Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 100

Sexuality In IslamHeba G. Kotb M.D.

Sexuality In Islam A dissertation presented to Maimonides University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the de ree of !h.D. in "lini"al sexolo y supervised by !rof. #illiam Gran$i !h.D.% &''( )ontents A"*no+led ements !refa"e I. Introdu"tion II. Islami" !erspe"tives on Sex and Sexuality III. Islam,Guided Sex -du"ation I.. Male )ir"um"ision/ Medi"al vs. 0eli ious !erspe"tives .. Muslim 1outh and !orno raphy .I. Islami" )on"epts of Marital Sexuality .II. )on"ept of Marria e in Islam .III. !roto"ols of Sex !ra"ti"e in Islam I2. )on"ept of Adultery in Islam 2. 3ral Sex/ #hat about it4 2I. Homosexuality/ Islami" 0ulin s 2II. !oly amy 5multi,marria e6 in Islami" 7a+ 2III. #omen in 8uran and Sunnah 2I.. )on"epts of )ontra"eption and Abortion in Islam 2.. Mis"on"eptions 0e ardin Sexuality in Islam 2.I. )on"ludin 0emar*s 0eferen"es A)K93#7-DG-M-9:S ;irst of all% I +ould li*e to than* my dear God/ Allah Almi hty% for ma*in me a+are of% and appre"iatin % all his ifts and blessin s to the human*ind% and for ivin me a sound mind +hi"h helped me tryin to ta*e a small tour in His indefinite divine +isdom +orld. I am deeply tou"hed by the support of my parents in the very first pla"e. I am also very than*ful to my beloved husband Hisham% +hom I "onsider a reat bless from Allah% for his indefinite support and "oura e. Also am I than*ful to my three lovely dau hters Dina% 0anda% and 7obna% for standin the situation +here their mommy is a+ay +or*in or studyin for lon times. All my ratitude to !rofessor #illiam Gran$i % my dear Ameri"an father% for all his en"oura ement% moral support and fatherly attitude he has over+helmed me +ith% and very basi"ally for <ust bein there% +ith his ideal ethi"s% his extreme "are% his reat s"ien"e% and his ni"e smile. 7astly% I sin"erely hope this +or* +ould be of benefit for +hom to read it. !0-;A)Despite the sexual relationship is hi hly sa"red and hi hly re"ommended reli iously 5so lon as it is inside the bond of marria e6% it +as for lon lon time that <ust mentionin sex +as "onsidered shameful and even sinful/ this resulted in nothin but "onsiderable lost "on"ernin this issue. Here "omes the role of professionals in promotin or restorin sexual health% and from the "larifi"ation of this role "ome the re"ommendations to attain maximal pleasure from that hi hly valuable ift of G3D/ that is S-2. :here are three basi" elements for better sexual life and health= >, )oura e to dia nose and admit a present sexual dysfun"tion. &, A "apa"ity to en<oy and "ontrol sexual behavior in a""ordan"e +ith a so"ial and personal ethi"

?, ;reedom from fear% shame% uilt% false beliefs% and other psy"holo i"al fa"tors inhibitin sexual response and impairin sexual relationships (, ;reedom from or ani" disorders% diseases% and defi"ien"ies that interfere +ith sexual fun"tions. It is to be *no+n that ma nifi"ent sexual life is a "ompletely attainable oal for <ust about everyone% espe"ially if it is runnin uided by Gods orders and re ulations% and +e dont have to be astonished readin these +ords% as God has "reated us% so he is the best to *no+ +hat is benefi"ial and +hat is not for us% and overall% +hat is best for his beloved "reatures% these arehuman bein s. :his messa e of God 5Allah6 "ame "lear in his final divine reli ion= Islam% +hi"h surprisin ly de"lared very profound details of a best sexual life bet+een a husband and a +ife% either fran*ly% or symboli"ally. Islam has set le al% psy"holo i"al% and so"ial rules to "ontrol ones natural instin"ts parti"ularly +hen he has not the means of marria e. :he basi" tenet is to respond to the 8urans "all to hold ti ht to virtue and "hastity as Allah% the -xalted% says= ..and let those +ho find not the finan"ial means for marria e *eep themselves "haste% until Allah ives them means out of His ra"e 5&?=??6 It is stron ly remar*able that there is a stron "ontinuity bet+een 8uran 5boo* of Islam6 and the a ony "olumns of spe"iali$ed ma a$ines for example% both in the problems that arise% +hi"h almost the same sin"e very early times% and in the positions defended. 3f "ourse in a totali$in so"iety no+adays% the impa"t of Islam "ould not fail to be +orld+ide. Islami" ethi"s are "ertainly at the "enter of dis"ussion. 0edis"overin the meanin of thin s also involves questionin the fun"tions attributed to the sa"red and the sexual +ithin the human nature. It is no so mu"h a question that the sexual is in essen"e sa"ral or that the sa"red is sexual in ori in as of establishin the +ays and means by +hi"h the human +ell bein may profit both from the ma<esty of the sa"red and from the po+er of the libido. A"tually the problem is bi er for +omen the vast ma<ority of +hom do not have satisfyin sex lives. #omen +ant sexual fulfillment but are sometimes unsure about ho+ to express their needs or improve their sex lives. :his also promotes a "limate of honesty% "arin and a+areness that deepens the "onne"tion bet+een men and +omen. Also% for a balan"ed so"iety produ"es a balan"ed sexuality and not the reverse% here the Islami" model is offered as a harmonious synthesis and a permanent ad<ustment of sexual satisfa"tion and reli ious "ommitment. Islam is no +ay tries to depre"iate the sill less to deny the po+er of the sexual/ on the "ontrary% it attributes a sublime si nifi"an"e to the po+er of sexuality and invests it +ith su"h a trans"endental quality that any tra"e of uilt is removed from it. :a*en up in this +ay% sexuality flo+s freely and <oyfully% in other +ords% sexuality is the referen"e and its "ontents is a full positivity% ta*in these fa"ts% Islami" life be"omes an alteration and "omplementarity of the invo"ation of the divine #ord and the exer"ise of the physi"al love. :he fa"t of bein and the dialo ue bet+een people about sex pun"tuate our daily lives/ this be"omes a permanent attempt to inte rate the reli ious and the sexual. A"tually the only measures that do not under o "han in a""ordin to any "ir"umstan"es or any inputs are the reli ious rules% so% I thin* it is time no+ to bypass the "onfli"ts of the different prin"iples iven by humans and to et ba"* to restin on the round iven by the "reator of these humans/ ta*in in "onsideration that no rules ever last but God ones. ;or these above,mentioned extremely important oals to be a"hieved% this resear"h +or* +as a""omplished to prove that ori inal Islam% represented in 8uran% and Sunnah% +as the first to put a round for sex and sexuality rules to

be ta*en over in the ri ht +ay +hi"h does not at all ne ate% on the "ontrary it a"tually "onfirmed +hat modern s"ien"e "ame +ith and proved. :he aim of this +or* is to thro+ li ht both for Muslims and non,Muslims on that Islam is the oldest sour"e of the vie+ of life in +hi"h sexuality en<oys a privile ed status% and based the harmony of sexual e"stasy and reli ious faith that is a""essible and not hard to be a"hieved. :his +or* +as built by a different literatures devoted to the sub<e"t of sexuality% +hether these sour"es are Arabi" or +estern ones% this is to lo"ali$e the pla"e of Islami" sexuality in different "ultures% and to prove that this is not "ontroversial +ith any of them% on the "ontrary% Islami" "ulture is so pro ressist% and liberal. Hopin this +or* +ould be of benefit in un"overin the true identity of Islam as a divine reli ion% as *no+in that God "reated us% so% it is then lo i" that his o+n +ords and re ulations represented by 8uran and Sunnah 5statements and behavior of !rophet Mohammad 5!@UH66 are the best +ays to be follo+ed I. I9:03DU):I39 :he traditional non,Islami" moralists re arded sex and love as if these +ere manifestations of an obnoxious evil to be shunned. In "ontrast% the modernisti" so"ieties tended to "onsider free love as not only desirable but respe"table. 9o doubt% the free love "on"ept be an to re"eive every preferential treatment and en"oura ement for its +orld+ide ro+th. A#hat do +e mean by Sexuality4 Sexuality refers in its broadest sense to the quality of bein sexual. :he term sexuality is also used in plural% i.e. sexualities% to refle"t the diversity of sexuality. :he main aspe"ts of sexuality are sex% biolo i"al or physiolo i"al sex% ender% ender identity% ender roles and sexual orientation. Sexual orientation refers to emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional attra"tion from one person to another person or persons. Someones sexual orientation is "ate ori$ed a""ordin to the ender5s6 or biolo i"al sex of the people heBshe has these feelin s for% that is% it des"ribes +hether a person is attra"ted primarily to+ard people of the same or the opposite sex% or to both. Sexual orientation exists alon a s"ale that ran es from ex"lusive homosexuality to ex"lusive heterosexuality and in"ludes various forms of bisexuality. Sexual orientation is an important part of a persons total self,identity= ho+ +e see ourselves and ho+ others see us. A persons experien"e and understandin of herBhis sexual orientation "an vary durin their life. Sexual orientation is different from sexual behavior be"ause it refers to feelin s and to self,identity% rather than only a"tions. !ersons may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors. A#hat do +e mean by Islam4 Islam "an mean many different thin s to different people. Sometimes people tal* about CIslamC +hen referrin to the "ulture or traditions from a parti"ular "ountry or from a spe"ifi" roup of people. Sometimes people use the +ord Islam to refer to the pra"ti"e of reli ious rituals and or to spirituality. !eople also use the term CIslamC to tal* about a politi"al vie+point and sometimes they are referrin to +hat is *no+n as CIslami" la+C or shariah. :his body of rules% norms and la+s is itself made up of several s"hools of thou ht and differin individual opinions of Muslim s"holars. :he Safra !ro<e"t 5one of the pro<e"ts interested in reli ious studies6 uses the term Muslim la+s to refer to both shariah as +ell as to modern state la+s "laimin to be based on it. :his variety in understandin s and meanin s of the +ord CIslamC and +hat "an be said to be Islami" or a""ordin to Islam demonstrates the diversity in ho+ Muslims experien"e and vie+ Islam. #hen dis"ussin % resear"hin and informin ourselves about the issue of ender% sexuality and Islam% +e need to be a+are of the various understandin s people may have of the term Islam. It is also important to "larify to ourselves% and others% +hat exa"tly +e mean +hen +e refer to CIslamC= Are +e tal*in about Muslim la+s% a parti"ular "ulture%

reli ious do ma% a parti"ular spirituality or a "ombination of these. In this se"tion of the Safra !ro<e"t +ebsite% they refer to the +or* of s"holars fo"usin mostly on the 8uran +or*in to+ards frame+or*s for pro ressive Islam% rather than on shariah or any other understandin of +hat mi ht "onstitute Islam. AGlossary of Key :erms= @iolo i"al sex B !hysiolo i"al sex= the biolo i"al "lassifi"ation of physiolo i"al bodies as male or female usually determined by external sex or ans% internal sex and reprodu"tive or ans% "hromosomes% hormones and se"ondary sexual development at puberty. @odies +ith an ambi uous biolo i"al sex% i.e. +ith both male and female "hara"teristi"s are sometimes "hara"teri$ed as hermaphrodite or intersex. A persons biolo i"al sex usually but not al+ays , "orresponds +ith herBhis ender identity. @isexual5ity6= a "ate ory of sexual orientation% referrin to person +ho "an experien"e emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional attra"tion to persons of both their o+n sex and the opposite sex. :here are various forms of bisexuality% varyin from bein primarily attra"ted to persons of the same,sex and only o""asionally to persons of the opposite sex 5and vi"e versa6 to bein equally attra"ted to persons from the same sex and the opposite sex. ;eminists 5;eminism6= the Safra !ro<e"t defines feminists as s"holars and a"tivists "hallen in ender bias andBor +or*in to+ards ender equality. Gay= A term used as a synonym to homosexual. :he term ay is usually preferred to the term homosexual +hen des"ribin a persons sexual orientation% i.e. she or he is ay. Sometimes the term ay is used to des"ribe only male homosexuals 5see also ay man6. Gay man= a man +ho experien"es emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional attra"tion only% or primarily% to another man or other men. His sexual orientation is "ate ori$ed as homosexual. Gender= refers to the so"ial and "ultural "odes used to distin uish bet+een +hat a parti"ular so"iety "onsiders mas"uline or feminine qualities% "hara"teristi"s% attributes or behaviors. :he definition of ender varies +idely and is often the sub<e"t of exhaustive debates% althou h most a ree that ender is lar ely so"ially and "ulturally determined. !eople are attributed a so"ial and "ultural ender that usually "orresponds to their 5assumed6 biolo i"al sex and they are then expe"ted to behave in a""ordan"e +ith ender roles as defined by their so"ial and "ultural "ontext. Gender "an be expressed in physi"al appearan"e% dress% mannerisms% spee"h patterns% and so"ial behaviors and intera"tions. :he attribution of ender to a person by others is a 5un"ons"ious6 "ate ori$ation of a person as bein a man or a +oman. A persons o+n ender identity% i.e. their deeply felt 5or psy"holo i"al6 sense of bein male or female 5or both% neither or other6% usually , but not al+ays , "orresponds to their biolo i"al sex and to ho+ they express their ender. 5See also trans ender% transsexual and ender dysphoria6. Gender dysphoria= a medi"al term referrin to people +ho have a "ompellin sense that their ender identity is not in "onformity +ith the physiolo i"al or biolo i"al sex they are born +ith. In other +ords% persons +ho feel that they are born in the +ron body% i.e. biolo i"al +omen +ho feel they should have been born as men and vi"e versa. :hese persons are enerally referred to as transsexual or trans ender. Gender equality= refers to people re"eivin equal opportunities to reali$e their full human potential a""ordin to their +ish% irrespe"tive of ender. :his "an for example in"lude equality in opportunities to ta*e part in so"ial% e"onomi"% "ultural and politi"al developments and benefitin equally from the results. It "an also refer to the equality in prote"tion of 5human6 ri hts. Gender equality does not ne"essarily mean identi"al "onditions or identi"al ri hts as these "onditions and ri hts may in themselves already be endered. :o a"hieve ender equality% re"o nition is needed that "urrent so"ial% e"onomi"% "ultural% and politi"al systems are endered 5i.e. "onstru"ted a""ordin to ender roles6

+hi"h lead to +omen bein disadvanta ed in all areas of life 5 ender bias6. :his pattern is further affe"ted by other fa"tors of oppression and inequality su"h as ra"e% ethni"ity% "ulture% immi ration status% "lass% a e% disability% sexuality% ender identity andBor other status. Gender equality requires the empo+erment of +omen in their parti"ular "ontexts% ta*in their experien"es and perspe"tives into a""ount. Gender identity= is a persons deeply felt 5or psy"holo i"al6 sense of bein male or female 5or both% neither or other6. A persons ender identity is the ender to +hi"h a person feels sheBhe belon s. :his usually "orresponds to a persons biolo i"al sex and to ho+ they express their ender. Ho+ever% some people have a "ompellin sense that their ender identity is not in "onformity +ith their physiolo i"al or biolo i"al sex or feel andBor express a ender identity that is other than simply male or female. :hese people are usually referred to as transsexual or trans ender 5see also ender dysphoria6. Gay men% lesbians and bisexual people are usually "ontent +ith their ender identity andBor their biolo i"al sex% in"ludin those +ho are not "ontent +ith their ender roles. ;or example those +ho dress or behave similar to +hat is so"ially and "ulturally per"eived as the opposite ender% su"h as a +oman +ho behaves or dresses a""ordin to +hat is per"eived to be a mas"uline manner. Gender roles= Gender affe"ts ho+ people per"eive themselves and others and ho+ they expe"t themselves and others to behave% that is% either in a mas"uline or feminine manner. :hese ender roles are learned and "ulturally and so"ially determined. :hey are also affe"ted by fa"tors su"h as edu"ation and e"onomi"s. :herefore% ender roles "an evolve over time. Gender roles and expe"tations are often identified as fa"tors hinderin ender equality. In pra"ti"e ender roles usually affe"t +omen adversely in relation to many aspe"ts of their life% su"h as family% so"io,e"onomi" status% health% life expe"tation% independen"e% freedom and ri hts 5 ender bias6. Heterosexual5ity6= a "ate ory of sexual orientation% referrin to a person +ho experien"es emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional attra"tion only% or primarily% to 5a6 person5s6 of the opposite sex. :his is also "alled bein strai ht. Homophobia= an irrational fear of% or hatred a ainst% lesbian% ay and bisexual people and homosexuality. Homosexual5ity6= a "ate ory of sexual orientation% referrin to a person +ho experien"es emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional attra"tion only% or primarily% to 5a6 person5s6 of the same sex. !ersons +ith a homosexual orientation are also referred to as ay 5both men and +omen6 or as lesbian 5+omen only6. 0eferrin to a person as 5a6 homosexual is usually avoided as this "an be "onsidered inappropriate or even offensive. :he reasons for this are diverse and in"lude the previous dero atory usa e of the term% its medi"al asso"iation and the fa"t that homosexual and homosexuality in most Muslim so"ieties and "ultures refers to "ertain spe"ifi" sexual behavior not resemblin the "ontemporary #estern understandin of homosexuality as a "ate ory of sexual orientation. Instead the Safra !ro<e"t prefers usin the term same,sex sexuality. In addition% the term homosexual does not express the diversity of sexualities as it i nores bisexuality nor is it ender spe"ifi". #hen referrin to persons% preferen"e is iven to the statement that someone is lesbian% ay or bisexual or that someone is a lesbian% a ay man or a bisexual person. Islam= Islam "an mean many different thin s to different people. Sometimes people tal* about CIslamC +hen referrin to the "ulture or traditions from a parti"ular "ountry or from a spe"ifi" roup of people. Sometimes people use the +ord Islam to refer to the pra"ti"e of reli ious rituals andBor to spirituality. !eople also use the term CIslamC to tal* about a politi"al vie+point and sometimes they are referrin to +hat is *no+n as CIslami" la+C or shariah. :his body of rules% norms and la+s is itself made up of several s"hools of thou ht and differin individual opinions of Muslim s"holars. :he

Safra !ro<e"t uses the term Muslim la+s to refer to both shariah as +ell as to modern state la+s said to be based on it. 7esbian= a +oman +ho experien"es emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional attra"tion only% or primarily% to another +oman or other +omen. Her sexual orientation is "ate ori$ed as homosexual. 7G@:586 5people6= is the a"ronym of lesbian% ay% bisexual andBor trans ender 5andBor queer6 5people6. It is an in"lusive term for identities sometimes also asso"iated to ether as sexual minorities. !olyamory= :his is a ne+ term that has emer ed in the debates about non,mono amy in re"ent years. It literally translates into many loves. !olyamory "ir"ums"ribes a parti"ular relationship philosophy that assumes that it is possible 5and indeed desirable6 to love many people and to maintain multiple relationships. #ithin polyamory there is a stron emphasis on love% intima"y% "ommitment and honesty. Some have defined polyamory as responsible non,mono amy. !olyfidelity is a "on"ept "losely related to polyamory. !olyfidelity is based on the understandin that the partners in a multiple relationship +ill be faithful to+ards ea"h other% an assumption that is not "learly spelled out or implied in polyamory. #hile for some polyfidelity mar*s a very spe"ifi" approa"h to polyamory 5or even one distin"t from it6% others tend to equate both "on"epts. 0eformists= s"holars +ho have sou ht to "hallen e "lassi"al or fundamentalist interpretations of the 8uran and other sour"es of Muslim la+. Same,sex sexuality 5D Same,sex relationships6= a "ate ory of sexual orientation% referrin to a person +ho experien"es emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional attra"tion only% or primarily% to 5a6 person5s6 of the same sex. Same,sex relationships are emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional "onsentin relationship5s6 bet+een people of the same sex% that is% bet+een t+o +omen or t+o men. Same,sex sexuality is sometimes used as a synonym for homosexuality. Ho+ever% the Safra !ro<e"t normally uses the term same,sex sexuality instead of% andBor distin uished from% homosexuality as the notions of homosexuality that exist +ithin most Muslim so"ieties and "ultures do not resemble the "ontemporary #estern understandin of homosexuality. In most Muslim so"ieties and "ultures% homosexuality refers to "ertain spe"ifi" sexual behavior rather than to a "ate ory of sexual orientation that in"ludes a +ider s"ope of 5sexual6 behaviors% feelin s and self,identity. Sex= "an refer to "ertain forms of sexual behavior% i.e. havin sex. It "an also refer to a persons biolo i"al sex% i.e. someone is from the male sex or the female sex. :he term sex is sometimes "onfused +ith the term ender% <ust li*e the term biolo i"al sex is sometimes "onfused +ith ender identity. :he term sex "an be distin uished from sexuality and sexual orientation. Sexual behavior= the fa"tual behavior of a person in relation to herBhis sexuality% either publi"ly or privately% in"ludin , but not limited to havin inter"ourse. Sexual behavior is different to sexual orientation as sexual behavior refers to a"tions +hereas sexual orientation 5also6 refers to feelin s and to self,identity. !ersons may or may not express their sexual orientation in their sexual behaviors. Sexual orientation= refers to emotional% romanti"% sexual andBor affe"tional attra"tion from one person to another person or persons. Someones sexual orientation is "ate ori$ed a""ordin to the ender5s6 or biolo i"al sex of the people heBshe has these feelin s for% that is% it des"ribes +hether a person is attra"ted primarily to+ard people of the same or the opposite sex% or to both. Sexual orientation exists alon a "ontinuum that ran es from ex"lusive homosexuality to ex"lusive heterosexuality and in"ludes various forms of bisexuality. Sexual orientation is an important part of a persons total self,identity= ho+ +e see ourselves and ho+ others see us. A persons experien"e and understandin of herBhis sexual orientation "an vary durin their life. Sexual orientation is different from sexual behavior be"ause it refers to feelin s and to self,identity% rather than mere a"tions. !ersons may or may not

express their sexual orientation in their behaviors. Sexual orientation "an be distin uished from other aspe"ts of sexuality su"h as biolo i"al sex% ender identity and ender roles. Sexuality 5Sexualities% Sexual diversity6= Sexuality refers in its broadest sense to the quality of bein sexual. :he term sexuality is also used in plural% i.e. sexualities% to refle"t the diversity of sexuality% also *no+n as sexual diversity. :he main aspe"ts of sexuality are sex% biolo i"al or physiolo i"al sex% ender% ender identity% ender roles and sexual orientation. Shariah= An Arabi" term meanin = a body of rules% norms and la+s a""ordin to +hi"h Muslims 5are supposed to6 live their lives. :hese rules% norms and la+s are found in% and derived from t+o main sour"es= the 8uran and pra"ti"es and sayin s of the !rophet Muhammad 5hadith6. :he 8uran and hadith are *no+n as the primary sour"es of Muslim la+. Shariah +as formulated bet+een the ei hth and the fourteenth "entury AD. In the ei ht and ninth "entury AD several Muslim s"hools of thou ht 5madahibs6 emer ed in different eo raphi"al lo"ations% derivin le al and reli ious rules from the 8uran and hadith. :hese s"hools also formulated 5le al6 opinions *no+n as <urispruden"e 5fiqh6% in"ludin the assessment of the reliability of hadith. ;or situations that +ere not expli"itly mentioned in the 8uran or hadith% the s"hools used "ertain methods of le al reasonin to formulate rules. :hese methods in"lude the formulation of a "onsensus opinion 5i<ma6% dra+in an analo y 5qiyas6 from an existin rule or la+ or ma*in a de"ision on the basis of 5prin"iples of6 so"ial <usti"e 5maslaha6. Differin opinions bet+een the s"hools as +ell as bet+een individual s"holars% "ombined +ith influen"es of lo"al "ustoms and re ional differen"es% "aused variations in the rules% norms and la+s +ithin and bet+een the s"hools. :his body of rules% opinions and la+s% is referred to as "lassi"al Muslim la+ or shariah. ;our Sunni s"hools 5Hanafi% Hanbali% Mali*i and Shafii6 and one Shia 5Eafari6 s"hool remain dominant today. :he pro"ess of understandin and formulatin le al and reli ious opinions from the 8uran and hadith is *no+n as interpretation 5i<tihad6. It is believed by traditional Muslim s"holars that some+here bet+een the tenth and the fourteenth "entury the ate of i<tihad +as "losed% preventin ne+ interpretations of the 8uran bein re"o ni$ed as shariah. I<tihad +as then repla"ed by the do"trine of taqlid or imitation of the rules% norms and la+s that already existed. :he idea of taqlid has made it diffi"ult for reformists to "hallen e the shariah and formulate ne+ interpretations of the 8uran. Many "ountries +ith si nifi"ant Muslim populations have developed so,"alled shariah la+s as state la+% parti"ularly in the area of personal status or family la+s. :hese are either based on% or are variations of% the <urispruden"e of one or more of the five s"hools of thou ht. Some !ro<e"ts uses the term Muslim la+s to refer to both shariah as +ell as "urrent state la+s that are said to be based on shariah. :rans ender 5:rans ender people6= Some use trans enderBtrans ender people as a synonym for transsexual5s6 or to refer to persons medi"ally dia nosed +ith ender dysphoria. 3thers use the term trans ender more +idely to refer to all expressions of ender identity other than simply male or female. :rans ender "an vary from a sur i"al "han e to someones biolo i"al sex 5transsexual5ity66 to o""asionally dressin in the "lothin of the opposite ender 5transvestite6. A trans ender person "an also transition , sometimes +ith the help of hormone therapy andBor "osmeti" sur ery , to live in the ender role of "hoi"e% +ithout under oin or +ishin to under o 5"omplete6 sur ery. :he term trans ender "an also in"lude those +ho identify andBor express themselves as neither male nor female andBor those born +ith an ambi uous biolo i"al sex. :he International ;oundation for Gender -du"ation defines a trans ender person as someone +hose ender display at least sometimes runs "ontrary to +hat other people from the same "ulture +ould normally expe"t6..;emale to male 5;:M6 trans ender people are born +ith female bodies but have a predominantly male

ender identity% male to female 5M:;6 trans ender people +ere born +ith male bodies but have a predominantly female ender identity. :he Safra !ro<e"t uses the +idest possible definition of trans ender and in"ludes those +ho feel not able to express or display the ender identity of their "hoi"e% for example for fear of ne ative rea"tions. :ransphobia= an irrational fear of% or hatred a ainst% trans ender people. :ranssexual5ity6= refers to people +ho have a "ompellin sense that their ender identity is not in "onformity +ith the physiolo i"al or biolo i"al sex they are born +ith 5see also= ender dysphoria6. :his may lead some to see* ender 5or sex6 reassi nment sur ery to ma*e herBhis biolo i"al or physiolo i"al sex "orrespond to herBhis ender identity. Some people in"lude under the term transsexual only persons +ho have already under one 5"omplete6 ender 5or sex6 reassi nment sur ery/ others in"lude those +ho +ish to under o ender 5or sex6 reassi nment sur ery. Some also define the term more +idely and use it partially or "ompletely as a synonym for trans ender. As the Safra !ro<e"t uses the term trans ender in the +idest possible sense% it usually refers only to those havin under one ender 5or sex6 reassi nment sur ery +hen usin the term transsexual but respe"ts the ri hts of others to self,identify as transsexual. :ransvestite 5)rossdresser6= a person +ho dresses in the "lothin of the opposite ender% either o""asionally or al+ays. Generally% these persons do not +ish to alter the biolo i"al 5or physiolo i"al6 sex of their body. 8ueer= a term often used as a slur in -n lish to refer to lesbian% ay% bisexual% trans ender and queer 57G@:86 persons. :he term has been re"laimed by many 7G@:8 people% often in an a"tivist or politi"al "ontext% as an expression of pride in sexual diversity and variations of ender identity. :he +ord queer has no+ be"ome a "ommonly used term in so"ial s"ien"e studies and many universities offer for example "ourses in 8ueer Studies. :he 8uran is the divine +ord% the universal lo os% and pure idea. :he Sunnah of the prophet is the pra"ti"al model% the ideal behavior that "onforms to the sa"red +ord/ behavior embodied in a livin bein % of "ourse% but +hi"h% thou h histori"al% is nevertheless the privile ed e"ho of trans"enden"e. A vie+ of the +orld based on bivalen"e and dual relations emer es from the 8uran= opposition of the "ontraries% alternation of the various% the "omin into bein of all thin s% love% "ausality% surre"tion and resurre"tion% order and "all% and% in last analysis/ prayer. 3ne "annot be stru"* by the "entral pla"e iven to human love. Sexual relations that are "orrelative to it are mediators in this universal pro"ess that be ins +ith opposition% "ontinues throu h alternation and be"omin % and "ulminates in prayer. It is no a""ident that the 8urani" text is pla"ed under the si n of the Si n and that the +ord aya should re"ur in it so frequently. :his is be"ause all si ns 5aya6 ta*en to ether sin the praise of the 7ord by des"ribin the mira"le of opposition and virtue of the "entral% universal position that it o""upies in this pro"ess of the rene+al of the "reation% is a si n of si ns% an ayat,al,ayat. -verythin is "entered on the notion of pairin % +hi"h assumes "onsiderable importan"e. :he 7isan,al,arab 5+hi"h is a reatly *no+n boo* about the Arab and Islami" traditions6 emphasi$es the fa"t that the duality in"luded in the "on"ept refers both to the parity and the opposition of the sexes. !airs 5a$+a<6 is the unity of that +hi"h has a qarin +ho is the mate of the opposite sex. 1our 7ord "reated you of a sin le soul and from it "reated its mate% and from the pair of them s"attered abroad many men and +omen 5(=>6 :hey are a vestment for you and you are a vestment for them 5&=>F?6 ..So no+ lie +ith them% and see* +hat Allah has pres"ribed for you 5&=>FG6 :he need to refine and "ondition the ra+ natural instin"ts and desires of individuals in a beni n manner is a basi" one. Harmonious personal ro+th is "ondu"ive to +holesome intera"tion +ith fello+men% +hi"h in turn leads to a salutary impa"t on the humanity at lar e. !sy"hosomati"ally balan"ed persons are emotionally stable and "ompetent to a"hieve harmony and pea"e.

3n the other hand% any unduly inhibited or imbalan"ed ro+th of an individual personality is quite undesirable. So are any adverse external influen"es or pressures and strains of a ne ative *ind. ;or% ne atively "onditioned people be"ome sus"eptible to "ausin ex"esses% untold miseries and "ruelties not only to themselves% but also to others. #e are a"tually tal*in about the last divine reli ion +hi"h +as represented in the last divine boo*/ the 8uran% +hi"h +as explained and simplified by the statements% behavior% and ma*in s of prophet Mohammad 5!@UH6 #ith re ard to Islami" morals% these "an be properly understood +ith referen"e to the follo+in points= Islami" morals and their "ompatibility +ith the ob<e"tive requirements of natural ro+th of sexuality as part of inborn human instin"ts and potentialities/ Suppression of human evil "on"ernin the prohibited a"ts Modernisti" sexual permissiveness as a ma<or "ause of sexual or sex,oriented aberrations or deviations of human behavior% preventin healthy development of the sexual template of an individual/ Sexual morality% as "ompared to eneral ethi"al "ondu"t in the e"onomi" and politi"al fields/ Availability of love partners and their behavior to+ards the love affair 7ove and harmonious ro+th of human personality.

:he fa"t that natural human instin"ts should be nurtured% and not suppressed% is to be re"o ni$ed. At the same time% it is ne"essary to "on"eptuali$e beyond any simplisti" determination in terms of ood and bad. :his fa"t is quite lo i" as God is the one +ho "reated this instin"t in the human bein and it "ould not be real that the inventor of the thin is not totally a+are of every sin le detail about it. Here are some 8urani" verses mentionin sexual leanin bet+een both sexes= Made temptin to people is the love of lusts% +omen and "hildren% heaped up hoards of old and silver% "hoi"est horses% "attle and "rops. Su"h en<oyment of the life of this +orld% but he everlastin and best abode is +ith God 5?=>(6 And there is no blame on you if you ma*e indire"t proposal of marria e to +ido+ed +omen durin their +aitin term% or *eep it "on"ealed in your hearts/ for Allah *no+s that you +ill thin* of them% but do not ma*e any se"ret en a ement +ith them% ex"ept to spea* of ri hteousness% and do not intend the marria e until the +aitin term expires. And be+are that Allah *no+s +hat is in your hearts% so be+are of HIM and be+are that Allah is all,for iver most,forbearin . 5&=&?H6 And theses verses tellin about a part of prophet Eosephs story +ith his mistress Iulai*ha= And the +oman of the house he +as livin in% be an to tempt him and "arefully lo"*ed the doors on them and she said= "ome ta*e me% so he said= I see* refu e in Allah/ he is my lord +ho has iven me a ood abode% indeed the +ron doers never prosper 5&?6 And she moved to+ards him% and he +ould have moved to+ards her% had he not see a si n from his 7ord 5Go6% thus did +e turn a+ay from him the evil and inde"en"y% indeed he +as one of our sin"ere +orshippers 5&(6 5>&=&?D&(6 And the +omen in the "ity said the overnors +ife has been soli"itin her slave% her heart is stu"* +ith love% +e see her in an evident error 5?'6 So +hen she heard about their sly tal*% she sent for them and prepared a banquet for them% and she ave ea"h one of them a *nife and she said= "ome forth Eoseph before them so +hen they sa+ him% they +ere so "arried a+ay in admiration for him that they "ut their hands un*no+in ly and they said= Allah forbidJ :his "annot be human% he must be an honorable an el 5?>6 She said= :his is he for +hom you blamed me and I already soli"ited him% but resisted for"ibly% and

unless he does +hat I ordered him% he shall be imprisoned and be one of the ab<e"t 5?&6 5>&=?> D?&6 :he Islami" approa"h ta*es into "onsideration the overall need for promotin a healthy ro+th of human personality as a prior requirement% but based on reli ious rules. :he premises re"o ni$ed in Islam in"lude the fa"tual position that every "onstituent part of the human body has a spe"ifi" purpose or fun"tion. :he biolo i"al purposes and fun"tions are sustained by a personCs +ill even beyond the instin"tive motivations. #e "ould +ell ima ine a situation +here no traditional evolution of morality is allo+ed. :his +ould mean that the inborn human potentialities are either harmoniously "ultivated or prevented from su"h development. In any "ase% it stands to reason that human fa"ulty to dis"ern thin s and to "omprehend their natural order +ould have indu"ed the ne"essary pro"ess of harmoni$ation. A naturally harmonious and spiritually balan"ed human ro+th should in"lude the trainin of the sex instin"t in parti"ular. In the above "ontext% Islam offers the most appropriate uidan"e. :his position is to be "larified and established in the dis"ussion that follo+s. At the outset% +e must stipulate that any pre"on"eived or ill,"on"eived notion "on"ernin Islami" ethi"s must be avoided. ;or instan"e% some people appear to harbor the notion that Islami" morality inhibits% rather than promotes% any free ro+th of human fa"ulties. :hey +ron ly believe that the Islami" explanations "arry no intrinsi" si nifi"an"e in the matter of refinin and improvin the natural human instin"ts. A"tually% the Holy 8uran is full +ith instan"es of emphasis on human refinement% su"h as +hen it asserts that a "autiously <ust person is one +ho has been able to refine% dis"ipline and purify his natural instin"ts and desires. :his quotation further implies that human "ons"ien"e is liable to pollution. At the same time% it su ests that human bein s "an improve their individual meti"ulousness by over"omin any polluted state affe"tin the same. Above all% the Holy 8uran "onsiders pollution,free "ons"ien"e to be indispensable for attainin de"en"y and happiness. :here "an be no denyin the intrinsi" meanin and si nifi"an"e of the moral values tau ht by the Glorious 8uran. :he abovementioned tea"hin and its explanation pinpoint a thorou h approa"h to the problem of human refinement. 9o s"hool of thou ht or moral pro"edure rules out human sus"eptibility to pollution of the "ons"ien"e or psy"he and the "onsequent need to purifyin and amelioratin the undesirable "ondition. Human psy"he is vulnerable to prurient desires% moral aberrations and psy"hpathies% <ust as the human body or or ans are liable to diseases. II, IS7AMI) !-0S!-):I.-S 39 S-2 A9D S-2UA7I:1 In eneral% it is very natural to be sli htly embarrassed or un"omfortable in the fa"e of this issue but +e have to admit that sex is a natural part of our existen"e as +ell as one of our five main instin"ts. Sin"e the purpose of marria e is to be a mutual sour"e of "omfort% pea"e% and en<oyment for ea"h other% li*e a arment that prote"ts and "overs% the sexual aspe"t of marria e is an extension of this. :he husband is as*ed to be entle% "onsiderate and lovin +ith his +ife% and to try to satisfy her needs. :he +ife must reserve herself ex"lusively for her husband% and ma*e efforts to be attra"tive% as +ell as ma*in herself available to him +henever he is in need of her. :his latter obli ation also applies to the husband. Any ne ative representation of manCs basi" nature as a sour"e of evil and +i"*edness is not implied in the 8urani" philosophy% then% one may as +ell as* t+o more questions= ;irstly% +hat "an be the parti"ular "ir"umstan"es or spe"ifi" "auses% +hi"h lead human bein s to+ard be"omin +i"*ed and "orrupt4 Se"ondly% ho+ "an the depraved and "orrupt be rendered harmless and brou ht ba"* to the ri hteous path of sanity and moderation4

Ans+ers to the above questions require a "omprehensive and positive understandin of the relevant 8urani" tea"hin s. ;or% they lie beyond any +ron and narro+,minded interpretations% su"h as arisin from any literally isolated or absolute or ne ative understandin of the 8urani" des"ription of human self as "ommander of evil. A"tually% a""ordin to the Holy 8uran% the self "an be not only a "ommander of evil% but also a "ons"ientious reprover. -lse+here% the 8uran refers to the self also as an abode of human pea"e and ex"ellen"e. :he Holy 8uran si nifi"antly reveals and pinpoints various aspe"ts of human personality development. Identifi"ation of the ne ative tenden"ies of human nature is meant for emphasi$in the positive aspe"ts that "an lead to an ex"ellent flo+erin of human personality. :his distin"tion is important% in that human bein s are made a+are of their predominantly ra+ instin"tiveness +hi"h% unless refined and trained% is naturally for"eful enou h to over+helm any humanely "ultivated qualities% "ondu"ive to spiritual enhan"ement. :his seems to be an aspe"t yet to be fully identified by modern psy"holo ists. #ith re ard to suppressin human prohibited requirements% Islam does not envisa e them in any +ay. :his is true for other instin"ts% too. :hen% +hat is meant by suppression of a desire4 Does it mean elimination of "auses leadin to it4 In the Islami" "ontext% it si nifies effe"tive and moderate "opin +ith the human "on"upis"en"e. :his is emphasi$ed also in many s"holarly explanations of Islami" morality. Islam tea"hes human bein s to over"ome the natural predisposition of the bodily sensuality to rule over any sensibility of the mind. In other +ords% an individual must not be led by his natural instin"ts% but mana e the same in a +holesome manner. As mentioned earlier% Islam does not prea"h any as"eti" suppression of "on"upis"en"e or natural desires. :o elaborate on the above point% it may be noted that% +hen a person is "ommanded by his instin"ts% he or she eviden"es a disorderly manifestation of human physiolo y% a disruptive and over+helmin influen"e "apable of affe"tin human "ons"ien"e. 9ot allo+in instin"ts to s+ay oneCs "ons"ien"e ne"essarily implies pa"ifyin and quen"hin the natural outpourin s of "arnal desire% or offsettin the palpability to temptation% emotional disorders or even sexual promis"uity. 3n the other hand% +hat is required% is it to eliminate the internal "auses and tenden"ies4 :his is ne"essary to avoid mali nant development of the libido. .ulnerability to any undesirable external influen"es is also over"ome in the pro"ess. A +holesome development of human instin"ts is a pro"ess requirin either a salutary "omplian"e or a moral inhibition of their ne ative upsur e dependin on their nature and "ontent. In"identally% it is notable that the phrase= *illin the "arnal desire% does not o""ur in any spe"ifi" tea"hin of Islam. Any referen"e to it is only by +ay of explainin the need for a salubrious ro+th of personality. :o+ards satisfyin natural instin"ts and desires% any one,sided approa"h entails short"omin s% +hi"h are not often removable subsequently Sin"e the last "entury% sex,oriented psy"holo i"al resear"h a"hievements "on"entrated on provin that suppression of the natural instin"ts and desires +as frau ht +ith many adverse "onsequen"es to individuals. ;or one thin % traditional thin*in to the effe"t that the more the basi" instin"ts are suppressed the reater the s"ope for enhan"in the hi her fa"ulties 5su"h as the intelle"tual6 has be"ome valid. :here is ro+in reali$ation that extraordinary and far,rea"hin "onsequen"es% affe"tin individuals and their so"iety both% underlie suppressed or unsatisfied instin"ts and desires% +hi"h are often hidden from the "ons"ious mind. !sy"hosomati" inte rity in human personality development has been emphasi$ed sin"e the be innin of re"orded history. Islam% too% has si nifi"antly pointed its need. :raditional moralists% as +ell as behavioral s"ientists% have al+ays tried to refle"t the "umulative *no+led e and +isdom evolved in the past in one +ay or the other. Human bein s are prone to sei$e every opportunity to+ards self

satisfa"tion. :hey un"easin ly avail every o""asion to advan"e their o+n interests. :his is equally true in matters of a"quirin +ealth% e"onomi"s% politi"s and overnment% as +ell as in see*in to dominate others or to intensify sexuality. :o su est that relievin the sex ur e is li*e attendin to oneCs "all of nature% su"h as urination or defe"ation% is quite misleadin % too. Any question of eva"uatin from oneCs self his or her o+n moral s"ruples or "onditions% in the pro"ess of obtainin instant sexual relief% does not arise. )onversely% safe uardin oneCs morality "annot mean the same as a""umulatin urine. ;or% unli*e moral "ontinen"e% retention of urine is bound to "ause bodily "omfort and disease. Some modernisti" people assume that all human in"linations% irrespe"tive of +hether or not these "on"ern sex% a ression% domination or mammon +orship% should be freely allo+ed to be satisfied. :his is supposed to be "apable of eliminatin human deprivation% frustration or dissatisfa"tion% in the pro"ess of satisfyin oneCs desires. :heir reasonin is based on a false assumption. ;or% as pointed out earlier% "omplete ratifi"ation of all human desires is not possible. Human "apa"ity to see* ratifi"ation of the natural and a"quired desires is not instin"tively limited% as in the "ase of animals. Had this not been the "ase% there +ould have been no need for any human re ulation of not only the sexual inter"ourse% but health% so"ioe"onomi" and politi"al intera"tions% as +ell. -ven moral restraints +ould have been unne"essary +here natural "onstraints made it impossible for anyone to see* ex"essive satisfa"tion% or indul e in ex"esses. :he very limitation of natural "apa"ity 5to "ommit any ex"esses6 +ould have served the purpose% as in the "ase of animals. Ho+ever% ethi"al limits and pro"edural re ulations are ne"essary for promotin <ust pra"ti"es and fair transa"tions in the so"ioe"onomi" and politi"al fields. 7i*e+ise% limitation on% and re ulation of% sexual behavior and the related a"tivities% "onsistent +ith the needs of "hastity and re"titude% should also be a""eptable to everyone. AHereafter are verses in holy 8uran mentionin sexual or ans and sub<e"ts related= And 3 Adam% d+ell you and your +ife in the paradise and you may eat from any+here you desire% but do not even approa"h this tree% or you +ould be of the evildoers 5>K6 @ut Satan +hispered to them so that he mi ht lead them to see their shameful parts +hi"h had been hidden for them% and said to them= your 7ord has only forbidden you to approa"h this tree lest you be"ome monar"hs everlastin and immortals 5&'6 :hen Satan s+ore to them% truly I am for you a sin"ere advisor 5&>6 :hus he "aused them to fall by delusion% and +hen they tasted the tree% their shameful parts appeared to them and they hurried to "over themselves +ith leaves from the paradise and their 7ord "alled to them= Did I not forbid you from that tree and say that Satan is an evident enemy to you4 5&&6 5G=>K,&&6. #e noti"e here that God des"ribed the sex or ans hereabove as shameful parts bein exposed publi"ly% so Allah% this behavior is so depre"iated and humiliated by Allah havin been done out of the ri ht situation it has to be ta*en over into% that is Marria e. 3n the other hand% let us "arefully noti"e mentionin of the same parts in believers and follo+ers and let us admire "hoosin the de"ent +ords definin them= Say to the believin men that they "ast do+n their lan"es 5 a$es6 and uard their "hastity% that is more pure for them. Indeed Allah is +ell a+are of +hat they do 5?'6 And say to the believin +omen to "ast do+n their lan"es and uard their "hastity and reveal not their adornment ex"ept that +hi"h must appear% and let them dra+ their veils around their arments over their "hests and not reveal their adornment ex"ept to their husbands% their fathers% their husbands fathers% their sons% their husbands sons% or believin +omen% or +hat their ri ht hands possess of +omen% or male servants 5eunu"h6 proven free of sexual desire% or youn "hildren +ho have no sense of the private parts5?>6 5&(=?'D?>6

