advances in materials Improved I d sensor and d actuator t t technologies t h l i Real-time information processing Tape casting and screen printing technologies Integration and miniaturization

A Range of Applications

Different Strategies for Vibration Control


(iv) Active Control

Additional Excitation

Excitation SOURCE SYSTEM RESPONSE

(ii) System Modification (i) Excitation reduction at Source

Energy Conversion
(v) Use response as a source of excitation and convert mechanical energy to electrical energy

(iii) Source isolation by using vibration isolators, barriers or sound absorbing materials

Storage of S f Energy/ E / Use U for f Energy E Scavenging Devices

Intelligent Product: A Mobile Charger

Smart Materials for Sensing & Actuation


Output Current/ Charge Magnetization Strain Temperature Light Input Electric Field Conductivity Permittivity i Eddy Current Effect Direct PiezoElectric Effect Pyroelectric Effect Electromagnetic Effect Permeability Reverse Piezoelectricity Joule Effect Magnetostriction Elastic Modulus Ohmic Resistance ElectroOptic effect Magnet o-Optic effect Photoelastic Effect

Magnetic Field

Magneto caloric Effect

Stress

Villary Effect

Thermo-Mechanical Effect

Heat

ThermoMagnetization

Thermal Expansion Phase Transition Photostriction

Specific Heat

ThermoLuminecence

Light

PhotoVoltaic Effect

PhotoMagnetization

PhotoThermal effect

Refractive index

Smart Materials as Sensors & Actuators


Input Stress Output O t t Signal

Direct Effect
Output Electric Potential

Input Stimulus

Output Strain

Reverse Effect Input:


Electric/Magnetic / Thermal

Smart Actuators
Input Parameter Electric Field Actuator Type/ Devices Piezoelectric/ Electrostrictive Electrostatic (MEMS) Electro- Rheological Fluid Magnetostrictive Magneto-Rheological Fluid Mechano-chemical Shape Memory Alloy Sh Shape M Memory P Polymer l Photostrictive

Magnetic Field

Chemical Heat

Light

Traditional VS New Actuators


Drive Device Displacement Accuracy Torque/Generative Force Response Time Air Pressure Motor Rotation degrees 100m degrees 10m minutes 50 Nm 10 sec

Cylinder Oil Pressure Motor

100mm Rotation

10-1 N/mm2 1000 Nm

10 sec 1 sec

Cylinder Electricity AC Servo

1000mm Rotation

100 N/mm2 30 Nm

1 sec 100 msec

DC Servo

Rotation

minutes 10m 0.1m 0.01m 0.01m

200 Nm

10 msec

Linear Stepper

1000mm

300 N

100 msec

Voice-Coil Piezoelectric

1mm 100m 100m

300 N 30 N/mm2

1 msec 0.1 msec

Magnetostrictive

100 N/mm2

0.1 msec

Ultrasonic Motor

Rotation

minutes

1 Nm

1 msec

Direct Effect
All Piezoelectric Materials and PVDF g Materials Magnetostrictive Optical Fibre

Converse/Reverse Effect
Ferroelectrics Perovskites, Piezoceramics, PVDF respond to electric field by change in shape Terfenol-D, Amorphous Met-Glasses show a similar effect with the change in magnetic field Shape Memory Alloy respond in a similar manner but with the change in Thermal Field Electro/Magneto Rheological Fluids respond to electric/magnetic field by changing its viscosity

Properties of a few Smart Materials

Props. F Free strain(ppm) t i ( ) E. Mod. (GPa) Band

PZT 1000 62 .1Hz-GHz

PVDF 700 2.1 .1Hz-GHz

T-D 2000 48 .1Hz-MHz

NiTiNOL 20000 27 M 89 - A 0-10 Hz

References
Gauenzi, P., Smart Structures, Wiley, 2009 Cady, W. G., Piezoelectricity, Dover Publication 1950 Publication, Crawley, E. F., Intelligent Structures for Aerospace: a technology overview and assessment, AIAA, 33 (8), 1994, pp. 16891689 1699

END OF LECTURE 1