Hereabove as +e "an see% there is a very pre"ise limitation of +hom +omen "ould be non,veiled in their presen"e% as God% bein their "reator% *no+s that these forbidden relationship denies the sense of sexual arousal bet+een interrelated persons% pre"onditioned of "ourse that these have to be emotionally balan"ed personalities .and uard their "hastity5H6 -x"ept for their spouses and +hom their ri ht hands possess 5+hom they o+n as slaves6 for that they are not to be blamed 5L6 And +hoever oes beyond that% those are the trans ressors 5G6 5&?=H,G6 :his ri ht for Muslims to pra"ti"e sex +ith slaves used to be devoted to men% as the +oman is the one +ho ets pre nant and then there has to be one man in order to fa"ilitate the identifi"ation of the father% se"ond point to be mentioned here is about o+nin persons as slaves% this a"t +as +idely present at the time of establishment of !rophet Mohammads messa e and the time before sin"e ever% but this +as prohibited reli iously a bit later% but +hom +ho had slaves before+ards% have the ri ht to *eep them but they are extremely re+arded by Allah if they set them free. .. and those men and +omen +ho uard their "hastity% and for men and +omen +ho remember Allah oftenly% for them% Allah has prepared for iveness and a reat re+ard 5??=?H6 And Mary the dau hter of Imran% +ho uarded her "hastity% so +e breathed into her of our spirit% and she believed in the +ords of her 7ord and His @oo*s% and she +as of the obedients 5LL=>&6 In Islam% any sexual relations are reserved -2)7USI.-71 for the "onfines of marria e. @oth husband and +ife are also obli ated to honor the priva"y of the intimate relations bet+een them% and should not spea* of them to anyone Imam Muhammad ibn Ia*ariyya 5one of the bi est Islami" *no+ers6 on"e said the "omin statement a ed several hundreds of years= MAbstainin from sexual inter"ourse for an extended period +ea*ens ones nervous system% "an "ause obstru"tion of the urethra% and shrin*s the penis.M JJJ Hold on.... 3nly 7a+ful SexJJJ 3ther benefits of la+ful sexual inter"ourse in"lude prote"tin ones eyes from loo*in at +hat is unla+ful% preservin ones "hastity% "ontrollin ones desire and lust a ainst +hat is unla+ful% and providin the same for his or her spouse. :his +ill "ertainly provide the believin man and +oman +ith innumerable benefits in this +orld and in the hereafter. Imam Ahmad alludin to abstention from sex% on"e said= MI exer"ise patien"e +hen fastin from food and drin*% thou h it is still diffi"ult.M He also reported in his "olle"tion of "orre"t propheti" traditions that Allahs Messen er 5!@UH6 en"oura ed the believers to et married% sayin = MGet married% and "on"eive "hildren for I shall ta*e pride in your number on the Day of Eud ment.M Ibn Abbass 50A6 narrated that Allahs Messen er 5!@UH6 said= MI et married% eat meat% sleep% stand up in ni ht prayers% fast% and brea* my fast. #hoever disdains from my traditions 5Sunnah6 is not one of my follo+ers.M He 5!@UH6 also said= M3 youn men +hoever amon you has the means to establish a family% he should et married% for marria e preserves the "hastity of ones eyes and sexual or an% and +hoever "annot afford to establish a family% he must fast from desirin sex% for abstention in that "ase +ill prote"t him from sin.M Ibn Abbass 50A6 on"e narrated that Allah meesen er 5!@UH6 said= M#e re"o ni$e that marria e is the best solution for t+o people +ho are in love.M Medi"al resear"hers prove that sexual inter"ourse yields essential health benefits/ Galen attributes semen to the elements of fire and air and des"ribes its humors as hot and moist. :his is be"ause semen is ri"h in prosta landins% +hi"h are hormones% formed of fatty a"ids and phospholipids found throu hout the

body and parti"ularly in semen. !rosta landins are primary nutrients that affe"t essential body pro"esses% in"ludin blood pressure% metabolism% and body temperature amon others. Hen"e% understandin the value of this most unmiti ated and purest form of blood and its pre"iousness require reat "onsideration in dis"har in it. :his means to +isely value the reasons behind dispensin of this pre"ious +ater of life for emittin it throu h la+ful sexual inter"ourse upon "on estion 5inside the bond of marria e6 +hether simply for the <oy of sex or for "on"eivin a "hild. In fa"t% "on estion and prevalen"e of semen for an extended period of time "an "ause its "orruption and produ"es the +ell *no+n medi"al problems of pelvi" "on estion% ho+ever% sometimes a spontaneous and involuntary emission "arries on ettin rid of ex"ess semen usually durin sleep +ithout sexual inter"ourse. )on estion also "an "ause various illnesses and infirmities in"ludin obsession% habitude% and sometimes% psy"holo i"al disturban"es. #hereas% en a in in la+ful and re ular sexual inter"ourses% may aid in the re"overy from su"h illnesses. In the purpose of bein moderate in everythin as Islam al+ays advises% some learned prede"essors have "on"luded that the human bein should pled e= >,:o +al* a "ertain minimum distan"e everyday &,:o free his stoma"h at re ular intervals and not to extend fastin from food beyond the reli ious requirements ?,9ot to abstain from havin a la+ful sexual inter"ourse% for the extra quantity of semen% as +ell as for its draina e and rene+al to be re ular. III,IS7AM,GUID-D S-2 -DU)A:I39 A3ri in of sexuality in early life= :he very first step in understandin the issue of sexuality is to *no+ ho+ the sex or ans +ere "reated and ho+ they do loo* li*e% also admirin God omnipoten"e noti"in the same bud for sex or ans in both males and females. :he reprodu"tive or ans in men and +omen have the very same ori in. :he sex of every "hild is determined at "on"eption% but it "annot be dis"erned until the end of ei hth +ee* after "on"eption% or the tenth +ee* after the mothers last menstrual period. A small bud develops on the roin area of the fetus. If the "hild is to be a irl% this bud +ill form into the "litoris% li*e+ise% the bud +ill be"ome a penis if the "hild is to be a boy. :he tissues surroundin this bud fold ba"* into the labia in irls +hile they form the s"rotum in boys. :his tissue% +hi"h is "alled the enital tuber"le% be ins to develop five +ee*s after "on"eption. :he bud appears first as a phallus,li*e or an/ but it is still too early to determine the sex of the fetus. About the internal sex or ans% the sour"e is the same as +ell/ althou h the sex of the embryo is determined eneti"ally at the time of fertili$ation% the onads do not a"quire male or female "hara"teristi"s until seventh or ei hth +ee* of development% this is des"ribed as follo+s= I, Development of the onadal blastoma= >, In the fourth +ee* of development% a pair of lon itudinal elevations the onadal rid es form on ea"h side of dorsal mesentery/ <ust medial to the developin future *idneys. &, In the sixth +ee*/ the onadal "ells are invaded by primordial erm "ells 5future pro"edures of ova in females and of sperms in male6 "omin from yol* sa". ?, !rimordial erm "ells have indu"tive influen"e on onadal rid e formation. (, @efore arrival of erm "ells% "elomi" epithelium of onadal rid e proliferative to form primitive sex "ords. H, 3varies and testi"les are not morpholo i"ally re"o ni$ed till tenth +ee*. Until that time% development is the same for both sexes/ meanin ly both sexes

or ans have the same ori in% same histolo i"al stru"ture% and same nerve supply. 1et% enotypi"ally% thin s are different% this is be"ause of the presen"e of 1,"hromosome in male fetus. A A9otes about 1,"hromosome= >,1,"hromosome is a potent sex determinin effe"ts of medulla of indifferent onads &,1,"hromosome re ulates produ"tion of H,1 anti en 5testis determinin fa"tor 5:D;66% +hi"h stimulates testi"ular differentiation. ?,If 1,"hromosome is absent/ ovaries develop. In males% due to presen"e of 1,"hromosome and subsequently of :,D,;/ the "ells of medullary sex "ords differentiate into Sertoli "ells and se"rete anti,mullerian,hormone 5AMH6 +hereas the "ells of "orti"al sex "ords de enerate/ these "ells "ontinue to develop in females due to absen"e of 1,"hromosome and subsequently of AMH and also due to the presen"e of estro en derived from maternal "ir"ulation as +ell as from the pla"enta. (,AMH is also the primary "ause of that mesen"hymal "ells in the onadal rid e differentiate into 7eydi "ells +hi"h se"rete both testosterone and testosterone derivative dihydrotestosterone% and also indu"es de eneration of mullerian du"ts. H,About the roles of hormones se"reted by 7eydi "ells A:estosterone= Durin the fetal life% testosterone indu"es the male differentiation of many stru"tures in"ludin the +hole enital du"t systems. :he testosterone rise at puberty "auses the seminiferous tubules to "anali$e and "ommen"e spermato enesis and indu"es other pubertal "han es in primary and se"ondary sexual "hara"teristi"s. ADihydrotestosterone 5DH:6= Durin intra uterine life% DH: "auses different external enitals to differentiate into a penis and s"rotum% and also indu"es the development of some other male stru"tures su"h as the prostate 5+hi"h differentiates into uterine "ervix in females6. :he idea of the above,mentioned fa"ts is to prove the "ommon sour"e and basi"s of both male and female sex or ans in"ludin the same sexual axis/ i.e. hypothalamus,pituitary, onads% and subsequently the same nerve supply/ the follo+in is homolo ous sex or ans table= MA7;-MA7:estes 3varies Glans !enis Glans )litoris !enle shaft )entral shaft ;ores*in )litoralhood S"rotum 7abia Ma<ora Seminal vesi"les Uterus !rostate Uterine "ervix )orpora "avernosa 7abia minora )o+pers lands @artholins lands .as deferens ;allopian tubes It is really interestin to understand this fa"t of both sexes or ans bein that identi"al in stru"ture and subsequently the fun"tion. Surprisin ly this +as mentioned earlier% a"tually mu"h earlier in Islami" statements admittin the equality in the ri hts and obli ations in both sexes% this +as stated in the follo+in s"ript= M#omen shall have ri hts similar to the ri hts upon them/ a""ordin to +hat is equitable and <ust.M 5&=&>L6 ASex -du"ation= IS :H-0- S-2 -DU)A:I39 IS IS7AM4 Islam "omprises a total +ay of life. -a"h part of it needs to be seen in the

total "ontext. :hus it is hard to ta*e any ma<or issue in life in isolation. :hus sexual life "annot be "on"eived of +ithout marital and family life and these are all to be "onsidered in relation to other Islami" tea"hin s that re ulate and "ontrol Muslim behavior. Ibn al,8uyem in his boo*%!ropheti" Medi"ine% assi ned a full "hapter to dis"ussin the Islami" attitude to sexual and marital life% the intera"tion bet+een the spouses% and the permissions and prohibitions "on"ernin sexual inter"ourse bet+een spouses. Mohammad Kotb in his boo*% Islam the Misunderstood 0eli ion% dis"ussed the sub<e"t in t+o "hapters% one 3n Islam and #oman and the other% 3n Islam and Sexual 0epression. 0eadin throu h the 8uran and the :raditions of the !rophet there are many verses and :raditions about the "reation of human life% "leanliness and purity% intera"tion bet+een tile spouses% and mention of sexual inter"ourse bet+een the spouses. In the explanation of these verses and :raditions% issues did arise% questions +ere as*ed and both sexes +ere involved <ointly or separately. :he follo+in important points "an be monitored= >. In Islam sex has al+ays been ta*en seriously and it should remain so. It is not a sub<e"t for fun or mere absolute pleasure. It is never dis"ussed obs"enely or sub<e"ted to s"rutiny. De"en"y and due respe"t al+ays "hara"teri$e the sub<e"t. &. Sex is never dis"ussed in isolation for its sa*e or mere pleasure. It is al+ays related to marital life and family life. It is vie+ed as a superior human relationship sub<e"t to stri"t re ulations. :hus sex +ithin a marital relationship is a +orship that is re+arded. 3utside a marital relationship sex is a punishable sin. ?. Sex is priva"y bet+een the spouses. #hat oes on is "onfidential and should not be divul ed to outside parties. :he human fa"tor in marital and sexual relationship is superior to mere pleasure. (. 7e islation "on"ernin sex is not sub<e"t to "han e by pressure roups or "han e in so"ial attitudes. H. 7i*e the rest of Islami" tea"hin % *no+led e about those verses and :raditions on the sub<e"t is not a e,spe"ifi" and is not meant to start at a "ertain a e. As the Muslim is learnin the 8uran and Sunnah he or she +ill "ome a"ross these tea"hin s. )on"ernin adoles"ents and youth% the attitude of Muslims should differ from that of others/ so here are posed some questions= AHo+ does the attitude differ in both "ases4 >, Ho+ does Islam equip them to deal +ith the pressures of a promis"us so"iety% espe"ially in "ases of these Muslims bein livin in some "ommunities +here nearly all their peers are sexually a"tive4 In Islam% sex is more than <ust a means of "ontext of marria e% a "on"ept that differs from some reli ious ones in that it is inte ral to the pro"ess of pleasin ones partner and "reatin a lovin % passionate relationship As "hildren et older and older and more able to mentally handle the sub<e"t% sex should be tau ht to be the beautiful able to "onvin"e you. Sex% on most "ases% is an a"t thats bet+een t+o people observed by God and if one of those three is not "omfortable +ith it% then somethin is +ron . :he reality is that it happens for non,Muslims and Muslims ali*e and not tal*in about it or dis"ussin it and its "onsequen"es "an only ma*e the problem +orse thin than it is% +ithin the "ontext of marria e% so that on"e they ro+ up% they +ill be able to appre"iate it for its inherent beauty and purpose. Islam re"o ni$es very "learly the po+er of sexual needs and this sub<e"t is dis"ussed very "learly in 8uran and in sayin s of prophet Mohammad 5!@UH6 in a serious manner% in "ontext +ith the marital and family lives. Islam does not "onsider +omen 5or men6 <ust an ob<e"tive of sexual pleasure% but +ith a le al frame+or* of relationship fulfillin the +ill of od. #hile the sex outside marria es is a punished sin% sex +ith ones spouse is an a"t of +orship. :he Islami" la+s re ardin sex are fixed and do not "han e +ith peer or siblin s

pressure or "han in the values of the so"iety. .ir inity at the time of marria e is "onsidered a virtue in Islami" morality% but a disadvanta e in the +est. 9o +onder less than >'N of +estern brides 5-uropean and Ameri"an6 are vir ins. Althou h the 8uran has pla"ed so mu"h emphasis on a"quirin *no+led e% and in the days of !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6 Muslim men and +omen +ere never too shy to as* him about all affairs% in"ludin su"h private affairs as sexual life% so as to *no+ the tea"hin s and rulin s of their reli ion "on"ernin them. As Aisha% the +ife of the prophet testified% M@lessed are the +omen of the Ansar 5the "iti$ens of Madina6. Shyness did not stand in their +ay see*in *no+led e about their reli ion.M 59arrated by All ex"ept :ermi$i6. :he +ay the ladies as*ed the prophet,dire"tly or throu h his +ives is a proof that sexual matters +ere not taboo but +ere fully a"*no+led ed and respe"ted. MShyness is part of the faithM as the prophet tau ht% but he also tau ht% M:here is no shyness in matters of reli ionM even entailin the deli"ate aspe"ts of sexual life. ;or some Muslim parents of today% sex is a dirty +ord. :hey feel un"omfortable in dis"ussin sex edu"ation +ith their "hildren% but do not mind the same bein tau ht at their "hildrenCs s"hool by se"ular or non,Muslim tea"hers% by their peers of either sex% and by the media and television. An avera e "hild is exposed to K''' sexual s"enes per year. :eens and adoles"ents +ill be al+ays "urious and they +ill sear"h for ans+ers. If they have no+here or no one reliable to o to be"ause of embarrassment they +ill o to more readily available yet unreliable, sour"e. :his mi ht end doin more harm than ood. So% Islami",based sex information "ould benefit everyone/ parents and *ids <ust ali*e. :hese parents should *no+ that sex is not al+ays a dirty +ord. It is a very important instin"t and demand of ours. God #ho "ares for all the aspe"ts of our life% and not <ust the +ay of +orshippin Him% dis"usses reprodu"tion% "reation% family life% menstruation and even e<a"ulation in the 8uran. !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6% +ho +as sent to us as an example% dis"ussed many aspe"ts of sexual life in"ludin sexual positions +ith his )ompanions. :he main reason Muslim parents do not or "annot dis"uss sex edu"ation +ith their "hildren is be"ause of the their "ultural upbrin in % not their reli ious trainin . :hey are often brou ht up in a state of i noran"e in re ard to sex issues. As a result% they may not be "omfortable +ith their o+n sexuality or its expression. :hey leave Islami" edu"ation to Islami" "lasses and sex edu"ation to s"hools 5if any6 as +ell as the media. And here% there is a question to be posed= Is sex edu"ation about *no+in the anatomy and physiolo y of the human body or about the a"t of sex or about reprodu"tion and family life or about prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and un+anted pre nan"y4 Is ivin sex edu"ation equivalent to permission in en a in in sex4 It is our firm belief that fa"ts about sex should be tau ht to "hildren in a +ay "ommensurate +ith their a e as they ro+ up both by the family and the s"hool. #e emphasi$e that this should be done +ithin the total "ontext of Islami" ideolo y and Islami" tea"hin in the Muslim so"ieties% so that the youth,beside ettin the "orre"t physiolo i" *no+led e be"ome fully a+are on the san"tity of the sexual relation in Islam and the rave sin of blemishin su"h san"tity +hether under Islami" la+% or far more important in the si ht of God. !rovided the Islami" "ons"ien"e is developed +e see no reason to shun sex edu"ation 5+hi"h is unfortunately the rule in many Muslim "ountries6% and +e believe it is better to ive the "orre"t tea"hin rather than leave this to "han"e and to in"orre"t sour"es and to the "on"omitant feelin of uilt by the hush,hush atmosphere in +hi"h this is done. A#hat is sex edu"ation and +ho has to tea"h it4 3ne sex edu"ator at a +estern s"hool told the parents% MI am not plannin to tell your "hildren +hether or not they should en a e in sex or ho+ to do it but in "ase they de"ide to do it% they should *no+ ho+ to prevent sexually

transmitted diseases 5S:D6% venereal diseases 5.D6% a"quired immune defi"ien"y syndrome 5AIDS6 and pre nan"y.M :he problem +ith this is that at the present time sex edu"ation as tau ht in some s"hools is in"omplete. It does not "over morality asso"iated +ith sex% sexual dysfun"tions and deviations and the institution of marria e. 3ne of the basi" questions is% MDo "hildren need sex edu"ation4M Do you tea"h a baby du"* ho+ to s+im or <ust put it in the +ater and let it s+im4 After all% for thousands of years men and +omen have been havin sex +ithout any formal edu"ation. In many traditional "ivili$ations% sex edu"ation starts after marria e and +ith trial and error. Some "ouples learn it faster than others and do it better than others due to differen"e in sexual per"eption and expression of one partner. In my opinion havin a do$en "hildren is not ne"essarily proof of their love. An appropriate and healthy sex edu"ation is "ru"ial to the fulfillment of a happy marria e. In Islam% anythin that leads to +ron is also "onsidered +ron . :herefore parents should "ontrol the musi" "hildren are listenin to or the :. pro ram they are +at"hin % the ma a$ines they are readin % and the "lothes 5+hi"h may provo*e desire in the opposite sex6 they are +earin . #hile roup so"ial a"tivity should be permitted +ith supervision% datin should not be allo+ed. In fa"t durin a re"ent survey% ?&N of a hi h s"hool boys responded by sayin that if they have paid for the food and the irl does not o all the +ay% they have a ri ht to for"e her to have sex. Many of the rapes o""ur at the end of the date and are not reported. @e"ause one thin leads to another% anythin +hi"h brea*s do+n sexual inhibition and loss of self,"ontrol i.e. al"ohol% dru s% par*in % pettin or <ust bein to ether for t+o members of the opposite sex in a se"luded pla"e should not be allo+ed for Muslim teena ers. Kissin and pettin is preparin the body for sex. :he body "an be brou ht to a point of no return. In summary Muslim parents should tea"h their "hildren that they are different from non,Muslims in their value system and +ay of life. Havin a feelin and love in your heart for someone of the opposite sex is different and beyond "ontrol% +hile expression of the same throu h sex is entirely different and should be under "ontrol. Muslim "hildren should be told that they donCt drin* al"ohol% eat por*% ta*e dru s% and they donCt have to en a e in pre,marital sex either. A0ole of Muslim parents and Muslim or ani$ations= I am not proposin that all Muslim youth be married at a e >L. @ut I must say that youth should a""ept the biolo i"al instin"t and ma*e de"isions +hi"h +ill help to develop a more satisfied life devoted to havin a "areer rather than spendin time in "hasin 5or dreamin about6 the opposite sex. !arents should help their sons and dau hters in sele"tion of their mate usin Islami" pra"ti"e as a "riteria and not ra"e% "olor or +ealth. :hey should en"oura e them to *no+ ea"h other in a supervised settin . :he "ommunity or ani$ation has several roles to play. a6 :o provide a platform for boys and irls to see and *no+ ea"h other +ithout any intima"y. b6 3ffer premarital edu"ational "ourses to boys and irls over >F separately to prepare them for the role of father and husband and of mother and +ife. :he father has a spe"ial role% mentioned by !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6% M3ne +ho is iven by God% a "hild% he should ive it a beautiful name% should ive him or her edu"ation% and trainin and +hen he or she attains puberty% he should see to it that he or she is married. If the father does not arran e their marria e after puberty% and the boy or irl is involved in sin% the responsibility of that sin +ill lie +ith the fatherM. A)urri"ulum for Islami" sex edu"ation= Islami" sex edu"ation should be tau ht at home startin at an early a e. @efore ivin edu"ation about anatomy and physiolo y% the belief in the )reator should be +ell established. As Dostoevs*y put it% M#ithout God% everythin is possible%M meanin that the la"* of belief or a+areness of God ives an 3K for

+ron doin . A father should equally tea"h his son and dau hter% and the mother should also equally tea"h her son and dau hter. Meanin ly% the sub<e"t should be an open one% and not to remain shado+ed or "onservative +ithin the family. In the absen"e of a +illin parent% the next best "hoi"e should be a Muslim tea"her 5preferably a physi"ian6 for boys and irls at the Islami" reli ious "lasses or spe"ifi" sex,edu"ation "lasses on Islami" perspe"tives. :he "urri"ulum should be tailored a""ordin to a e of the "hild and "lasses be held separately. 3nly pertinent ans+ers to a question should be iven. @y this I mean that if a five year old as*s ho+ he or she ot into mommys stoma"h% there is no need to des"ribe the +hole a"t of inter"ourse. Similarly it is not ne"essary to tell a fourteen year old ho+ to put on "ondoms. :his mi ht be tau ht in premarital "lass <ust before his or her marria e. A "urri"ulum for sex edu"ation should emphasi$e the Islami" aspe"ts althou h. It should in"lude= a. Sexual ro+th and development A :ime table for puberty A !hysi"al "han es durin puberty A 9eed for family life b. !hysiolo y of reprodu"tive system A ;or irls, the or ans% menstruation% and its detailed me"hanism. A ;or boys, the or ans% the sex drive% and details of me"hanism of arousal and emission ". )on"eption% development of fetus and birth d. Sexually transmitted disease 5.DBAIDS6 e. Mental% emotional and so"ial aspe"ts of puberty f. So"ial% moral and reli ious ethi"s . Ho+ to avoid peer pressure :odayCs sex edu"ation is one of the most devastatin thin s that "an possibly happen to any so"iety and it "ertainly has over+helmed our so"iety. ;or over one hundred years% established psy"holo i"al pre"epts% +hi"h have repeatedly been substantiated by "lini"al observations% reveal t+o important fa"ts "on"ernin human sexuality. :he first is that life,sustainin human sexual needs "an only be fulfilled in an,affe"tionate% mono amous% heterosexual relationship. Sex edu"ators do not stress this fa"t enou h. :he se"ond salient psy"hoanalyti" fa"t is that% in humans% unli*e in any other "reatures% three phases of sexual development o""ur before mature adult sexuality is rea"hed. :he publi" s"hool "ourses iven durin ea"h of these phases "ause reat harm to student and so"iety in eneral. Sex edu"ation is only one fa"et of the multitude of so"ial "han es in #estern so"ieties that su""essfully transformed so"ietal attitudes to+ards previously stron ly a""epted and adhered to basi" assumptions and prin"iples. )apital punishment% mer"y *illin % abortion% homosexuality and le ali$ation of "annabis are further examples +here ethi"al issues and moral <ud ments seem to la"* "onsisten"y +ith time in #estern so"ieties. :he rationali$ation of su"h perpetual attitudinal "han es "an partly be found in the ;reudian "on"ept of the pleasure prin"iple and his interpretation of human behavior as a fun"tion of a ression and sexuality. It "an partly be explained by a de"line in spirituality and a tenden"y to embra"e materialism. Islam defines the essen"e of life and rationali$es the "reation of the universe simply and expli"itly% MI have "reated <inn and human*ind only that they mi ht +orship meM 5H>=HL6. M7ife here is a vehi"le to the hereafterM. :hus Muslim life is to be based on submission and adheren"e to the +ill of God and His instru"tions. :hese t+o "ontradi"tory approa"hes to the per"eption of life are appli"able to any ma<or issue in existen"e "on"ernin the Muslim and non,Muslim. :he "hoi"e is left to the individual +hi"h +ay to de"ide% bearin in mind the impli"ations of his de"ision and a""eptin liability for his a"tions. If you tell *ids about sex% theyCll do it. If you tell them about .D% theyCll o out and et it. In"redible as may seem% most oppositions to sex edu"ation in

this "ountry are based on the assumption that *no+led e is harmful. @ut resear"h in this area reveals that i noran"e and unresolved "uriosity% not *no+led e% is harmful. 3ur failure to tell "hildren +hat they +ant and need to *no+ is one reason +e have the hi hest rates of out,of,+edlo"* teens pre nan"y and abortion of any hi hly developed "ountry in the +orld.M It is to be said here that itCs very natural to be sli htly embarrassed or un"omfortable in the fa"e of this issue but +e have to admit that sex is a natural part of our existen"e. Also% teens and adoles"ents +ill be "urious and they +ill sear"h for ans+ers. If they have no+here or no one reliable to o% they +ill o to more readily available% most probably non,Islami" sour"es. :his mi ht end doin more harm than ood. I hope providin this information +ill benefit everyone , parents and *ids ali*e. :he follo+in is an arti"le by Shahid Athar% the +ell *no+n muslim Ameri"an psy"hiatrist/ it +as published on the internet= After my presentation on sex edu"ation uidelines for Muslim youth and parents at the Islami" )enter in :oledo% 3hio% in >KK&% many questions +ere as*ed by Muslim youth. :he :oledo Muslim "ommunity is pro ressive% affluent and has an even mixture of Arab and Indo,!a*istani immi rants. I "ompiled all the +ritten questions submitted to me% ans+ered them to the best of my *no+led e% and then sent the questions to the late Dr. Mahmood Abu Saud% the +ell,*no+n s"holar% for a se"ond opinion. He did not *no+ my ans+ers. Some of the ans+ers have already been published in the Islami" Monitor% the ma a$ine of the Islami" So"iety of :oledo% in -n lish and Arabi". After ea"h question% Dr. Abu SaudCs reply and my reply are iven for "omparison. >. !lease explain the importan"e of hi<ab 5+omen veil6= #hat is the de ree of sin if mature Muslim sister does not +ear a dress properly 5"over her head% et".64 Abu Saud= :he +ord Mhi<abM is used in the Holy 8urCan in its lin uisti" ori inal sense% i.e.% a barrier% somethin to separate t+o thin s from one another. :he !rophetCs +ives +ere ordered by God to observe hi<ab% meanin not to fa"e all mature males +ho are entitled to marry them. :hey had to spea* to su"h males from behind a "urtain or a door so nobody +ould see them. In our times% the +ord is usually used to indi"ate the dress of a +oman in a""ordan"e +ith the Islami" requirements. #hat is definite for man and +oman is that neither ender should dress or a"t in a +ay that is intended to attra"t the attention of the opposite sex. @y instin"t% males are more attra"ted to femalesC bodies than vi"e versa. A""ordin ly% Islam ordained that +omen should not sho+ of their bodies +hat +ould parti"ularly attra"t the attention of males. @esides% they should not sho+ of their adornment other than that "onventionally sho+n by +omen in an Islami" so"iety. As for the de ree of sin% it depends upon the de ree of violatin these rules and the intention of the female +ho violates them. :here are no fast rules determinin the details of ho+ to dress and "over other than to be modest and not sho+ off. Athar= hi<ab is an in<un"tion from God 5??=HK6. :he extent of hi<ab "an be questioned. Ho+ever% obeyin Bdisobeyin an in<un"tion alto ether is a refle"tion of the faith of the person. :he de ree of sin or for ivin is up to the 7a+ Ma*er &. #hen one is en a ed% are you allo+ed to o out +ith your ;ian"ee4 Abu Saud= 1es% provided there is no tou"hin % ne"*in and no stayin behind "losed doors or in a pla"e +here they +ould not be seen by others. -n a ement in Islam is not a "ontra"t of marria e bindin on either party. Athar= 9o% not alone/ unless a third adult member of the family is present% i.e.% brother% sister or one of the parents. ?. )an a Muslim marry someone his parents disapprove of4 Abu Saud= 1es% as lon as the marryin person is le ally entitled to marria e. Athar= 1es% ho+ever% one must find out +hy the parent5s6 ob<e"t to this

marria e% as maybe they are ri ht. Is the person you plan to marry an al"oholi"% a dru dealer% a pimp4 :his is not a question of your or your parentsC ri ht but a question of your "ommuni"ations +ith your parents. (. #hat are your vie+s on Muslim teens 5boysB irls6 tal*in so"ially4 Abu Saud= It is healthy for boys and irls to tal* and so"iali$e as lon as they do that +ithin the Islami" moral "ode= no obs"enity% no tou"hin % no se"ret appointments% et". :hey should tal* so"ially in order to *no+ ea"h other as ordained by God in 8urCan 5Surah al,Hu<rat6. Ho+ever% one must be "areful about +hat this so"ial tal*in leads to. Athar= :hey should tal* so"ially in order to *no+ ea"h other as ordained by God in the 8urCan 5Surah al,Hu<rat6. Ho+ever% one must be "areful in +hat this so"ial tal*in leads to. H. If you thin* abortion is murder% then +hat +ould happen if it +ere ille al4 7adies +ould do it at home% pun"h themselves in the stoma"h% and then they and the babies +ould die. Abu Saud= Most of the Muslim <urists do not thin* that abortion before the end of the third month is murder% althou h they de"lare it reprehensible unless there is a le itimate <ustifi"ation. If it is ille al% then it is the +omanCs problem/ she should have ta*en enou h pre"aution not to et pre nant. Athar= A "rime is a "rime% no matter ho+ noble your intention is and means to a"hieve it. In this "ase both fetus and mother may die 5a double "rime6. L. A""ordin to statisti"s% the ma<ority of teena ers +ho do not even have or asm +hen they have sex. :he or asm they et is +hen they tal* about it in the lo"*er room. Abu Saud= If so% +hy have sex4 3r asm is the a"me of sexual pleasure. Ho+ever% tal*in about it simply arouses the instin"t and does not help in sublimatin the desire. Granted% irls and boys "annot avoid thin*in of it% but it +ould be more healthy to tal* about it in the open +ith a responsible person% althou h in su"h "ases% most probably there +ill be no or asm. Athar= 9ot trueJ 3r asm is related to duration and extent of foreplay and not intensity of sex. In the lo"*er room% they "an pretend they have or asms to impress others. G. Ho+ does one o about findin a suitable pra"ti"in Muslim spouse4 Abu Saud= Islami"ally spea*in % both boys and irls are entitled to propose to the other sex. :hus% frequent atherin s of Muslims allo+ you to tal* to +homever you feel li*e bein your mate% one or more% ta*e their addresses and +rite to them% invite them into your house and *eep your parents informed of +hat you are doin . Attend youth "onferen"es. :ry to parti"ipate in dis"ussions and le"tures so as to expose yourself and be"ome noti"eable. 1ou may also publish an advertisement in Islami" Hori$on. Athar= Stay in the "ommunity of pra"ti"in Muslims% doin thin s in the "ommunity in +hi"h you are *no+n% and let your friends and family *no+ that you are ready and available. 3n"e you find one% let himBher *no+ indire"tly that you li*e himBher% preferably throu h your parents. F. 1ou are ivin the +ron idea to the parents. 1ou are ma*in them thin* +hen irls and boys are friends% it is bad ... #H14 Abu Saud= #hen boys and irls +or* to ether for doin ood% they be"ome friends. #hen they meet in publi" su"h as in "onferen"es% youth "amps and in study rooms and the li*e% they be"ome friends. #hen boys and irls start meetin in hidin % or in se"re"y +ithout informin their uardians% +hen they start to tou"h ea"h otherCs bodies% +hen they start a love affair% even +ithout sleepin to ether% this is not an inno"ent friendship% and should he dis"oura ed. Athar= I did not ive this idea. See ans+er O(. K. 1ou tal* about mono amy. 3ur so"iety in the Muslim +orld is not mono amous but poly amous. :hey are allo+ed to have four +ives. :hose are their ri ht to possess as +ell as slaves. Abu Saud= :here is no question to ans+er% but the above statement is a +ron point of vie+. !oly amy is not "ommon in the Muslim +orld% althou h it exists.

:here are stri"t terms set in the 8uran on marryin more than one +oman% and they are really diffi"ult to observe. Ho+ever% a +oman "an al+ays indi"ate in her marria e "ontra"t that she +ould not a""ept to be +ith another +ife. and "an even insist on an important "ompensation in "ase she is divor"ed for no fault of her o+n. #hatever the "ase may be/ to have another +ife is mu"h better than to have a mistress. If in the inquirerCs vie+% poly amy is slavery% the se"ond +ife should not a""ept it. Athar= Muslim so"iety in the Muslim +orld is by pra"ti"e mono amous. :here is less than one per"ent poly amy% and that is by permission and not in<un"tion. In the #est% men +ho "an "ontrol their desire% have one +ife and one to four mistresses. Also in the #est% they pra"ti"e poly amy but not at the same time% i.e.% "y"le of marria e% divor"e% marria e and divor"e several times in their lives. >'. Is there any harm in men and +omen sittin to ether% in this le"ture hall for instan"e. It seems natural that a family sit to ether +ith other family and friends. #e seem to do this every+here ex"ept here. Abu Saud= :here is no harm in men and +omen sittin to ether. :hey used to do so in the days of the !rophet% and the boo*s of hadith are full of su"h instan"es. 1ou are ri ht in your observation% and it is for you and others of some moral "oura e and "lean thou hts to stand up and D3 EUS: :HA:= SI: :3G-:H-0. Athar= Islam believes in separation of sexes in so"ial atherin s unless people are mahram to ea"h other 5see Surah Ah$ab and Surah 9ur6. :his is natural% even in se"ular s"hools% that irls li*e to sit% +al* or play +ith irls rather than boys. Unne"essary so"ial mixin may lead to other +ron s. :he )reator of the human body *no+s +hat is ood for us and +e donCt. >>. #hat should a Muslim boy do if he is "onstantly re<e"ted +hen he proposes4 Abu Saud= He must be follo+in the +ron approa"h and pro"edure% or there must be somethin basi"ally +ron +ith him. )ounselin +ould be very useful in this "ase. Athar= He should find out +hy heBshe is bein re<e"ted. Maybe it is the +ay heBshe proposed% et". >&. #hat is the Islami" rule "on"ernin masturbation4 Abu Saud= :here is no authenti" text prohibitin masturbation% althou h it is reprehensible on a""ount of t+o man fa"tors= It leads to sexual arousal and more desire% and it a"tually affe"ts the health% espe"ially for boys. Sex is li*e any other natural instin"t% in that the more you thin* of% the more it is a""entuated. Generally spea*in % humans sublimate and administer their instin"ts. #e +ant to possess% but +e +or* and earn/ +e +ant to eat% but +e "ontrol our eatin habits= and +e +ant to have sex% but +e marry. Athar= Masturbation is "onsidered ma*ruh 5detestable6 in Islam/ i.e.% it is bet+een unla+ful and permitted. Some s"holars of the past have permitted it to students and soldiers +ho are sin le in a non,Muslim so"iety +here temptation is hi h% in order to save them from adultery. :he medi"al harms are not "onfirmed. >?. If you are an unmarried Muslim irl and pre nant% +hat "hoi"es do you have= Abortion% adoption% et".4 Abu Saud= :he first option is to marry the father of the "hild. :he se"ond is to have an abortion in the first three months of pre nan"y. :he third is to *eep the "hild% and the fourth is to ive himBher up for adoption providin the "hild *eeps his fatherCs name. Athar= Abortion if the health of the mother is physi"ally or mentally threatened/ other+ise% "arry to term% then adoption or even marria e +ith the boy if possible. Hopefully% Muslim irls donCt "ome to this diffi"ult sta e and marry beforehand. If they are ready for sex% they should be ready for marria e. >(. In +hat "ir"umstan"es are abortions allo+ed and are +e Muslims allo+ed to use "ontra"eptives4 Abu Saud= About abortion% see question OL. About "ontra"eptives% they are allo+ed in Islam by expli"it statement of the !rophet 5!@UH6 +here he did not forbid "oitus interruptis.

Athar= Abortions are not allo+ed unless it is a matter of rape and in"est% and the health of the mother is "on"erned. )hemi"al "ontra"eptives% i. e .% birth "ontrol for married +omen% is allo+ed thou h not promoted be"ause of its many medi"al side effe"ts. >H. #hat is the ri ht a e to et married in this so"iety4 Abu Saud= :here is no fast rule fixin su"h an a e. #hen a person is mature enou h% "an live independently and is ready to meet the responsibilities of marria e% heBshe "an marry. Athar= In this so"iety% about a million irls et pre nant ea"h year% and if they +ere married% they +ould not be "ounted in teena e pre nan"y statisti"s. :his ri ht a e is +hen you are ready to marry. If you have a"hieved puberty% then you must abstain from sex until you thin* you are ready for marria e. 3ther+ise% you may fall into the sin of premarital sex. >L. Ho+ does one o about proposin to either a boy or a irl4 Abu Saud= If you *no+ the person% simply tal* about your desire to et married and +ait for the rea"tion. :hen% if the rea"tion is positive% <ust express your desire to en a e the person. If the ans+er is positive a ain% inform both families and arran e for the Moffi"ialM en a ement. Athar= 1ou let himBher *no+ your intention to marry himBher% throu h your parents or trusted friends. >G. > sees a lot of +omen in this hall +ithout hi<ab. #e *no+ this is a ainst Islam and a ainst the !rophetCs tea"hin . I +ould li*e to *no+ +hy. Abu Saud= :he ans+er depends on +hat you do mean by hi<ab 5see question OI6. If it is only un"overin of hair +hile the body is +ell "overed% then the question is "ontroversial. Slave +omen durin the days of the !rophet even used to pray +ithout "overin their hair. Men never +ere seen un"overin their hair in publi"% but that +as a so"ietal "onvention. :he idea of "overin hair is the same as "overin the adornment and the body of the +oman. In simple +ords% as +omen are very proud of their hair and do "onsider it a part of their beauty that attra"ts the attention of men% it is then supposed to be "overed. Athar= See ans+er OI. >F. All reli ions prohibit premarital sex and "onsider that as sin. #hy donCt all reli ious leaders put their point a"ross to the overnment and not leave this sub<e"t to the bi M7M liberals4 Abu Saud= @e"ause sex in the so"iety in +hi"h +e live is liberal/ and a""ordin ly% the overnment ele"ted by the people is liberal. Athar= Government does not "ontrol personal expressions or emotions. :he ood and bad% and ri ht and +ron have to be re"o ni$ed and a""epted individually. >K. Is abortion allo+ed if the life of the +oman is in dan er andBor you have amnio"entesis and find the "hild "ould be handi"appedB Do+nCs syndrome4 Abu Saud= If there +ere dan er for the mother% abortion +ould be allo+ed. If there +ill definitely be a "on enital defe"t% then the matter depends on the de ree of this defe"t. If it is so serious that the "hild +ill not be able to fun"tion at all% or +ill not be able to live on his o+n% then the question is "ontroversial. In all "ases% if abortion ta*es pla"e in the first three months 5that is% four months from the last period6% it may be "arried out. Athar= 1es% under medi"al de"ision. &'. #hat if you +ant a "hild but donCt +ant to et married4 Abu Saud= Adopt a "hild a""ordin to the Islami" rules= Mainly% *eep the "hildCs fatherCs name and no inheritan"e. He +ill never be 13U0 "hild. Athar= 1ou +ill have to have another manCs sperm% +hi"h is adultery. #hen the "hild is born% heBshe +ould li*e to *no+ the father. #hat +ill you tell himBher that +ill satisfy and ma*e himBher happy4 &>. Is there anythin +ron +ith bein married youn 4 Abu Saud= 9o% as lon as you are ready for marria e. See question O>H. :he !rophet 5!@UH6 says% MHe +ho "an afford to et married% let him marry. . . M Athar= 9o% unless you are marryin a man +ho is too old. &&. #hat is sex4

Abu Saud= Sex is the "ohabitation of a male +ith a female for the purpose of reprodu"tion. A married "ouple may de"ide not to have "hildren and still they le itimately perform sex. Sex +ithout marria e is ille itimate and is obviously harmful to the individuals and their so"iety. Athar= Sex is the a"t of intima"y bet+een t+o people of the opposite or same sex% startin +ith bein to ether% to foreplay and the sexual a"t. :he best sex or an is said to be the brain/ other or ans are hand and mouth. &?. #hy are Muslim men allo+ed to marry non,Muslim +omen and Muslim +omen not allo+ed to marry non,Muslim men4 Abu Saud= :he 8uran says% MDo not marry 5your irls6 to unbelievers until they believeM 5&=&&>6. :he family stru"ture is so paternal that the non,Muslim father +ould dominate and di"tate. :his meant that the "hildren +ould be non,Muslims% that the +ife +ould not be free to pra"ti"e her reli ion% and that the different la+s of Islam 5su"h as inheritan"e% alimony% uardianship% et".6 "annot be observed. A""ordin ly% su"h marria e +ould lead to +hat is prohibited and thus be"omes prohibited. Athar= 9ot true. Muslim men are allo+ed to marry +omen from only people of boo* 5Ee+s and )hristians6% not Hindu or atheist% et". -ven then they are en"oura ed to prefer believin +omen even if she is a slave than idolater. :he reason Muslim +omen are not allo+ed non,Muslim men are many to in"lude the future of "hildren. &(. Are Muslim irls allo+ed to play sports4 Abu Saud= 1es% of "ourse. In publi"% she must be "overed% and if she plays +ith boys% there should be no tou"hin . Athar= 1es% only +ith irls. &H. Islam is a very patriar"hal and sexist reli ion. #hy is the podium fa"ed to+ard the men4 #hy donCt you dire"t your spee"h to+ard the +omen4 A +oman +ill loo* attra"tive to a man% and that is +hy she must "over up% ri ht4 #ell% have you ever thou ht that maybe a +oman +ill also find a man attra"tive4 #hy should not he "over up4 #hy are men pla"ed on a hi her stool than +omen4 Is that really +hat God +ants4 Abu Saud= Islam is not patriar"hal or sexist/ it is 13U0 so"iety% +hi"h are both. :he !rophet 5!@UH6 used to tal* to +omen dire"tly% fa"in them. He% and the "aliphs after him% used to address them% ans+er their questions and sell to and buy from them. @oth men and +omen are required to "ast do+n their eyesi ht and be modest. @y instin"ts men are more attra"ted to the +omanCs body than vi"e versa% and that is +hy she must "over up. Ho+ever% man% bein obli ated to earn the livin of the family and to prote"t it% has to +or* and mix +ith others% su"h that "overin up +ould not be pra"ti"al. Athar= 9ot true% as men and +omen in the audien"e "ould hear the spea*er the same +ay. &L. #hat is the ri ht a e to et married in this so"iety4 )an you marry a person +hom your parents do not approve of4 Abu Saud= See question O? and question O>H. Athar= See question O?. :he ri ht a e is +hen a person is physi"ally and emotionally mature and ready for marria e. In this so"iety% more than a million teena e irls be"ome pre nant ea"h year. If they are ready for sex% they should be ready for sex +ith responsibility and "ommitment +hi"h "omes from marria e. &G. 0i ht of inheritan"e to a fetus= the rape situation in Islami" "ountries +here rape is monumental and )A993: be proved. Abu Saud= :he embryo is a prospe"tive inheritor/ i.e.% if the father dies durin the pre nan"y of his +ife% the estate inheritan"e division +ill be suspended until the birth or mis"arria e of the fetus. :here is no eviden"e that rape in Muslim "ountries is monumental% nor is it a fa"t that provin it is impossible. Ho+ever% if the father is not *no+n% there +ould be no inheritan"e ex"ept from the mother. Athar= In the U.S.A.% &''%''' +omen are raped every year% nearly t+o per minute% but half of the rapes are not reported. :he reportin of rape in Muslim

"ountries is related to +ea*ness +ithin +omen% for shame or +hatever else. &F. Is pla"in of the private parts to the mouth harmful% for boys and irls ali*e4 Abu Saud= 3ral sex is not forbidden in Islam as lon as it is pra"ti"ed bet+een husband and +ife. Athar= 9o% but only +ith your spouse. M1our +omen are your tilth for you% so o to your tilth as ye +ishM 5&=&&?6. :hus% all sexual positions ex"ept anal inter"ourse are permitted bet+een husband and +ives. :here may be some medi"al harm in oral sex if or ans are not "lean or have infe"tion. In that "ase they should see* medi"al treatment first before en a in in sex. &K. Are Muslim boys allo+ed to +ear earrin s% or is it a +omanCs dress4 Abu Saud= :he eneral rule is that men should not try to loo* li*e +oman and vi"e versa. If "onventionally a reed and a""epted% earrin s are used only for +omen/ then a Muslim boy should not +ear them. Athar= Men are not allo+ed to mimi" +omen in dress or other +ays in"ludin <e+elry. ?'. Are irls or boys allo+ed to tal* about the opposite sex in a +ay that "onveys a feelin 4 Abu Saud= It is human to have feelin s to+ards the other sex. @ut to tal* about it is another matter that depends entirely on +hat sort of tal* it is. Modesty is the *ey +ord in this "ontext. 3ne must be de"ent and modest. 3ne must be "lean in thou ht and deed. God *no+s +hat is in the hearts of His servants and the servants must be a+are of His "o nition. Athar= 1es% but be "autious not to ive the +ron emotion. :o play +ith someoneCs emotions is not ri ht. ?>. Are +omen allo+ed to +or*% leavin their "hildren at home4 Abu Saud= :here is no prohibition for +omen to +or*. If they have "hildren% it is the responsibility of both parents to loo* after them. Ho+ever% it is biolo i"ally the mother +ho should "ater to the needs of the "hild in his early a e. #hether she "an leave him at home durin her +or*in hours or not% is a matter of "ir"umstan"es and a e of the "hild. #hat is essential is "onsideration of the interest of the "hild as the first priority. Athar= 9ot a ood idea. :his deprives "hildren of her motherCs love and presen"e% both of +hi"h are badly needed. ?&. #hat are the Islami" <urisdi"tions to+ard marria e4 Abu Saud= In Islam% marria e is a "ivil 5thou h divine6 "ontra"t% +itnessed first by God% then by the so"iety. :he main terms of an Islami" marria e are= the free "onsent of both spouses% the publi" de"laration of marria e% the do+er to the +ife% the respe"t of the terms that either party may opt to in"lude in the "ontra"t 5su"h as the +ifeCs "ondition to be the sole +ife% to divor"e herself +ithout the "onsent of the husband +ithout mentionin any reason% or to et her do+er at any "ertain time% et".6% and that the information in the "ontra"t is "orre"t 5for instan"e% +hether or not either spouse is married% +hether or not either of them has a disease% et".6 Athar= Marria e is ordained by God and is a tradition of !rophet Muhammad. He said marria e is half of faith and that it is a shield a ainst +ron doin . A;inal remar*s= It is not ne"essary for the youth or parents +ho have read the above ans+ers to a ree +ith either mine or those of Dr. Abu Saud% as sometimes +e did not a ree +ith ea"h other% either. It is also possible that both of us may be +ron . :he purpose of this parti"ular arti"le is to ma*e parents a+are of youthCs questions and stimulate dis"ussion +ithin a family. Muslim youth% instead of ta*in our ans+ers for ranted% should see* more explanation from their parents% Sunday s"hool tea"hers% Imam of the mosque and above all% from the 8uran and Sunnah. MIt is not befittin a believin man or a believin +oman that +hen God and His Messen er have de"ided an affair for them% they should after that "laim have any say in their affairs and +hosoever is rebellious to God and His messen er% he verily oes astray in error

manifestM5??=?L6. MSay= Are they equal those +ho *no+% and those +ho do not *no+4M 5?K=K6 M@lessed are the +omen of the Helpers. :heir modesty did not stand in the +ay of their see*in *no+led e about their reli ionM. :he topi" of sexuality provo*es stron emotions in people% espe"ially youn sters% and be"ause of this rea"tion% +e see sexual ima es and a"tions every+here. ;ear% mystery% "uriosity% desire,all of these very po+erful emotions "an be easily manipulated by,and into sexual behavior. MA lot of undera e people drin* be"ause its fro+ned upon by authority fi ures and the same oes for sexual a"tivity%M said one teena e Muslim boy. M@asi"ally% a lot of people be"ome "urious about sex be"ause of a "ombination of their peers tellin them that they are +eird if they donCt and their parents tellin them they +ill o to hell if they do.M Sexuality is su"h a "omplex sub<e"t that to dismiss or triviali$e it is to suppress a natural ur e% +hi"h demands attention% either throu h dis"ussion or,as% is often the "ase, release. MMy parents o so far as to tell me +hat ICm feelin is unnatural% and that ICm bein +ron <ust thin*in about the opposite sex in that +ay%M one person said. MI mean% I donCt plan to a"t out on +hat ICm feelin % but I have to at least tal* about it,but not to my parents% I uess.M Many youn people "omplain that their parents set unrealisti" expe"tations re ardin sexual pressure or anxiety% and they also feel abandoned by parents +ho simply tell them to M<ust say no.M :his leaves them +ith no "hoi"e but to "onsult less reliable sour"es of information% su"h as their equally "onfused peers. MIf +e as parents do not tea"h our "hildren about sex% they +ill probably ain information from the +ron sour"e. :ea"hin sex edu"ation in mixed "lasses to hot,blooded teena ers +ithout benefit of moral values is li*e pourin asoline on emotional fires.M :im 7aHaye% ;amily 7ife Servi"es% Author of several boo*s on sex and marria e durin a presentation at the Islami" )enter in :oledo% 3hio% a survey of sex attitude +as obtained. A total of >HG attendees out of &'' responded. KH +ere parents and L& +ere youth. :oledoCs Muslim "ommunity is +ell established% edu"ated and pro ressive and has a mixture of Arab and Indo,!a*istani immi rants. :o ea"h question% their 5parent vs. youth6 response is iven. >. Should an Islami" vie+point on sexuality be presented in the #ee*end Islami" S"hool4 !arents 1outh1es= FF 5K&N6 H& 5F?N69o= G 5 FN6 >' 5>GN6&. Should parents tea"h sex edu"ation at home4 1es= F& 5FLN6 (G 5GHN69o= >? 5>(N6 >H 5&HN6?. Are you a+are that sex edu"ation "lasses in publi" s"hools do not tea"h moral vie+s and abstinen"e4 1es= G& 5GHN6 (L 5G(N69o= &? 5&HN6 >L 5&LN6(. Do you allo+ so"ial mixin of boys and irls above >& years of a e4 1es L( 5LGN6 ?& 5H>N69o ?> 5??N6 ?' 5(KN6H. Should parents supervise su"h a"tivities +hen they are permitted4 1es K( 5KKN6 (F 5GGN69o > 5 >N6 >( 5&?N6L. Should parents be a+are of and "hoose the movies% :. sho+s% musi" and ma a$ines "hildren are exposed to4 1es K? 5KFN6 (H 5G&N69o & 5 &N6 >G 5&FN6AInterpretation of the data= It is obvious from this survey that both parents and youth as a ma<ority approve of sex edu"ation bein iven at home or at Sunday Islami" S"hool. 9early t+o,thirds of them approve of supervised mixin of boys and irls. #hile the ma<ority of parents feel that they should "hoose movies% musi"% :. pro rams for their youth% the youths themselves% +ho other+ise are "onservative% are equally divided on this issue. #e hope that +ith "ontinued emphasis on Islami" perspe"tive on sex edu"ation that their attitude may "han e in the future.

ASex edu"ation after marria e= 1es% this is somethin / the parents and *ids ali*e% +e have to approve that most of adults do not *no+ about properly overta*en sex% and dont ma*e it in the perfe"t pi"ture it has to be exe"uted on% so +hen tal*in about sex edu"ation% it has to be "onsidered that it is bilateral% this is to say for both sexes/ males and females% and for both parties/ parents and "hildren. :his essay is not intended to be a sex manual for married "ouples% althou h I may +rite su"h someday. I <ust +anted to remind the reader of a short verse in the 8uran and then elaborate. :he verse is% M:hey are your arments% and you are their armentsM 5&=>FG6. Husbands and +ives are des"ribed as arments for ea"h other. A arment is very "lose to our body% so they should be "lose to ea"h other. A arment prote"ts and shields our modesty% so they should do the same to ea"h other. Garments are put on anytime +e li*e% so should they be available to ea"h other anytime. A arment adds to our beauty% so they should praise and beautify ea"h other. ;or husbands I should say that sex is an expression of love and one +ithout the other is in"omplete. 3ne of your <obs is to edu"ate your +ife in matters of sex espe"ially in your li*es and disli*es and do not "ompare her to other +omen. ;or +ives I +ant to say that a manCs sexual needs are different than a +omenCs. Instead of bein a passive re"ipient of sex% try to be an a"tive partner. He is exposed to many temptations outside the home. @e available to please him and do not ive him a reason to ma*e a "hoi"e bet+een you and hellfire. Sex is an important area of marital life% and +hen people are in trouble they have only the do"tor to resort to= and unless the do"tor has had some basi" tea"hin of sex% he or she +ill be quite helpless to help out. Sexual problems may manifest as strained family relations% psy"hosomati" symptoms or infertility. Medi"al treatment may affe"t sex su"h as some antihypertensive or antidepressant dru s. Sexual "ounsel is often a ne le"ted aspe"t of mana in su"h varied diseases as "oronary thrombosis% diabetes% in"ipient heart failure et". :he role of la"* of sexual edu"ation in some "ases of infertility is +ell *no+n. Sur ery may influen"e sex in men and +omen. A "arelessly repaired episiotomies% or "olporrhaphies may have a devastatin effe"t on marital happiness. :he psy"holo i"al premath and after,math of the operation of hystere"tomy is only too +ell *no+n. 3n top of all of this% Muslim +omen patients +ould +ish to *no+ the reli ious rulin on the multitude of yne"olo i"al and obstetri" situations relatin to +orship% and their referen"e is their do"tor. It is therefore a reli ious di"tate that medi"al edu"ation preparin do"tors +ho +ill "ater for the needs of Muslim "ommunities% should equip them +ith the *no+led e ne"essary to ans+er this need. A:he role of the Muslim physi"ian= :ea"hin sex should also be present in the "urri"ula of medi"al s"hools. :his is sometimes done in our medi"al s"hool as part of the yne"olo y and obstetri"s pro ram. :here is no diffi"ulty +hatsoever +ith Islam and rather "onservative men and +omen students% if the sub<e"t is iven +ithin an Islami" perspe"tive. At that point% +e have to et ba"* to the basi" level of the issue of the sex edu"ation to dis"uss it from a different point of vie+/ here +e have to "onsider several issues. A#hy should +e "on"ern ourselves +ith sex edu"ation4 #hy is the question as*ed at this time4 Is sex edu"ation su"h an important issue in Muslim life and Muslim so"iety4 ;urthermore% +ho needs sex edu"ation4 Ho+ and +hen should it be made available4 #ho should fa"e the problem and provide the servi"e4 #hat are the sour"es and means of information4 More spe"ifi" questions are= #hat are the bases of the theoreti"al prin"iples that apply4 #hat are the problems and dan ers of pra"ti"al appli"ation4

:his multitude of questions refle"ts my anxieties as a Muslim sexolo ist +ho puts her faith and fear of God before her "areer and profession. My fear of "ommittin a sin predates my enthusiasm of doin a su""essful <ob. AHo+ "an a Muslim physi"ian handle the problem4 Do +e really have a role in sex edu"ation4 #hat are our theoreti"al prin"iples and means of appli"ation4 #hat are the ethi"al and moral issues4 :he "han"es are a"tually there if on"e in lifetime a "onsultation may involve a sexual problem. At that time% the first requirement is a "ombination of medi"al *no+led e and Islami" orientation. 3ne should *no+ +here he stands. :he se"ond requirement is settin limits on moral and ethi"al prin"iples. And the third requirement is *no+led e of the patient and his or her reli ious and moral orientation% for that +ould be the physi"ians +ay to et into his tra"* of a"tion in order to rea"h his oal and a"hievin the result he +ould be satisfied +ith. If these requirements are fulfilled% then one may be fa"in one of three situations= a. Sexual illitera"y 5la"* of enou h sexual *no+led e6 b. Sexual dysfun"tion ". Sexual deviation If any of these situations arise outside a marital relationship% the first thin to be "arried out is to dis"uss the matter in a s"ientifi" +ay% de"larin its dra+ba"*s% havin the eviden"e of himselfBherself bein "omplainin % the next step is t+innin the ood about the s"ientifi" fa"ts +ith Allah <ud ments% +hether those that "ame in the holy 8uran% or in the bio raphy of prophet Mohammad 5!@UH6% and on the other hand% the disadvanta es of not follo+in these divine orders% both on the level of our +orldly existen"e +ithin the present life% or on the level of the after life% also both on the level of the "orporeal and the spiritual +ell bein s. :his ta*es sometime a"tually% but the more important is insistin to ma*e sessions not very lon apart from ea"h other in order to ma*e thin s under "ontrol as mu"h as possibly "ould it be. #ithin a marital relationship ho+ mu"h "an +e indul e in sex edu"ation4 3ne "an "onsider situations +here spouses "ome for help/ the nature and *inds of "omplaints vary a lot/ they are sometimes due to la"* of sexual *no+led e% some other times they are due to in"apability to apply +hat they have as *no+led e on their o+n sexual lives% sometimes they "ome expressin va ue and nonspe"ifi" "omplaints% some other times they are "onfli"ted bet+een the moral and sexual "omplaints% and and and.. So% if +e "onsider all possible permutations% there +ould be hundreds of possible "omplaints% but the "ommon bet+een all is havin the same round% +hi"h is la"*in the ri ht and the proper +ay of dealin +ith the spouse% either on the physi"al% sexual% or the moral levels% sin"e there is no fixed ideal to follo+% very basi"ally/ be"ause of the la"* of havin the real Islami" model in mind% "on"ernin different sides of the marital life. A#hat do +e have to tea"h4 :he Muslim do"tor needs to understand thorou hly all that the 8uran has mentioned pertainin to sex and all that the :raditions of the !rophet in"luded "on"ernin "on<u al ri hts and ho+ spouses should treat ea"h other "on"ernin those "on<u al ri hts. :he 8uran says% MSo let man "onsider fools +hat he is "reated.M MHe is "reated from a ushin fluid that issues from bet+een the loins and ribs.M5FL=H,G6 It oes on to say% MDid #e not "reate you from a base fluid +hi"h #e laid up in a safe abode for a *no+n term. :hus #e arran ed. Ho+ ex"ellent is 3ur arran in .M5GG=&'D&>6 :his theme *eeps re"urrin in the 8uran and is al+ays related to other tea"hin s. M.erily #e "reated the human bein from a produ"t of +et earth% then pla"ed him as a drop in a safe lod in % then fashioned #e the drop a "lot% then fashioned #e the "lot a little lump% then fashioned #e the little lump bones% then "lothed the bones +ith flesh% and then produ"ed it as another "reation,so blessed be God% the best of )reators.5&?=>&,>(6 In other "hapters the 8uran says% M:hen loJ 3n the Day of 0esurre"tion you are raised.M And% M:here is enou h here for Muslims to refle"t on,"reation% death%

resurre"tion.M And% M:hey question you "on"ernin menstruation. Say it is a harm 5a dama e6 so refrain from +omen durin menstruation and do not approa"h them until they are purified. 3n"e they purify themselves then en<oy them from +here God has instru"ted you. :ruly God loves the repenters and those +ho "are for purityM 5(=&&&,&&?6.M1our +omen are a tilth for you 5to "ultivate6 so en<oy your tilth the +ay% the timin % the pla"e you +ish and ma*e an introdu"tion for yourselves...M5&=&&?6 #hat more details do +e need to *no+ to fulfill this human instin"t4 :he "losest you "an "ome to details is +hat happened bet+een Eoseph and Iulay*a. MAnd she approa"hed him% she in +hose house he +as and she bolted the doors and said I am ready for you. He said I see* refu e in God,7oJ He is my 7ord +ho perfe"ted my resort. #ron doers never prosper She verily desired him and he desired her but he sa+ the si n of his 7ord. :hus it +as that #e mi ht +ard off from him evil and le+dness. 7oJ He +as of our "hosen slaves and they ra"ed to the door and she tore his shirt from behind.M5>&=&?,&H6 :he !rophet 5!@UH6% says% M:he best of you is the one +ho is best to his family.M He also said% M@eloved to me of your +orld are pleasant s"ents and +omen.M He on"e told the )ompanions% MAnd there is a re+ard for +hat you deposit in the +omb of your +ife.M :hey said% M3h Messen er of God% the one of us satisfies his desire and ets a re+ard for that.M He ans+ered% M#hat if he deposits it in a prohibited +omb4 IsnCt he oin to sin4M So if he deposits it in a permitted +omb there is a re+ard for him. @ut at the same time he instru"ted his )ompanions not to divul e +hat oes on bet+een them in private as husband and +ife. He simulated that happenin to a devil ma*in love to a she,devil. He also instru"ted +omen not to des"ribe the parti"ulars of their female friends to their husbands as if they "an see the +oman des"ribed. :his is to avoid masturbation in fantasy and abominations. :he physi"ian may have more to offer in "ases of sexual dysfun"tion +ithin a marital relationship. He may find physi"al or or ani" patholo y that needs "orre"tion. He may dete"t psy"holo i"al fa"tors havin an impa"t on the sexual relationship. :he physi"ian has still to set limits to ho+ deep and far he "an o. :he de"en"y and virtue of marital bonda e and priva"y of su"h a relationship need not be obs"enely disse"ted and divul ed to a third party% parti"ularly if he or she be of the opposite sex. Do +e really need to +orry that mu"h about sexual problems4 Do +e have so many of them as to +arrant expli"it dis"ussions4 A more eneral ans+er is that in a pra"ti"in Muslim so"iety +e should not expe"t to fa"e the same problems as #estern so"ieties. Irrespe"tive of the sex of the Muslim sexolo ist% one main ba"* round should al+ays be there/ this is that the 8uran and the Sunnah should be the frame+or* for Muslim life and thus shape and fashion the behavior and attitudes of Muslims. As the "hildren are brou ht up they +ill have an Islami" orientation to marital life and sex edu"ation is then part of that edu"ation rather than a separate and ma<or issue in isolation. #e do not need to ta*e sex as an issue and introdu"e it into the edu"ation of "hildren. #e need to introdu"e to them the 8uran and Sunnah in the first pla"e. If they "an "are for their Islami" "hara"ter% other issues +ill ta*e "are of themselves. .irtue breeds virtue and vi"e breeds vi"e. :hose +ho en<oy life as a +hole% should hope to en<oy their marital life both emotionally and physi"ally% and should not la"* the means to do so. I.. MA7- )I0)UM)ISI39/ M-DI)A7 .-0SUS 0-7IGI3US !-0S!-):I.-S )ir"um"ision is the removal of a fold of loose s*in 5the fores*in6 that "overs the head 5 lans6 of the unere"t penis. :he amount of this s*in varies from virtually none% to a "onsiderable amount that droops do+n from the end of the fla""id penis. :he pra"ti"e is "ommon amon st many diver ent human "ultures. A variety of methods are% moreover% used and the amount of fores*in removed also varies. Histori"ally "ir"um"ision has been a topi" of emotive and often irrational

debate. At least part of the reason is that a sex or an is involved. 5)ompare% for example% ear pier"in .6 Durin the past t+o de"ades the medi"al profession in Australia have tended to advise parents not to "ir"um"ise their baby boys. In fa"t there have even been reports of harassments by medi"al professionals of ne+ mothers% espe"ially those belon in to reli ious roups that pra"ti"e "ir"um"ision% in an attempt to stop them havin this pro"edure "arried out. Su"h attitudes are a far "ry from the situation years a o +hen baby boys +ere "ir"um"ised routinely in Australia. @ut over the past &' years the rate has de"lined to as lo+ as >L,>KN. Ho+ever% a reversal of this trend is startin to o""ur. In the li ht of an in"reasin volume of medi"al s"ientifi" eviden"e pointin to the benefits of neonatal "ir"um"ision a ne+ poli"y statement +as formulated by a +or*in party of the Australian)olle e of !aediatri"s in Au ust >KKH and adopted by the )olle e in May >KKL. In this do"ument medi"al pra"titioners are no+ ur ed to fully inform parents of the benefits of havin their male "hildren "ir"um"ised. Similar re"ommendations +ere made re"ently by the )anadian !ediatri" So"iety +ho also "ondu"ted an evaluation of the literature% althou h "on"luded that the benefits and harms +ere very evenly balan"ed. :he Ameri"an)olle e of !ediatri"s has moved far "loser to an advo"a"y position and many re"o ni$ed authorities in the USA stron ly advo"ate "ir"um"ision of all ne+born boys. More details of their statements appear belo+. A#hy the fores*in in"reases infe"tion ris*= :he in"reased ris* of infe"tion in the un"ir"um"ised may be a "onsequen"e of the fa"t that the fores*in presents the penis +ith a lar er surfa"e area% the moist s*in under it represents a thinner epidermal barrier than the drier% more "ornified s*in of the "ir"um"ised penis 5the lans of +hi"h develops a thi"* stratum "orneum layer6% the presen"e of a prepu"e is li*ely to result in reater mi"ro,trauma durin sexual inter"ourse% thereby permittin an entry point into the bloodstream for infe"tious a ents% and% as one mi ht expe"t% the +arm% moist mu"osal environment under the fores*in favors ro+th of mi"ro,or anisms. :he preputial sa" has even been referred to by Dr Gerald #eiss% an Ameri"an sur eon% as a C"esspool for infe"tionC% as its unfortunate anatomy draped around the end of the penis results in a""umulation of se"retions% ex"retions 5urine6% dead "ells and ro+ths of ba"teria. !arents are told not to retra"t the fores*in of male infants +hi"h ma*es "leanin diffi"ult. -ven if optimal "leansin is performed there is no eviden"e that it "onfers prote"tion. AHistory= )ir"um"ision has been pra"ti"ed +idely in #estern "ountries this "entury. ;rom at least the mid ,>K('s to mid,>KG's over K'N of boys in the USA and Australia +ere "ir"um"ised soon after birth. :he ma<or benefits at that time +ere seen as improved lifetime enital hy iene% elimination of phimosis 5inability to retra"t the fores*in6 and prevention of penile "an"er. :he trend not to "ir"um"ise started in the mid to late >KG's% after the Ameri"an A"ademy of !ediatri"s )ommittee for the 9e+born stated% in >KG>% that there are no valid medi"al indi"ations for "ir"um"isionC. In >KGH this +as modified to Cno absolute valid ... C% +hi"h remained in the >KF? statement% but in >KFK it "han ed si nifi"antly to C9e+ eviden"e has su ested possible medi"al benefitsC. Dr -d ar S"hoen% )hairman of the :as* ;or"e on )ir"um"ision of the Ameri"anA"ademy of !ediatri"s% has stated that the benefits of routine "ir"um"ision of ne+borns as a preventative health measure far ex"eed the ris*s of the pro"edure. Durin the period >KFH,K& there +as an in"rease in the frequen"y of neonatal "ir"um"ision and durin that same time S"hoen points out that the asso"iation of la"* of "ir"um"ision and urinary tra"t infe"tion has moved from Csu estiveC to C"on"lusiveC. Moreover% it heralded the findin of asso"iations +ith other infe"tious a ents% in"ludin HI.. In fa"t he oes on to say that C)urrent ne+born "ir"um"ision may be "onsidered a preventative health measure analo ous to immuni$ation in that side effe"ts and "ompli"ations are immediate and usually minor% but benefits a""rue for a lifetimeC% redu"tion in

balanitis 5inflammation of the lans% the head of the penis6% redu"ed urinary tra"t infe"tions% problems +ith ere"tions at puberty% de"rease in "ertain sexually transmitted diseases 5S:Ds6 su"h as HI.% and% in older men% elimination of penile "an"er and a de"rease in urolo i" problems and infe"tions. :herefore the benefits are different at different a es. AAnti,"ir"um"ision lobby roups In a letter +ritten by Dr S"hoen to Dr :erry 0ussell in @risbane in >KK(% S"hoen derides an or ani$ation *no+n as C93)I0)C for their use of Cdistortions% ane"dotes and testimonials to try to influen"e professional and le islative bodies and the publi"% statin that in the past fe+ years they have be"ome in"reasin ly desperate and outra eous as the medi"al literature has do"umented the benefits. ;or example they have "ompared "ir"um"ision +ith female enital mutilation% +hi"h is equivalent to "uttin off the penis. In >KK? the rate of "ir"um"ision had risen to F'N in the USA and S"hoen su ests that C!erhaps 93)I0) has de"ided to export their Mmessa eM to Australia sin"e their efforts are provin in"reasin ly futile in the USC. 3ne only has to do a sear"h on the #orld #ide #eb to read the statements from this roup and others li*e it and any intelli ent person "an qui"*ly ma*e up their o+n mind about the quality of their material and the messa e they are tryin to promul ate. Some of these people mean +ell and some are intelli ent% but la"* a broad perspe"tive. Dr S"hoen also noted that +hen )hairman of the :as* ;or"e his "ommittee +as bombarded +ith ina""urate and misleadin "ommuni"ations from this roup. :hey even publish their o+n <ournals% e. . C)i"um"isionC. Another of these roups is CU9)I0)C% +hi"h promotes pro"edures to reverse "ir"um"ision% by% for example% stret"hin the loose s*in on the shaft of the retra"ted penis or the use of sur ery. :his has led to enital mutilation. )laimed benefits of Cin"reased sensitivityC in reality appear to be a result of the fri"tion of the fores*in% +hether inta"t or ne+ly "reated% on the moist or s+eaty lans and undersurfa"e of the prepu"e in the unaroused state and +ould obviously in the Cre,un"ir"um"isedC penis have nothin to do +ith an in"rease in tou"h re"eptors. Indeed% nerves do not re enerate. Moreover% the sensitivity durin sexual inter"ourse is in fa"t identi"al% a""ordin to men "ir"um"ised as adults. A@enefits out+ei h the ris*s= Dr :om #is+ell% a respe"ted authority in the USA +as a stron opponent% but then s+it"hed "amps as a result of his o+n resear"h findin s and the findin s of others. :his is +hat he has to say= CAs a pediatri"ian and neonatolo ist% I am a "hild advo"ate and try to do +hat is best for "hildren. ;or many years I +as an outspo*en opponent of "ir"um"ision ... I have radually "han ed my opinionC. :his ability to *eep an open mind on the issue and to ma*e a sound <ud ment on the balan"e of all available information is to his "redit he did "han e his mindJ #is+ell loo*ed at the "ompli"ation rates of havin or not havin it performed in a study of >?L%''' boys born in US army hospitals bet+een >KF' and >KFH. >''%''' +ere "ir"um"ised and >K? 5'.>KN6 had "ompli"ations% +ith no deaths% but of the ?L%''' +ho +ere not "ir"um"ised the "ompli"ation rate +as '.&(N and there +ere & deaths. A study by others found that of the >>%''' "ir"um"isions performed at 9e+ 1or*Cs SloaneHospital in >KFK% only L led to "ompli"ations% none of +hi"h +ere fatal. A retrospe"tive study of boys a ed ( months to >& years found si nifi"antly reater frequen"y of penile problems 5>(N vs LN/ ! P '.''>6 and medi"al visits for penile problems 5>'N vs HN/ ! P '.'H6 amon those +ho +ere un"ir"um"ised% "ompared +ith those +ho +ere "ir"um"ised. A!ain and memory 9o adverse psy"holo i"al aftermath has been demonstrated. It must be re"o ni$ed that there are many painful experien"es en"ountered by the "hild before% durin and after birth. )ir"um"ision% if performed +ithout anestheti"% is <ust one of these. )ortisol levels have re istered an in"rease durin and shortly after the pro"edure% indi"atin that the baby is not una+are of havin had somethin done

in its unanestheti$ed state and one has to +ei h up the need to infli"t this short term pain in the "ontext of a lifetime of ain from prevention or redu"tion of subsequent problems. Anestheti" "reams and other means appear to be at least partially effe"tive in redu"in trauma and some babies sho+ no si ns of distress at all +hen the pro"edure is performed +ithout anestheti". Many% ho+ever% do% and this may be "ontributed by the restrainin pro"edure% as +ell as the sur ery itself. A!enile hy iene= :he proponents of not "ir"um"isin % nevertheless stress that lifelon penile hy iene is required. :his a"*no+led es that somethin harmful or unpleasant is happenin under the prepu"e. Moreover% a study of @ritish s"hoolboys found that penile hy iene does not exist. ;urthermore% Dr :erry 0ussell% an Australian medi"al pra"titioner states C#hat man after a ni ht of passion is oin to perform penile hy iene before rollin over and snorin the ni ht a+ay 5+ith patho eni" or anisms multiplyin in the +arm moist environment under the prepu"e6C. :he ba"teria start multiplyin a ain immediately after +ashin and explain the +hitish film% termed Csmi maC% that is found under the fores*in. @a"teria ive off an offensive odor% ne"essitatin several sho+ers a day by un"ir"um"ised men% some of +hom% to ether +ith their partners% find the sten"h so unpleasant that this smell has "aused these men to see* a "ir"um"ision on this basis alone. ;or mothers and fathers% it is far easier to maintain "leanliness of their sonCs penis if it is "ir"um"ised. A#hat motivates parents to et their baby boy "ir"um"ised% and the rates= :he reasons for "ir"um"ision% at least in a survey "arried out as part of a study at Sydney Hospital% +ere= ?N for reli ious reasons% >,&N for medi"al% +ith the remainder su ested by the resear"hers as Cto be li*e dadC or a preferen"e of one or both parents for +hatever reason. :he main reason may have more to do +ith hy iene and appearan"e% as +ill be dis"ussed later in the se"tion on so"io,sexual aspe"ts. :he a"tual proportion of men +ho +ere "ir"um"ised +hen examined at this "lini" +as L&N. 3f those studied% KHN +ere )au"asian% +ith youn er men <ust as li*ely to be "ir"um"ised as older men. In Adelaide% South Australia% a similar proportion has been noted% +ith HHN of youn er men bein "ir"um"ised. In @ritain% ho+ever% the rate is only G,>'N% mu"h li*e -urope. 0ates in Afri"a% Asia and India vary a""ordin to reli ion and "ulture% +ith hi her rates amon st Muslims and "ertain tribes and lo+ rates amon st other roups and nations. In the USA% as indi"ated above% the rate of "ir"um"ision has al+ays been hi h% althou h differs in different re ions= the rates for >KK>% >KK&% >KK? and >KK( in the northeast re ion +ere L&N% LFN% LHN and G'N% in ea"h respe"tive year/ for the mid,+est they +ere GFN% GFN% G(N and F'N% respe"tively/ for the southern re ion= L(N% L?N% L>N and LHN/ and for the +estern re ion= (>N% ?FN% ?LN and ?(N. :he a"tual rates are hi her than indi"ated by this data% as they represent only the numbers reported% +hereas not all are. In )anada the rate varies mar*edly bet+een different re ions. -ven in the same state% 3ntario% for example% the rate bet+een different distri"ts ran es from &N to G'N% +ith a mean of around H'N. A!hysi"al problems= !himosis 5inability to retra"t the fores*in6 affe"ts &,>'N of un"ir"um"ised males% and "an lead to urinary retention% vesi"o,urethral reflux and hypertension. !araphimosis 5+here the retra"ted fores*in "annot be brou ht ba"* a ain over the lans6 is a very painful problem% relieved by "ir"um"ision or slittin the dorsal surfa"e of the fores*in. :o pediatri" sur eons% the most obvious medi"al reasons for "ir"um"ision are balanitis 5inflammation of the lans6 and posthitis 5inflammation of the fores*in6% +hi"h are very painful "onditions% virtually limited to un"ir"um"ised males. In babies% balanitis is "aused by soiled diapers% playin and sittin in dirty areas% antibioti" therapy% as +ell as yeast and other mi"ro,or anisms. @alanoposthitis 5inflammation of the fores*in and lans6 is "ommon in un"ir"um"ised diabeti" men o+in to a +ea*ened% shrun*en penis% and su"h men also have more problems

asso"iated +ith inter"ourse. Diabetes is "ommon and inherited% so a family history of this disease may add to "onsiderations in favor of "ir"um"ision at birth. Un"ir"um"ised boys may entrap their fores*in in $ippers% resultin in pain% trauma% s+ellin and s"arrin of this appenda e. In elderly men% infe"tions and pain from balanoposthitis% phimosis and paraphimosis are seen and "are,ta*ers report problems in a"hievin optimal hy iene in un"ir"um"ised men. :he need for an applian"e for urinary draina e in quadraple i"s and in senile men is fa"ilitated if they are "ir"um"ised. @oys and men +ho are not "ir"um"ised "an be a sour"e of irritation if they do not retra"t the fores*in +hen they urinate% as CsplatterC +ill o""ur. Althou h not a medi"al problem% it is a sour"e of annoyan"e for other people 5su"h as a parent or partner6 if it is they that have the <ob of "leanin the bathroom. ;ores*in problems also mean inter"ourse is painful. A9eonatal uninary tra"t infe"tions In >KF&% it +as reported that KHN of urinary tra"t infe"tions 5U:Is6 in boys a ed H days to F months +ere in un"ir"um"ised infants. :his +as "onfirmed by #is+ell and a fe+ years later #is+ell and "ollea ues found that in H&L> infants born at one US Army hospital% (N of U:I "ases +ere in un"ir"um"ised males% but only '.&N in those +ho +ere "ir"um"ised. #is+ell then +ent on to examine the re"ords for (&G%LKF infants 5&>K%GHH boys6 born in US Armed ;or"es hospitals from >KGH,GK and found that the un"ir"um"ised had an >>,fold hi her in"iden"e of U:Is. Durin this de"ade the frequen"y of "ir"um"ision in the USA de"reased from F(N to G(N and this de"rease +as asso"iated +ith an in"rease in rate of U:I. 0evie+s by others in the mid,F's "on"luded there +as a lo+er in"iden"e in "ir"um"ised boys. :he rate in irls +as stable durin the period it +as in"reasin in boys% in +hom "ir"um"ision +as in a de"line. In a >KK? study by #is+ell of &'K%?KK infants born bet+een >KFH and >KK' in US Army hospitals +orld+ide% >'(L 5(KL boys6 ot U:I in their first year of life. :he number +as equal for boys and irls% but +as >',times hi her for un"ir"um"ised boys. Amon the un"ir"um"ised boys youn er than ? months% &?N had ba"teremia% "aused by the same or anism responsible for the U:I. It should be noted that these studies ave fi ures for infants admitted to hospital for U:I% so that the a"tual rate +ould undoubtedly have been hi her. :he infe"tion "an travel up the urinary tra"t to affe"t the *idney and a hi her rate of problems su"h as pyelonephritis and renal s"arrin 5seen in G.HN6 is reported in un"ir"um"ised "hildren. :hese and other reports% all point to the benefits of "ir"um"ision in redu"in U:I. Indeed% #is+ell performed a meta,analysis of all K studies that had been published up until >KK& and observed that every one had found an in"rease in U:I in the un"ir"um"ised. :he avera e +as >&,fold hi her and the ran e +as H to FK,fold% +ith KHN "onfiden"e intervals of >>,>(. Meta,analyses by others have rea"hed similar "on"lusions. :here have been other studies sin"e then that have added further support. 3ne of these +as in Sydney and involved boys under H years of a e 5mean L months6. It found that LN of un"ir"um"ised boys ot a U:I% but only >N of "ir"um"ised. :he benefit appears to extend beyond "hildhood and into adult life. In a study of men a ed% on avera e% ?' years% and mat"hed for ra"e% a e and sexual a"tivity% the "ir"um"ised had a lo+er rate of U:I. :he fa"t that fimbriated strains of the ba"terium -s"heri"hia "oli% +hi"h are patho eni" to the urinary tra"t and pyelonephrito eni"% have been sho+n to be "apable of adherin to the fores*in% satisfies one of the "riteria for "ausality. :hus in infan"y and "hildhood the prepu"e be"omes "oloni$ed +ith ba"teria. ;imbriated strains of !roteus mirabilis% non,fimbriated !seudomonas % as +ell as spe"ies of Klebsiella and Serratia also bind "losely to the mu"osal surfa"e of the fores*in +ithin the first fe+ days of life. )ir"um"ision prevents su"h "oloni$ation and subsequent as"endin infe"tion of the urinary tra"t. Sin"e the absolute ris* of U:I in un"ir"um"ised boys is approx. > in &H 5'.'H6 and in "ir"um"ised boys is > in H'' 5'.''&6% the absolute ris* redu"tion is '.'(F. :hus &' baby boys need to be "ir"um"ised to prevent one U:I. Ho+ever% the

potential seriousness and pain of U:I% +hi"h "an in rare "ases even lead to death% should +ei h heavily on the minds of parents. :he "ompli"ations of U:I that "an lead to death are= *idney failure% menin itis and infe"tion of bone marro+. :he data thus sho+ that mu"h sufferin has resulted from leavin the fores*in inta"t. 7ifelon enital hy iene in an attempt to redu"e su"h infe"tions is also part of the pri"e that +ould have to be paid if the fores*in +ere to be retained. Ho+ever% iven the diffi"ulty in *eepin ba"teria at bay in this part of the body% not performin "ir"um"ision +ould appear to be far less effe"tive than havin it done in the first instan"e. ASexually,transmitted diseases= In >K(G a study of >?'' "onse"utive patients in a )anadian Army unit sho+ed that bein un"ir"um"ised +as asso"iated +ith a K,fold hi her ris* of syphilis and ?,times more onorrhea. #or* in the mid,G's sho+ed hi her "han"roid% syphilis% papilloma virus and herpes in un"ir"um"ised men. At the University of #estern Australia a >KF? study sho+ed t+i"e as mu"h herpes and onorrhea% H,times more "andidiasis and H,fold reater in"iden"e of syphilis. 3thers have reported hi her rates of non, ono"o""al urethritis in un"ir"um"ised men. In South Australia a study in >KK& sho+ed that un"ir"um"ised men had more "hlamydia 5odds ratio >.?6 and ono""o"al infe"tions 5odds ratio &.>6. Similarly in >KFF a study in Seattle of &%F'' heterosexual men reported hi her syphilis and onorrhea in un"ir"um"ised men% but no differen"e in herpes% "hlamydia and non,spe"ifi" urethritis 59SU6. 7i*e this report% a study in >KK( in the USA% found hi her onorrhea and syphilis% but no differen"e in other "ommon S:Ds. In the same year Dr @asil Donovan and asso"iates reported the results of a study of ?'' "onse"utive heterosexual male patients attendin SydneyS:D)enter at SydneyHospital. :hey found no differen"e in enital herpes% 9SU% seropositivity for HS.,& and enital +arts 5i.e.% the beni n% so,"alled Clo+,ris*C human papillomavirus types L and > >% +hi"h are visible on physi"al examination% unli*e the Chi h ,ris*C types >L and >F% +hi"h are not6. As mentioned above% L&N +ere "ir"um"ised and the t+o roups had a similar a e% number of partners and edu"ation. Gonorrhea% syphilis and hepatitis @ +ere too un"ommon in this Sydney study for them to "on"lude anythin about these other S:Ds. Similar findin s +ere obtained in the 9ational Health and So"ial 7ife Survey in the USA% +hi"h as*ed about onorrhea% syphilis% "hlamydia% non, ono""o"al urethritis% herpes and HI. 5+hi"h is more often a"quired intravenously6% althou h some under,reportin by un"ir"um"ised men +as li*ely as they tended to be less edu"ated. Also% "ir"um"ision at birth +as assumed% so that the number +ho sou ht "ir"um"ision later in life for problems% su"h as S:Ds andBor other infe"tions% and therefore had s+it"hed roup% +as not ta*en into a""ount. Desi n aspe"ts of a number of the studies have in fa"t been "riti"i$ed. As a result there is still no over+helmin a reement. 9evertheless% on the bul* of eviden"e it +ould seem that at least some S:Ds "ould be more "ommon in the un"ir"um"ised% but this "on"lusion is by no means absolute in #estern settin s% and the in"iden"e may be influen"ed by fa"tors su"h as the de ree of enital hy iene% availability of runnin +ater and so"ioe"onomi" roup bein studied. In some more re"ent studies in developed nations% in +hi"h hy iene is ood% no differen"e +as apparent. A)an"er of the penis= :he in"iden"e of penile "an"er in the USA is > per >''%''' men per year 5i.e.% GH',>''' "ases annually6 and mortality rate is &H,??N. It represents approximately >N of all mali nan"ies in men in the USA. :his data has to be vie+ed% moreover% in the "ontext of the hi h proportion of "ir"um"ised men in the USA% espe"ially in older a e roups% and the a e roup affe"ted% +here older men represent only a portion of the total male population. :hus > in >''%''' per year of life translates to GH in >''%''' durin ea"h manCs lifetime% but sin"e it o""urs almost entirely in un"ir"um"ised men% if +e assume that these represent ?'N of males in the USA% the "han"e an un"ir"um"ised man +ill et it +ould be GH per ?'%''' Q > in (''. In a study in Melbourne in >KK'% althou h L'N of affe"ted men +ere over L' years of a e% ('N +ere under L'. In H ma<or series

in the USA sin"e >K?&% not one man +ith penile "an"er had been "ir"um"ised neonatally% i.e.% this disease is almost "ompletely "onfined to un"ir"um"ised men and% less "ommonly% in those "ir"um"ised after the ne+born period. :he finite residual ris* in those "ir"um"ised later is the ma<or "ontributin fa"tor to estimates of lifetime ris* in the total population of "ir"um"ised men of > in H'%''' to > in >&%'''%'''. :he predi"ted lifetime ris* for an un"ir"um"ised man has been estimated as > in L'' in the USA and > in K'' in Denmar*. In underdeveloped "ountries the in"iden"e is hi her= approx. ?,L "ases per >''%''' per year and in U anda it is the most "ommon mali nan"y in males% leadin to "alls for reater "ir"um"ision in that "ountry. In Australia% the most re"ent fi ures of the 9e+ South #ales )an"er )oun"il 5for >KK?6 sho+ &F "ases per year 5in"ludin one in a "hild6% +ith H deaths% +hi"h is similar to the > in >''%''' fi ure above and applies to a population in +hi"h the ma<ority of the older men are "ir"um"ised. :he rate is set to es"alate% ho+ever% as more of the males +ho +ere not "ir"um"ised durin the period after the mid >KG's rea"h the a es +hen this "an"er enerally be ins to appear. :he so,"alled Chi h,ris*C papilloma virus types >L and >F 5H!. >LB>F6 are found in a lar e proportion of "ases and there is ood reason to suspe"t that they are involved in the "ausation of penile "an"er% as is true for most% if not all% "ases of "ervi"al "an"er 5see belo+6. H!. >L and >F are% moreover% more "ommon in un"ir"um"ised males. :hese types of H!. produ"e flat +arts that are normally only visible by appli"ation of dilute a"eti" a"id 5vine ar6 to the penis and the data on hi h,ris* H!.s should not be "onfused +ith the in"iden"e fi ures for enital +arts% +hi"h althou h lar e and readily visible% are "aused by the relatively beni n H!. types L and >>. 3ther fa"tors% su"h as smo*in % poor hy iene and other S:Ds have been suspe"ted as "ontributin to penile "an"er as +ell% but it +ould seem la"* of "ir"um"ision is the primary prerequisite% +ith su"h other fa"tors addin to the ris* in the un"ir"um"ised man. ;inan"ial "onsiderations are% moreover% not in"onsiderable. In the USA it +as estimated that the "ost for treatment and lost earnin s in a man of H' +ith "an"er in >KF' +as R>'?%'''. :he amount today is hi her. In Australia bet+een >KL' and >KLL there +ere GF deaths from "an"er of the penis and & from "ir"um"ision. 5)ir"um"ision fatalities today are virtually un*no+n.6 At the !eter M")allum )an"er Institute >'& "ases of penile "an"er +ere seen bet+een >KH( and >KF(% +ith t+i"e as many in the latter de"ade "ompared +ith the first. Moreover% several authors have lin*ed the risin in"iden"e of penile "an"er to a de"rease in the number of neonatal "ir"um"isions. It +ould thus seem that Cprevention by "ir"um"ision in infan"y is the best poli"yC. Indeed it +ould be an unusual parent +ho did not +ant to ensure their "hild +as "ompletely prote"ted by this simple pro"edure. :here is also some data to su est that "ir"um"ised males may have half the in"iden"e of prostate "an"er% +hi"h is very "ommon 5&GN of ne+ "an"ers in males and GN of all deaths6. A)ervi"al "an"er in female partners of un"ir"um"ised men= A number of studies have do"umented hi her rates of "ervi"al "an"er in +omen +ho have had one or more male sexual partners +ho +ere un"ir"um"ised. :hese studies have to be loo*ed at "riti"ally% ho+ever% to see to +hat extent "ultural and other influen"es mi ht be "ontributin in roups +ith different "ir"um"ision pra"ti"es. In a study of H''' "ervi"al and ?'' penile "an"er "ases in Madras bet+een >KF& and >KK' the in"iden"e +as lo+ amon st Muslim +omen% +hen "ompared +ith Hindu and )hristian% and +as not seen at all in Muslim men. In a "ase,"ontrol study of >>'G Indian +omen +ith "ervi"al "an"er% sex +ith un"ir"um"ised men or those "ir"um"ised after the a e of > year +as reported in >KK? to be asso"iated +ith a (,fold hi her ris* of "ervi"al "an"er% after "ontrollin for fa"tors su"h as a e% a e of first inter"ourse and edu"ation >. Another study published in >KK? "on"ernin various types of "an"er in the .alley of Kashmir "on"luded that universal male "ir"um"ision in the ma<ority "ommunity +as responsible for the lo+ rate of "ervi"al "an"er "ompared +ith the rest of

India. In Israel% a >KK( report of ( roups of +omen a ed >G,L' found that ynae"olo i"ally healthy Moshav residents had no H!. >LB>F% +hereas healthy Kibbut$ residents had a >.FN in"iden"e. Amon st those +ith yne"olo i"al "omplaints H!. >LB>F +as found in KN of Ee+ish and >&N of non,Ee+ish +omen. So,"alled Chi h,ris*C H!. types >L% >F and some less "ommon forms are responsible for virtually every "ase of "ervi"al "an"er. :hese same hi h,ris* H!.s also "ause penile intraepithelial neoplasia 5!I96. In a study published in the 9e+ -n land Eournal of Medi"ine in >KFG it +as found that +omen +ith "ervi"al "an"er +ere more li*ely to have partners +ith !I9% the male equivalent of "ervi"al intraepithelial neoplasia 5)I96. )I9 may lead to "an"er or% more often% it oes a+ay. :hus "o,fa"tors are suspe"ted. Interestin ly% smi ma 5the film of ba"teria% se"retions and other material under the fores*in6% obtained from human and horse has been sho+n to be "apable of produ"in "ervi"al "an"er in mi"e in one study% but not in another. :hus the epidemi" of "ervi"al "an"er in Australia% and indeed most "ountries in the +orld% +ould appear to be "ontributed% at least in part% by the un"ir"um"ised male and +ould therefore be expe"ted to et even +orse as the lar e proportion of men that +ere born in the past >',&' years and not "ir"um"ised rea"h sexual maturity. AAIDS virus= In the USA the estimated ris* of HI. per heterosexual exposure is > in >'%''' to > in >''%'''. If one partner is HI. positive and other+ise healthy then a sin le a"t of unprote"ted va inal sex "arries a > in ?'' ris* for a +oman and as lo+ as a > in >''' ris* for a man. 5:he rates are very mu"h hi her for unprote"ted anal sex and intravenous in<e"tion6. In Afri"a% ho+ever% the rate of HI. infe"tion is up to >'N in some "ities. 5A possible reason for this bi differen"e +ill be dis"ussed later.6 In 9airobi it +as first noti"ed that amon ?(' men bein treated for S:Ds they +ere ?,times as li*ely to be HI. positive if they had enital ul"ers or +ere un"ir"um"ised 5>>N of these men had HI.6. Subsequently another report sho+ed that amon st ('K Afri"an ethni" roups spread over ?G "ountries the eo raphi"al distribution of "ir"um"ision pra"ti"es indi"ated a "orrelation of la"* of "ir"um"ision and hi h in"iden"e of AIDS. In >KK' Moses in the International Eournal of -pidemiolo y reported that amon st G'' Afri"an so"ieties involvin >(' lo"ations and (> "ountries there +as a "onsiderably lo+er in"iden"e of HI. in those lo"alities +here "ir"um"ision +as pra"ti"ed. :ru"* drivers% +ho enerally exhibit more frequent prostitute "onta"t% have sho+n a hi her rate of HI. if un"ir"um"ised. Interestin ly% in a #est Afri"an settin % men +ho +ere "ir"um"ised but had residual fores*in +ere more li*ely to be HI.,& positive than those in +hom "ir"um"ision +as "omplete. 3f ?? "ross,se"tional studies% && have reported statisti"ally si nifi"ant asso"iation% by univariant and multivariant analysis% bet+een the presen"e of the fores*in and HI. infe"tion 5( of these +ere from the USA6. H reported a trend 5in"ludin > US study6. :he L that sa+ no differen"e +ere ( from 0+anda and & from :an$ania. In addition there have been H prospe"tive studies and & from Kenya and > from :an$ania reported statisti"ally si nifi"ant asso"iation. :he in"reased ris* in the si nifi"ant studies ran ed from >.H to K.L. :he findin s have% moreover% led various +or*ers su"h as Moses and )ald+ell to propose that "ir"um"ision be used as an important intervention strate y in order to redu"e AIDS. Su"h advi"e has been ta*en up% +ith ne+spaper advertisements from "lini"s in :an$ania offerin this servi"e to prote"t a ainst AIDS. !erhaps the most interestin study of the ris* of HI. infe"tion imposed by havin a fores*in is that by )ameron% !lummer and asso"iates published as a lar e arti"le in 7an"et in >KFK. It +as "ondu"ted in 9airobi. 0ather than loo* at the existin infe"tion rate in ea"h roup% these +or*ers follo+ed HI. ne ative men until they be"ame infe"ted. :he men +ere visitin prostitutes% numberin approx. >'''% amon st +hom there had been an explosive in"rease in the in"iden"e of HI. from (N in >KF> to FHN in >KFL. :hese men +ere thus at hi h ris* of exposure to HI.% as +ell as other S:Ds. ;rom Mar"h to De"ember >KFG% (&& men +ere enrolled into the study. 3f these% H>N had presented +ith enital ul"er

disease 5FKN "han"roid% (N syphilis% HN herpes6 and the other (KN +ith urethritis 5LFN bein onorrhea6. >&N +ere initially positive for HI.,>. Amon st the +hole roup% &GN +ere not "ir"um"ised. :hey +ere follo+ed up ea"h & +ee*s for ? months and then monthly until Mar"h >KFF. Durin this time FN of &K? men sero"onverted 5i.e.% &( men6% the mean time bein F +ee*s. :hese displayed reater prostitute "onta"t per month 5ris* ratio Q ?6% more presented +ith enital ul"ers 5ris* ratio Q F/ ! P '.''>6 and more +ere un"ir"um"ised 5ris* ratio Q >'/ ! P '.''>6. 7o isti" re ression analysis indi"ated that the ris* of sero"onversion +as independently asso"iated +ith bein un "ir"um"ised 5ris* ratio Q F.&/ ! P '.'''>6% enital ul"ers 5ris* ratio Q (.G/ ! Q '.'&6 and re ular prostitute "onta"t 5ris* ratio Q ?.&/ ! Q '.'&6. :he "umulative frequen"y of sero"onversion +as >FN and +as only &N for men +ith no ris* fa"tors% "ompared to H?N for men +ith both ris* fa"tors. 3nly one "ir"um"ised man +ith no ul"er sero"onverted. :hus KFN of sero"onversion +as asso"iated +ith either or both "ofa"tors. In LHN there appeared to be additive syner y% the reason bein that ul"ers in"rease infe"tivity for HI.. :his involves in"reased viral sheddin in the female enital tra"t of +omen +ith ul"ers% +here HI.,> has been isolated from surfa"e ul"ers in the enital tra"t of HI.,> infe"ted +omen. It has been su ested that the fores*in "ould physi"ally trap HI.,infe"ted va inal se"retions and provide a more hospitable environment for the infe"tious inno"ulum. Also% the in"reased surfa"e area% traumati" physi"al disruption durin inter"ourse and inflammation of the lans penis 5balanitis6 "ould aid in re"ruitment of tar et "ells for HI.,>. :he port of entry "ould potentially be the lans% subprepu"e andBor urethra. In a "ir"um"ised penis the drier% "ornified s*in may prevent entry and a""ount for the findin s. In this Afri"an study the rate of transmission of HI. follo+in a sin le exposure +as >?N 5i.e.% very mu"h hi her than in the USA6. It +as su ested that "on"omitant S:Ds% parti"ularly "han"roid% may be a bi ris* fa"tor% but there "ould be other explanations as +ell. Studies in the USA have not been as "on"lusive. Some studies have sho+n a hi her in"iden"e in un"ir"um"ised men. @ut in one in 9e+ 1or* )ity% for example% no si nifi"ant "orrelation +as found% althou h the patients +ere mainly intravenous dru users and homosexuals% so that any existin effe"t may have been obs"ured. A study in Miami% ho+ever% of heterosexual "ouples did find a hi her in"iden"e in men +ho +ere un"ir"um"ised% and% in Seattle homosexual men +ere t+i"e as li*ely t o be HI. positive if they +ere un"ir"um"ised. In an editorial revie+ in >KK( of &L studies it +as pointed out that more +or* +as needed in order to redu"e potential biases in some of the previous data. At least one study sin"e then has "ontrolled for su"h potential "onfoundin fa"tors% "onfirmin a si nifi"antly lo+er HI. prevalen"e amon "ir"um"ised men. :he reason for the bi differen"e in apparent rate of transmission of HI. in Afri"a and Asia% +here heterosexual exposure has led to a rapid spread throu h these populations and is the main method of transmission% "ompared +ith the very slo+ rate of penetration into the heterosexual "ommunity in the USA and Australia% no+ appears to be related at least in part to a differen"e in the type of HI.,> itself S(LT. In >KKH an arti"le in 9ature Medi"ine dis"ussed findin s "on"ernin mar*ed differen"es in the properties of different HI.,> subtypes in different eo raphi"al lo"ations. A "lass of HI.,> termed C"lade -C is prevalent in Asia and differs from the C"lade @C found in developed "ountries in bein hi hly "apable of infe"tin 7an erhans "ells found in the fores*in% so a""ountin for its ready transmission a"ross mu"osal membranes. :he 7an erhans "ells are part of the immune system and in turn "arry the HI. to the :,"ells% +hose numbers are severely depleted as a *ey feature of AIDS. :he arrival of the Asian strain in Australia +as reported in 9ov >KKH and has the potential to utilise the un"ir"um"ised male as a vehi"le for rapid spread throu h the heterosexual "ommunity of this "ountry in a similar manner as it has done in Asia. It "ould thus be a time bomb about to o off and should be a ma<or "on"ern for health offi"ials.

Sexual transmission of HI. and other S:Ds +ould be redu"ed by use of barrier prote"tion su"h as "ondoms. Despite the "ampai ns% passion +ill over,ride "omplian"e on o""asions in the most sexually promis"uous% at,ris* roup% +ho are at an a e +hen ris*,ta*in behavior is prevalent 5"f. smo*in in youn people vis,a,vis the anti,smo*in "ampai n6% +ith tra i" "onsequen"es. :hus edu"ation is only part of the ans+er and +here an additional simple pro"edure is available to redu"e the ris*% and then lo i" di"tates that it should be used. :he result +ill be many lives saved. ASo"io,sexual aspe"ts= In the settin of Australia% a small and restri"ted% but interestin survey of "ir"um"ised vs. un"ir"um"ised men and their partners +as "ondu"ted by Sydney s"ientist Eames @ad er 5+ho re ards himself as neutral on the issue of "ir"um"ision6. It involved responses to a questionnaire published in Australian ;orum ma a$ine or pla"ed in Sydney "lini"s of the ;amily !lannin Asso"iation of 9e+ South #ales. :here +ere >F' respondents 5GK male% >'> female6 +ho +ere a ed >H,L'. :he +omen +ere mainly 5H'N6 in the &',?' year,old a e roup "f &HN of the men% more of +hom 5??N6 +ere a ed ?',('. It found that= >FN of un"ir"um"ised males under+ent "ir"um"ision later in life any+ay. &>N of un"ir"um"ised men +ho didnCt% nevertheless +ished they +ere "ir"um"ised. 5:here +ere also almost as many men +ho +ished they hadnCt been "ir"um"ised and it "ould be that at least some men of either "ate ory may have been see*in a s"ape oat for their sexual or other problems. In addition% this +ould no doubt be yet another thin "hildren "ould blame their parents for% +hatever their de"ision +as +hen the "hild +as born.6 9o differen"e in sexual performan"e 5"onsistent +ith Masters D Eohnson6. Sli htly hi her sexual a"tivity in "ir"um"ised men 9o differen"e in frequen"y of sexual inter"ourse for older un"ir"um"ised vs. "ir"um"ised men. Men "ir"um"ised as adults +ere very pleased +ith the result. :he lo"al pain +hen they a+o*e from the anaestheti" +as qui"*ly relieved by pain *illers 5needed only for one day6% and all had returned to normal sexual relations +ithin & +ee*s% +ith no de"rease in sensitivity of the penis and "laims of Cbetter sexC. 5@ad erCs findin s are% moreover% "onsistent +ith every dis"ussion the author has ever had +ith men "ir"um"ised as adults% as +ell as email re"eived from a number of su"h men. :he only "ases to the "ontrary +ere a testimonial in a letter I re"eived from a member of U9)I0) and a very brief email messa e that didnCt say +hy.6 #omen +ith "ir"um"ised lovers +ere more li*ely to rea"h a simultaneous "limax. #omen +ith un"ir"um"ised lovers +ere ? times as li*ely to fail to rea"h or asm. 5:hese data "ould% ho+ever% possibly refle"t behaviors of un"ir"um"ised males that mi ht belon to lo+er so"io,e"onomi" "lasses andBor ethni" roups +hose attitudes "on"ernin sex and +omen may differ from the better edu"ated roups in +hom "ir"um"ision is more "ommon.6 )ir"um"ision +as favored by +omen for appearan"e and hy iene. 5;urthermore% some +omen +ere nauseated by the smell of the un"ir"um"ised penis% +here% as mentioned above ba"teria and other mi"ro,or anisms proliferate under the fores*in.6 :he un"ir"um"ised penis +as found by +omen to be easier to eli"it or asm by hand. :he "ir"um"ised penis +as favored by +omen for oral sex 5fellatio6. :hese findin s are "onsistent +ith other studies. In a survey of ne+ mothers% hy iene and appearan"e +ere the t+o ma<or reasons for "hoosin to have their ne+born son "ir"um"ised. :here +as a stron "orrelation bet+een their sonCs "ir"um"ision status and the +omanCs ideal male partnerCs "ir"um"ision status for

inter"ourse. :hus by bein "ir"um"ised they thou ht that their sons +ould li*e+ise be more attra"tive to a future sexual partner 5+ith the impli"ation that they +ould be at an advanta e in passin on their% and therefore the motherCs% enes to the subsequent eneration6. :heir o+n preferen"e thus affe"ted their "hoi"e for their sons. K&N said the "ir"um"ised penis +as "leaner% K'N said it loo*ed CsexierC% FHN it felt ni"er to tou"h and HHN smelled more pleasant. -ven +omen +ho had only ever had un"ir"um"ised partners preferred the loo* of the "ir"um"ised penis. 3nly &N preferred an un"ir"um"ised penis for fellatio% +ith F&N preferrin the "ir"um"ised variety. !referen"e for inter"ourse for "ir" vs un"ir" +as G>N vs LN% respe"tively/ manual stimulation% GHN vs HN/ visual appeal% GLN vs (N. #hat then is sexier about a "ir"um"ised penis4 8uite li*ely it is that the lans is exposed in both the ere"t and unere"t state. Ameri"an produ"ers of eroti" films and publishers of photo raphi" +or*s "hoose "ir"um"ised men% or at least un"ir"um"ised men +hose fores*in is smooth and free from loose% +rin*led s*in% as the latter la"*s visual appeal% espe"ially to those +ho are not used to seein an un"ir"um"ised penis. As far as sex is "on"erned% the 9ational Health and So"ial 7ife Survey in the USA found that un"ir"um"ised men +ere more li*ely to experien"e sexual dysfun"tions/ this +as sli ht at youn er a es% but be"ame quite si nifi"ant later in life and in"luded findin it t+i"e as diffi"ult in a"hievin or maintainin an ere"tion. It +as also dis"overed that "ir"um"ised men en a ed in a more elaborate set of sexual pra"ti"es. 9ot surprisin ly% in vie+ of the findin s above% "ir"um"ised men re"eived more fellatio. Ho+ever% they also masturbated more% a findin that% ironi"ally% "ontradi"ts the +isdom in .i"torian times that "ir"um"ision +ould redu"e the ur e to masturbate. As noted in other studies% "ir"um"ision rates +ere reatest amon +hites and those +ho +ere better edu"ated% refle"tin their exposure to and ability to evaluate and respond to s"ientifi" information about "ir"um"ision. :here +as little differen"e bet+een different reli ious roups. In @ritain a "lass distin"tion is asso"iated +ith "ir"um"ision% +ith the 0oyal ;amily and the upper "lasses bein "ir"um"ised and the lo+er "lasses enerally not. Some an"ient "ultures and some even today pra"ti"e infibulation 5dra+in a rin or similar devi"e throu h the prepu"e or other+ise o""ludin it for the prin"ipal purpose of ma*in "oition impossible6. :his is the opposite of "ir"um"ision. It +as% moreover% espoused in -urope and @ritain in previous "enturies as a +ay of redu"in population ro+th amon st the poor and to prevent masturbation. )onsistent +ith the a""ounts above of men "ir"um"ised as adults% "lini"al and neurolo i"al testin has not dete"ted any differen"e in penile sensitivity bet+een men of ea"h "ate ory. Sexual pleasure also appears to be the same. A#hy are human males born +ith a fores*in4 :he fores*in probably prote"ted the head of the penis from lon rass% shrubbery% et" +hen humans +ore no "lothes% +here evolutionarily our basi" physiolo y and psy"holo y are little different than our "ave,d+ellin an"estors. Ho+ever% Dr Guy )ox from :he University of Sydney has re"ently supplemented this su estion +ith a novel idea% namely that the fores*in "ould be the male equivalent of the hymen% and served as an impediment to sexual inter"ourse durin adoles"en"e before humans be"ame "ivili$ed. :he physi"al diffi"ulties may explain +hy the +ord for un"ir"um"ised in Hebre+ means Cobstru"tionC or Cto impedeC% so explainin the @ibli"al term Cun"ir"um"ised heartC +hen referrin to obstru"tionism. A#hat "aused many "ultures to ritually remove it4 A""ordin to )ox% the ritual removal of the fores*in in diverse human traditional "ultures% ran in from Muslims to Abori inal Australians "ould be a si n of "ivili$ation in that human so"iety a"quired the ability to "ontrol% throu h edu"ation and reli ion% the a e at +hi"h sexual inter"ourse "ould be in. ;ood for thou ht and dis"ussionJ Another "ompellin explanation involves the rituali$ation of "ir"um"isionCs

prophyla"ti" effe"ts% espe"ially as many different human roups and "ultures that live in desert or other hot environments have adopted it as part of their "ustoms. Infe"tions% initiated by the a ravation of dirt and sand% are not un"ommon under su"h "onditions and have even "rippled +hole armies% +here it is diffi"ult to a"hieve sanitation durin prolon ed battle. Histori"ally it +as not un"ommon for soldiers to be "ir"um"ised in preparation for a"tive servi"e. :he Eudeo,Muslim pra"ti"e of "ir"um"ision quite li*ely had its ori in in - yptian "ivili$ation% +here illustrations of the operation itself% as +ell as of "ir"um"ised !haroahs% date ba"* to ?''' @). 3ne possible reason the - yptians "ould have "ir"um"ised themselves and their slaves mi ht have been to prevent s"histosomal infe"tion. Urinary tra"t obstru"tion and hematuria are "ommon in lo"alities su"h as the 9ile .alley that are inhabited by the blood flu*e% S"histosoma haematobium % and the fores*in +ould undoubtedly possess the adverse ability of bein able to hold +ater infe"ted +ith the "er"aria sta e of the life "y"le of this parasite and so fa"ilitate its entry into the body. :he perpetuation of the pro"edure by the Ee+s may have subsequently been driven by a desire to maintain "leanliness in an arid% sandy desert environment. Su"h "onsiderations "ould also explain +hy it is pra"ti"ed in multiple other "ultures that live in su"h "onditions. In ea"h instan"e% the ori inal pra"ti"al reason be"ame lost as the ritual persisted as a reli ious rite in many of the various "ultures of the +orld. In the Muslim reli ion "ir"um"ision o""urs near the time of puberty. In other "ultures it is asso"iated +ith preparation for marria e and as a si n of entry into manhood. Interestin ly% in Eapan% +hi"h% li*e most of Asia% is traditionally a non,"ir"um"isin nation% "ir"um"ision has re"ently started to be"ome a fashion amon st youn men. :he pro"edure is "urrently bein promoted by +ay of arti"les and advertisements in the vast array of C irlieC% sex ma a$ines read by youn males. :he messa e is that it improves hy iene enerally and attra"tiveness to +omen spe"ifi"ally. A:o summari$e= 7a"* of "ir"um"ision= Is responsible for a >&,fold hi her ris* of urinary tra"t infe"tions. 0is* Q > in &'. )arries a hi her ris* of death in the first year of life 5from "ompli"ations of urinary tra"t infe"tions= vi$. *idney failure% menin itis and infe"tion of bone marro+6. 3ne in U('',K'' un"ir"um"ised men +ill et "an"er of the penis. A quarter of these +ill die from it and the rest +ill require at least partial penile amputation as a result. 5In "ontrast% penile "an"er never or rarely o""urs is men "ir"um"ised at birth6. 5Data from studies in the USA% Denmar* and Australia% +hi"h are not to be "onfused +ith the often quoted% but misleadin % annual in"iden"e fi ures of > in >''%'''6. Is asso"iated +ith balanitis 5inflammation of the lans6% posthitis 5inflammation of the fores*in6% phimosis 5inability to retra"t the fores*in6 and paraphimosis 5"onstri"tion of the penis by a ti ht fores*in6. Up to >FN of un"ir"um"ised boys +ill develop one of these by F years o f a e% +hereas all are un*no+n in the "ir"um"ised. 0is* of balanoposthitis Q > in L. 3bstru"tion to urine flo+ Q > in >',H'. Means problems that may result in a need for "ir"um"ision laterin life= "ompli"ation ris* Q > in >'' 5"ompared +ith > in >''' in the ne+born6. Also% the "ost "an be >' times hi her for an adult. Is the bi est ris* fa"tor for heterosexually,a"quired AIDS virus infe"tion in men. F,times hi her ris* by itself% and even hi her +hen lesions from S:Ds are added in. 0is* per exposure Q > in ?''. Is asso"iated +ith hi her in"iden"e of "ervi"al "an"er in the female partners of un"ir"um"ised men. A)on"lusion= :he information that appears in this revie+ should prove informative to medi"al pra"titioners and health +or*ers and thereby enhan"e the quality of information

that is "onveyed to parents of male "hildren and to adult men. It should also prove to have edu"ational value to others. It is hoped that as a result the "hoi"e that has to be made "on"ernin "ir"um"ision% espe"ially of male infants% is mu"h more informed. Althou h there are benefits to be had at any a e% they are reater the youn er the "hild. Issues of Cinformed "onsentC may be analo ous to those parents have to "onsider for other medi"al pro"edures% su"h as +hether or not to immuni$e their "hild. :he question to be ans+ered is Cdo the benefits out+ei h the ris*sC. #hen "onsiderin ea"h fa"tor in isolation there "ould be some diffi"ulty in "hoosin . Ho+ever% +hen vie+ed as a +hole% in my opinion the ans+er to +hether to "ir"um"ise a male baby is CyesC. 9evertheless% everybody needs to +ei h up all of the pros and "ons for themselves and ma*e their o+n best de"ision. I trust that the information I have provided in this arti"le +ill help in the de"ision,ma*in pro"ess. .. Muslim 1outh and !orno raphy Internet porno raphy is the latest media mena"e parents and anyone "on"erned about "hildren and morality in eneral% must deal +ith. !i"tures of na*ed +omen 5itCs usually +omen% sin"e most porno raphy "aters to heterosexual men6 and "ouples en a ed in various forms of sexual inter"ourse% to name <ust a fe+ of the "ontents of porno raphy% are not <ust reserved to the internet thou h. ;or de"ades% MpornM in various forms has been found in ma a$ines% films% and more re"ently durin a lot of prime time television. :he internet is <ust the latest tool porno raphers have found to spread their MartM% +hi"h poses a number of problems. ;or instan"e% unli*e television% the InternetCs lure to porno raphy is not somethin that "an be i nored by flippin a "hannel% or pushin the off button. It is not un"ommon for "hildren and adults to be doin a sear"h on a eneral topi"% pun"hin in a "ouple of sear"h +ords or a possible internet address% only to suddenly find the porno raphi" pi"tures pop up on the s"reen% even after they try to "lose the +indo+s% or move to another site. :he pervasiveness of porno raphy on the internet means Muslims need to "onsider on"e a ain the Islami" perspe"tive on this issue +hile they use this ne+ medium. !orno raphy "onsumption is not somethin that "an easily be stopped. 3n"e the appetite for it has developed% it a"tually in"reases. A:he Islami" perspe"tive= M:here is no room for anyone to say porno raphy is not Haram. Its absolutely Haram%M notes Shay*h Muhammad 9ur Abdullah. He is the Imam of the Islami" ;oundation of Greater St. 7ouis in Missouri. 9ur Abdullah has a de ree in Shariah 5Islami" 7a+6 from Madinah university% and a Masters De ree in 8uran and Hadith from Umm al 8ura university in Me""a% Saudi Arabia. MIf someone is loo*in at someone "ommittin Iina 5sex outside of marria e6 +hether it is movies or pi"tures or the a"tual thin % its all Haram%M he adds. Some of the proofs he ives for the prohibition of porno raphy in Islam in"lude verses ?> and ?& of "hapter &( 59oor6 of the 8uran= Say to the believin men that they should lo+er their a$e and uard their modety 5"hastity6/ that +ill ma*e for reater purity for them= and Allah is +ell a"quinted +ith all +hat they do 5?>6% And say to the believin +omen that they should lo+er their a$e and uard their "hastity that they should not display their beauty and ornaments ex"ept +hat ordinarily appear thereof/ that they should dra+ their veils over their bosoms and not to display their beauty ex"ept to their husbands% their fathers% their husbands fathers% their sons% their husbandssons% their brothers% and their brothers sons%or their sisters sons% or their +omen% or the slaves +hom their ri ht hands possess% or male attendants free of sexual desire 5"astrate6% or small "hildren +ho have no "arnal *no+led e

of +omen% and they should not stri*e their feet in order to dra+ attention to their hidden ornaments 5?&6 5&(=?>D?&6 As +ell as Hadiths 5!rophet Mohamed !@UH statements6 that say +hat leads to Haram 5reli iously prohibited6 is Haram% and that adultery is "ommitted by the eye and the hand% even before a sexual en"ounter ta*es pla"e. Dremali% +ho is a raduate of Al A$har university in )airo% - ypt% a rees. He has openly dis"ussed the problem of the internet% porno raphy and Muslim youth in his Khutbahs. 3n a day to day level% he says he ets at least t+o "ases daily of youn Muslims% boys and irls% +ho "ome to the mosque and spea* to him personally about this problem. Dremali says the teena ers feel uilty% but they "annot stop loo*in at this material. :hey need a "ure% they have be"ome addi"ted 5see tips on ho+ to et out of addi"tion to porno raphy6. M:he person +ho loo*s at these thin s +ill al+ays have Shaytan 5Satan6 in his mind be"ause he +ants to "ommit these 5a"tions6%M he says. MShaytan never ta*es the person immediately to "ommit adultery 5he does it in steps6.M Dremali also ives a "lear example of the role the internet plays in bein one of the steps leadin to sex outside of marria e. M:he hand "ommits adultery by tou"hin Haram and the person usin the *eyboard and usin the mouse to loo* at these pi"tures% he or she is "ommittin adultery%M he +arns. Dremali says the vie+ expressed by Hi$b At,:ahrir is ruinin Muslim youth% some of +ho are usin this opinion to <ustify loo*in at porno raphy. In his >KFF study !orno raphy -ffe"ts= -mpiri"al and )lini"al -viden"e% .i"tor )line% then +ith the University of Utahs Department of !sy"holo y noted that studies sho+ porno raphy is pro ressive and addi"tive for many. It often leads to the user a"tin out his fantasy , often on "hildren. ;or those +ho have been trained from a youn a e to lo+er the a$e and pra"ti"e Islami" prin"iples of modesty% this may not even be an issue. @ut for those +ho have sadly fallen into porno raphy addi"tion% there is a +ay out. Al"oholi"s Anonymous is an or ani$ation that has fou ht the battle a ainst al"ohol addi"tion sin"e >K?H. Its M:+elve Steps of Al"oholi"s AnonymousM provides a "lear% eneral uide on ho+ to et out of the addi"tion of al"ohol% +hi"h has *illed people% ruined families% and led to health problems. Sound .ision has adapted the follo+in >& steps from this uide to% Insha Allah% help those no+ addi"ted to porno raphy and see*in a +ay out. AStep 3ne,Admit that you "ant ive up= Admit you are unable to et a rip on your "onsumption of porno raphy. It is un"ontrollable. -very time you turn on the internet% o to the video store% turn on the television% you "annot say 93 to yourself. 1ou "annot 93: surf porn sites% or stop +at"hin . 1ou are no lon er in "ontrol of your life. Step :+o,Admit only Allah "an et you out of this= 1ou *no+% after tryin throu h so many +ays to "ontrol your addi"tion and subsequently failin % that only Allah "an help you out of this. 1ou may have *no+n it before% but you are "onvin"ed of it no+ +ithout a shado+ of a doubt. Step :hree, 1our life and death are all in Allahs "ontrol= Have de"ided to put your "omplete trust in Allah% +ho is in "ontrol of all aspe"ts of your life and your death% and to brin this problem and see* His Help first and foremost. Step ;our,Did a self,analysis= 1ou have done an honest% sin"ere% but often painful self,evaluation of your ood points% bad points% and analy$ed your addi"tion% tryin to understand ho+ you rea"hed this point. Step ;ive,Made a spe"ifi" repentan"e to Allah= 1ou admitted to Allah and to yourself% and another trusted Muslim 5if possible6 exa"tly +here you +ent +ron . 1ou did not ma*e a eneral request for repentan"e. 1ou spe"ifi"ally listed your mista*es% and in parti"ular% your addi"tion to

porno raphy. Step Six,#ere open and ready to re"eive Allahs help to "han e= 1ou *ne+ your :a+bah% bein sin"ere% must be follo+ed by a"tion. 1ou +ere ready to do +hat is ne"essary to "han e% no matter ho+ diffi"ult or painful. -ven if it meant not even +at"hin television for the ne+s% or never surfin the internet alone. Step Seven, As*ed for the removal of faults= 1ou as*ed Allah% +ith sin"erity% humility and re ret% to help you never repeat this a"tion 5i.e. loo*in at porno raphy6 a ain and to help you avoid repeatin sins "ommitted in the past a ain. Step -i ht,De"ided to see* others for iveness= 1ou made a list of everyone you had hurt throu h your addi"tion. #hether it +as your +ife or husband% "hildren 5to +hom +e set a bad example6 or parents% and made the 9iyyah 5intention6 to approa"h them see*in for iveness. Step 9ine,As*ed for iveness dire"tly= 1ou slo+ly% +ith diffi"ulty but sin"erity% met +ith ea"h individual and as*ed for their for iveness and sou ht to ma*e amends for the pain you have "aused in a Halal +ay. Step :en,Did a ni htly self,evaluation= 1ou "ontinually% every ni ht% did an honest self,evaluation of your behavior% and +ere ready to admit your mista*es and than* Allah for the ood you did that day. Step -leven,Made lots of Dua and tried to in"rease your :aq+a= 1ou prayed and "ontinue to pray five times a day% see*in "loseness to Allah% and a "ons"iousness of Him 5:aq+a6 +herever you are. 1ou in"rease your relian"e on Him to help you +ith +ith this addi"tion to porno raphy and +ith all other matters in your life. Step :+elve,1ou prea"hed and pra"ti"ed= 1ou didnt <ust Mmove onM after Allah blessed you to et out of this addi"tion. 1ou helped others you *ne+ +ith this problem +ith re ular "onta"t% sin"ere 9asihah% respe"tin the etiquette of en<oinin the ood and forbiddin the evil. @y the ra"e of Allah% helpin others helped you maintain "ontrol over your addi"tion and you helped another Muslim or another human bein % et out of this destru"tion and misery. A:he dan er of "hat rooms= Dremali notes that one spe"ifi" dan er related to the internet and adults and "hildren is "hat rooms% +here anyone +ith a""ess "an "ommuni"ate +ith others anonymously% even lyin about names% a es and identities. #hat happens there% says the s"holar% is that people arran e to meet for sexual en"ounters. :his in"ludes Muslims% says Dremali% +ho has observed this happen. In parti"ular% he says Ameri"a 3nline has Mthe most dan erous "hat rooms. I advise every parent to stop Ameri"a 3nline% or +at"h the Ameri"a 3nline "hat room +ith their *id.M1our *ids are not ne"essarily an els +ho dont *no+ about porn. In his notes% :aha Ghayyur +rote= MUnfortunately there are a lot of Muslim youth +ho are usin porno raphy on the SinternetT% and they basi"ally use the internet only for that purpose%M :oo often% thou h% parents are +illin to bury their heads in the sand +hen the issue of porno raphy and their "hildren "omes up. MHo+ do you *no+ your *ids dont *no+ about it4M as*s Dremali. :he easy a""ess to porno raphy on television 5no lon er reserved to <ust the very late ni ht hours6% on the ma a$ine stands and the internet ma*es it almost impossible to avoid% even if ones intentions are "lear. In the "ase of the internet% sometimes a""ompanyin lin*s or +indo+s to porno raphi" +ebsites or +ebpa es +ill suddenly open up% a ainst the +ishes of the surfer. :his ho+ever% does not mean parents should automati"ally assume the +orst about their "hildren. Shay*h 9ur Abdullah stresses the importan"e of openly tal*in to "hildren about

the problem% espe"ially if they have been "au ht loo*in at su"h material. If parents dont do this Mthen +e are turnin our fa"e a+ay from the problem%M he says 5see tips for parents6. A@ut dont stop the internet or any other media= Despite the dan er of exposure to porno raphy thou h% neither Shay*h 9ur Abdullah nor Imam Dremali re"ommend riddin Muslim homes of the internet% for instan"e. @oth say the *ey is really in ho+ the medium% li*e other ones of the past 5i.e. television% ma a$ines% et".6 is bein used. M:he internet is ood and bad%M says Dremali. MAllah ave us the brains to thin* +here is the ood +ay and +here is the bad +ay. A""ordin to your "hoi"e Allah +ill <ud e you.M A13U !309 ADDI):S= :H-0- IS A #A1 3U:JJ MSay= 3 Ibadi 5My slaves6 +ho have trans ressed a ainst themselves 5by "ommittin evil deeds and sins6J Despair not of the Mer"y of Allah% verily Allah for ives all sins. :ruly% He is 3ft,;or ivin % Most Mer"ifulM 58uran ?K=H?6 #hether its porno raphy% stealin % lyin % ba"*bitin % our sins% for most of us at least% a""umulate day by day. #e may try to hold our ton ues% lo+er our a$e% not disrespe"t our parents andBor elders% or avoid a myriad of the sins Allah has ordered us to avoid% but as humans +e are +ea*% and +e "an and do ma*e mista*es daily 5if not hourly6. @ut +hile Allah pres"ribes punishment% either in this life% the next life or both% the doors of repentan"e are al+ays open. 9o matter ho+ a+ful our sin% until +e die% Allah is al+ays ready to hear and a""ept our repentan"e% provided it is sin"ere and results in "han e. In the 8uran% Allah repeatedly says that He is the ;or ivin % the Mer"iful. In a "ommentary of 8urCani" verses L? to G? of Surah &H 5Al,;urqan6% Syed Abul Ala Maududi dis"usses this story from the time of the !rophet related by the s"holar Ibn Kathir as an example of for iveness= Abu Huraira said= M3ne day +hen I returned home after offerin the Isha prayer in the !rophets Mosque% I sa+ a +oman standin at my door. I saluted her and +al*ed into my room% "losed the door and busied myself in voluntary +orship. After a +hile she *no"*ed at the door. I opened the door and as*ed +hat she +anted. She said that she had "ome +ith a problem= she had "ommitted Iina 5sex outside of marria e6% had be"ome pre nant% iven birth to a "hild and then *illed it. She +anted to *no+ if there +as any "han"e of her sin bein for iven. I replied in the ne ative. She +ent ba"* rief,stri"*en% ex"laimin % AhJ :his beautiful body +as "reated for the fireJ :he next mornin % after the prayer% +hen I related the ni hts in"ident before the Holy !rophet% he said% 1ou ave a very +ron ans+er% Abu Huraira. Havent you read the 8urCani" verse +hi"h says= 5:hose6 +ho do not invo*e any other deity than Allah% nor slay su"h life as Allah has made sa"red% ex"ept for <ust "ause% nor "ommit forni"ation/ and any that does this not only meets punishment but the penalty on the Day of Eud ment +ill be doubled to him% and he +ill d+ell there in i nominyex"ept the one +ho believes 5or reaffirms his faith6 and does ri hteous deeds. Allah +ill "han e evil of su"h persons into ood deeds% and Allah is 3ft,;or ivin % Most Mer"iful. Hearin this from the !rophet% I +ent out in sear"h of the +oman% and had her tra"ed a ain at Isha time 5ni ht prayer6. I ave her the ood ne+s and told her +hat the Holy !rophet had said in reply to her question. She immediately fell prostrate on the round and than*ed Allah% #ho had opened a +ay for her for iveness. :hen she offered repentan"e and set a slave, irl% alon +ith her son% free.M AAnd hereafter are some points to be tau ht to youth 5and non,youth6 to prote"t them a ainst this trap "alled porno raphy addi"tion= :ip O>= Kno+ +hat is Halal and +hats not #e may thin* only hard "ore porno raphy is Islami"ally una""eptable. :his is not true.

Improperly dressed men and +omen% sexual situations% foreplay% *issin % tou"hin % dirty <o*es= none of these are Islami"ally a""eptable. :ip O&= 0emember your a""ountability to Allah In Ameri"a and some other "ountries% youre fully responsible for your a"tions +hen you turn >F. In Islam% youre fully a""ountable as soon as you understand these thin s. So that means that from that point on+ards% you "annot assume loo*in at this stuff is no bi deal. 1our eyes +ill testify about +hat you loo*ed at on the Day of Eud ment. 0emember that Allah is al+ays +at"hin . He is Most Eust and Mer"iful% and He re+ards us for the ood and punishes us for the bad +e do. :ip O?= @e"ome "ons"ious of the Haram :oo often% its easy to dismiss that billboard +ith the spandex,and,bi*ini,top,"lad blonde irl advertisin um% or the uy in ti ht leather pants and no shirt advertisin perfume. #hen you see it% remember the Islami" perspe"tive% your a""ountability to Allah% and lo+er your a$e. Do the same for television and the internet. If you *eep doin this% Insha Allah% itll be"ome a habit% and eventually an automati" rea"tion. :ip O(= If feelin over+helmed% remember Allah In situations +here you feel over+helmed and "ant et yourself to s+it"h the "hannel% "lose the bro+ser +indo+ or turn your eyes a+ay from the billboard% as* Allahs help. 1ou dont ne"essarily need any heavy duty% lon Duas. 7a ha+la +a la qu++ata illa billah 5there is no po+er or ability ex"ept +ith Allah6 is short% simple% and reminds you +ho is really in "ontrol and "an help you out of this. :ip OH= See* refu e in Allah from Shaytan Shaytan lured you into this mess. See*in refu e in Allah 5sayin Aoutho billahi minash Shaytan ir 0a<eem6% +ill help you resist him and his +hisperin s to "ontinue loo*in at the material% Insha Allah. :ip OL= Get up and leave If you feel unable to "ontrol loo*in at the s"reen or the ma a$ine% leave the situation. Get out of the livin room% your bedroom +here the internet is% or +here youve been readin the ma a$ine. :a*e a +al*. Eust do somethin to physi"ally et out of the situation. :ip OG= Avoid those involved in porno raphy If one of your friends is into porno raphi" ma a$ines% +ebsites% dirty <o*es et". either help him or her "han e throu h entle and sin"ere advi"e 5see etiquettes of en<oinin the ood and forbiddin the evil6or abandon frequent "onta"t +ith them. :heir "ompulsion +ill affe"t you% so its best to stay as far a+ay as possible% by rememberin the dan er to yourself% your reli ion% and your relationship +ith Allah. :ip OF= Stay a+ay from pla"es +here its found Sometimes its on a billboard on a hi h+ay and you "ant miss it. @ut often times% youll noti"e "ertain parts of your "ity 5the seedier ones6 tend to be filled +ith this *ind of material 5+here there are usually strip <oints% for example6. Avoid these pla"es as mu"h as you "an. If its on your +ay to s"hool% try to "han e your route. Also% in summer% stay a+ay from the bea"h. :ip OK= Surf or +at"h :... +hen others are around :he temptation to snea* a loo* at dirty pi"tures or that bi*ini,"lad babe is hei htened +hen youre alone in your room +at"hin television or surfin the internet. :ry to avoid late ni ht :... and internet surfin . Instead% +at"h or surf +hen others are around so you "an resist the ur e to snea* a pee*% thin*in no ones +at"hin 5and remember Allah is A7#A1S +at"hin 6. It is a ood idea not to have :. or "omputer in the bedroom any+ay. 7ivin room or study room are better pla"e for this stuff. :ip O>'= 0emember your example If you have youn er brothers and sisters% thin* of the bad example youre settin for them. #hat messa e +ill they et if they bar e into your room and "at"h you +at"hin @ay+at"h or flippin throu h !layboy.

:ip O>>= ;or brothers,remember your mom and sister Dis ustin ri ht4 -xa"tly. 9o one in his ri ht mind +ould loo* at his mom or sister the +ay many of us loo* at the @ay+at"h babes or the irls on the internet or in ma a$ines. 0emember mom and your sister% and that should si"*en you enou h to stop% Insha Allah. :ip O>&= Have someone +at"h over you If you really feel youre be"omin addi"ted 5see http=BB+++.soundvision."om6 to this *ind of material% try to +at"h :.% surf the internet +ith someone else. 1ou dont have to tell them +hy youre doin this% but this method "an perhaps *eep you in "he"* and help you avoid loo*in at porno raphy or other similar material. After all% Shaytan tempts us most easily +hen +ere alone. Sittin in the "ompany of a family member or ood Muslim friend +ill Insha Allah% help. :ip O>?= ;ast :he !rophet 5pea"e and blessin s be upon him6 advised us to fast to "ool passions. :his should be a method +e use to handle the desire aroused by porno raphy and similar material. :ip O>(= :auba= 0eturn to Allah If you do end up +at"hin the bad stuff% repent to Allah. See* His for iveness% reaffirm your faith in Him% and do ood deed to "ompensate for that sin. He is All,;or iven as lon as you are sin"ere. :ip O>H= 0epent A ain and ;ine 1ourself If you lapse% do tauba a ain. Allah is All,;or ivin as lon as +e mean it. @ut then you need to dis"ipline yourself by promisin to yourself that if I did it a ain% I +ill pay this mu"h in "harity or fast for a day. :he messa e is that dont ive up on you. Keep tryin . Stru le is life. Shaitan "ould be "reative. And +ith the help of Allah% you +ill be the +inner insha Allah. A#HA: :3 D3 I; A ;0I-9D IS I9.37.-D I9 SU)H A @IG SI9 7IK- !3093G0A!H1 ADDI):I394 Al :irmithi reported that the prophet 5!@UH6 addressed his "ompanions sayin = Do not *eep "ompany ex"ept +ith +hom +ho is a ood believer 5follo+er6% and do not feed anyone ex"ept to +hom +ho is pious :here is no doubt that +hen youn people *eep "ompany +ith those +ho have faith and piety% they +ill adopt their ri hteousness% inte rity% and ood habits as +ell as follo+in them in their faith and piety. 3n the other hand% those +ho a""ompany +ron doers and the rebellious% ta*e from their evil% "orruption and bad habits% and +ill follo+ them in their +ron doin and rebellion. Al :irmithi re"orded this meanin from the +ords of the Messen er of Allah 5!@UH6 +hen he said= A man embra"es the reli ion of his friend% thus the individual should be a+are of +hom he ta*es as a friend In order not to have "onfli"ts about the meanin of this statement of prophet Mohammads 5!@UH6% +e have to understand that the friendship is a very pre"ious blessin % so% and ta*in in "onsideration that ;aith in"reases and de"reases as Allah messen er 5!@UH6 mentioned in one of his statements% friends +ho basi"ally are in ood terms +ith the ood prin"iples espe"ially reli ious ones,% should be alert for ea"h others level of faith% to ive a ood hand to that +hose faith is in a status of de"rease due to any reason% and not to abandon him +ith the ex"use of his bein not very reli ious% on the "ontrary% +e have to be more fo"usin on treatin the +ron doin 5s6 he sin*s in. let us see an example of the role of a friend to+ards another on the li ht of Islami" basi"s= -n<oinin or "ommandin the ood and forbiddin the evil is a Muslims duty. :he !rophet 5pea"e and blessin s be upon him6 said= #hoever amon you sees a Mun*ar 5offensive or evil a"t6% then he must "han e it +ith his hand/ if he is in"apable% then +ith his ton ue/ if he is in"apable% then +ith his heart/ and that is the +ea*est faith 5Muslim6. Here are some tips to be "onsidered= :ip O>= Kno+ +hat you are tal*in about

Kno+ the Islami" perspe"tive on this issue by readin up on it and tal*in to *no+led eable and trust+orthy Muslims and follo+ers. :ip O&= Hate it +ith your heart Sometimes% +e are not in a position +here +e "an do anythin about porno raphy +ith our hand or by sayin somethin about. :he least +e should do is hate this in our hearts. :hat means hatin to hear dirty <o*es% to see half,na*ed individuals sellin produ"ts on television or in ma a$ines% and hatin to en"ounter this *ind of material in eneral. @y hatin it% +e +ill develop sensitivity a ainst it% and be able to see ho+ dis ustin it is. :ip O?= !ra"ti"e +hat you prea"h 9ot only is this an Islami" requirement% but also *eep in mind that if Imran or anyone else sees you le"turin about porn but "at"hes you snea*in a pea* at one of the +omen on @ay+at"h% hell noti"e your hypo"risy and be less li*ely to ta*e you seriously. :ip O(= Sho+ enuine "on"ern for him ;riendship is built on "on"ern for others. :his is +hy so many youn people turn to friends instead of parents in times of "risis be"ause many parents often dont express this "on"ern openly. @y sho+in enuine "on"ern% your advi"e is more li*ely to be heeded% InshaAllah. :ip OH= @e sin"ere in your advi"e Dont try to "han e Imran so he "an see ho+ mu"h you *no+% or to impress others. Do it sin"erely% for the sa*e of Allah and be"ause Imran is your brother% and all Muslims are li*e one body. :ip OL= Spea* to him in private 9-.-0 brin up this problem in front of other people. -ven if Imran doesnt reali$e this is +ron % belittlin him or exposin this fault of his in front of others +ill ma*e him defensive and an ry. Hell probably not +ant to asso"iate +ith you very mu"h after youve humiliated him publi"ly. 1our opportunity to help him then% is lost. :al* to him +hen the t+o of you are alone. :ip OG= :al* to him on the ri ht o""asion Indire"tly brin up the topi" +hen youre alone to ether. -ither +ait for him to tell you about his latest Internet surfin adventures or +hen somethin inappropriate "omes on television% lo+er your a$e or as* him to "han e the "hannel. #hen he as*s +hy% be in the dis"ussion. :ip OF= @e entle 1ellin % s"reamin % threatenin % tryin to trash your friends "omputer are not oin to et him to stop vie+in porno raphy. 0emember that harshness often ma*es people rebel instead of turnin them to+ards +hats ri ht. :hin* about your parents. #hen they yell at you to do somethin % are you li*ely to do +hat they as* happily and +illin ly4 3r are you more li*ely to do it if they address you in a entle and *ind manner4 Use the same prin"iple on any friend havin the same problem. :ip OK= Spea* about your personal experien"e Start off des"ribin your o+n initial i noran"e about this topi"% but after resear"hin you found out +hy +at"hin porno raphy and similar material +as una""eptable and de"ided not to try to stop loo*in at it. :his +ill ma*e it "lear to that friend that you yourself are dealin +ith the problem% not <ust tal*in . After doin this% dis"uss +ith him ently about his o+n problem +ith porno raphy. :ip O>'= @e patient In a best,"ase s"enario% your friend +ill reali$e the error of his +ays% and automati"ally stop loo*in at the porno raphi" material. In a most,"ase s"enario% he +ill feel un"omfortable% but +ill not be +illin to ive up his habit. He may +hine% try to <ustify +hat hes doin % et". @e patient. )han e does not happen overni ht. Keep at him% but "ontinue to be entle% and +isely brin up the issue. 3ffer to help him. Give him some tips 5see above6. :ip O>>= Ma*e Doa 5prayers and requests from Allah6 for him

3nly Allah "an really "han e anyones heart and a"tions. Ma*e Doa for this friend and others in same situation re ularly. Dont ive up on himBthem. ASome statisti"s and fa"ts about porno raphy= #eb usa e by interest= O> 9e+sBInformation O& Adult 5porno raphy6 O? )hat roomBDis"ussion Groups O( Games A!er"enta e of porno raphi" sites= M3ver ?'N of sites on the #orld #ide #eb are porno raphi"M 5USA :oday% April F% >KKF6 7oo*in for one thin % findin another M3ur internet sear"h en ine reports reveal a disturbin reality. In over KKN of the hits dire"ted to our site% the person performin the sear"h +as loo*in for porno raphy% many loo*in for "hild porno raphy. :o thin*% KKN used porno raphy sear"h +ords inspired our pro<e"t% Internet Intervention. Internet Intervention is a net+or* of "omputers% hostin hundreds of +ebsites% +hi"h dire"t the *ey+ord sear"her of "hild porno raphy to an Intervention Help Site. :he very people that need it the most see our messa e of help. )li"* here to see a help +ebsite that you "ould have been dire"ted to if you use "hild porno raphy sear"h +ords on your sear"h en ine request.M ,;rom the +ebsite of the :onya ;lynt ;oundation% an anti,porno raphy +ebsite. :ony ;lynt is the dau hter of notorious Ameri"an porno rapher 7arry ;lynt. AA Multi billion dollar industry= !orno raphy is a R>&,R>? billion,a,year industry,more than the "ombined annual revenues of the )o"a,)ola and M"Donnell Dou las "orporations. !orno raphi" entertainment on the Internet "onstituted the third lar est se"tor of sales in "yberspa"e% +ith estimated annual revenues of R>'' million. Su"h mar*etin su""ess has fueled an in"rease in the si$e of the porno raphy industry ,, R>' billion annually% a""ordin to "onservative estimates. AHits on a porn site= !layboyCs headquarters re"eived (.G million hits 5ele"troni" visits6 in a re"ent seven,day period. A!orn video rentals= !orn video rentals soared to LLH million in >KKL% a""ountin for >?.?N of video rentals in Ameri"a. !rofits of sales and rentals of porn videos +as R(.& billion in >KKL. AAddi"tion to porno raphy= !orno raphy "onsumption "an be as Mmood alterin M and as addi"tive as nar"oti"s% Studies sho+ porno raphy is pro ressive and addi"tive for many. It often leads to the user a"tin out his fantasy , often on "hildren. A!orno raphys effe"ts on fathers= More sophisti"ated analysis reveals that men +ho had pur"hased porno raphi" materials in the past year had si nifi"antly lo+er marital% fatherin and family,life satisfa"tion +hen "ompared to those +ho had not pur"hased porno raphi" materials in the past year. A!orno raphy and sexual assault= 0esear"h athered over the past fe+ de"ades demonstrates that porno raphy "ontributes to sexual assault% in"ludin rape and the molestation of "hildren. )hild molesters often use porno raphy to sedu"e their prey% to lo+er the inhibitions of the vi"tim% and to serve as an instru"tion manual. A#ho "onsumes porno raphy4 A primary porno raphy "onsumer roup is boys bet+een a es >& , >G. ,Attorney GeneralCs ;inal 0eport on !orno raphy% >KFL% p . &HF A!orno raphys effe"t on sexual relationships= !orno raphy distorts the natural development of personality. If the early stimulus is porno raphi" photo raphs% the adoles"ent "an be "onditioned to

be"ome aroused throu h photo raphs. 3n"e this pairin is re+arded a number of times% it is li*ely to be"ome permanent. :he result to the individual is that it be"omes diffi"ult for the person to see* out relations +ith appropriate persons. .I. IS7AMI) )39)-!:S 3; MA0I:A7 S-2UA7I:1 Demonstratin the venerable "hara"teristi"s that are of Islami" Sharia that are exemplified in its divinity% pra"ti"ality% and "omprehensiveness/ +e hereby, are tal*in about the point of Allahs "omprehensiveness +ith re ard to "reation% life% and man% as +e study Allahs vie+ to+ards sex. :his issue +ill be addressed in this "hapter in order to "larify that Allah is a reli ion in harmony +ith mans innate nature. Its la+s are for eternity as +ell as for this life until Allah returns the earth and all +hat is on it to His Holy self. Allah the Almi hty says= ..And +ho is better in <ud ment than Allah for a people +ho have firm faith4 5H=H'6 Undoubtedly% Allah a"*no+led es the innate impulses and sexual ur es of man. :his is based on the +ords of Allah. God Almi hty says= 5:hat is6 the nature 5fitra6 +ith +hi"h Allah has "reated man*ind 5?'=?'6. It should be noted that there "ouldnt exist any "ontradi"tion bet+een the la+ of Allah and the ur es that He in"ul"ates in man. Ho+ "ould su"h "ontradi"tion exist +hen the la+s +hi"h Allah% the Almi hty% laid do+n +ere laid do+n for the sa*e of man to be His vi"e erent on -arth and to strive his utmost in buildin up its "ivili$ation. As Allah is the lord of man*ind and the 3ne +orthy of mans +orship% it is Him +ho le islates for them la+s that raise humanity an a"hieve their +elfare and happiness for them in this +orld and the one after. Allah re"o ni$es the po+er of sexual need% but the sub<e"t is dis"ussed in the Allah and the sayin of !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6 in a serious manner% in re ard to marital and family life. !arents should familiari$e themselves +ith this body of *no+led e. :he sexual aspe"t of life in Allah has three basi" purposes= >,;ulfillement of ones desire% satisfa"tion of ones sexual pleasure% and en<oyment of this blessin so as to lead a balan"ed happy life% +ith positive effe"t on oneself and others. &,-<e"tion of bodily fluids from the body/ other+ise suppression or retention of semen "an "ause various *inds of serious illness namely/ pelvi" "on estion and its +ell,bein ,threatenin sequen"es espe"ially prostatitis. ?,)onservation of human ra"e and "ontinuity of its *ind until it rea"hes the total number of human bein s intended by Allah leave to experien"e life in this +orld% to fulfill the divine purpose% and to sho+ ratitude to its "reator. A-viden"e )onfirmin Allahs A"*no+led ement of :hese in"linations and Ur es= i, Allah +ords= >, Made temptin to people is the love of lusts% +omen% and "hildren% heaped up hoards of old and silver% "hoi"est horses% "attle and "rops. Su"h is the en<oyment of the life of this +orld% but the everlastin and best abode is +ith Allah 5?=>(6 &, And there is no blame on you if you ma*e an indire"t proposal of marria e to +ido+ed +omen durin their +aitin terms% or *eep it "on"ealed in your hearts for Allah *no+s that you +ill thin* of them% but do not ma*e any se"ret en a ement +ith them% ex"ept to spea* of ri hteousness 5&=&?H6 ?, And the +oman of the house he +as livin in be an to tempt him and totally lo"*ed the doors on them% and she said= "ome ta*e me% he said= I see* refu e in Allah% he is my lord +ho has iven me a ood abode 5>&=&?6 (, So +hen she heard about their sly tal*% she sent for them and she ave ea"h one of them a *nife and she sad= )oe forth Eoseph before them/ so +hen they sa+ him% they +ere so "arried a+ay in admiration for him that they "ut their hands un*no+in ly and they said= God forbidJ :his "annot be human% he must be an honorable an el 5>&=?>6 H, It is la+ful for you% on the ni hts of fastin to approa"h your +ives% they are your arments and you are their arments/ Allah *no+s that you

+ere betrayin yourselves% but he has turned to you and pardoned you% so no+ approa"h them and see* +hat Allah has ordained for you 5&=>FG6 L, If you fear Allah% spea* not in an affe"ted tone% so that he in +hose heart is a disease may yearn/ but tell honorable +ords 5+ith "lear meanin s6 5??=?&6 G, And from HIS si ns 5mira"les6 is that H- "reated for yourselves spouses% for you to find serenity +ith them and he has set bet+een you affe"tion and mer"y.. 5?'=&>6 ii, in Sunnah 5!rophet Mohamed 5!@UH6 sayin s6= >, ;ive pra"ti"es are basi" instin"tive "hara"teristi"s= "ir"um"ision 5male6% shavin pubi" re ion% "lippin the nails and "uttin the mousta"hes short &,If you enter your to+n by ni ht after "omin from a <ourney% do not enter upon your family till the +oman +hose husband +as absent shaves the pubi" hair and the +oman +ith un*ept hair to "omb her hair ?, Eabir ben Abdallah 5a youn "ompanion of the holy prophet +ho +as in his early t+enties or late teens at that time6 narrated= +hile +e +ere returnin from a ha$+a 5holy battle6 +ith !rophet 5!@UH6% I started drivin my "amel fast% as it +as a la$y "amel% a rider "ame behind me and bri"*ed my "amel +ith a spear he had +ith him% and then my "amel started runnin as fast as the best "amel you may see. @eholdJ :he rider +as the !rophet 5!@UH6 himself. He said= +hat ma*es you run in su"h a hurry4 I replied= I am ne+ly married. He said= Did you marry a vir in or a matron4 I replied= a matron. He said= #hy didnt you marry a vir in so that you may play +ith her and she +ith you4 I said= o Allah messen er/ my parents passed a+ay leavin K sisters and me% so I pitied a vir in for ta*in that hu e responsibility of ta*in "are of my K youn er sisters He said= God bless you. And he ave me the permission to pre"ede the rest of the army% and advised me sayin = but ma*e it so that you may enter Madina at ni ht for your +ife to et ready for you. (,#hen one of you 5means Muslim men6 sees a +oman% he should "ome to his +ife% for that +ill repel +hat he feels in his heart H,Des"ribin the events of an a"tual inter"ourse% prophet Mohamed 5!@UH6 said= marria e is not "omplete until she tastes the honey of her husband and he tastes her honey. Mentionin the equality in needs and interests and also in the +ays of havin fun% satisfa"tion and fulfillment. L,I intended to prohibit "ohabitation +ith a la"tatin +omen until I "onsidered the 0omans and the !ersians do it +ithout any in<ury bein "aused to "hildren thereby. :he reason +hy the Holy prophet +as oin to forbid su"h an a"t is that he thou ht that if ever a +oman performs sexual inter"ourse% this "ould affe"t her hormonal pattern in a +ay that it "ould harm babys health throu h affe"tin his nutrition. :he reason +hy su"*lin the mil* of a +oman by her adult husband is ri ht +as explained in the follo+in lines by Imam Mali*/ +hen the adult drin*s mil* of his +ife% the mil* is treated as a food and not as foster mil*. G,3thman ben Madhoun 5one of the follo+ers6 said= Allah Messen er 5!@UH6 refused his permission for sexual abstinen"e and he added= if he had approved% +e +ould have had "astration done. And the purpose of refusin permittin sexual abstinen"e is the refusal of prohibitin +hat Allah permitted. F,#hoever "laims himself to be a ood follo+er of mine% let him have a spouse K,!rophet Mohamed +as about to o into a Holy battle% then he said to the roup of Muslim members of his army= +hoever is en a ed to marria e and did not yet marry% let him not "ome +ith me nor follo+ me AAnd masturbation.. +hat about the Islami" point of vie+ "on"ernin it4 :his +as a question of a youn man to the Islami" +eb site +++.islamonline.net% and here is the exa"t ans+er sent to him= All praise and than*s are due to Allah% and pea"e and blessin s be upon His Messen er. Dear brother% +e +ould li*e to than* you for sho+in *eenness on learnin the

tea"hin s of Allah% and +e appre"iate the reat "onfiden"e you have in us. #e hope our efforts meet your expe"tations. #ith re ard to your question% it is very important as it tou"hes a problem most of Muslim youth% +ho are yet to et married% are fa"in due to the reat deal of temptations surroundin them. As you *no+% masturbation is perfe"tly a""eptable in non,Muslim so"ieties and is pra"ti"ed by lar e number of people= youn % sin le% old% and even married. Ho+ever% the situation is different in Allah. :he rulin on masturbation is overned by some "onsiderations that mi ht "han e the rulin from one person to another. :he late prominent s"holar Shei*h Mustafa A$,Iarqa% may Allah bless his soul% has analy$ed the issue of masturbation in detail and% after dis"ussin the different vie+s of s"holars and <urists re ardin it% issued the follo+in fat+a= :he only le al text used as eviden"e for the prohibition of masturbation is Allahs sayin des"ribin the believers= :hose +ho uard their sexual or ans ex"ept +ith their spouses or those +hom their ri ht hands possess% for 5+ith re ard to them6 they are +ithout blame. @ut those +ho "rave somethin beyond that are trans ressors. 5&?=H,G6 )ommentin on this verse% some s"holars hold the vie+ that this habit 5masturbation6 falls under the "ate ory of those +ho see* fulfillment of their sexual desires outside the frame+or* of marria e% and as su"h they are deemed trans ressors. :hose s"holars put masturbation under the list of the forbidden "ate ories of sexual fulfillment sin"e it "onstitutes trans ression of boundaries. :his vie+ is held by the Shafei 5follo+ers of the ShafiVAllah s"hool of ;iqh6. Ho+ever% some other s"holars believe that the trans ression meant in the aforementioned verse refers to extra,marital relations and +hat falls under the "ate ory of Iina 5adultery6. A""ordin to this vie+% masturbation does not fall under the meanin of this verse. :his vie+ is very "lose to the opinion held by the Hanafites 5follo+ers of the Hanafi s"hool6% +ho maintain that masturbation is basi"ally forbidden% but it may be permissible under the follo+in "onditions= >. If the person is unmarried% &. If he or she fears that +ithout masturbation heBshe +ill "ommit Iina% and ?. If the masturbation here is% rather than fulfillin a sexual desire% <ust to release the sexual tension resultin from stimulation. I "on"lude that the eneral prin"iples of ShariVah o a ainst this habit% be"ause it is not the normal +ay of fulfillin sexual desire/ ho+ever it is a deviation and that is enou h to "ondemn it% even thou h this a"t does not fall under the "ate ory of absolute prohibition li*e Iina. Ho+ever% the la+ of ne"essity% +hi"h is one of the prin"iples of ShariVah% should also apply here. ;or example% if someone is afraid that he +ould "ommit a reater sin li*e Iina or he +ill be harmed by some psy"holo i"al disorders% then the ban on masturbation +ould be relaxed <ust to remove the hardship% based on the ShariVah prin"iple that states that ne"essity is <ud ed a""ordin to the "ir"umstan"es that +arrant it. :hat means oin to the extreme in masturbatin is not permissible in all "ases% for the follo+in t+o reasons= >. It +ould be resorted to not as a "ase of extreme ne"essity to release the tension and the pain resultin from sexual arousal% but to fulfill the sexual desire% and &. It is harmful to ones health% and +hatever is physi"ally harmful is not allo+ed in ShariVah% a""ordin to the "onsensus of the Muslim s"holars. In addition to the t+o "onditions stipulated by the Hanafites% I +ould add t+o more "onditions based on the eneral rules of ShariVah= >. :he diffi"ulty of ettin married% and &. :he inability to fast. As +e *no+% the !rophet% pea"e and blessin s be upon him% has advised those +ho

"annot marry% And if evil.

afford marria e to fast% sayin = 3 youth% +hoever of you is able to let him marry% for it prevents forbidden stares or lapsin in adultery. he "annot marry% let him observe fastin % for it is a shield a ainst :his is the vie+ I believe to be the most "orre"t "on"ernin this issue.

Allah Almi hty *no+s best. .II. )39)-!: 3; MA00IAG- I9 IS7AM A:he le islation of marria e in response to the human ur e and in"linations to+ards sex as a main instin"t= ;or Allah% the institution of marria e based on mutuality of natural interest and "ordiality bet+een spouses represents a sublime manifestation of the Divine #ill and !urpose. :his is dis"ernible in the 8urani" verse "ited belo+= Allah Almi hty says= And amon His si ns is this% that He "reated for you from amon yourselves mates that you may d+ell in tranquility +ith them and He has made bet+een you affe"tion and mer"y. Surely in this are si ns for people +ho are refle"tin 5?'=&>6. I +ould li*e here to express that there are t+o verses in the holy Allah% +hi"h are "omplementary +ith ea"h other% puttin the +hole "onstitution for the marital life +ith all its sides% the first one is this one +hi"h is settin the rule for the everyday life events +ithin the marria e% and the se"ond is "omin a bit later tellin about every sin le rule "on"ernin the sexual life. :his ma*es a perfe"t mixture for the believin follo+ers if they sti"* to +hat Allah ordered and !rophet Mohamed 5!@UH6 has demonstrated in his blessed Sunnah. Here "omes the ur e to dis"lose the meanin s present in this past verse% +hi"h "ould be not very "lear to most of people 5even Allah6 +ho read the Allah <ust simply +ithout ettin into its profound meanin s% and amon +hom I have met a lot in the audients of the le"tures I ave in different "ountries of the Allah +orld% and +ho +ee so astonished of that "lear mira"ulous meanin +hi"h seemed li*e un"lear to them. So let us interpret in details/ +ord by +ord the verse O&>% "omin in "hapter ?' 5"alled Ar,rum or the 0omans6= ,And amon his si ns 5ayas6/ this means that this is one of the multipleAllah mira"les% and mentionin the +ord aya +hi"h "omes in this verse in the plural form, has many meanin s in the Arabi" di"tionary= >st= si n,mar*,indi"ation &nd= mira"le,+onder,marvel ?rd= example,lesson,+arnin (th= exemplar,pattern Hth= masterpie"e Lth= verse 5divine boo* verse6 So% here is "lear that Allah Almi hty mentioned only > +ord to indi"ate all these above,meanin s/ let us "ontinue to admire to ether the inimitability and the +ondrous nature of the Holy Allah/ , that he "reated for you= this is <ust the literalBverbal meanin of the verse% but the substantial meanin is somethin else/ this is that Allah +ants people in eneral and follo+ers spe"ifi"ally to et the idea of the parti"ulari$ation and the individuali$ation +hi"h is otten from the +ord for you. , from amon yourselves= :his is to be said also literally% but substantially% +e have to try to see throu h that there is a "ommon sour"e for the "reated bein s% so as every spouse has to *no+ that his mate is "reated in the very first pla"e from hisBher self so as to have to loo* after% and to *eep safe% sound% and happy% and also not ever to hurt% neither verbally nor physi"ally% +hi"h is to summari$ed into ivin the same "are to the spouse as to oneself. All these meanin s are inspired from the +ord yourselves , =matesBspouses= Here is lastly the entity that Allah *ept

introdu"in to mention/ so this is the lu"*y stru"ture Allah +as tal*in about +ith all this spe"ifi"ation for humans to *no+ that the manB+oman entities are not separable from ea"h other as they both have the same sour"e of "reation/ +hi"h +as split to be reunified at an indi"ated time/ that is marria e% +hi"h is the Holy unifi"ation God li*es most. , that you may d+ell in tranquility +ith them= the tar et +ord in his verse is tranquility% so let us enquire about the meanin s of the Arabi" +ord used to ive this verbal meanin in the Arabi" di"tionary= >st= trust in,"onfiden"e in &nd= havin faith in,rely on ?rd= feel at ease +ith (th= to "alm +ith,to tranquili$e +ith Hth= to be relieved +ith As +e noti"e% all these up,mentioned meanin s are the main purposes of the marital relationship/ and that is +hy Allah "reated both parties from the same sour"e and entity so as if someone finds his ri ht partner% all these purposes +ould be there and fulfilled. ,and he has made bet+een you= this is to si nify the main *ind of feelin s that should be present bet+een parties to be married% so as to be able to start over a marital life on solid basis. ,affe"tion and mer"y/ of "ourse the ori inal lan ua e any statement is established +ith ives the best and the most pre"ise meanin ever% and this is the "lue of the poorness of the verbalBliteral meanin in relation to the substantial profound meanin ori inally aimed to/ and I +ould li*e all of us to noti"e other very important point here/ this is that Allah Almi hty did not mention love as to be there obli atorily before marria e% but He pre"onditioned these t+o above,mentioned *inds of feelin s/ affe"tion% and mer"y. So let us move to the different meanin s of the +ord affe"tion 5Ma+addah6= >st= "ordiality,friendly feelin , ood+ill &nd= sin"ere affe"tion,friendliness,ami"ability ?rd= intima"y,frienship,love About the +ord mer"y 50ahmah6= >st= mer"y,"lemen"y &nd= lenity,lenien"y ?rd= "ompasson,pity (th=sympathy, ra"iousness,*indness If +e have a si nifi"ant and a profound loo* throu hout all these positive feelin s mentioned <ust above% +e "ould "on"lude that the simplest +ay to express Ma+addah or affe"tion is to tal* very ently +ith ones partner and to ta*e a very spe"ial "are to be a very s+eet tal*er% meanin ly% usually to say ni"e +ords% li*e un"easin ly flatterin the others ood loo*in and ele an"e% al+ays sayin ni"e +ords expressin positive feelin s li*e love% missin % appre"iation% and also bein than*ful +henever indi"ated% and overall bein al+ays a+are of the others feelin s +hether positive or ne ative% li*e happiness% sadness% and al+ays bein supportive and mer ed to ea"h other as one unit.. and many other positive feelin s that "ould be "on"luded from% and are in"luded in the lobal meanin of the +ord Ma+addah or sin"ere affe"tion )omin to the +ord rahmah or mer"y= I personally assume that in no+adays lifestyle,lan ua e/ this "ould be simply translated into= non,"har in Bnon,burdenin one another beyond hisBher toleran"e or bearin "apability% +hether this over"har in is physi"al% emotional% moral% or finan"ial. So% let us ima ine a marital life% both parties of +hi"h are ood believin follo+ers% havin all these up,mentioned positive feelin s% and insistin on performin the ood behavior Allah ordered% +ouldnt t it be a reatly happy life4 Surely no one "ould ever ima ine that there is an existin marital life +ith no ne ative sides% but ta*in these prin"iples as basi"s of our marital life +ould be al+ays able to "ut every ne ativity short% be"ause of havin the

po+er of fi htin due to the hardness of the round this relationship spe"ifi"ally is standin over. 3n the other hand% lettin o one or both of the t+o main pre"onditions Allah set as rules for the happy marria e +ould never uarantee a lon ,lastin happiness +ithin the marital life. ,surely in this= this is to mention that +hat "ame in the +ords of the verse so far is positively ,si nsBayas= here is a repetition of the +ord aya also in the plural form% this is meant by Allah Almi hty to remind the reader that it is not a simple thin to differentiate t+o sexes from the same ori in/ to remodel them to mat"h ea"h other% and to put all these positive feelin s in the one to+ards the other 0eally% espe"ially this matter of feelin s is not at all a fa"ile pro"ess to be "reated. )omin to the last +ord in this ama$in 8urani" verse/ ,for people +ho are refle"tin = the exa"t +ord means verbally= >st= thin*in about,"erbrate &nd= "onsideration,"ontemplation ?rd= refle"tion,mediation,"o itation (th= ponderin ,musin,spe"ulation Hth= thou ht,intelle"tion,reasonin ;rom all these above,mentioned meanin s of this +ord% +e "learly "on"lude the substantial meanin % that is Allah here +ants to attra"t readers attention sayin that this 8urani" verse is not as simple as to be read verbally and thats it/ but to be read% understood% thou ht about very deeply% pi"*ed up its profound meanin s +hi"h are there beyond the mere +ords% here +hy he mentioned the +ay of "arryin out this +hole pro"ess of marria e% and of leadin a happy marital life% and here is +hy he is ma*in an alert for the reader that he should reread% reunderstand% "erebrate% all the in,mentioned meanin s 5in the verse6 for the purpose of Allah to be fulfilled% so as to avoid ruinin marital lives +hi"h are the most holy and sa"red lin* mostly desired by Allah. And here ends the 8urani" verse +hi"h settles the rules and the prin"iples that are no+ requested by the spe"iali$ed psy"holo ists and marria e "ounselors to be follo+ed in order to a"hieve a maximally su""essful marital life. A""ordin to Islami" tradition 5Sunnah6% marria e has been deemed to be an essential requirement. )eliba"y has been re arded as a malevolent "ondition frau ht +ith evils. :he Islami" approa"h "on"ernin marria e and morals differs from +hat is *no+n about some of the traditional morali$ations of a ne ative *ind. Surprisin ly enou h% "ertain traditional moralists re arded sexuality as somethin basi"ally +i"*ed. :hey vie+ed sexual inter"ourse/ even +ith ones le al spouse% as impure% evil% undesirable% destru"tive% and as if it +ere "hara"teristi" of the uilty and fallen. Still more surprisin is the enerali$ed vie+ harbored in the #est that the traditional +orld "ommonly believed in the superstition that as"ribed an evil "onnotation to everythin pertainin to sex. :he famous #estern philosopher% @ertrand 0ussell% is no ex"eption in this re ard. In his boo*= Marria e and Morals% he enerali$es that= ... anti,sexual elements% ho+ever% existed side by side +ith the others from a very early time% and in the end% +here ever )hristianity and @uddhism prevailed% these elements +on a "omplete vi"tory over their opposites. #estermar"* ives many instan"es of +hat he "alls the "urious notion% that there is somethin impure and sinful in marria e% as in sexual relations enerally. In the most diverse parts of the +orld% quite remote from any )hristian or @uddhist influen"e% there have been orders of priests and priestesses vo+ed to "eliba"y. Amon the Ee+s the se"t of the -ssenes "onsidered all sexual inter"ourse impure. :his vie+ seems to have ained round in antiquity. ... :here +as indeed a enerali$ed tenden"y to+ards as"etism in the 0oman -mpire. -pi"ureanism nearly died out and stoi"ism repla"ed it amon "ultivated Gree*s and 0omans. ... :he neo,!latonists +ere almost as as"eti" as the )hristians. ;rom !ersia the do"trine that matter is evil spread to the #est% and

brou ht +ith it the belief that all sexual inter"ourse is impure. :his is% thou h not in an extreme form% the vie+ of the )hur"h... 9e ative sexual attitudes "ontinued throu h the "enturies to affe"t masses of "redulous people% in an adverse and also fri htenin manner of repu nan"e to+ards sex. Some psy"hoanalysts lar ely and uniquely attribute the hi h in"iden"e of psy"hosomati" disorders and spiritual ailments to a +idespread prevalen"e of deeply in rained ne ative sexuality. A#hat "ould have been the "ausative fa"tors in the mis"on"eptions about sexuality4 A#hat "ould be the reasons for men to deny themselves the natural satisfa"tion and the psy"hosomati" +ell bein asso"iated +ith healthy and desirable sex4 A#hy should people lead their lives% so as to virtually "ondemn an essentially +holesome part of their lives4 :hese are some of the "omplex questions for +hi"h thin*in men have yet to provide meanin ful and "onvin"in ans+ers. 1et% +e all *no+ that there "ould be many different reasons for% and "auses of% aversion to human sexuality. Apparently% the reasons in"lude pre<udi"ial thin*in about sexual desire and inter"ourse. :he pre<udi"e +as "arried to the extreme amon the )hristians% in or ani$in their "hur"hes and the "ler y. :he "eliba"y of Eesus )hrist inspired them to the effe"t that married status for saints and prea"hers +as "onsidered tantamount to pollution of their "hastity and piety. A""ordin ly% !opes are al+ays "hosen from amon unmarried priests. In fa"t% all the members of the )atholi" "ler y are bound by their oaths of "eliba"y to+ards remainin virtuous. @ertrand 0ussell says= :+o or three beautiful des"riptions of this institution 5marria e6 have been "ulled out of the immense mass of the patristi" +ritin s/ but in eneral% it +ould be diffi"ult to "on"eive anythin more "oarse or repulsive than the manner in +hi"h they re arded it. ... :he ob<e"t of the as"eti" +as to attra"t men to a life of vir inity% and as a ne"essary "onsequen"e% marria e +as treated as an inferior state. ... :o "ut do+n by the axe of .ir inity the +ood of Marria e +as in the ener eti" lan ua e of St. Eerome% the end of the saint )hur"h approves marria e for purpose of human pro"reation. :he need for propa ation of human spe"ies is not "onstrued as somethin adequate to lift the sti ma of impurity from any sexual a"t. Another reason for "on"edin marria e is to eliminate forni"ation bet+een men and +omen. A ain to quote @ertrand 0ussell= )hristianity% and more parti"ularly St. !aul% introdu"ed an entirely novel vie+ of marria e that it existed not primarily for the pro"reation of "hildren% but to prevent the sin of forni"ation :he )atholi" )hur"h re ards marria e as sa"rosan"t and bindin until death intervenes. A""ordin ly% dissolution of marria e% or divor"e% is not permitted. :he prohibition of annulment of marria e or divor"e may have somethin to do +ith a possible desire to atone for the ori inal sin% resultin in the expulsion of Adam and -ve in an unmarried state. Irrational attitudes to+ards +omen prevailed amon some of the an"ient peoples. :hese in"luded a notion that a +oman +as not a "omplete human bein / for% her situation as a "reature mi ht +ell lie some+here bet+een a human bein and an animal. Also% she +as devoid of an arti"ulate spirit% so that she "ould never ma*e it to HeavenJ Similar other superstitions +ere rampant in the past. ;ortunately% ho+ever% the aforementioned beliefs and notions +ere not universally "arried to the extreme. Any natural limits of +omen% as identified and evaluated in the past% +ere not en"roa"hed upon. Any impa"t of traditional +ays of thin*in did not o beyond "ultivation of a sense of pride by men and in"ul"ation of a sense of inferiority amon +omen throu h enerations. Apparently% the belief in the inherent +i"*edness of sexual desire and inter"ourse made men and +omen absolutely and equally distressed in spiritual terms. Moreover% it "aused a rather demorali$in "onfli"t bet+een the natural

instin"ts ur e and the reli ious or se"tarian belief about +i"*edness of "arnal desire and sexual inter"ourse. Spiritual ailments and unhappiness arisin from the aforementioned "onfli"t in"luded disharmony bet+een enuine natural desires and so"ially indu"ed aversion to+ards their fulfillment. :he problem assumed extraordinary proportions% in as mu"h as it be"ame the sub<e"t of intensive investi ations by psy"holo ists and psy"hoanalysts. In the above "ontext% the revolutionary lo i" of Allah "an be of extraordinary interest. Allah ives no sli htest indi"ation to the effe"t that sexual desire is evil in it% or that it is ne"essarily frau ht +ith evil "onsequen"es. 3n the "ontrary% the Islami" endeavor in this re ard is aimed at re ulatin human sexuality in a most humane manner. In the perspe"tive of 8uran% only the enuine interests of the present so"iety% or the posterity limit human sexual relations. In this "onne"tion% the Islami" approa"h follo+s +ell *no+n uidelines% leadin neither to any sense of sexual deprivation and frustration% nor to any repressed or inhibited sexual desire. It is a pity that s"holars% li*e @ertrand 0ussell% +ho has evaluated the )hristian and @uddhist morals% have refrained from spe"ifi"ally "ommentin on Islami" ethi"s. In his boo*= Marria e and Morals% @ertrand 0ussell mentions in passin about Allah. ;or example% he says= Great reli ious leaders% +ith the ex"eption of Mohammad and )onfu"ius% if he "an be "alled reli ious have in eneral been very indifferent to so"ial and politi"al "onsiderations% and have sou ht rather to perfe"t the soul by meditation% dis"ipline and self,denial. 9onetheless% it is true that from the Islami" point of vie+ sexual desire is not only "ompatible +ith human intelle"tuality or spirituality% but is eviden"ed as part of the nature and temperament of the prophets. A""ordin to one tradition 5hadith6% love and affe"tion for +omen +ere "hara"teristi" of the moral "ondu"t of the prophets. :here are several other traditions and narrations indi"atin propheti" re ard for +omen. A""ordin to some% the !rophet of Allah and the pious Imams too have all expli"itly demonstrated their love and re ard for their +ives and the +omenfol*. At the same time% they have stron ly disapproved of any human in"lination to+ards "eliba"y or monasti"ism 3ne of the "ompanions of the Holy !rophet% 3sman bin Madaoon% devoted himself to Allahs +orship to su"h an extent that he *ept fast pra"ti"ally everyday% as +ell as re ular ni htly vi ils in prayers. His +ife brou ht the matter to the attention of the !rophet% +ho rea"ted +ith visible annoyan"e and pro"eeded at on"e to +here his "ompanion +as and said= 3 3thmanJ Kno+ that Allah has not deputed me to en"oura e any monasti" life. My Shariah la+s are meant for enhan"in and fa"ilitatin human a""omplishment of their natural lives. !ersonally% I offer my prayers% *eep fast and maintain my "on<u al relations. A""ordin ly% to follo+ me in Allah means "onformin to the traditions laid do+n by me% +hi"h in"lude the requirement that men and +omen should marry and live to ether harmoniously :he Islami" position as explained above ma*es it "lear that human sexuality in itself neither represents any inborn +i"*edness% nor it invariably si nifies evil "onsequen"es. ;urthermore% it "larifies that +i"*edness has been traditionally as"ribed to human sexuality in the pro"ess of evolvin reli ious morality in the #estern +orld. 9o+% the #estern +orld has ta*en a >F',de ree turn in reversin its extreme traditional morals. At present% the #estern +orld believes in respe"tin and freein sexual desires and involvements throu h liftin of traditional moral restraints. In fa"t% many #esterners no+ favor sexual permissiveness. :hey "ontend that +hatever morality has been inherited by them "arries no more than a reli ious "onnotation. :hey "laim that todays ne+ morals are based on not only philosophi"al% but also s"ientifi" reasons.

Unfortunately% the ne ative sexuality traditionally and re"ently evolved in the #est has penetrated the moral fabri" of our so"iety% too. :his is despite all the erst+hile diffi"ulty of international "ommuni"ation. 9o+ +ith the improved means of "ommuni"ation and re ular international "onta"ts% the modernisti" #estern spe"ulations are virtually floodin our so"iety% as +ill be explained later on herein. Allah re"o ni$es the stron sexual ur e and desire for reprodu"tion. :hus Allah en"oura es marria e as a le al sexual means and as a shield from immorality 5sex +ithout "ommitment6. In Allah the marria e of a man and +oman is not <ust a finan"ial and le al livin arran ement% not even <ust for reprodu"tion% but providin a total "ommitment to ea"h other% a "ontra"t +itnessed by God. 7ove and <oy of "ompanionship is a part of the "ommitment. A married "ouple assumes a ne+ so"ial status and responsibility for himself% his +ife and his "hildren and for the "ommunity. :he Allah says% Amon His si ns is that He "reated "onsorts for you from amon yourself% so that you may find tranquility +ith them% and 5He6 set love and "ompassion bet+een you. .erily in this are si ns for people +ho refle"t 5?'=&>6.5see above6 ASA1I9GS 3; !03!H-: MUHAMMAD A@3U: MA00IAG-= Marria e is my tradition. He +ho re<e"ts my tradition is not of meMarria e is half of reli ion. :he other half is bein Godfearin . In Allah rulin s% there is no fixed rule as to the a e of marria e. It is be"omin fashionable for youn Muslim men not to marry until they have "ompleted their edu"ation% have a <ob% or rea"hed a e &L,?' or more. Similarly youn Muslim irls say they +ant to marry after a e &(. #hy4 #hen as*ed% they say% I am not ready for it. 9ot ready for +hat4 Dont they have normal sexual desire4 If the ans+er is yes% then they have only one of the t+o "hoi"es a6 marry or b6 postpone sex 5abstinen"e until they marry6. :he Great Allah says% 7et those +ho find not the +here +ithal for marria e% to *eep them selves "haste till God find them the means from His Gra"e 5&(=??6. :he !rophet said% :hose of you +ho o+n the means should marry% other+ise should *eep fastin for it "urbs desires 5Ibn Massoud6. .III. !03:3)37S 3; S-2 !0A):I)- I9 IS7AM :he 8urani" exer"ise of sexuality assumes% therefore% an infinite ma<esty. It is life "onveyed% existen"e multiplied% "reation perpetuated. :he sexual fun"tion is in itself a sa"red fun"tion. It is one of those si ns 5aya6 by +hi"h the po+er of Allah may be re"o ni$ed. :o a""ept ones sex is to a""ept bein a +itness to Allah. So the relation of the sexes +as to be the ob<e"t of very spe"ial attention on the part of the Allah= it must be re ulated so that it may be used in the ri ht +ay. :he Allah does not itself lay do+n prohibitions/ it merely re ulates sexual pra"ti"es. !ra"ti"in sex in Allah is sometimes "ould be a re+arded +orship 5if +ithin marria e6% or a penali$ed sin 5if outside marria eBadultery6% so let us have a round on the different forms of possible sex pra"ti"es and +hat Allah stated "on"ernin them= AID-A7 !I):U0- 3; S-2 !0A):I)-= )omin to the other 8urani" verse mentioned earlier settin very "lear and in the very details Allah rules about optimum sexual relationship bet+een married "ouple% establishin a manual of dealin a happiest sex life ever% and thus addin to performin the previous everyday life,instru"tions explained latterly% this +ould lead people to et a perfe"t marital life. 1our +ivesB+omen are tilth for you so you have to approa"h your pol+in s by any +ay you desire and introdu"e for yourselves and fear Allah and *no+ that you are to meet Him 5in the hereafter6 and ive ood tidin s to those +ho believe5&=&&?6 ,your +ives= this is the verbal meanin % +hi"h also means your +ives. About the substantial meanin = Allah here is tal*in to males of man*ind of his "reatures% this is proved by startin the verse by this +ord your +ives% and here% +e have to noti"e the same prin"iple follo+ed in the verse of Ar,rum

explained latterly% this is tar etin the possession instin"t usin the +ord your remindin man here that these +omen 5+ives6 are belon in s to them +ith all the pre"onditions of possessin a belon in % amon +hi"h is proper "onservation and uardin % and loo*in after% and all other feelin s mentioned in the explanation of the verse 5?'=&>6. Allah Almi hty "ould have mentioned +ives or +omen +ithout the +ord your% but here is "lear a ain the desire of stimulatin the instin"t of possession bein so po+erful and overnin espe"ially in men. ,tilth= its different verbal meanin s are as follo+s= >st=plo+in &nd= tillin ?rd= "ultivation (th= "ulture Hth= arable pla"e Substantially= Allah here is "onfinin the pla"e of the sexual a"t bet+een the man and the +ife to the site of "ultivation 5+hi"h is puttin a seed to obtain the a plant% the seed here bein the sperms and the plant bein the offsprin 6/ this is in the mean time denyin every other pla"e for matin but the va ina +hi"h fulfills the above,mentioned "onditions% as +ell as "onfirmin one of the main purposes of marria e +hi"h is ivin rise to further enerations of man*ind simply havin *ids. ,for you= here is a ain the mostly "lear purpose of Allah to endear +ives to their husbands/ by "onfirmin these +omen and their iven offsprin to be belon in to men. :he instin"t of a"quisition and mastery bein mu"h stron er in men than in +omen% and Allah% bein the "reator of both parties He insists on mentionin it but to+ards the *ind purpose +hi"h is= bein tender and ta*e a ood "are of ones +oman/ and also mentionin that they are the "arriers of your "hildren/ is su estive of their ri hts 5+omens6 to have your best "are you menJJ , so you approa"h your po+lin = A"tually this is an order from Allah to men +hom He started the verse tal*in to/ and He ives the meanin of those men are not free in approa"hin or non,approa"hin their +ives/ but they a"tually.. have to.. proved by this "lear% non,"onditioned order to them iven by the reatest "reator Almi hty% and this is in"lusively a divine admission of the +omen ri ht in havin sex and that she is not <ust a re"eiver or a "ontainer for mans desire or e<a"ulate/ but ta*in in "onsideration +omens timidity sometimes and pride some other times% one or both of +hi"h "ould *eep them from requestin the relationship% Allah bein her "reator as +ell as his% is orderin this approa"h to be ta*en over by the man% him bein the positive partner in the sexual relationship/ so man is the one to be ordered of approa"hin % initiatin % and performin / the +hole thin bein dependent on his o+n "apabilities% and if ever he is not that "apable% the a"t "ould not be performed% but on the other hand% e has to "onsider motivatin himself to+ards it even if he does not desire it spontaneously/ for another partner is bein havin a ri ht in it% and this ri ht is not to be suspended to partners terms. @y the +ay% this is a *no+n poli"y in treatin male sexual dysfun"tion. , @y any+ay you desire= in the first part of this senten"e% the ori inal Arabi" +ord mentioned in this verse is a very small one anna +hi"h is an Arabi" adverb of time% pla"e and mannerBmethod% the se"ond part is you desire/ substantially% I assume that this small and simple +ord anna "ould solve the problem the most +idespread in the +hole +orld/ this is the sexual boredom. In this verse% man is iven an unlimited freedom in sexual a"tion in performin the sexual relationship% meanin ly% in +hatever pla"e% time% and manner "ouple +ills. So% about the time% sex is allo+ed any time/ day or ni ht% so lon as neither of the "ouple is fastin 5li*e durin the daytime of the holy month of 0amadan6. About the pla"e% this denotes the possibility of "han in the pla"e of the inter"ourse so that to bypass the "ondition,lin* bet+een the a"t and the pla"e and thus avoidin boredom as +ell/ this sometimes +or*s mar*edly

in sex therapy% espe"ially +hen "hoosin unusual pla"es for the inter"ourse% that is to add a funny texture to the pro"ess/ thin also brea*in boredom. )omin to and endin +ith, the manner/ I personally explained this part of the 8urani" expression is meanin the sex positions% +hi"h no+adays rea"hed several hundreds 5this is explained and "onfirmed by several statements of !rophet Mohameds +hi"h +ill be mentioned later6. !lease noti"e that this +as mentioned that early in time 5more than >(&H years a o6 by insinuatin ones freedom in "hoosin bet+een unlimited patterns of havin sexJJJ , and= in the Arabi" lan ua e this and is <ust one letter. It may be a bit +eird that I am ivin su"h a small +ord and loo* attentively% to the si nifi"an"e of it is bein spe"ifi"ally here= in the Arabi" lin uisti"s% this letter is there for the purpose for the purpose of to etherness/ meanin that +hat is mentioned before o""urs obli atorily +ith +hat is mentioned after it/ in other +ords% +hat is before and +hat is after this letter should be happenin to ether ne"essarily. 9o+% in the li ht of this fa"t% let us see +hat is this thin +hi"h is pre"onditioned by Allah to be ta*en over in order to have all the latterly mentioned ri hts in sex relationship= , introdu"e= this is a very important basi" element for the sexual relationship in eneral and for a su""essful one in parti"ular/ this is the introdu"tion orthe foreplay. 1es% this is a divine order from Allah to men to introdu"e for the a"t/ this is of "ourse be"ause Allah *no+s very +ell the importan"e of su"h a basis for the a"t bein a ain and a ain, the "reator of men% +omen% their instin"ts% needs% requirements% as +ell as best +ays available to perform this a"t in a +ay so as to a"hieve optimum out"omes possible/ and this "ould never happen +ithout a properly exe"uted foreplay. :he man bein the main approa"her and initiator% he is the one +ho has to be told to% or rather ordered to do it% in order to uarantee +omans ri ht to et her pleasure +hi"h "ould be i nored or ne le"ted by the man% or sometimes she does not as* for it out of timidity or shyness% and some other times she does not even *no+ about her "apability to et the same pleasure as her husband. :o summari$e% Allah is extremely *een about ivin the +omen their ri hts to obtain their sexual pleasures and ettin their or asms/ their sexual "y"les bein a bit lon er in time than mens% if man +as left +ithout bein sexually,edu"ated or dire"ted to ho+ to a"t% he "ould be finishin his o+n "y"le +hile doin sex and thats it% in this situation% +ith his "y"le bein shorter than his +ifes% +omen +ould never be able to rea"h or asm so lon as her spouse does not "are about introdu"in for the a"t% and thus a very important ri ht of hers is let do+n% but Allah Almi hty +ould never let this happen% so% on the +ay of preventin these fallin s% Allah ave these orders to men spe"ifi"ally. , for yourselves=Hereby is a deeper and deeper meanin of sexual pra"ti"e/ this is about the nature of the instin"t and the differen"e of its poten"y bet+een man and +oman% bein mu"h more potent in males be"ause of the hu e quantity of testosterone he has in his serum by nature% also the differen"e in per"eivin and respondin to sexual stimuli in"ludin the "omplian"e and intera"tion of mans sex partner% bein lar er althou h on men than +omen/ so% one of the main sexual stimuli for the man is the +oman sexual intera"tion% pleasurin % and or asm% and even multiple or asms. In other +ords/ as mu"h as the +oman rea"ts and intera"ts +ith the man and responds to his eroti" plays 5foreplays6% the mans pleasure and ex"itation in"rease. :his is a"tually the profound meanin of Allah divine +ords= for yourselves +hat a beautyJJJJ @a"* to reality/ these are the +ords of the "reator of the man*ind and all their instin"ts% meanin ly the manual for best performan"e of the man*ind Allah has s"ulptured by his divine hands% thus He is the best to tell about His produ"t , and fear Allah and *no+ that you are to meet him= here "omes the turn for the threat for those +ho +ould not obey the previous divine orders% meanin that Allah here is remindin men 5+hom the +hole spee"h +as dire"ted to6 that the previous matter +as as serious as they +ould be profoundly as*ed about before the reat Allah Almi hty% their 7ord +ho is to punish them if not

obedients. , and ive ood tidin s to those +ho believe= the believers in the reli ious lan ua e are those +ho obey Gods orders and follo+ !ropheti" behaviors. :he hi hest spiritual ambition for su"h people should be the hope of meetin Allah. :o uphold su"h a hope is to ive lad tidin s to people of faith. It +ould only be unrepentant sinners +ho +ould fear the meetin . 9ote ho+ the most sensuous matters are dis"ussed fran*ly and immediately ta*en up into the loftiest re ions of spiritual upliftments. ;rom all +hat +as mentioned hereabove% I "on"luded that this sin le verse in Al baqara "hapter 5the "o+6 ives a +hole manual for havin a perfe"t sexual life% +ith a very deep "onsideration and understandin of human instin"ts and needs% also mentionin the pre"onditions on the +ay to a"hieve it% this is follo+in these instru"tions determined by our reatest )reator our 7ord.. Allah Almi hty. A:U09I9G S-2 I9:3 SADA8A= #omen shall have ri hts similar to the ri hts upon them/ a""ordin to +hat is equitable and <ust. 5&=&>L6 :hey do indeedJ :his passa e of the Holy 8uran has a eneral sense. 3ne basi" ri ht of every person ta*in on a "ontra"t never to have sex other than +ith his or her o+n le itimate partner is that ea"h spouse should therefore provide sexual fulfillment to the other% as part of the bar ain. 9o+% every man *no+s +hat sexual thin s please him% but some men% parti"ularly those +ho have not been married before and are therefore la"*in experien"e% dont seem to *no+ mu"h about ho+ to ive the same pleasure to the +oman/ even +orse% some men do *no+ but they "ant be bothered to ma*e the effort. 1et this is vital if a marria e is to su""eed and not <ust be a disappointin burden for the +oman% and it is a vital part of ones Islami" duty. It is not a""eptable for a Muslim man <ust to satisfy himself +hile i norin his +ifes needs. -xperts a ree that the basi" psy"holo i"al needs of a man are respe"t and sexual satisfa"tion% +hile that of a +oman is love. 9either respe"t nor love is thin s that "an be for"ed% they have to be +or*ed for% and earned. :he !rophet 5s6 stated that in ones sexual intima"y +ith ones life partner there is sadaqa 5+orship throu h ivin 6= Gods Messen er5s6 said= In the sexual a"t of ea"h of you there is a sadaqa. :he )ompanions replied= ' Messen er of GodJ #hen one of us fulfils his sexual desire% +ill he be iven a re+ard for that4 And he said% Do you not thin* that +ere he to a"t upon it unla+fully% he +ould be sinnin 4 7i*e+ise% if he a"ts upon it la+fully he +ill be re+arded. 5Muslim6 #hat is the ma i" in redient that turns sex into sadaqa% that ma*es it a matter of re+ard or punishment from Allah4 It is by ma*in ones sex life more than simple physi"al ratifi"ation/ it is by thou ht for pleasin Allah by unselfish "are for ones partner. A husband that "annot understand this +ill never be fully respe"ted by his +ife. 9either spouse should ever a"t in a manner that +ould be in<urious or harmful to their "on<u al life. 9i*ah 5marria e6 is the sa"red tie bet+een husband and +ife% that sin"ere and devoted love +ithout +hi"h they "annot attain happiness and pea"e of mind. 3f His si ns is this= that He "reated for you spouses that you mi ht find rest in them% and He ordained bet+een you affe"tion and mer"y. 5?'=&>6 9o+% every Muslim *no+s that a man has a ri ht on his +ife. Ho+ever% be"ause ni*ah is a "ontra"t never to see* sexual satisfa"tion outside the marria e bond% Allah "ommands not only the +omen but the men in this respe"t% and ma*es it "lear that if a husband is not a+are of the ur es and needs of his +ife% he +ill be "ommittin a sin by deprivin her of her ri hts. A""ordin to all four orthodox <urists% it is in"umbent upon the husband to *eep his +ife happy and pleased in this respe"t. 7i*e+ise% it is essential for the +ife to satisfy the desire of the husband. 9either should re<e"t the other% unless there is some la+ful ex"use.

:he <urists believed that a +omans private parts needed prote"tin 5tahseen6. #hat they meant +as that it +as important for a Muslim husband to satisfy his +ifes sexual needs so that she +ould not be tempted to "ommit adultery 5$ina6 out of despair or frustration. A Muslim +ife is not merely a lump of flesh +ithout emotions or feelin s% <ust there to satisfy a mans natural ur es. 3n the "ontrary% her body "ontains a soul no less important in Gods si ht than her husbands. Her heart is very tender and deli"ate% and "rude or rou h manners +ould hurt her feelin s and drive a+ay love. :he husband +ould be both foolish and immoral to a"t in any +ay unpalatable to her natural temperament% and a man selfishly see*in his o+n satisfa"tion +ithout "onsiderin that of his +ife is a selfish boor. In fa"t% a""ordin to a hadith narrated by Daylami= :hree thin s are "ounted inadequa"ies in a man. ;irstly% meetin someone he +ould li*e to et to *no+% and ta*in leave of him before learnin his name and his family. Se"ondly% rebuffin the enerosity that another sho+s to him. And thirdly% oin to his +ife and havin inter"ourse +ith her before tal*in to her and ainin her intima"y% satisfyin his need from her before she has satisfied her need from him. :his is another of the thin s implied by the sayin that ones +ife is a tilth unto you. 5&=&&?6 :he ima ery is that of a farmer ta*in "are of his fields. A""ordin to Abul,Ala Ma+dudi 5a bi Islami" *no+er6= :he farmer so+s the seed in order to reap the harvest% but he does not so+ it out of season or "ultivate it in a manner +hi"h +ill in<ure or exhaust the soil. He is +ise and "onsiderate% and does not run riot. 7i*e+ise% in the "ase of husband and +ife% the husband should not <ust= :a*e hold of his +ife and rub the seed and finish the business of pro"reation. :he dama e in this "ase "ould sometimes be irreparable% be"ause a +oman% unli*e a farm% is very sensitive and has emotions% feelin s% and stron passions +hi"h need full satisfa"tion and attention in a proper and appropriate manner. If this is not ta*en into "onsideration% and the +ife is not properly prepared to start lovema*in % or is unsatisfied +hen it is finished% there "ould be many psy"holo i"al and physiolo i"al "ompli"ations leadin to fri idity and other abnormalities. Indeed% many husbands eventually be"ome disappointed +ith their +ives% believin them to be fri id or unable to respond to their a"tivities 5unli*e the sirens on the film or :. s"reen6% and they +onder +hat is +ron +ith them. A possible explanation +ill follo+ in a moment. Allah "reated male and female from a sin le soul in order that man mi ht live +ith her in serenity 5G=>FK6 As +e read% the primary reason for marria e +as not unhappiness% frustration and strife. If your marria e is fran*ly a+ful% then you must as* yourself ho+ su"h a desperate and tra i" s"enario "ould be re arded by anyone as half the ;aith. A""ordin to a hadith narrated by Daylami= 9ot one of you should fall upon his +ife li*e an animal/ but let there first be a messen er bet+een you. And +hat is that messen er4 they as*ed% and he replied= Kisses and +ords. :hese *isses and +ords do not <ust in"lude foreplay on"e intima"y has "ommen"ed. :o set the ri ht mood% little si nals should be in +ell in advan"e% so that the +ife has a "lue as to +hat is "omin % and is pleasantly expe"tant% and also has adequate time to ma*e herself "lean% attra"tive and ready. As re ards intima"y itself% all men *no+ that they "annot a"hieve sexual fulfillment if they are not aroused. :hey should also reali$e that it is a"tually harmful and painful for the female or ans to be used for sex +ithout proper preparation. In simple biolo i"al terms% the +omans private parts need a *ind of natural lubri"ation before the sexual a"t ta*es pla"e. ;or this% Allah has "reated spe"ial lands +hi"h are the endo"ervi"al ones% also those as the @artholin lands +hi"h emit their "ontent at the time of female or asm% +hi"h provide the ne"essary oilin . It is still possible to read old,fashioned advi"e to husbands that a desirable

+ife should be dry +hi"h is remar*able i noran"e and ma*es one really rieve for the poor +ives of su"h in"onsiderate men. Eust as no one +ould dream of tryin to run an en ine +ithout the "orre"t lubri"atin fluids% it is the same% throu h the "reative +ill of Allah% +ith the parts of the female body desi ned for sexual intima"y. A husband should *no+ ho+ to stimulate the produ"tion of these oils in his +ife% or at the very least allo+ her to use some artifi"ial oils su"h as astro lide el or K1 el. :his la"* of *no+led e or "onsideration is +here so many marital problems frequently arise. As Imam al,Gha$ali says= Sex should be in +ith entle +ords and *issin % and Imam al,Iabidi adds= :his should in"lude not only the "hee*s and lips/ and then he should "aress the breasts and nipples% and every part of her body. Most men +ill not need tellin this/ but it should be remembered that failure to observe this Islami" pra"ti"e is to ne le"t or deny the +ay Allah has "reated +omen. ;irstly% a husband must over"ome his shyness enou h to a"tually loo* at his +ife% and pay attention to her. If he "annot brin himself to follo+ this Sunnah% it is an insult to her% and extremely hurtful. !ersonal intima"y is a minefield of opportunities to hurt ea"h other% lan"in at the +at"h% a ya+n at the +ron moment% appearin bored% and so on. A husbands duty is to "onvin"e his +ife that he does love her% and this "an only be done by +ord 5"onstantly repeated +ord% I mi ht add% su"h is the irritatin nature of +omenJ6% and by loo*in and tou"hin . Many people believe that the expression in the eyes reveals mu"h of the human soul. )ertainly the lovers a$e is a most endearin and treasured thin . Many +ives yearn for that a$e of love% even after they have been married for years. If you "annot brin yourself to loo* at her +hile payin attention to her% she "an only interpret this as a si n that you do not really love her. And even thou h it may be irritatin to you% and seem quite sup erfluous% most +omen are deeply moved +hen a man a"tually tells her that he loves her 5espe"ially +hen this man is her husband6. ASex is "leanJ Sex is not a thin to be ashamed of% nor to be treated li htly% or to be indul ed to ex"ess. It is as solemn a fa"t as any in life. It is "ompared to husbandmans tilth/ it is a serious affair to him= he so+s the seed in order to reap the harvest. @ut he "hooses his o+n time and mode of "ultivation. He does not so+ out of the season nor "ultivate in a manner% +hi"h +ould in<ure or exhaust the soil. He is +ise and "onsiderate and does not run riot. )omin from the simile to human bein s% every *ind of mutual "onsideration is required% but above all% +e must remember that even in these matters% there is a spiritual aspe"t. #e must never for et our souls% and +e are responsible to Allah. It +as "arnal,minded men +ho invented the do"trine of ori inal sin= @ehold. Says the psalmist/ I +as shapen in iniquity and in sin did my mother "on"eive me. :his is entirely repudiated in Allah% in +hi"h the offi"e of father and mother is held in the hi hest veneration. -very "hild is born pure. )eliba"y is not ne"essarily a virtue% and may be a vi"e. A modest upbrin in is part of ood "hara"ter. :he !rophet 5s6 himself said= Modesty brin s nothin but ood. 5@u*hari and Muslim6 @ut another% also important% part of Islami" tea"hin says that all of Allahs "reation is beautiful and pure% parti"ularly +hen it is part of the body of human bein s% +ho are desi ned as His deputies upon the earth. In some reli ions% people traditionally believed that the +omans private parts are in some +ay un"lean% or dirty% or even evil. ASA1I9GS 3; !03!H-: MUHAMMAD )39)-09I9G HA.I9G S-2= #hen one of you have sex +ith your +ife% it is a re+arded a"t of "harity. :he )ompanions +ere surprised and said% @ut +e do it purely out of our desire. Ho+ "an it be "ounted as "harity4 :he !rophet replied% If you had done it +ith a

forbidden +oman% it +ould have been "ounted as a sin% but if you do it in le itima"y% it is "ounted as "harity. &. 7et not one of you fall upon his +ife li*e a beast falls. It is more appropriate to send a messa e before the a"t% so% his "ompanions as*ed= +hat should the messa e be4 He replied= the *iss% and the +ord. ?. Do not divul e the se"rets of your sex life +ith your +ife to another person nor des"ribe her physi"al feature to anyone% as +hoever does this% is li*e someone +ho is doin this a"t in publi". (.I et married% eat meat% stand up in ni ht prayers% fast and brea* my fast. #hoever disdains from my traditions is not one of my follo+ers H. 3 youn men% +hoever amon you have the means to establish a marital life% he should et married. ;or marria e preserves the "hastity of ones eyes and sexual or ans% and +hoever "annot afford to et married/ he must fast for abstention in that "ase +ill prote"t him from sin. L.9o solution is ever better for t+o people +ho are in love li*e marria e. ;rom all the above,mentioned sayin s of prophet Mohamed 5!@UH6% and ta*in in "onsideration that Allah stated him as not sayin anythin out of his o+n +ill% +e "an see a very bri ht pi"ture of pro ressist Allah% opposin the eneral idea of the Allah bein retarded and "onsiderin ood manners. A!rohibited S-2UA7 A):S bet+een spouses= In Allah% the ri ht to adequate sexual relations is for everyone married person% sin"e the purpose of marria e is to be a mutual sour"e of "omfort% pea"e% and en<oyment% li*e a arment that prote"ts and "overs% the sexual aspe"t of marria e is an extension of this. :he husband is as*ed to be entle% "onsiderate and lovin +ith his +ife% and to try to satisfy her needs. :he +ife must reserve herself ex"lusively for her husband% and ma*e efforts to be attra"tive% as +ell as ma*in herself available to him +henever he is in need of her. :his latter obli ation also applies to the husband. In 8uran% any sexual relations are reserved -2)7USI.-71 for the "onfines of marria e. @oth husband and +ife are also obli ated to honor the priva"y of the intimate relations bet+een them% and should not spea* of them to anyone. A:he !rohibition of Sex +hen +ife is Menstruatin 5havin her monthly "ourse= It is forbidden for a Muslim man to have sexual inter"ourse +ith his +ife +hen she is menstruatin . :he Allah is "lear on this sub<e"t= :hey as* you "on"ernin menstruation. Say= that is an Atha 5a harmful thin for a husband to have a sexual inter"ourse +ith his +ife +hile she is havin her menses6% therefore *eep a+ay from +omen durin menses and o not unto them till they have purified 5from menses and have ta*en a bath6. And +hen they have purified themselves% then o in unto them as Allah has ordained for you 5 o in unto them in any manner as lon as it is in their va ina6 5&=&&&6 Amon !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6 statements about this issue are the follo+in s= , A man as*ed God messen er 5!@UH6= 3 God messen er/ +hat is it the le itimate for me of my +ife +hile she is menstruatin 4 So God messen er replied= let her be +rapped properly and "onsider her upper body , Aisha 5prophets +ife6 said= if ever one of us 5prophet +ives6 menstruated% and the prophet +anted her as a sex partner% he used to tell her to be +rapped properly and used to approa"h her. , Abou Horaira narrated that +hile God messen er +as in the mosque% he "alled Aisha 5his +ife6 sayin = 3 Aisha/ ive me the dress 5in order to +ear it for prayer6% so she replied= I am menstruatin % so he replied= your menstruation is not in your hand. , Aisha narrated that the !rophet 5!@UH6 used to lie on her le s +hile she +as menstruatin and re"ite the Allah. , Aisha said= I used to drin* +hile menstruatin % then ive the "up to the prophet% so he used to put his lips on the pla"e of mine and drin*. :his is totally "ontrovertin the poli"y of the Ee+s to+ards the menstruatin +omen% +hi"h represents a moral pain and hurt to the +omen% the Gods beloved

"reatures. About this issue in parti"ular% a lot of bi Islami" *no+ers a reed that the only prohibited en<oyment +ith the menstruatin +omen is va inal penetration% other+ise is all allo+ed% to the extent that one of the bi est 5Al Ha*am ben 3taiba6 mentioned that the man "ould even play +ith his penis on his +ifes vulva so lon as he +ould not penetrate. 3thers pre"onditioned the "apability of self,"ontrollin of the man in order not to "ommit the sin of penetratin the menstruatin +oman. So if a man *no+s about himself the la"* of self,"ontrol% either enerally or espe"ially "on"ernin the sexual matter% he has then to avoid approa"hin his menstruatin +ife basi"ally. A:he prohibition of the Anal Inter"ourse= >, Al,:irmithi narrated that Allah messen er said= Allah Almi hty +ill not loo* at the man +ho "ommits sodomy +ith a man or a +oman. &, Mali* related to me that he as*ed Ibn Shihab about someone +ho "ommitted sodomy. Ibn Shihab said% He is to be stoned% +hether or not he is muhsan 5prote"ted by bein married6. So% the very "lear "on"lusion is that it is forbidden for a Muslim man to penetrate his +ife in her anus. Allah Almi hty says in the Allah= so *eep a+ay from menstruatin +omen and do not approa"h them until they have purified themselves 5the after,period sho+er6% but +hen they have purified themselves% you may approa"h him as ordained for you by Allah% for Allah loves the repentants% and those +ho *eep themselves pure and "lean5&=&&&6 1our +ives are a tilth for you% so o to your tilth 5have sexual relations +ith your +ives in any manner as lon as it is in the va ina and not in the anus6% +hen or ho+ you +ill% and send 5 ood deeds% or as* Allah to besto+ you pious offsprin 6 before you for your o+nselves. And fear Allah% and *no+ that you are to meet Him 5in the Hereafter6% and ive ood tidin s to the believers 5&=&&?6 #hat is understood from the above verse is that a tilth "an only refer to a pla"e +here somethin mi ht ro+. :herefore% +hat is meant here is the entry% +hi"h produ"es "hildren. A3ther sayin s of the !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6 on the sub<e"t= >, Ibin Ma<a reported that prophet Muhammad said= He is "ursed +ho has anal inter"ourse 5+ith his +ife6. &, Al,:irmithi reported that prophet Muhammad said= #hoever has sexual inter"ourse +ith a menstruatin +oman% or +oman in her anus has disbelieved in that +hi"h +as revealed to Muhammad 5!@UH6. ?, A man +ent to the prophet 5!@UH6 as*in about approa"hin +omen from behind% so he said= allo+ed% and he re,explained sayin = from behind into before% and not from behind into behind. And he added= Allah is never ashamed of the ri ht thin s% do not ever approa"h +omen into the anus. ;rom the latterly,mentioned propheti" statement +e "an see that the variations in the sexual positions +ere as +ell there far more before the modern s"ien"e stated them% the very "lear example here is the ;ren"h style 5the do y style6% +hi"h is a lar ely preferred sex,matin position espe"ially for men. It "annot be stressed too stron ly that even animals do not satisfy their sexual ur es in this unnatural +ay. Human bein s +ho are uilty of sodomy are% thus% even lo+er than animals. Amon the reat blessin s Allah ave to us% is the opportunity to ma*e a pleasant thin % +hi"h ives us the double benefit% the <oy of the present life as +ell as the re+ard of the other life/ let us see to ether +hat I am tal*in about. AAnd +hat about usin via ra from Islami" point of vie+4 Sex to most Muslims is a dirty +ord% a +ord that they donCt even +ant to tal* about. 3n the other extreme% many MuslimsC are obsessed +ith sex. :his I "an say from the questions about sex that I re"eive on -,mail from Muslims allover the +orld. :he desire to have a better sexual performan"e for men is a ain% not a ne+ preo""upation. Muslim Ha*ims 5traditional physi"iansC6 have been +or*in on medi"ations for over one thousand years tryin to a"hieve a ma i" love pill. 9o+

that this Mlove pillM seemin ly has arrived% +ealthy MuslimsC are e"stati". .ia ra% +hi"h is sold around R>' per pill in the U.S.A.% +as bein sold at R>'' per pill on the bla"* mar*et in other "ountries. :he rand reli ious s"holar of Saudi Arabia% Shei*h @aa$ has allo+ed it to be used by men if it does not "ause any harm to the body. Sexual desire is a ift from God% <ust li*e all other desires that He has built in us. It is not our fault that +e et aroused at sexual thou hts. :hese are built in physiolo y. In order to have a le itimate outlet for this built in desire% God has "reated mates for us. Allah says% MHe that "reated you mates from amon yourselves that you "an d+ell in them in tranquilityM. 5?'=&>6 And as +e *no+% sex outside of marria e is not permitted in Islam. Impoten"y is a disease and should be dealt +ith as any disease. :o see* a "ure for a disease is advised by !rophet Mohammed 5!@UH6 +ho said that MGod has "reated no disease unless he "reated a "ure for it as +ell% ex"ept old a eM. :hus% before +e physi"iansC start a ne+ treatment% +e either must find out the "ause for impoten"y% +hi"h "ould be vas"ular% neuro eni"% infe"tious% diabeti"% or due to hormonal defi"ien"y. So% treatin all the "auses +ith one type of treatment +ould be +ron % and that is +hy many patientsC on .ia ra do not respond be"ause they have not been s"reened properly to see if they +ould be ood "andidates. In addition% if the mental stimulation is not present before% then .ia ra alone +ill not a"hieve the desired results% as the brain is the most important sex or an. :he appropriate +ay for a man to deal +ith this is to see his physi"ian for a thorou h evaluation% hormone testin % and psy"holo i"al as +ell as sexolo i"al testin . :here is some su estion that patientCs +ho may have underlyin "oronary artery disease% +ho have not been a"tively involved in sex% should be s"reened first for "oronary artery disease before usin .ia ra. About &' men have died after sex +hile ta*in .ia ra. It is not "lear that any of these deaths +ere dire"tly related to .ia ra. I see several so"ial problems in the use of .ia ra indis"riminately. It may lead to more sexual promis"uity and infidelity. A fe+ years a o% an old man in 9e+ 1or* +ho used .ia ra% left his +ife and then +ent for a mu"h youn er lady. His +ife sued the "ompany. :his ma i" blue tablet is also bein "alled Mthe party dru M% or the Mlove pillM% and it is bein distributed by some of the ni ht"lubs. #hat is the differen"e bet+een ettin hi h on mari<uana and "o"aine% or on .ia ra4 Many +omen are also "omplainin that they are bein sub<e"t to .ia ra atta"*s by their husbands and boyfriends even if they are not in a mood. Sex is an expression and extension of love. In the absen"e of love% sex be"omes a borin routine. ;or"ed sex% even in marria e% is to be "onsidered rape. Instead of tryin to a"hieve poten"y% men should try to a"hieve love and respe"t for and from their +ives. !rophet Mohammed 5!@UH6% +ho +as ahead of his time% had en"oura ed foreplay before inter"ourse% sayin MDo not atta"* your +omen li*e a +ild beast% but send a messa e beforeM. He also +as *no+n to have said% MDo not leave her before she is satisfiedM. :hus Islami" sexuality is based on nature and not attemptin to a"hieve a qui"* result. :he human body is a +onderful "reation of God% but not a sex ma"hine. It +ill not run better on any poten"y,indu"in dru % ex"ept if ever it is medi"ally indi"ated% but I assume that the +ide,spread usa e of via ra no+adays% even in youn men +ho do not a"tually need it% is a part of the present fa"ile,life adorin % and extreme luxury see*in +ithout ma*in any effort% or on ma*in a minor effort% these youth are eventually "onsumin "reatures and not produ"tive ones% all these "hara"ters% bein runnin in the same tra"*. ;inally men have to *no+ that via ra does not "reate the desire% neither does it insert the pleasure% it <ust ma*e sexual or ans respond to su"h human feelin s% havin ot to be there in the first pla"e.

I2. )39)-!: 3; ADU7:-01 I9 IS7AM God says in the Allah% Do not o near to adultery. Surely it is a shameful deed and evil% openin roads 5to other evils6 5>G=?&6. Say% .erily% my 7ord has prohibited the shameful deeds% be it open or se"ret% sins and trespasses a ainst the truth and reason 5G=??6. #omen impure are for men impure% and men impure are for +omen impure and +omen of purity are for men of purity% and men of purity are for +omen of purity 5&(=&L6. !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6 has said in many situations that adultery is one of the four ma<or sins. Ho+ever the most interestin story is that of a youn man +ho +ent to the !rophet and as*ed for permission to forni"ate be"ause he "ould not "ontrol himself. :he !rophet dealt +ith him +ith reasonin and as*ed him if he +ould approve of someone else havin ille al sex +ith his mother% sister% dau hter or +ife. -a"h time the man said no. :hen the !rophet replied that the +oman +ith +hom you plan to have sex is also somebodys mother% sister% dau hter or +ife. :he man understood and repented. :he !rophet prayed for his for iveness. Adultery is a "rime not a ainst one person but a ainst the +hole of so"iety. It is a violation of marital "ontra"t. A very hi h per"enta e of all first time marria es +orld+ide result in divor"e in t+o years and the main reason for divor"e are the adultery of one of the partners. Adultery% +hi"h in"ludes both pre,marital and extra marital sex% is an epidemi"% espe"ially in the +estern so"iety. 9obody seems to listen to the @ible% +hi"h says frequently% :hou shall not "ommit adultery. :he 8urani" approa"h is% Do not approa"h adultery. #hat does it mean that not only is ille al sex prohibited% but also anythin % +hi"h leads to ille al sex% is also ille al4 :hese thin s in"lude datin % free mixin of the sexes% provo"ative dress% nudity% obs"enity and porno raphy. :he dress "ode both for men and +omen is to prote"t them from temptation and desires by on loo*ers +ho may lose self,"ontrol and fall into sin. Say to the believin men that they should lo+er their a$e and uard their modesty/ that +ill ma*e for reater purity% and God is +ell a"quainted +ith all they do. And say to the believin +oman that they should lo+er their a$e% and uard their modesty 5&(=?',?>6. So +e "on"lude that% stayin a+ay of adultery ives a positive out"ome for the +hole human tree/ the person% the family% and the "ommunity. 3ther ne ative out"omes of adultery are spreadin of the S:Ds% and ille al "hildren +ho have simply an un*no+n future/ most probably to be obs"ure. I "an ima ine that if ever human bein s stayed a+ay from adultery over a es% there +ould not be somethin li*e the AIDS for example present in our +orld. ;or me I have made a personal "on"lusion for the reason for +hi"h is the adultery 5prohibited forni"ation6 that disa reed and punished in Allah/ this that the forni"ation as an a"t% "ould lar ely be prevented% this is be"ause there are so many steps before it is a"tually "ommitted/ I remember one of my patients% +ho had fallen into this sin% he +as re rettin this fault reatly% and needed to tal* about it% espe"ially that he had a +onderful +ife +hom he +as in love +ith% then% me understandin that it +ould sometimes be of help tal*in about some bad or a painful event in our life over and over to et rid of all its mar*s% I started over revie+in the +hole thin +ith him% statin the points of sedu"tion he has been throu h% the +ea* sides of his personality +hi"h se"reted this failure in "onfrontin this temptation% and "ountin +ith him, the number of the steps% the one of them havin led to the other% +here he "ould have stopped at% and prevented himself from pro"eedin % and +e found those to be seventeen to t+enty,t+o stations% this ran e havin arisen from the differen"e bet+een my and his opinions "on"ernin some points bein or not alarmin of the approa"hin dan er. :hat is +hy I find no ex"use for anyone +ho falls into this deep +ell so lon as bein havin some reli ious ba"* round about ho+ to resist o+ns +ill to "ommit prohibited a"ts. A-thi"s to be overta*en after "ommittin the "rime 3f the prohibited adultery= >, A man "ame to prophet Muhammad 5!@UH6 tellin him= 3 God !rophet% I

*ne+ a +oman at the end of the "ity% and I "aressed her +ithout a"tual love,ma*in % so ma*e me any <ud ment you +ant. So 3mar said to him= Allah +ould have been sheltered you if ever have you sheltered yourself. And% he said% God messen er said nothin % so the man rushed a+ay% so God messen er sent a man after him to "all him ba"*% and he re"ited to him this verse= ma*e prayers both at the be innin and the end of the day% also durin the ni ht% as ood deeds eliminate bad ones% this is to be memori$ed by memori$ers. So a man replied= 3 God messen er/ is this for him spe"ifi"ally4 He said= no% it is for everyone. :his shelterin 3mar invited the man to is for the sa*e of ettin ba"* to Allah% re rettin +hat he had "ommitted% and dis"ontinuin it. &, A man "ame to the !rophet 5!@UH6 +hile in the mosque% and said= 3 God messen er% I forni"ated% so he turned a+ay from him% and the man repeated it four times% so the !rophet said= +oe unto youJJ Get ba"* to Allah and as* him for iveness% so he ba"*ed off. ?, Said ben al mosayab narrated that a man "ame to Abou @a*r tellin him that he has "ommitted forni"ation% so Abou @a*r as*ed him= did you tell anyone other than me4 He said= no. so Abou @a*r said to him= repent to Allah and be sheltered by His shelter% that is Allah a""epts peniten"e from his slaves (, God prophet 5!@UH6 on"e said= all my follo+ers may be pardoned but the dis"losers/ this is that a man "ommitted a sin and he is sheltered by Allah and on the next mornin he removes a+ay Allah shelter by sayin = 3 people% last evenin % I made su"h and su"h thin s. 2. 30A7 S-2/ #HA: A@3U: I:4 :here is a very +ell,*no+n Islami" rule/ this is= +hatever +as not prohibited by a divine +ord of Allahs 5in the Allah6% nor by a propheti" statement or behavior 5said by Allah messen er !@UH6% is to be allo+ed/ as basi"ally everythin is allo+ed% so the ex"eption is +hat +as prohibited ,as mentioned before, by Allah Almi hty or by his messen er 5!@UH6. @ased on the latter prin"iple% oral sex is an allo+ed a"t for Allah if ever they desire to do it% pre"onditioned of "ourse that it +ould be "onfined to the spouse% same as every other sex pra"ti"e. :his is to say that a married "ouple has the ri ht to en<oy ea"h other in +hatever +ay they +ish% but to have inter"ourse in the pla"e throu h +hi"h "on"eption may o""ur% in any position he +ishes% as Allah says= 1our +ives are a tilth for you% so o to your tilth +hen or ho+ you +ill . . . 5&=&&?6 Inter"ourse is forbidden for the husband in t+o situations= >. At the time of the monthly period% as Allah says= :hey as* you "on"ernin menstruation. Say= that is an atha 5a harmful thin 6% therefore *eep a+ay from +omen durin their menses% and o not unto them till they have purified themselves. And +hen they have purified themselves% then o into them as Allah has ordained for you. :ruly% Allah loves those +ho turn unto Him in repentan"e and loves those +ho purify themselves. 5&=&&&6 &. Anal inter"ourse. :he Messen er of Allah 5!ea"e D @lessin s of Allah be upon Him6 said= He is "ursed% the one +ho has inter"ourse +ith his +ife in her anus. 50eported by Abu Da+ud and Imam Ahmad6. Another hadith refers to both issues mentioned above= Avoid the anus and the time of menstruation. 5reported by Ahmad and Abu Da+ud6. :he issue of oral sex is suspended li*e any a"t ever, on t+o "onditions= >. It should not "ause any harm/ this pre"ondition is fulfilled in the "ase of +ell bein % i.e. +hen one is in ood health and does not "omplain of si"*nesses threatenin the partner or to be transmitted to himBher. &. It should not lead to any dis ustin feelin / +hi"h is "onsidered moral harm to the partner% +hi"h is +hy it is very advisable to uarantee that the spouse is approvin the a"t in order to fulfill the maximum <oy out of the a"t. And here I have a statement "omin of my experien"e in this field% this is

that almost all female spouses disa ree +ith the a"t at the very be innin of their sex lives% but tal*in +ith them about "onsiderin it a prerequisite for their husbands sexual <oy% and subsequently +ould in"rease their love to them and their desire to+ards them% the youn ladies a"tually follo+ the instru"tions in the vast ma<ority of "ases% and thin s et better radually after+ards. :he reat fa"t that +ould al+ays *eeps us relaxed about everythin is that Allah *no+s best and that his blessed !rophet Muhammad has iven the reat example to be follo+ed as he is the reatest *no+er of the profound meanin s of Allah rules% upon the li ht of +hi"h% the human*ind should ma*e his. :o "on"lude +e "an say that it is unanimous that anal inter"ourse is haram 5reli iously prohibited6. @ut the question is does this refer only to male enital parts4 :he +ords used in fiqh boo*s in the "ontext of "oitus or its prohibition su"h as ityaan 5"opulation6 and eelaa< 5penetration6 enerally denote penetration of the penis. Ho+ever% the question may be ans+ered by repla"in the +ords anal inter"ourse +ith normal inter"ourse at the time of menses. If the analo y is "orre"t then the ans+er is= this prohibition does not only refer to male enital parts but is absolute. 1et en<oyment of the rear 5dubur6 +ithout penetration 5eelaa<6 is li"it 5see further do+n6. :here is no su"h "onsensus at all. :he li"itness of oral sex seems fran* and expli"it in the S"hool of Imam Mali* radyAllahu Vanhu as you +ill see further do+n. In our o+n time% 8adi Muhammad Ahmad KanVan of @eirut in his boo* on marital etiquette Usul al,MuVashara al,Ia+<iyya 5!rin"iples of Marital )ohabitation% ives the fat+a that oral sex bet+een spouses is li"it. As for the impli"it fat+as to that effe"t they are "ountless. :he basi" rulin is li"itness from head to toe ex"ept for anal inter"ourse% and also ex"ept enital inter"ourse at the time of menses% all provided harm is avoided% as spelled out in the 0elian"e of the :raveller. ;ollo+in are several examples= AImam al,ShafiVAllah 5may Allah bless his soul6 said in al,Umm% boo* of 9i*ah% "hapter on 5the prohibition of anal sex6% that apart from the prohibition of anal sex% en<oyment of the +hole body re ardless of va inal penetration 5iblaa h al,fara<6 is permissible. AImam al,9a+a+i 5may Allah bless his soul6 said in the 0a+da% boo* of 9i*ah% "hapter on the ri hts of the husband in sexual en<oyment 5istimtaV6= He has the ri hts to all *inds of sexual en<oyment% ex"ept for anal inter"ourse% +hi"h is stri"tly prohibited. ;urther do+n% dis"ussin the absolute prohibition of masturbation after marria e% he says= @ut it is permissible that he masturbate +ith the hand of his +ife... <ust as he may en<oy her entire body. AIn his boo* "alled Minha<% al,9a+a+i states= :he husband may loo* at her entire body +ithout reservation. Al,Shirbini "omments= and vi"e,versa in"ludin the enitals. He also says= :he sayin of the Imam that en<oyment of the rear 5dubur6 +ithout penetration 5eelaa<6 is li"it% is expli"it in that loo*in is permissible. AHu<<at al,Allah Imam al,Gha$$ali himself 5may Allah bless his soul6 said in his boo* the Ihya on +hi"h Hartford sometimes relies at the ex"lusion of standard fiqh or hadith sour"es= :he husband should not penetrate his +ife durin menstruation% but he may en<oy the +hole body of the menstruatin +ife% ex"ept that he may not penetrate her in other than the pla"e of usual penetration% be"ause the reason for prohibitin "opulation +ith the +omen in menses is noxiousness 5proved by some s"ientifi" resear"hes to pre"ipitate male "hroni" urethritis and female "ervi"al "an"erous "han es6% but noxiousness is al+ays present in other than the pla"e of usual penetration 5the anus6/ so its prohibition is even stri"ter than that of the menstruatin +oman. AShay*h Muhammad SaVid al,@uti in his ;ata+a titled MaV al,9as 5p. F(6= 8. #hat is the status of "oitus bet+een the butto"*s4 A. :he prohibited in sexual inter"ourse bet+een spouses is the penetration of the penis into the anal openin . As for en<oyin +hat is short of this su"h as the butto"*s% it is not

prohibited% in fa"t% all other than that is allo+ed. AA""ordin to Imam al,Suyuti 5may Allah bless his soul6 in al,#ishaah min ;a+aaid al,9i*aah% the best +or* of Arabi" "oitolo y 5Vilm al,baah6 is :uhfat al,VArus +a,9u$hat al,9ufus% by the ei hth,"entury 5Mali*i6 litterateur Abu VAbd Allah ibn Ahmad al,@i<ai. It +as published in )airo at the Sharafiyya press in >?'>B>FF?% this edition havin been about &'' pa es in &H "hapters. 3n p. >L' he lists some of the literal and fi urative names used by the Arabs for "opulation% amon them= al,tadlis +ith a Sad% +hi"h means= non,va inal "oitus. Ho+ever% readers of "hapter &? titled )on"ernin the mans "oitus in other than the va ina +ill not find any mention of oral sex other than the va ue eneral statement in its first senten"e= :here is no disa reement that "oitus bet+een a man and a +oman is permissible ex"ept for anal sex in all her folds and her entire body. 3n p. >(& al,@i<aAllah mentions more expli"it fat+as in the "ontext of the dis"ussion on loo*in = #e no+ turn to the permissibility of loo*in at the +ifes pudendum 5far<6... :he Mali*is allo+ it statin that there is no harm in it and it is not ma*ruh 5hated a"t6. He narrated from Mali* that he said= :here is no harm in loo*in at the +ifes pudendum durin inter"ourse. He added in his narration= And there is no harm in li"*in it +ith his ton ueJ Ibn al,8attan "ontinued= :he Madhhab of the Hanafis also allo+ loo*in . :he ShafiVis have t+o positions A:he Mali*i fat+a on the li"itness of oral stimulation is "onfirmed by Imam al,8urtubi in his :afsir for Surat al,9ur 5&(6% verse ?>= 5 And tell the believin +omen to lo+er their a$e and be modest and to display of their adornment only that +hi"h is apparent...6 :o "on"lude% some "omments about "ertain statements heard in the "urrent dis"ussion= :he "onsensus +as that in terms of muamalat 5so"ial transa"tions6 everythin is deemed halal unless it has been expli"itly forbidden. Many s"holars a ree that oral sex fulls under this "ate ory and it is not forbidden. As for the S!-0M of the male% the Shafie madhabs says it is !U0-% but the liquid before that +hi"h is "alled the MAII 7I8UID is 9AEASA. 9o+ before e<a"ulation is "ompleted% surely the MAII 7I8UID is there% so the partners in fa"t mi ht be li"*in the MAII liquid +hi"h is 9AEASA...hen"e it "ould be understood if this is the "ase then 3.S. is MAK0UHJ... but "ertainly 93: HA0AM be"ause there is no eviden"e to say so. Any type of va inal sex% +hi"h ta*es pla"e in so"ieties in +hi"h sex is "onsidered to be a ame and entertainment% is not allo+ed in Allah. Some thin* that Allah only allo+s that type of va inal sex that is ne"essary for human reprodu"tion.... @y "ohabitation +ith +omen intend and aim to produ"e offsprin and not to fulfill your desire. Sometimes% it is praise+orthy to intend and aim only for pro"reation% but it is +ron that Allah only allo+s that type of va inal sex that is ne"essary for human reprodu"tionJ :he 7a+ "ondones marital sexual inter"ourse for 5mutual6 pleasure% proved by that "ontra"eption is li"it. And hi her and better yet than pro"reation% the aim of pleasin Allah and quietin human lusts in order to fully turn to Him +as the intention of many of the Salaf 5prophets "ompanions and bi Islami" *no+ers6 behind inter"ourse. A0e"ommended boo*s in -n lish on marital sub<e"ts= >,#oman in Shari,a by Abd al,0ahman Doi &,Marria e in Allah by Muhammad Abd al,0auf 5former re"tor of Allah University of Malaysia6 ?,:he Islami" .ie+ of #omen and the ;amily by M. Abd al,0auf 59e+ 1or*= 0obert Speller and Sons% >KGG. IS@9 ',F?>H,'>HL,>6 (,Marria e and Sexuality in Allah and :he !roper )ondu"t of Marria e in Allah% respe"tively Madelyn ;arahs and Muhtar Hollands translations of al,Gha$$alis boo* of 9i*ah from his Ihya Ulum al,Din. H,http=BB+++.themodernreli ion."omBmis"BsexBsexWqueries.htmOoral 5+ith a response from Shay*h 1usuf Al 8arada+i6=

A;rom Shei*h 1usuf Abdullah Al,8arad+i 5from +++.islamonline.net6= )ontent of 0eply #aValy*um As,Salaamu +a rahmatul Allahi +a bara*aatuh. In the 9ame of Allah% Most Gra"ious% Most Mer"iful. All praise and than*s are due to Allah% and pea"e and blessin s be upon His Messen er. I +as as*ed about oral sex in Ameri"a and -urope +hen I be an to travel to these "ountries in the early G's. #e +ere not used to be as*ed these questions in our Muslim "ountries. :hose #estern people are a""ustomed to strippin na*ed durin sexual inter"ourse. :hese are "ommunities of na*edness% and from the li"entiousness of the +oman that she +ears nothin to s"reen her body in her daily life. So they are in need of more ex"itements durin "opulation. Ho+ever% men in our Muslim so"ieties see nothin in the Muslim +oman that "an ex"ite them on the basis of her +earin either Hi<ab 5veil6 or 9iqab 5fa"e "over6. @ut "on"ernin +hether bein in "omplete na*edness durin pra"ti"in "opulation is la+ful or not% the !rophet of Allah% pea"e and blessin s be upon him% is reported to have said% Guard your private parts ex"ept from your +ife or your slaves. Muslim <urists are of the opinion that it is la+ful for the husband to perform "unnilin us on his +ife% or a +ife to su"* her husbands penis 5fellatio6 and there is no +ron in doin so. @ut some say that if su"*in leads to releasin semen% then it is Ma*rooh 5blame+orthy6% but there is no de"isive eviden"e 5to forbid it6. :hese parts are not dirty li*e anus% but it is normally dis ustin to man. @ut there is no de"isive eviden"e to ma*e it unla+ful% espe"ially if the +ife a rees +ith it or ets her e"stasy by pra"ti"in it. Allah% -xalted and Glorified be He% says= And +ho uard their modesty% save from their +ives or the slaves% that I heir ri ht hands possess% for then they are not blame+orthy% but #ho so "raveth beyond that% su"h are trans ressors. 5&?= H,G6 Allah Almi hty *no+s best. 2I. H3M3S-2UA7I:1 I9 IS7AMI) 0U7I9GS 3f all topi"s most popular in todays media% issues "on"ernin homosexuals and homosexuality in eneral top the list. Homosexuality is enerally defined as a sexual relationship bet+een partners of the same sex. Debate "on"ernin its "auses and "onsequen"es has been oin on for many "enturies and almost in every period in human history. Ho+ever% never before in human history has it been ranted su"h +ide s"ale a""eptan"e in +estern so"iety as it has no+. :he question that I see* to ans+er here is +hether su"h +ide s"ale a""eptan"e should in fa"t be ranted to homosexual behavior4 Is su"h behavior rational% s"ientifi"ally fun"tional or is it a"tually detrimental to the hi h level of "ivili$ation that +eve a"hieved4 Allah tea"hes that homosexual a"ts are sinful and punishable by God. :his tea"hin "omes not from human bein s% but from the )reator of all humans. God tells us in His o+n +ords ho+ He punished the people of 7ot for their homosexual behavior. :he story of !rophet 7ot% 5on +hom be pea"e6% finds mention in several 8urani" passa es% espe"ially )hapter &L=>L',>GH +hi"h reads= :he people of 7ut re<e"ted the apostles. @ehold% their brother 7ut said to them= #ill you not fear 5God64 I am to you an apostle +orthy of all trust. So fear God and obey me. 9o re+ard do I as* of you for it= my re+ard is only from the lord of the #orlds. 3f all the "reatures in the +orld% +ill you approa"h males% And leave those +hom God has "reated for you to be your mates4 9ay% you are a people trans ressin 5all limits6J :hey said= If thou desist not% 3 7utJ 1ou +ill assuredly be "ast outJ He said= I do detest your doin s. 3 my 7ordJ Deliver me and my family from su"h thin s as they doJ So #e delivered him and his family% all -x"ept an old +oman +ho lin ered behind. @ut the rest #e destroyed utterly. #e rained do+n on them a sho+er 5of brimstone6= and evil +as the sho+er on those +ho +ere admonished 5but heeded not6J .erily in this is a Si n= but most of them do not believe. And verily thy 7ord is He% the -xalted in Mi ht Most Mer"iful. ;rom these passa es +e learn that God saved 7ot and the ri hteous ones of his family% and rained on the rest a sho+er of brimstone% so they +ere utterly

destroyed. :his is mentioned in the Allah not only for the sa*e of information% but mainly to serve as a +arnin to anyone +ho dares to repeat su"h a"ts. Allah believes that every human a"tion leads to "onsequen"es. Good a"tions entail ood results% and evil a"tions entail evil "onsequen"es. Some of these "onsequen"es may not be"ome *no+n for many years after a "ertain a"tion. :he "onsequen"es of some a"tions +ill be"ome manifest only after death +hen one enters a ne+% everlastin life.... A "ommon mista*e amon humans is that if they dont see any ne ative "onsequen"es for their a"tions they "onsider it harmless. Human experien"e has tau ht us that a sour"e of superior *no+led e "an be of tremendous benefit to humans.... God% the sour"e of all *no+led es% +arns us of His punishment if people perpetrate homosexual a"ts. 7et us pay attention and learn the easy +ay. Some +ill say that a person may be born +ith homosexual tenden"ies. #e say that everyone is a free a ent. God lays before us t+o paths and has iven us *no+led e of +here these paths lead. 3ne is the path to +hi"h the devil "alls us. #e must avoid that. 3ne is the path leadin to paradise. #e must sti"* to that one. -veryone experien"es evil promptin from time to time. #e must resist those +ith all our mi ht. If one feels a tenden"y to do somethin that God prohibits% he or she should see* help from Allah Almi hty our reat "reator% by ma*in more prayers to him to help one to bypass the "risis% and by ma*in the divine requests doa% and also from a "ommunity of lovin % "arin % believers +ho +ould understand his or her diffi"ulty and help him or her over"ome it. A "ommon ploy of the devil is to "onvin"e people that they "annot avoid sin. :hen they do not even try. @ut Allah promises that the devil "an have no lastin po+er over those +ho sin"erely see* Allah 58uran >H=(&6 ;inally% our bodies are iven to us in trust from God. 3ne should not use his or her body "ontrary to the user uide provided by its Ma*er. )onsentin adults also need Gods "onsent. AIslami" 0ulin )on"ernin Homosexuality= Allah "onsiders homosexuality as a sexual deviation leadin to a perverted a"t that oes a ainst the natural order Allah intended for man*ind. It is a "orruption of the mans sexuality and a "rime a ainst the opposite sex. :herefore% the Islami" shariah stri"tly prohibits the pra"ti"e of this perverted a"t. :his is mentioned in many pla"es in the holy Allah. :he story of the people of the prophet 7ut +ho +ere addi"ted to this pra"ti"e% is the best example. !rophet 7ut said to his people= .erily% you do sodomy +ith men% and rob the +ayfarerJ And pra"ti"e all +i"*edness in your meetin s% 5&K=&K6. And he said to them= 3f all the "reatures of the +orld% +ill you approa"h males% and leave those +hom Allah has "reated for you to be your +ives4 9ay% you are a trespassin peopleJ 5&L=>LH,>LL6. @ut their ans+er to !rophet 7ut% 5pea"e be upon his soul6= @rin us the #rath of Allah if you are tellin us the :ruth. 5&K=&K6. And so Allah ave them the punishment they deserved= And #e rained on them a rain of torment. And ho+ evil +as the rain of those +ho had been +arned% 5&L=>G?6. Eust as a person +ho has a sexual ur e should not satisfy it by "ommittin $ina 5forni"ation or adultery6% a person +ho has this perverted thou ht should not a"t upon it. In order to maintain the purity of the Muslim so"iety% most Muslim s"holars have ruled that the punishment for this a"t should be the same as for $ina 5i.e. one hundred +hiplashes for the man +ho has never married% and death by stonin for the married man6. Some have even ruled that it should be death for both partners% be"ause the !rophet% 5!@UH6% said= Kill the doer and the one to +hom it +as done. AAAIt is important for the reader to note that the imposition of Islami" punishments is only la+ful for the Islami" ruler in Islami" lands after the due pro"ess of la+ has been fulfilled. It is not permitted that anyone not authori$ed by the ruler implement su"h measures even in an Islami" "ountry mu"h less anyone to ta*e it upon themselves to do so else+here.

A0eli ions !osition to Homosexuality= Homosexuality and lesbianism have been dubbed alternative lifestyles% personal preferen"e% a natural variation% et". in the #est today. #here homosexuality +as "onsidered an illness by the Asso"iation of !sy"hiatrists% it is no+ removed from the list and repla"ed by homophobia 5the disli*e of homosexuals and homosexuality6. )onsequently% Allah and Allah are "onsidered intolerant and biased due to their "ontinued opposition. Ar uments in favor of toleran"e to homosexuals are based on the assumption that homosexual behavior is biolo i"ally based and not merely learned from so"iety. S"ientifi"ally spea*in % sex is a means to an end. :he end bein the propa ation of the human ra"e. :his end "an never be fulfilled by sex bet+een males 5in the "ase of ays6 or bet+een females 5in the "ase of lesbians6. :herefore% the eneral "on"lusion is that homosexuality is irrational and illo i"al. If +e "onsider the "onstru"tion of the bodies of the male and female% +hat is noti"ed at on"e is that the "onstru"tion of a body of a male 5the penis and the anus +ith no va ina6 does not a""ommodate havin sex +ith another male. 9or does the "onstru"tion of a body of a female 5no penis% a va ina6 a""ommodate sex +ith another female. #hat is obvious to "ommon sense is that the "onstru"tion and lo"ation of spe"ifi" sexual or ans in the bodies of a male and a female a""ommodate sex bet+een a male and a female and not amon members of the same sex. :herefore% the "on"lusion on"e a ain is that homosexuality is an unnatural and an irrational behavior. :he "ase +ith birth "ontrol is different to the "ause effe"t ar ument above Sthis point +as brou ht up in my meetin in "lass +ith the SMSU 5South+est Missouri State6 Gay 7esbian Allian"eT. @irth "ontrol is simply the further delayin or prevention of a naturally o""urrin delayin pro"ess. :he e 5ovum6% +hi"h +hen fertili$ed develops into a $y ote% +hi"h then eventually develops into the fetus% is released in the females body in a spe"ifi" period of time and pre nan"y is "aused only if a sperm fuses +ith the e in that spe"ifi" time period. If the e is not fertili$ed durin that period% then the "y"le in humans ends in menstruation. -arly opposition to homosexuality +as based on the ar ument that su"h behavior bein unnatural. Sodomy "annot produ"e "hildren% +hi"h is one of the main natural "onsequen"es of sexual relations. Mother 9ature did not ma*e us that +ay% it +as ar ued. :o "ounter su"h ar uments homosexual resear"hers s"oured the earth until they found supposed homosexual behavior amon the animal *in dom. :hey found that the males of some spe"ies of exoti" fishes off the "oast of Eapan imitated the behavior of females of the spe"ies in order to prevent other males from impre natin their mates% and some rare butterflies from islands of the "oast of Afri"a also had males exhibitin female behavior durin matin season% et". Ho+ever% if the animal *in dom is to be used to <ustify human behavior% there also exists a spider in South Ameri"a% +hose female is mu"h lar er than the male. #hen matin is "omplete% the female eats her mate. Durin the F's it +as "laimed that a land in the base of the brain% +hi"h is small in +omen and lar e in men% +as found to be small amon homosexuals. Ho+ever% this eviden"e% +hile seemin in"ontrovertible to the layman% +as immediately refuted by s"ientists. :he data +as ta*en from "ross,se"tions of the brains of dead adult humans +hose sexual preferen"e +as identified prior to death. )onsequently% the redu"ed si$e amon homosexuals "ould have been a result of the pra"ti"e and not its "ause. :hat is% they "ould have been born +ith normal si$ed lands +hi"h then be"ame small due to their deviant lifestyle. ;urther many people in the sample studied had AIDS and AIDS in its later sta es affe"ts the brain. 0e"ently eneti"s has be"ome the most "ommonly used foundation for the pro, ay ar ument. In >KK? Dr. Dean Hamer% a resear"her at one of the )an"er Institutes% "laimed to have dis"overed the first "on"rete eviden"e that ay enes really do exist. Homosexual orientation +as supposedly transmitted to males on the 2 "hromosome from the mother. Hamers findin s% published in the presti ious

<ournal S"ien"e% transformed his "olorless "areer as a overnment s"ientist into a dynami" media personality and penned his memoirs. He ave expert testimony to the )olorado Supreme )ourt that formed the basis of the vi"torious de"ision stri*in do+n anti, ay !roposition &. Ho+ever% a repli"ation of his study at the University of #estern 3ntario failed to find any lin*a e +hatsoever bet+een the 2 "hromosome and sexual orientation. It +as also found that Hamers study la"*ed a "ontrol roup/ a fundamental prin"iple of s"ientifi" resear"h. ;urthermore% in Eune >KK(% the )hi"a o :ribune reported that a <unior resear"her in Hamers laboratory +ho assisted in the ene mappin in the homosexuality study% alle ed that he sele"tively reported his data. She +as then summarily dismissed from her postdo"toral fello+ship in Hamers lab. @ut a 9ational Institute of Health investi ation substantiated her "laims and ave her another position in a different lab. :hou h Dr. Hamer +as "oy about his o+n sexuality in his memoirs% he later admitted in his le"tures that he +as ay. It should be noted that Allah% in its final form% did not introdu"e anti, ay le islature to the +orld. :he texts of the :orah are replete +ith "lear "ondemnation of su"h pra"ti"es. :he "onsequen"e of AIDS is enou h to prove that homosexuality is evil and dan erous to so"iety. :he early spread of AIDS +as "on"entrated amon the homosexual "ommunity. It later spread to the heterosexual "ommunity throu h blood transfusions and intravenous dru usa e and so,"alled bisexuals. And "ontinues on a rampa e amon promis"uous heterosexuals. So"ially spea*in % amon the roups that have dire"tly and indire"tly "ontributed to the +ide s"ale spread of AIDS to even inno"ent patients li*e "hildren are homosexuals and their pra"ti"e of anal sex. :here are spe"ifi" behaviors that pla"e people at a hi h ris* for AIDS. :he first is anal sex% +hi"h "an "ause re"tal bleedin and thereby allo+ easy transmission of HI.. :his pra"ti"e is therefore extremely dan erous and% of "ourse% the reater the number of sexual partners% the reater the ris*. Anal sex is "ommonly pra"ti"ed by Gay males in some "ases +ith many sexual partners. ;or this reason about t+o thirds of persons +ith Aids are homosexual or bi,sexual males 5Ma"ionis H(H6. :he above statisti" of t+o thirds sho+s the trend in the spread of AIDS a fe+ years after it +as re"o ni$ed as a threat 5>KFG6. 9o+ the pattern may have "han ed due to the initial +ide s"ale spread of AIDS% +hi"h the above statisti" su ests +as dire"tly or indire"tly the result of homosexual behavior amon men. AIDS results in many national "ost problems too= ....:he "ost of treatin Aids already ex"eeds R>H'%''' per person and may rise further as ne+ therapies develop....Added to the dire"t medi"al "osts are the tens of billions of dollars in lost earnin s and produ"tivity...:here is little doubt that Aids is a medi"al and so"ial problem of monumental proportions 5Ma"ionis H(H6. ;rom the psy"holo i"al point of vie+% it +as "learly re"o ni$ed by experts +ho +ere ob<e"tive and unpre<udi"ed% that psy"holo i"ally spea*in homosexuality is an abnormal behavior. Ho+ever lar e s"ale lobbyin by homosexuals and "ertain psy"holo ists brou ht in biases into this s"ientifi" field of inquiry and hen"e the truth ot mas*ed and the results are stated belo+= @efore >KG? the DSM SDia nosti" and Statisti"al Manual of Mental DisordersT listed homosexuality as a sexual disorder. !rotests by ay a"tivist roups and many psy"hotherapists eventually led to its elimination from the manual as a sexual disorder per se% but the DSM did retain a "ate ory "alled e o dystoti" homosexuality, the feelin of extreme distress over ones homosexual preferen"e. DSM III 0 has dropped even this "ate ory% and the issue of homosexuality is no lon er mentioned 5)omer (F'6. Until the early >KG's the U.S psy"hiatri" establishment "lassified homosexuality as a mental illness% but that desi nation +as dropped amid in"reased politi"al a"tivity and efforts by homosexuals to be seen as

individuals exer"isin different sexual preferen"es rather than aberrant personalities 5-n"y"lopedia @ritanni"a% vol L% ?>6. Homosexuality is proven to be a learned behavior a""ordin to experiments +ith "lini"al "ases of intersexuality. At puberty% the individuals in question +ere enerally attra"ted to the sex opposite to their sex of rearin Seven if it be opposite to their eneti" sex of males% havin 2 1 "hromosomes and females both 2 "hromosomesT :his su ests that sexual orientation is primarily established in post natal experien"es 5-n"y"lopedia @ritanni"a% vol &G% &(G6 ASo% +hat about the Hormonal Differen"es4 #hen hormones are artifi"ially altered in female animals bodies 5introdu"in ex"ess andro en parenterally6 it ma*es them behave more li*e males even sho+in matin preferen"e for members of the same sex. :he same sour"e ho+ever% also narrates that "han in the hormone level postnatally does not mean that sexual preferen"e for partners +ill "han e. :he only thin that +ill "han e +ill be the arousal level. :herefore% based on the above% I believe I "an <ustifiably "on"lude that abnormal sexual preferen"e even +hen it be"omes normal to a parti"ular individual due to abnormal "ir"umstan"es li*e the above "an be "ontrolled. If every male too* his sexual desires to+ards every attra"tive female to their "on"lusion% you "an +ell ima ine the allopin rate of rapes in this or any other so"iety. Eust be"ause "ertain individuals experien"e sexual desires to+ards members of the same sex% be"ause somethin +ent +ron some+here% does not at all mean that they should en a e in homosexual behavior or that their behavior be a""epted +ithout question or sear"h for a solution. )omin to the reli ious perspe"tive% there is absolutely no doubt that )hristianity% Eudaism and Allah% the three most +idely embra"ed reli ions in the +hole +orld% "ondemn homosexual behavior in the stron est terms/ a""ordin to the 3ld :estament the :orah% the people of 7ut +ere destroyed be"ause they en a ed in homosexual behavior and +ere unrepentant and non,a""eptin of Gods admonishment 5Holy @ible% Genesis "hapter >?% >(% >F% >K/ :orah G=F',F(/ (=>L et"6 In the boo* of 0omans% in the @ible 59e+ :estament6% !aul states= :heir +omen ex"han ed natural relations for unnatural and the men li*e+ise ave up natural relations +ith +omen and +ere "onsumed +ith passion for one another% men "ommittin shameless a"ts +ith men and re"eivin in their o+n persons the due penalty for their error 50omans >=&&,&G6. :he above verse also "ondemns those +ho +orship God in the ima e of a man i.e those +ho believe in the "on"ept of a God, in"arnate. Allah "onsiders homosexuality to be the result of a "hoi"e. It is in"on"eivable that Allah made people homosexuals then de"lared it a "rime and pres"ribed punishments for it in both this life and the next. :o a""ept su"h a proposition is to a""ept that God is un<ust. In"linations "an exist +ithin humans for a variety of natural and unnatural a"ts% from forni"ation to rape and from ne"rophilia to bestiality. :hese in"linations may "ome from satan su estions 5devils6% media influen"e% or even from human +hisperin s or dire"t "onta"t. Human bein s are not li*e robots +ho only do +hat they are pro rammed to do. Humans "hoose and God holds them responsible for their "hoi"es. #ere homosexuality a produ"t of eneti" destiny% it +ould be unfair for God to "riminali$e it and punish those +ho pra"ti"e it. )urrently% some s"ientists are even "laimin that murder is of eneti" ori in. :o a""ept that +ould mean to ex"use murderers and tolerate murder. Allah instru"ts parents to separate their "hildren in their beds by the a e of ten in order to avoid sexual experien"es% +hi"h may result from "hildhood experimentation. Su"h experien"es may be reinfor"ed by "onta"ts in s"hools and throu h abuse from adults. Also the distin"tions bet+een male and female are stron ly made in Islami" tea"hin s. :he !rophet "ursed men +ho imitated +omen and +omen +ho imitated men. :he #estern fashion industry is "ontrolled by

homosexuals +ho attempt to blur the distin"tion bet+een males and females% in order to ma*e their behavior more a""eptable. )onsequently% mens fashion has be"ome more feminine in style and "olor and +omen are no+ +earin three,pie"e suits% ties and hats and traditionally mens shoes. :hese distin"tions may be relative and vary from a so"iety to another. ;or example% in S"otland men traditionally +ear little *nee,len th dresses "alled *ilts. In S"otland it +ould not be "onsidered imitation of females% but in a so"iety +here only +omen +ear su"h dress it +ould be "onsidered imitation. AG-9-0A7 )39)7USI39= A""ordin to "ommon sense% so"iety% s"ien"e% lo i"% psy"holo y and reli ion i.e all those aspe"ts of present so"iety% that have "ontributed to its "ivili$ation% homosexuality is irrational% illo i"al% abnormal and an immoral behavior. :hose +ho pra"ti"e is should not be personally "ondemned but their behavior should and solutions to their ills be found% and the free pra"ti"e of homosexual behavior be stopped% so that our so"iety prospers. If "lear and "on"rete eviden"e +ere indeed found in the other dire"tion% everyone +ould ladly "han e the above "on"lusions. :herefore let our end be to+ards the truthJ And +hat is surprisin in all the hereabove proofs% so lon as Allah "reated man*ind% Allah prohibited homosexuality% so this prohibition HAS to be the ri ht +ay for the ood of the man*ind #ho "ould ever *no+ about the produ"t better than the manufa"turer4JJ Allah almi hty says= ..#hat is left after the truth ex"ept error4 Ho+ then are you turned a+ay.5>'=?&6 2II. !371GAM1 5MU7:I,MA00IAG-6 I9 IS7AMI) 7A# !oly amy +as a +ay of life until the 8uran +as revealed >('' years a o. #hen the earth +as youn and under,populated% poly amy +as one +ay of populatin it and brin in in the human bein s needed to "arry out GodCs plan. @y the time the 8uran +as revealed% the +orld had been suffi"iently populated% and the 8uran put do+n the first limitations a ainst poly amy. !oly amy is permitted in the 8uran% but under stri"tly observed "ir"umstan"es. Any abuse of this divine permission in"urs severe retribution. :hus% althou h poly amy is permitted by God% it behooves us to examine our "ir"umstan"es "arefully before sayin that a parti"ular poly amous relationship is permissible. 3ur perfe"t example here is the prophet Muhammad. He +as married to one +ife% Khadi<ah% until she died. He had all his "hildren% ex"ept one% from Khadi<ah. :hus% she and her "hildren en<oyed the !rophetCs full attention for as lon as she +as married to him/ t+enty,five years. ;or all pra"ti"al purposes% Muhammad had one +ife , from the a e of &H to H'. Durin the remainin >? years of his life% he married the a ed +ido+s of his friends +ho left many "hildren. :he "hildren needed a "omplete home% +ith a fatherly fi ure% and the !rophet provided that. !rovidin a fatherly fi ure for orphans is the only spe"ifi" "ir"umstan"e in support of poly amy mentioned in the 8uran 5(=?6. 3ther than marryin +ido+ed mothers of orphans% there +ere three politi"al marria es in the !rophetCs life. His "lose friends Abu @a*r and 3mar insisted that he +ould marry their dau hters% Aisha and Hafsah% to establish traditional family ties amon them. :he third marria e +as to Maria the - yptian/ she +as iven to him as a politi"al esture of friendship from the ruler of - ypt. :his perfe"t example tells us that a man must ive his full attention and loyalty in marria e to his +ife and "hildren in order to raise a happy and +holesome family. :he 8uran emphasi$es the limitations a ainst poly amy in very stron +ords= MIf you fear lest you may not be perfe"tly equitable in treatin more than one +ife% then you shall be "ontent +ith one.M 5(=?6 M1ou "annot be equitable in a poly amous relationship% no matter ho+ hard you try.M 5(=>&K6 :he 8urani" limitations a ainst poly amy point out the possibility of abusin GodCs la+. :herefore% unless +e are absolutely sure that GodCs la+ +ill not be

abused% +e had better resist our lust and stay a+ay from poly amy. If the "ir"umstan"es do not di"tate poly amy% +e had better ive our full attention to one +ife and one set of "hildren. :he "hildrenCs psy"holo i"al and so"ial +ell,bein % espe"ially in "ountries +here poly amy is prohibited% almost invariably di"tate mono amy. A fe+ basi" "riteria must be observed in "ontemplatin poly amy= >. It must alleviate pain and sufferin and not "ause any pain or sufferin . &. If you have a youn family% it is almost "ertain that poly amy is an abuse. ?. !oly amy to substitute a youn er +ife is an abuse of GodCs la+ 5(=>K6. A:his is a reprint from appendix ?' from Dr. KhalifaCs translation of the 8uran= AI9:03DU):I39= 7i*e Eudaism and )hristianity% Islam does not provide an expli"it prohibition of !oly amy. Unli*e Eudaism% )hristianity and perhaps,other reli ions as +ell% Islam deals +ith the issue more "learly and provides "ertain le al requirements and restraints that amount to the dis"oura ement of su"h a pra"ti"e. :he reason for not prohibitin poly amy "ate ori"ally is perhaps due to the fa"t that there are "ertain "onditions +hi"h fa"e individuals and so"ieties in different pla"es and at different times% +hi"h ma*e the limited pra"ti"e of poly amy a better solution than either divor"e or the hypo"riti"al preten"e of morality. 3ut present day feelin s about +hat is MtastefulM or MdistastefulM are somethin +e "annot for"e on all people every+here% at all times and under all "onditions% unless it is a question of a la+ "omin God. :his leads to the follo+in question. AIS !371GAM1 IMM30A7 !-0 S-4 :o shorten the dis"ussion% let us be in +ith the assumption that reli ions are a""eptable sour"es of MmoralsM. 7et us also sele"t t+o reli ions 5Eudaism and )hristianity6% +hi"h are the "losest to Islam% in order to see +here they stand on that issue. a6 In Eudaism= It is notable that most of the 3ld :estament !rophets are poly amous. A""ordin to the 3ld :estament% Abraham Mthe friend of GodM had more than one +ife% David had one hundred +ives% and Solomon is even said to have had G'' +ives and ?'' "on"ubines. If poly amy is immoral per se% then these and other leadin fi ures in the @ibli"al traditions are immoral. In this "ase% there +ould be no san"tity atta"hed to the @ible% its !rophets% or it tea"hin sJ 9o sin"ere Ee+% )hristian or Muslim +ould re ard Gods "hosen Messen ers as immoral personsJ :he Di"tionary of the @ible states= !oly amy meets us as a fa"t= e. . Abraham% Ea"ob% the Eud es% David% SolomonIn Deuteronomy >G=>G% the Kin is +arned not to multiply +ives/ later re ulations fixed the number at ei hteen for a *in and for an ordinary man. :he !hilosophy behind the le ali$ation of poly amy is explained in the -n"y"lopedia @ibli"a= :he man +ho o+ns his +ife as a "hattel "an on the same prin"iple o+n as many as he pleases% that is to say% as many as he "an afford to buy and *eep:he :almudists formulate the rule that no Ee+ may have more than four +ives% *in s may have at most ei hteen. It +as only at the be innin of the eleventh "entury 5about four "enturies after the advent of IslamJ6 that poly amy +as expressly prohibited in Eudaism. A""ordin to #estermar"*= MAmon -uropean Ee+s poly amy +as still pra"ti"ed durin the Middle A es% and amon Ee+s livin in Muhammadan "ountries it o""urs even to this day. An express prohibition of it +as not pronoun"ed until the "onvenin of the 0abbini"al Synod at #orms% in the be innin of the eleventh "entury. :his prohibition +as ori inally made for the Ee+s livin in Germany and 9orthern ;ran"e% but it +as su""essfully adopted in all -uropean "ountries. 9evertheless% the Ee+ish Marria e )ode retained many provisions% +hi"h ori inated at a time +hen poly amy +as still le ally in existen"e.M b6 In )hristianity= As the 3ld :estament is a vital part of the )hristian ;aith%

it "annot be disre arded in this dis"ussion. It +as "on"ernin the 3ld :estament la+s and 3ld :estament !rophets that Eesus 5as6 said plainly that he "ame not to destroy the 7a+ or the !rophets but rather to fulfill. In addition% there is no passa e in the 9e+ :estament that "learly prohibits poly amy. :his +as the understandin of the early )hur"h ;athers and for several "enturies in the )hristian era. #estermar"*% the noted authority on the history of human marria es states= M)onsiderin that mono amy prevailed as the only le itimate form of marria e in Gree"e and 0ome% it "annot be said that )hristianity introdu"ed obli atory mono amy in the #estern #orld. Indeed% althou h the 9e+ :estament assumes mono amy as the normal or ideal form of marria e% it does not expressly prohibit poly amy% ex"ept in the "ase of a bishop or dea"on. It has been ar ued that it +as not ne"essary for the first )hristian tea"hers to "ondemn poly amy be"ause mono amy +as the universal rule amon the peoples in +hose midst it +as prea"hed= but this is "ertainly not true of the Ee+s% +ho still both permitted and pra"ti"ed poly amy at the be innin of the )hristian era. Some of the ;athers a""used the Ee+ish 0abbis of sensuality% but no )oun"il of the )hur"h in the earliest "enturies opposed poly amy% and no obsta"le +as put in the +ay of its pra"ti"e by *in s in "ountries +here it had o""urred in the times of pa anism. In the middle of the sixth "entury Diarmait% Kin of Ireland% had t+o queens and t+o "on"ubines. !oly amy +as frequently pra"ti"ed by the Merovin ian *in s. )harles the Great had t+o +ives and many "on"ubines/ and one of his la+s seems to imply that poly amy +as not un*no+n amon priests. In later times !hilip of Hesse and ;rederi"* #illiam II of !russia "ontra"ted bi amous marria es +ith the san"tion of the 7utheran "ler y. 7uther himself approved of the bi amy of the former% and so did Melan"hthon. 3n various o""asions 7uther spea*s of poly amy +ith "onsiderable toleration. It had not been forbidden by God= even Abraham% +ho +as a Mperfe"t )hristianM% had t+o +ives. It is true that God had allo+ed su"h marria es to "ertain men of the 3ld :estament only in parti"ular "ir"umstan"es% and if a )hristian +anted to follo+ their example he had to sho+ that the "ir"umstan"es +ere similar in his "ase/ but poly amy +as undoubtedly preferable to divor"e. In >LH'% soon after the !ea"e of #estphalia% +hen the population had been reatly redu"ed by the :hirty 1ears #ar% the ;ran*ish Kreista at 9urember passed resolution that then"eforth every man should be allo+ed to marry t+o +omen. )ertain se"ts of )hristians have even advo"ated poly amy +ith mu"h fever. In >H?> the Anabaptists openly prea"hed at Munster that he +ho +ants to be a true )hristian must have several +ives. And the Mormons% as the entire +orld *no+s% re ard poly amy as a divine institution.M A#hat is the 7e al Status of !oly amy in Islam4 :he .erse that allo+s poly amy +as revealed after the battle of Uhud in +hi"h many Muslims +ere *illed% leavin +ido+s and orphans for +hom due "are +as in"umbent upon the Muslim survivors. :he translation of the verse is as follo+s= MIf you fear that you shall not be able to deal <ustly +ith the orphans% marry +omen of your "hoi"e% t+o% or three% or four/ but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal <ustly 5+ith them6% then 5marry6 only oneM 58uran (=?6 ;rom this verse a number of fa"ts are evident= >6 !oly amy is neither mandatory% nor en"oura ed% but merely permitted. &6 :he permission to pra"ti"e poly amy is not asso"iated +ith mere satisfa"tion of% rather% it is asso"iated +ith "ompassion to+ards +ido+s and orphans% a matter that is "onfirmed by the atmosphere in +hi"h the verse +as revealed. ?6 -ven in su"h a situation% the permission is far more restri"ted than the normal pra"ti"e +hi"h existed amon the Arabs and other peoples at that time +hen many married as many as ten or more +ives. (6 Dealin <ustly +ith ones +ives is an obli ation. :his applies to housin % food% "lothin % *ind treatmentet".% for +hi"h the husband is fully responsible.

If one is not sure of bein able to deal <ustly +ith them% the 8uran says= Mthen 5marry6 only one.M 58uran (=?6 :his verse% +hen "ombined +ith another verse in the same "hapter% sho+s some dis"oura ement of su"h plural marria es. :he other verse plainly states= M1ou are never able to be fair and <ust bet+een +omen even if it is your ardent desireM 5(=>&K6 :he requirement of <usti"e rules out the fantasy that man "an Mo+n as many as he pleases.M It also rules out the "on"ept of a Mse"ondary +ifeM% for all +ives have exa"tly the same status and are entitled to identi"al ri hts and "laims over their husband. It also implies% a""ordin to the Islami" 7a+% that should the husband fail to provide enou h support for any of his +ives% she "an o to "ourt and as* for a divor"e. H6 :he verse says Mmarry%M not *idnap% buy or sedu"e. #hat is Mmarria eM as understood in Islam4 Marria e in Islam is a "ivil "ontra"t% +hi"h is not valid unless both "ontra"tin parties "onsent to it. :hus% no +ife "an be for"ed or M ivenM to a husband +ho is already married. It is thus a free "hoi"e of both parties. As to the first +ife= A6 She may be barren or ill and see in poly amy a better solution than divor"e. @6 She may divor"e him 5unilaterally6 if he is married to a se"ond +ife provided that the nuptial "ontra"t ives her the ri ht of unilateral divor"eAA. AAIn Islam% it is la+ful for every +oman to put any pre"onditions she +ishes in her nuptial "ontra"t. )6 She "an o to "ourt and as* for a divor"e if there is eviden"e of mistreatment or in<usti"e infli"ted upon her. @ut if poly amy is dis"oura ed and loaded +ith su"h "onstraints% "ould it have been better if the 8uran simply forbade it4 :o ans+er this question% +e may have to raise another one= )ould !oly amy be a @etter Solution in Some )ases4 S"holars in the past and at present% Muslims and 9on,Muslims have "onsistently pointed out su"h "ases. :he follo+in are a fe+ examples% +hi"h are tied in +ith the eneral approa"h of Islam to individual and so"ial problems. A6 Individual )ases >6 A man +ho dis"overs that his +ife is barren% and +ho at the same time instin"tively aspires to have "hildren and heir. In a situation as this% then man +ould either have to= , Suffer the deprivation of fatherhood for life. , Divor"e his barren +ife and et married to another +omen +ho is not barren% on "ondition that his first +ife a""epts this situation or have a divor"e. In many "ases% neither solution "an be "onsidered as the best alternative. !oly amy +ould have the advanta e of preservin the marital relationship +ithout deprivin the man of fatherin "hildren of his o+n. &6 A man +hose +ife be"omes "hroni"ally ill +ould have one of possible alternatives= , He may suppress his instin"tive sexual needs for the rest of his life. , He may divor"e his si"* +ife at a time +hen she needs his "ompassion most% and et married to another +oman% thus le ally satisfyin his instin"tive needs. , 3r he "ould "ompromise by *eepin his si"* +ife% and se"retly ta*e for himself one or more illi"it sex partners. 7et us dis"uss these alternatives from the point of vie+ of the Islami" :ea"hin = :he first solution is a ainst human nature. Islam re"o nises sex and sexual needs and provides le itimate means for their satisfa"tion. :he se"ond solution is "learly less "ompassionate/ espe"ially +here there is love bet+een t+o parties. ;urthermore% divor"e is des"ribed by the !rophet Muhammad 5sa+6 as the Mmostly hated permitted thin by GodM. :he last solution is plainly a ainst the Islami" tea"hin +hi"h forbids illi"it sexual relationships in any form. :o sum up% Islam bein a ainst immorality% hypo"riti"al preten"e of morality%

and a ainst divor"e unless no better solution is available% provides for a better alternative +hi"h is "onsistent +ith human nature and +ith the preservation of pure and le itimate sex relationships. In a situation li*e this% it is doubtful that any solution +ould be better than poly amy% +hi"h is% after all% and optional solution. @6 So"ial )ases >6 Anthropolo ists tell us that amon various tribes and so"ieties% poly amy is a so"ial and e"onomi" ne"essity. In some very poor areas% the infant mortality is very hi h. )hildren on the other hand% are a sour"e of additional labor for the earnin "apa"ity of the family. :o have more "hildren under su"h "ir"umstan"es +ould require the pra"ti"e of poly amy. It is by this very reason that )hristian missionaries in some Afri"an re ions <ustified their permission to lo"al people to pra"ti"e poly amy +ithout bein ex"ommuni"ated from the "hur"h. 3ne resear"her has even found% throu h his studies that +omen in su"h so"ieties not only a""ept poly amy% but some of them even prefer this. &6 Aside from "ases +here +omen outnumber men% devastatin +ars% in the past and at present% have ta*en their toll mainly amon men. :he result is not simply more +omen +ho "annot find husbands% but even more +ido+s +ho may aspire to a respe"table family life. In su"h a situation% if poly amy is bad% the limitation on poly amy is even far +orse. @oth unmarried +omen and +ido+s are human bein s. Unless their instin"tive needs are le itimately satisfied% the temptation is reat for "orruption and immorality. @ut aside from the moral question these +omen are also exploited. :hey are used as tools for mens pleasures% yet have no uarantees% no ri hts or se"urity% finan"ial or emotional. Should they be"ome pre nant% it is their burden alone. @ut even if su"h +omen are ready to pay the pri"e for this personally% so"iety also suffers seriously from su"h situations. :he in"reasin number of ille itimate "hildren born today under "onditions su"h as these% provides a potential base for tomorro+s malad<usted and "riminals. ;urthermore it is inhuman% humiliatin for those "hildren to ro+ up +ithout *no+in +ho their fathers +ere and +ithout en<oyin a "lean and normal family life. A3ne question remains= #hy 9ot !olyandry 5plurality of husbands for the same +omen46 It is evident that the nature of +omen is physiolo i"ally and psy"holo i"ally different from that of men. !sy"holo i"ally spea*in % the +oman is mono amous by her very nature. ;urthermore% in all "ultures% ne+ and old% the headship of the family is normally mans. 3ne "an ima ine +hat +ould happen if the family had t+o or more heads. ;urthermore% if the +oman +as married to more than one husband% bein the one +ho ets pre nant% +hi"h +ould be the father of her "hildren4 A)on"lusion= It is no+ evident that the asso"iation of Mpoly amyM +ith Islam is not unfair or biased but based on serious misunderstandin . !oly amy +as pra"ti"ed% often +ithout limitations% in almost all "ultures. It +as san"tioned by various reli ions% and pra"ti"ed both before Islam and for many "enturies thereafter. It is presently pra"ti"ed% thou h se"retly% by the Mormons% and it is allo+ed by )hristian missionaries in Afri"a and other areas +here poly amy is a so"ial ne"essity. It is both honest and a""urate to say that it is Islam that re ulated this pra"ti"e% limited it% made it more humane% and instituted equal ri hts and status for all +ives. #hat the 8urani" de"rees amount to% ta*en to ether% is a dis"oura ement of poly amy unless ne"essity for it exists. It is also evident that the eneral rule in Islam is mono amy and not poly amy. Ho+ever% permission to pra"ti"e limited poly amy is only "onsistent +ith Islams realisti" vie+ of the nature of man and +omen and of the various so"ial needs% problems% and "ultural variations. :he question is% ho+ever% far more than the inherent flexibility of Islam/ it

also is fran* and strai htfor+ard approa"h of Islam in dealin +ith pra"ti"al problems. 0ather than requirin hypo"riti"al and superfi"ial "omplian"e% Islam delves deeper into the problems of individuals and so"ieties% and provides for le itimate and "lean solutions that are far more benefi"ial than +ould be the "ase if they +ere i nored. :here is no doubt that the se"ond +ife le ally married and treated *indly is better off than a mistress +ithout any le al ri hts or se"urity. :here is no doubt also that the le itimate "hild of a poly amous father% born in the Mfull li ht of the day% M and +ho en<oys all the ri hts and privile es of a son or dau hter% is far better off than the +anted or un+anted ille itimate "hild 5espe"ially if it is a irl6. It is fair also to say that poly amy may be harmful in many respe"ts. Islam% ho+ever% does not re ard poly amy as a substitute for mono amy. 0eali$in its disadvanta es Islam allo+s it under stri"t "onditions and +hen no better alternative is available. :his is a"tually "onsistent +ith a eneral rule in Islami" 7a+% M:he 7esser of :+o -vils.M :his means that if a harm is "ertain% and if there is no +ay to avert su"h harm unless some other harm is done% then it is better to "ause the lesser harm in order to avoid the reater. It is li*e a "aptain +ho ets rid of the ships frei ht in order to save the lives of the sailors. :his vitality% flexibility% and far,si htedness of the tea"hin s of Islam "annot possibly be attributed to any man or roup of men% in"ludin !rophet Muhammad 5sa+6 himself. Its se"ret simply lies in its Divine Sour"e% God Most Hi h% +ho *no+s in entirety +hat human needs and problems are. Man "an re<e"t the uidan"e of God% be"ome his o+n od% and establish his o+n standards of morality. Ultimately% ho+ever% he may dis"over the mira e that alluded him. A fe+ honest questions finally= #hat is the situation in "ountries that banned poly amy4 Do they really en<oy sin"ere and faithful Mmono amyM4 #hat is the de ree of "ohesion of the family4 Is there any si nifi"ant number of mistresses% Ms+eetheartsM% and ille itimate "hildren4 Ho+ observant are married men and +omen of the stri"t Mmono amousM relationship4 Are infidelity and se"ret extramarital sexual relationships more moral than the le itimate% le ally prote"ted husband,+ife relationships% even under poly amy if there is a pressin need for it4 #hi"h of the t+o situations is best4 After all% Islam% by its nature% is a universal reli ion% +hi"h is revealed by God to uide people in all pla"es at all times. :his uidan"e "an hardly be se"ured by avoidin issues and problems% +hi"h are real% even as they are relevant to human life on earth +ith its diversity. Hypo"risy% apolo y% or buryin ones head in the sand are hardly realisti" means of a"hievin ri hteous human life. :hey are not effe"tive in a"hievin moral upliftment either.

2III. #omen in the 8uran and the Sunnah In Islam there is absolutely no differen"e bet+een men and +omen as far as their relationship to Allah is "on"erned% as both are promised the same re+ard for ood "ondu"t and the same punishment for evil "ondu"t. In the 8uran% Allah says= And for +omen are ri hts over men similar to those of men over +omen. 5&=&&L6. :he 8uran% in addressin the believers% often uses the expression% believin men and +omenC to emphasi$e the equality of men and +omen in re ard to their respe"tive duties% ri hts% virtues and merits. It says= ;or Muslim men and +omen% for believin men and +omen% for devout men and +omen% for true men and +omen% for men and +omen +ho are patient and "onstant%

for men and +omen +ho humble themselves% for men and +omen +ho ive in "harity% for men and +omen +ho fast% for men and +omen +ho uard their "hastity% and for men and +omen +ho en a e mu"h in AllahCs praise% for them has Allah prepared for iveness and reat re+ard5??=?H6 :his "learly "ontradi"ts the assertion of the )hristian ;athers that +omen do not possess souls and that they +ill exist as sexless bein s in the next life. :he 8uran says that +omen have souls in exa"tly the same +ay as men and +ill enter !aradise if they do ood deeds= -nter into !aradise% you and your +ives% +ith deli ht5(?=G'6 #ho so does that +hi"h is ri ht% and believes% +hether male or female% him or her +ill #e qui"*en to happy life 5>L=KG6 :he 8uran admonishes those men +ho oppress or ill,treat +omen= 3 you +ho believeJ 1ou are forbidden to inherit +omen a ainst their +ill. 9or should you treat them +ith harshness% that you may ta*e a+ay part of the do+ry you have iven them , ex"ept +hen they have be"ome uilty of open le+dness. 3n the "ontrary live +ith them on a footin of *indness and equity. If you ta*e a disli*e to them% it may be that you disli*e somethin and Allah +ill brin about throu h it a reat deal of ood. 5(=>K6 )onsiderin the fa"t that before the advent of Islam the pa an Arabs used to bury their female "hildren alive% ma*e +omen dan"e na*ed in the vi"inity of the KaCba durin their annual fairs% and treat +omen as mere "hattels and ob<e"ts of sexual pleasure possessin no ri hts or position +hatsoever% these tea"hin s of the 9oble 8uran +ere revolutionary. Unli*e other reli ions% +hi"h re arded +omen as bein possessed of inherent sin and +i"*edness and men as bein possessed of inherent virtue and nobility% Islam re ards men and +omen as bein of the same essen"e "reated from a sin le soul. :he 8uran de"lares= 3 man*indJ 0everen"e your Guardian,7ord% +ho "reated you from a sin le person% "reated% of li*e nature% his mate% and from this pair s"attered 5li*e seeds6 "ountless men and +omen. 0everen"e Allah% throu h #hom you demand your mutual 5ri hts6% and reveren"e the +ombs 5that bore you6/ for Allah ever +at"hes over you. 5(=>6 :he !rophet of Islam 5!@UH6 said% M#omen are the t+in halves of men.M :he 8uran emphasi$es the essential unity of men and +omen in a most beautiful simile= :hey 5your +ives6 are your arment and you are a arment for them 5&=>FG6 Eust as a arment hides our na*edness% so do husband and +ife% by enterin into the relationship of marria e% se"ure ea"h otherCs "hastity. :he arment ives "omfort to the body/ so does the husband find "omfort in his +ifeCs "ompany and she in his. M:he arment is the ra"e% the beauty% the embellishment of the body% so too are +ives to their husbands as their husbands are to them.M Islam does not "onsider +oman Man instrument of the DevilM% but rather the 8uran "alls her muhsana , a fortress a ainst Satan be"ause a ood +oman% by marryin a man% helps him *eep to the path of re"titude in his life. It is for this reason that marria e +as "onsidered by the !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6 as a most virtuous a"t. He said= M#hen a man marries% he has "ompleted one half of his reli ion.MHe en<oined matrimony on Muslims by sayin =MMarria e is part of my +ay and +hoever *eeps a+ay from my +ay is not from me 5i.e. is not my follo+er6. :he 8uran has iven the raison dCtre 5reason of bein 6 of marria e in the follo+in +ords= And amon His si ns is this% that He has "reated for you mates from amon yourselves% that you may d+ell in tranquillity +ith them/ and He has put love and mer"y bet+een you. .erily in that are si ns for those +ho refle"t. 5?'=&>6 :he !rophet Muhammad 5pea"e be upon him6 +as full of praise for virtuous and "haste +omen. He said= M:he +orld and all thin s in the +orld are pre"ious but the most pre"ious thin in the +orld is a virtuous +oman. He on"e told the future *halif% C3mar= MShall I not inform you about the best treasure a man "an hoard4 It is a virtuous +ife +ho pleases him +henever he loo*s to+ards her% and +ho uards herself +hen he is absent from her.M 3n other o""asions the !rophet said=

M:he best property a man "an have is a rememberin ton ue 5about Allah6% a rateful heart and a believin +ife +ho helps him in his faith.M And a ain= M:he +orld% the +hole of it% is a "ommodity and the best of the "ommodities of the +orld is a virtuous +ife.M @efore the advent of Islam +omen +ere often treated in a very bad manner. :he !rophet +anted to put a stop to all "ruelties to +omen. He prea"hed *indness to+ards them. He told the Muslims= M;ear Allah in respe"t of +omen.MAnd= M:he best of you are they +ho behave best to their +ives.M And= MA Muslim must not hate his +ife% and if he be displeased +ith one bad quality in her% let him be pleased +ith one that is ood.M And= M:he more "ivil and *ind a Muslim is to his +ife% the more perfe"t in faith he is.M :he !rophet 5!@UH6 +as most emphati" in en<oinin upon Muslims to be *ind to their +omen +hen he delivered his famous *hutba 5!ubli" spee"h6 on the Mount of Mer"y at Arafat in the presen"e of one hundred and t+enty,four thousand of his )ompanions +ho had athered there for the Ha<< al,#ada 5;are+ell !il rima e6. In it he ordered those present% and throu h them all those Muslims +ho +ere to "ome later% to be respe"tful and *ind to+ards +omen. He said= M;ear Allah re ardin +omen. .erily you have married them +ith the trust of Allah% and made their bodies la+ful +ith the +ord of Allah. 1ou have ot 5ri hts6 over them% and they have ot 5ri hts6 over you in respe"t of their food and "lothin a""ordin to your means.M In Islam a +oman is a "ompletely independent personality. She "an ma*e any "ontra"t or bequest in her o+n name. She is entitled to inherit in her position as mother% as +ife% as sister and as dau hter. She has perfe"t liberty to "hoose her husband. :he pa an so"iety of pre,Islami" Arabia had an irrational pre<udi"e a ainst their female "hildren +hom they used to bury alive. :he Messen er of Allah 5!@UH6 +as totally opposed to this pra"ti"e. He sho+ed them that supportin their female "hildren +ould a"t as a s"reen for them a ainst the fire of Hell= It is narrated by the !rophetCs +ife% Aisha% that a +oman entered her house +ith t+o of her dau hters. She as*ed for "harity but Aisha "ould not find anythin ex"ept a date% +hi"h +as iven to her. :he +oman divided it bet+een her t+o dau hters and did not eat any herself. :hen she ot up and left. #hen the !rophet 5!@UH6 "ame to the house% Aisha told him about +hat had happened and he de"lared that +hen the +oman +as brou ht to a""ount 5on the Day of Eud ment6 about her t+o dau hters they +ould a"t as a s"reen for her from the fires of Hell. :he +orst "alamity for a +oman is +hen her husband passes a+ay and% as a +ido+% the responsibility of maintainin the "hildren falls upon her. In the -astern #orld% +here a +oman does not al+ays o out to earn her livin % the problems of +ido+hood are indes"ribable. :he !rophet Muhammad 5pea"e be upon him6 upheld the "ause of +ido+s. Most of his +ives +ere +ido+s. In an a e +hen +ido+s +ere rarely permitted to remarry% the !rophet en"oura ed his follo+ers to marry them. He +as al+ays ready to help +ido+s and exhorted his follo+ers to do the same. Abu Hurairah 539- 3; :H- SI9)-0-S: ;3773#-0S6 reported that the !rophet said=M3ne +ho ma*es efforts 5to help6 the +ido+ or a poor person is li*e a mu<ahid 5+arrior6 in the path of Allah% or li*e one +ho stands up for prayers in the ni ht and fasts in the day.M #oman as a mother% "ommands reat respe"t in Islam. :he 9oble 8uran spea*s of the ri hts of the mother in a number of verses. It en<oins Muslims to sho+ respe"t to their mothers and serve them +ell even if they are still unbelievers. :he !rophet states emphati"ally that the ri hts of the mother are paramount. Abu Hurairah reported that a man "ame to the Messen er of Allah 5pea"e be upon him6 and as*ed=M3 Messen er of Allah% +ho is the person +ho has the reatest ri ht on me +ith re ards to *indness and attention4MHe replied% M1our mother.M M:hen +ho4MHereplied% M1our mother.M M:hen +ho4M He replied% M1our mother.M M:hen

+ho4M He replied%M1our father.M In another tradition% the !rophet advised a believer not to <oin the +ar a ainst the 8uraish in defense of Islam% but to loo* after his mother% sayin that his servi"e to his mother +ould be a "ause of his salvation. MuCa+iyah% the son of Eahimah% reported that Eahimah "ame to the !rophet 5!@UH6 and said% M Messen er of AllahJ I +ant to <oin the fi htin 5in the path of Allah6 and I have "ome to see* your advi"e.MHe said% M:hen remain in your motherCs servi"e% be"ause !aradise is under her feet.M :he !rophetCs follo+ers a""epted his tea"hin s and brou ht about a revolution in their so"ial attitude to+ards +omen. :hey no lon er "onsidered +omen as mere "hattels% but as an inte ral part of so"iety. ;or the first time +omen +ere iven the ri ht to have a share in inheritan"e. In the ne+ so"ial "limate% +omen redis"overed themselves and be"ame hi hly a"tive members of so"iety renderin useful servi"e durin the +ars +hi"h the pa an Arabs for"ed on the emer in Muslim +orld. :hey "arried provisions for the soldiers% nursed them% and even fou ht alon side them if it +as ne"essary. It be"ame a "ommon si ht to see +omen helpin their husbands in the fields% "arryin on trade and business independently% and oin out of their homes to satisfy their needs. Aisha reported that Saudah bint Iamah +ent out one ni ht. C3mar sa+ her and re"o ni$ed her and said% M@y God% 3 Saudah% +hy do you not hide yourself from us4MShe +ent ba"* to the !rophet 5!@UH6 and told him about it +hile he +as havin supper in her room% and he said% MIt is permitted by Allah for you to o out for your needs.M:he predominant idea in the tea"hin s of Islam +ith re ard to men and +omen is that a husband and +ife should be full,fled ed partners in ma*in their home a happy and prosperous pla"e% that they should be loyal and faithful to one another% and enuinely interested in ea"h otherCs +elfare and the +elfare of their "hildren. A +oman is expe"ted to exer"ise a humani$in influen"e over her husband and to soften the sternness inherent in his nature. A man is en<oined to edu"ate the +omen in his "are so that they "ultivate the qualities in +hi"h they% by their very nature% ex"el. :hese aspe"ts +ere mu"h emphasi$ed by the !rophet 5pea"e be upon him6. He exhorted men to marry +omen of piety and +omen to be faithful to their husbands and *ind to their "hildren. He said= MAmon my follo+ers the best of men are those +ho are best to their +ives% and the best of +omen are those +ho are best to their husbands. :o ea"h of su"h +omen is set do+n a re+ard equivalent to the re+ard of a thousand martyrs. Amon my follo+ers% a ain% the best of +omen are those +ho assist their husbands in their +or*% and love them dearly for everythin % save +hat is a trans ression of AllahCs la+s.M 3n"e MuCa+iyah as*ed the !rophet 5!@UH6% M#hat are the ri hts that a +ife has over her husband4M:he !rophet replied% M ;eed her +hen you ta*e your food% ive her "lothes to +ear +hen you +ear "lothes% refrain from ivin her a slap on the fa"e or abusin her% and do not separate from your +ife% ex"ept +ithin the house.M 3n"e a +oman "ame to the !rophet +ith a "omplaint a ainst her husband. He told her= M:here is no +oman +ho removes somethin to repla"e it in its proper pla"e% +ith a vie+ to tidyin her husbandCs house% but that Allah sets it do+n as a virtue for her. 9or is there a man +ho +al*s +ith his +ife hand,in,hand% but that Allah sets it do+n as a virtue for him/ and if he puts his arm round her shoulder in love% his virtue is in"reased tenfold.M 3n"e he +as heard praisin the +omen of the tribe of 8uraish% M...be"ause they are the *indest to their "hildren +hile they are infants and be"ause they *eep a "areful +at"h over the belon in s of their husbands.M :he ShariCah re ards +omen as the spiritual and intelle"tual equals of men. :he main distin"tion it ma*es bet+een them is in the physi"al realm based on the equitable prin"iple of fair division of labor. It allots the more strenuous +or* to the man and ma*es him responsible for the maintenan"e of the family. It allots the +or* of mana in the home and the upbrin in and trainin of "hildren to the +oman% +or* +hi"h has the reatest importan"e in the tas* of buildin a

healthy and prosperous so"iety. It is a fa"t% ho+ever% that sound administration +ithin the domesti" field is impossible +ithout a unified poli"y. ;or this reason the ShariCah requires a man% as head of the family% to "onsult +ith his family and then to have the final say in de"isions "on"ernin it. In doin so he must not abuse his prero ative to "ause any in<ury to his +ife. Any trans ression of this prin"iple involves for him the ris* of losin the favor of Allah% be"ause his +ife is not his subordinate but she is% to use the +ords of the !rophet 5!@UH6% Cthe queen of her houseC%and this is the position a true believer is expe"ted to ive his +ife. In "ontrast to these enli htened tea"hin s of Islam in respe"t of +omen% #estern tal* of +omenCs liberation or eman"ipation is a"tually a dis uised form of exploitation of her body% deprivation of her honor% and de radation of her soulJ After dis"ussin both sexual and so"ial feminine ri hts in Islam% here is "ompleted the pi"ture of the Muslim +oman in Islami" rulin s% this is the pi"ture that "ountera"ts the traditional one *no+n about the Muslim +oman% ta*en surely from non,reliable sour"es +hi"h are eventually dishonest ones. 2I..)39)-!:S 3; )39:0A)-!:I39 A9D A@30:I39 I9 IS7AM AIs birth "ontrol permissible in Islam4 A#hat about Muslim point of vie+ in abortion4 In a lot of Muslim "ountries% demo raphi" matters have ained prime importan"e be"ause of an unpre"edented lar e in"rease in the population. :his "hapter is a mere effort to "lear these mis"on"eptions that many Muslims have about the la+fulness of birth "ontrol in Islam. AIs birth "ontrol permissible in Islam4 A Muslim has three sour"es of *no+led e to obtain ans+ers to the questions pertainin to various aspe"ts of human life. :hese sour"es are= >. :he Holy 8urCan/ &. Sayin s 5hadith6 and a"ts 5Sunnah6 of the Holy !rophet 5pbuh6/ and ?. :he vie+s of the leaders of <uristi" s"hools qualified to interpret the tea"hin s of Islam. >. :he Holy 8urCan 9o 8urani" text forbids prevention of "on"eption. :here are% ho+ever% some 8urani" verses +hi"h prohibit infanti"ide and these are used by some Muslims to dis"oura e birth "ontrol. @ut "ontra"eption does not amount to *illin a human bein . :hese verses in fa"t +ere revealed to forbid the pre,Islami" Arab pra"ti"e of *illin or buryin alive a ne+born "hild 5parti"ularly a irl6 on a""ount of the parentsC poverty or to refrain from havin a female "hild. !erhaps in those days% people did not *no+ safe methods of "ontra"eption and early abortion. &. Hadith :he prin"iple of preventin "on"eption +as a""epted in those sayin s of the !rophet 5pbuh6 +hi"h allo+ed some of his follo+ers to pra"ti"e Ca$l or "oitus interruptus. :hese ahadith 5propheti" statements6embodied the earliest le al reasonin of Muslims on "ontra"eption and +ere essential instruments of ar ument in later Islami" thou ht on "ontra"eption. :here is a suffi"ient number of ahadith on "ontra"eption. :he most "ommonly quoted ones are the follo+in . >. A""ordin to Eabir% M#e used to pra"ti"e Ca$l in the !rophetCs 5!@UH6 lifetime +hile the 8uran +as bein revealed.M :here is another version of the same hadith% M#e used to pra"ti"e "oitus interruptus durin the !rophetCs 5!@UH6 lifetime. 9e+s of this rea"hed him and he did not forbid us.M &. A""ordin to Eabir% MA man "ame to the !rophet 5!@UH6 and said% CI have a slave irl% and +e need her as a servant and around the palm roves. I have sex +ith her% but I am afraid of her be"omin pre nant.C :he !rophet 5pbuh6 said% C!ra"ti"e Ca$l +ith her if you so +ish% for she +ill re"eive +hat has been

predestined for her.CM ?. A""ordin to Abu SaCid% M#e rode out +ith the !rophet 5!@UH6 to raid @anu al,Mustaliq and "aptured some female prisoners . . . +e desired +omen and abstinen"e be"ame hard. 5@ut6 +e +anted to pra"ti"e Ca$l/ and as*ed the !rophet 5!@UH6 about it. He said% C1ou do not have to hesitate% for God has predestined +hat is to be "reated until the <ud ment day.CM (. A""ordin to Abu SaCid% M:he Ee+s say that "oitus interruptus is minor infanti"ide% and the !rophet 5!@UH6 ans+ered% C:he Ee+s lie% for if God +anted to "reate somethin % no one "an avert it 5or divert Him6.CM H. A""ordin to CUmar Ibn Khattab% M:he !rophet 5!@UH6 forbade the pra"ti"e of Ca$l +ith a free +oman ex"ept +ith her permission.M L. A""ordin to Eudhamah bint #ahb% MI +as there +hen the !rophet 5pbuh6 +as +ith a roup sayin % MI +as about to prohibit the hila 5inter"ourse +ith a +oman in la"tation6 but I observed the @y$antines and the !ersians% and sa+ them do it% and their "hildren +ere not harmed.C :hey as*ed him about "oitus interruptus% and the !rophet 5!@UH6 replied% CIt is a hidden infanti"ide . . .CM :hese ahadith 5Sayin s6 refle"t t+o points= >, ;irst that the !rophet 5!@UH6 *ne+ about the pra"ti"e and did not prohibit it 5no. >6 &, Se"ond% that the !rophet 5pbuh6 himself permitted the pra"ti"e 5no. & D ?6. Muslim <urists determine the la+fulness of an a"t on the basis of a method% +hi"h "omprises four prin"iples or sour"es 5usul6. :+o of these 58uran and Sunnah6 are reli ious sour"es. :he other t+o prin"iples in"lude analo i"al reasonin 5qiyas6 and the "onsensus of the Culama 5i<maC6. :he most detailed analysis of Islami" permission of "ontra"eption +as made by the reat leader of the ShafiCi S"hool of <urism% al,Gha$$ali 5>'HF,>>>>6. He dis"ussed this issue in his reat +or*% IhyaC Culum al,Din 5:he revival of 0eli ious S"ien"es6% in the "hapter on biolo y in reli ion. Al,Gha$$ali stated that there +as no basis for prohibitin this method of "ontra"eption +hi"h is the "oitus interruptus 5Ca$l6. ;or prohibition in Islam +as possible only by addu"in an ori inal text% an expli"it provision in the 8uran or hadith6 or by analo y +ith a iven text. In the "ase of "ontra"eption% there +as no su"h text% nor +as there any prin"iple on +hi"h to base prohibition. In his vie+% "oitus interruptus +as absolutely permitted% and this permission "ould be ratified by analo i"al reasonin . A man "ould refrain from marria e/ or marry but abstain from matin or have sexual matin but abstain from e<a"ulation inside the va ina 5external e<a"ulation or "oitus interruptus6. Althou h it +as better to marry% have inter"ourse% and have e<a"ulation inside the va ina% abstention from these +as by no means forbidden or unla+ful. Al,Gha$$ali made a distin"tion bet+een infanti"ide and "ontra"eption. He said that a "hild "ould not be formed merely by the emission of the spermati" fluid% but by the settlin of semen in the +omanCs +omb/ for "hildren +ere not "reated by the manCs semen alone but of both parents to ether. So "ontra"eption "ould not be "ompared +ith infanti"ide +hi"h is the *illin of an existin bein % +hile "ontra"eption +as different. In the pro"ess of "ontra"eption% the t+o 5male and female6 emissions are analo ous to t+o elements% CofferC 5i<ab6 and Ca""eptan"eC 5qabul% +hi"h are "omponents of a le al "ontra"t in Islami" la+. Someone +ho submits an offer and then +ithdra+s it before the other party a""epts it is not uilty of any violation% for a "ontra"t does not "ome into existen"e before a""eptan"e. In the same manner% there is no real differen"e bet+een the manCs emission and retention of the semen unless it a"tually mixes +ith the +omanCs CsemenC. Al,Gha$$ali "lassified earlier and "ontemporary opinions into the follo+in roups= >,Un"onditional permission for Ca$l/

&,!ermission if the +ife "onsents but prohibition if she does not. Al,Gha$$ali a""epts prevention or "ontra"eption if the motive for the a"t is any of these= >, A desire to preserve a +omanCs beauty or her health% or save her life. &, Desire to avoid finan"ial hardship and embarrassment ?, Avoidan"e of other domesti" problems "aused by a lar e family. 3n the other hand% he did not a""ept avoidan"e of female birth as a le itimate motive for "ontra"eption. Another reat s"holar% Ibn :aymiyah% dis"ussed Divine providen"e% pro"reation and "ontra"eption 5in this +ay6 in the early fourteenth "entury. He ar ues% MAllah "reates "hildren and other animals in the +omb by +illin the meetin of parents in inter"ourse% and the t+o semens in the +omb. A man is a fool +ho says% CI shall depend on God and not approa"h my +ife and if it is +illed that I be ranted a "hild I +ill be iven one% other+ise not and there is no need for inter"ourse.C :his is very different from havin inter"ourse and pra"tisin +ithdra+al% for +ithdra+al does not prevent pre nan"y if God +ills a pre nan"y to o""ur% be"ause there "an be involuntary pre,emission of semen. Most s"holars of the !rophetCs 5!@UH6 tradition% li*e Ibn Ma<ah and Ahmad% a reed that "oitus interruptus +as permitted by the !rophet 5!@UH6 :his in brief is the revie+ of <uristi" opinion about "ontra"eption. :here is no doubt that the earliest follo+ers of the !rophet 5!@UH6 pra"ti"ed Ca$l. :his pra"ti"e +as +ithin his *no+led e and he did not forbid it. :o summari$e% it +as a reed in total that it is la+ful to avoid pre nan"y via avoidin meetin of the sperm and the ovum% measurin on this% it is then la+ful to ta*e "ontra"eptive pills +hi"h prevents the ovulation from its very sour"e. Moreover% it is permissible to use "ondoms so lon as this does not "ause any harm and so lon as both husband and +ife "onsent to their use% be"ause this is similar to a$l 5"oitus interruptus or +ithdra+al6. @ut it redu"es the sensation of pleasure% +hi"h is the ri ht of both partners% and redu"es the "han"e of "on"eption% +hi"h is also the ri ht of both partners. 9either one of them is allo+ed to deprive the other of these ri hts. And Allah is the "ourse of stren th. AMuslim <urists and abortion= Many Muslim s"holars have dis"ussed the thorny question of abortion. :hey have based their dis"ussion on the division of the development of fetus into t+o sta es. A""ordin to them% the +hole period of pre nan"y "an be divided into t+o sta es= the first >&' days% and the remainin period before "hildbirth. Most "lassi"al Muslim <urists "laim that it is permissible to have an abortion for valid reasons durin the first sta e. :he Holy 8urCan has also des"ribed the pro"ess of fetal development. A""ordin to it% the development of fetus pro resses thou h sta es of differentiation and ro+th. Man #e did "reate from a quintessen"e 5of "lay6/ then #e pla"ed him as 5a drop of6 sperm in a pla"e of rest% firmly fixed/ then #e made the sperm into a "lot of "on ealed blood/ then of that "lot #e made a 5foetus6 lump/ then #e made out of that lump bones and "lothed the bones +ith flesh/ then #e developed out of it another "reature. So blessed by God the @est to "reateJ 5&?=>&,>(6 In another Surah= 3 man*indJ If you have a doubt about the 0esurre"tion% 5"onsider6 that #e have "reated you of dust/ then of sperm/ then out of a lee"h,li*e "lot% then out of a morsel of flesh% partly formed and partly unformed% in order that #e may manifest 53ur po+er6 to you/ and #e "ause +hom #e +ill in the +ombs% for an appointed term% then do #e brin you out as babes5&&=H6 All Muslim s"holars a ree that the fetus "han es to a human bein after >&' days of "on"eption. :he follo+in hadith also supports this point. :he !rophet 5!@UH6 said% M-a"h of you is "onstituted in your motherCs +omb for forty days as a nutfah 5fertili$ed ovum6% then it be"omes an Calaqah 5lee"h,li*e

"lot6 for an equal period% then a mud hah 5"artila inous stru"ture6 for another equal period% then the an el is sent and he breathes the soul into it.M :his vie+ of embryoni" development +as "entral to the Muslim ar uments on abortion. A""ordin to Muslim s"holars% it is la+ful to have an abortion durin the first >&' days% but after the sta e of ensoulment 5insertion of the soul6% abortion is prohibited "ompletely ex"ept +here it is imperative to save the motherCs life. :he Hanafi s"holars% +ho "omprised the ma<ority of orthodox Muslims in later "enturies% permitted abortion until the end of the four months. A""ordin to them% a pre nant +oman "ould have an abortion +ithout her husbandCs permission% but she should have reasonable rounds for this a"t. 3ne reason +hi"h +as mentioned frequently +as the presen"e of a nursin infant. A ne+ pre nan"y put an upper limit on la"tation% and the <urists believed that if the mother "ould not be repla"ed by a +et,nurse% the infant +ould die. Many ShafiCi and Hanbali s"holars a reed +ith the Hanafis in their toleran"e of the pra"ti"e% some puttin an upper limit of forty days for a le al abortion% other ei hty days or >&' days a""ordin to the sta e they thin* the fetus is an ensouled human bein at. @y "omparin the Muslim <uristsC "onsensus on the permission of "ontra"eption% there appears a differen"e of opinion on abortion. @ut iven the fa"t that prohibition +as not the dominant vie+ by any standard% iven the fa"t that Muslims believed in ensoulment as the "ru"ial event before +hi"h the fetus +as not a person% and iven the fa"t that the san"tion of "ontra"eption stren thened the vie+ that abortion should be le ali$ed before ensoulment% perhaps +e "an say that% on the +hole% abortion +as reli iously tolerated. :his "on"lusion ains indire"t support from the "ontemporary medieval Arabi" se"ular literature. Medi"ine% materia medi"a and popular literature all treated "ontra"eption and abortion as if they +ere t+o aspe"ts of the same pro"ess= birth "ontrol. A.ie+s of some modern Muslim <urists= :he Grand Mufti of Eordan% Shay*h CAbd Allah Al,8alqili% issued a fat+a in >KL( in +hi"h he said= :here is a reement amon the exponents of <urispruden"e that "oitus interruptus% as one of the methods for the prevention of "hildbearin % is allo+ed. Do"tors of reli ion inferred from this that it is permissible to ta*e a dru to prevent "hildbearin % or even to indu"e abortion. #e "onfidently rule in this fat+a that it is permitted to ta*e measures to limit "hildbearin . Another Muslim s"holar% Dr. Ismail @alo un of 9i eriaCs University of Ibadan% +rote about the la+fulness of modern "ontra"eptive methods= :he question that arises be"ause "oitus interruptus +as the only "ontra"eptive method *no+n by the !rophetCs )ompanions% and +hi"h pra"ti"e the !rophet 5!@UH6 "ondones% is this= "an Muslims of today pra"ti"e any other method4 :he ans+er "an only be in the affirmative% as lon as other methods are not in<urious% either to the man or +oman. :he question is tantamount to as*in +hether a Muslim "an today +ear "lothes different in shape from those +orn by the !rophet 5!@UH6 and his )ompanions durin their time. Shay*h CAli Ead al,Haq% the Grand Mufti of - ypt% "ommented on the pro<e"tion of family plannin as a distrust in the popular belief that Allah +ill ta*e "are of a familyCs needs re ardless of ho+ bi it ro+s% in these +ords= )ontra"eption% throu h +ithdra+al or any ne+er method% does not mean distrust in AllahCs enerosity or mer"y. Do you re"all +hat our !rophet 5pbuh6 said to the "amel,man +ho +as afraid of losin his valuable beast4 M;irst ta*e the pre"aution of tyin up your "amel and then trust in AllahCs "are for her.M Is this not the best "ounsel for "ombinin plannin +ith faith in GodCs "on"ern for all4 #hen Al,Gha$$ali +rote about "ontra"eption as a possible solution of the familyCs problems% the reat Imam +as not su estin disbelief in GodCs "are for the family.C 7et me also refer to a famous verse from the 8uran= M:here is no "reature on earth for +hom Allah does not "reate the means of livelihood.M :he verse does not mean that man need not +or* for his livelihood. 3mar bin Khattab% the se"ond

Khalif of Islam% explained this verse "learly= M:he man +ho trusts Allah is one +ho believes that Allah +ill ma*e the seed ro+% but he does not ne le"t to so+ his "rop.M Human forethou ht and effort are "ertainly not in"ompatible +ith "omplete faith in AllahCs "are for His "reation. A)on"lusion= :he early follo+ers of Islam +ere fe+ and +ea* in the midst of a vast ma<ority of a ressive and oppressive people. :he ood of the Muslims then required that there should be a "all for the multipli"ation of their numbers% in order that they mi ht be able at the time to fulfill their responsibilities in defendin the mission of Islam and prote"tin the true reli ion of Allah a ainst the po+er and multitudinous adversaries threatenin it. @ut no+ +e find that "onditions have "han ed. #e find that the density of population in the +orld threatens a serious redu"tion in the livin standards of man*ind to the extent that many men of thou ht have been prompted to see* family plannin in every "ountry so that the resour"es may not fall short of ensurin a de"ent livin for itCs people to provide publi" servi"e for them. Islam% as the reli ion of pristine nature% has never been opposed to +hat is ood to man. Indeed it has al+ays been ahead in the effort to+ards the a"hievement of this ood so lon as it is not in "onfli"t +ith the purposes of AllahCs la+. ;amily plannin % understood by Islam% is not opposed to marria e or to the be ettin of "hildren% nor does its "on"ept imply disbelief in the do"trine of fate and Divine dispensation for Allah Almi hty has besto+ed reason upon man to enable him to distin uish bet+een the useful and the harmful% and to help him follo+ the path that +ould assure him happiness in this +orld as +ell as in the +orld to "ome. 2.. MIS)39)-!:I39S 0-GA0DI9G S-2UA7I:1 I9 IS7AM Alle ations that Islam is a reli ion of sexual suppression and shame= :his in"ludes +ron thou hts about Islami" "on"epts of sexuality% believin that sex in Islam aims only at havin *ids. @efore +e repel the biased suppression raised by the enemies of Islam +ho a""use it of bein a reli ion of sexual suppression and uilt% +e should first "onsider the definition of sexual suppression as postulated by ;reud% psy"holo ists and edu"ators= sexual suppression is to deem sexual inter"ourse as impure and to feel responsible if one indul es in it% even if it is +ithin the le al bond of marria e. :his assumption bears similarities to monosti"ism that is in"on ruent +ith Islam. #e have dis"ussed above that Islam prohibits monosti"ism% dispraises "eliba"y and permits marria e in order to relieve sexual ur es and ive vent to lust. Islam re ards sexual inter"ourse as a "ommendable deed that deserves re+ard from Allah. :hese are the rational tea"hin s of Islam% +hi"h are "ompatible +ith "ontemporary life. :hus% +here is the sexual suppression they alle e4 A""ordin to tea"hin s and reality% +hen a youn man feels sexual desire% there is no need to see* refu e +ith Allah or to suppress his ur es% be"ause it is a natural matter that "annot be denied. :here is no need for youn men to suppress this desire in order to attest their "hastity and purity before others. @y removin the "auses of uilt and shame% they aim at end psy"holo i"al and nervous disorders that o""ur as a result of this feelin and that may lead to "ommittin "rimes. Islam% ho+ever% does not permit the youn man to submit to his +hims and desires. It sets re ulations and orders him to be "haste and elevated in "hara"ter% and prohibits him from deviatin from the strai ht path and "on"edin to immorality. :hese re ulations differ from suppression as youn men adheren"e to "hastity and sublimation is a temporary elimination to sexual desire and ur es. :his temporary "an"ellation or ani$es and refines sexual desire% but does not eradi"ate it "ompletely. ;urther eviden"e that sexual suppression is not a distin uished feature of

Islam% as mentioned earlier% Islam permits% for the sin le person +ho feels a stron desire% to resort to masturbation in order to "urb his ur e. Althou h masturbation is a prohibited pra"ti"e% Islam permits the pra"ti"e only to the extent that it prevents to "ommit adultery. :his is based on the Islami" rule= ne"essity does not *no+ la+. :he <urists de"lared that masturbation is unla+ful if ones ur e is +ea* and does not "ause him to be over stimulated. In "ase the ur e is very stron % it is la+ful to resort to masturbation +ith neither re+ard nor sin. Surely Islam is the reli ion in a""ordan"e +ith human nature and reality be"ause it provides appropriate solutions in "onformity +ith every day situations and aims to remove hardships and diffi"ulties. Almi hty Allah says= Allah +ills for you ease and He does not +ill diffi"ulty 5&=>FH6 He also said/ And has imposed no diffi"ulties on you in reli ion 5&&=GK6. :hus% the ton ues of those +ho alle e that Islam is a reli ion of monosti"ism and suppression are to be silen"ed. #hile their alle ations may "on"ur +ith the other distorted reli ions% it absolutely "ontradi"ts the tea"hin s of Islam be"ause Islam% as mentioned above% has al+ays been and +ill al+ays remain the pra"ti"al reli ion suited to human nature/ @ut +ho% for people +hose faith is assured% "an ive better <ud ment than Allah4 5H=H'6 Islami" rules avoids any *ind of approa"h to the +oman +hile menstruatin 5havin her monthly "ourse6= :his is a lo i" "ontinuation of the above,mentioned mis"on"eption "on"ernin that sex is merely for havin *ids% bein % at the time of the menstruation% not ready to ive *ids% as +ell as penetration bein prohibited durin those days. @ut there are a lot of ri ht statements of Allah messen er "ontradi"tin these mis"on"eptions% +hi"h +ere mentioned earlier in "hapter .III !erforman"e of sexual inter"ourse in a "onservative +ay 5bein shy or "onservative +hile havin sex6= :his means that every one of the spouses has to en<oy sex only on a very narro+ s"ale% the relation bein happenin "onservatively +ith as fe+ as possible of bein un"overed or to expose ones private parts to the other% also +ith ne li ible or no tal*s mean+hile to "omplete the pi"ture of the "onservation "overin the relationship. :his is opposed by several 8urani" verses and propheti" sayin s mentioned latterly% to +hi"h +e add the follo+in statements of the prophets +ife Aisha= ,I used to bath +ith Allah messen er in the same pub% and I used to tell him= leave some +ater for me% and he used to say to me= you leave me some. A0espondin to a follo+ers question about the extent of the exposure bet+een spouses= ,I used to see his 5she means his enitals6 and he used to see mine AAns+erin a question about the +ay the !rophet +as follo+in % in order to ettin pure of <anabah 5after inter"ourse or ni ht emission6% Aisha% +ife of !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6 replied= ,He used to +ash his sex or an then to sho+er ;rom the above,mentioned statements% it is very "lear that the s"ope of exposure bet+een !rophet Muhammad 5+ho is the ideal of the Islami" behavior6 and his spouse5s6 +as unlimited% other+ise Aisha 5May Allah bless her soul6 +ould not tell su"h statements. ;emale "ir"um"ision= :he issue of female "ir"um"ision is summari$ed in the follo+in points= >. ;emale "ir"um"ision is a habit pra"ti"ed lon before Islam. Its map of distribution does not "oin"ide +ith the Islami" map% and in"ludes parts of 0ussia% some Asian 5in"ludin some Arab6 tribes% parts of South Ameri"a and the 9ile valley 5- ypt% Sudan and -thiopia6. ;emale "ir"um"ision is still bein pra"ti"ed by both 9on,Muslims and Muslims in these "ountries. Ho+ever% at present in - ypt and Sudan only Muslims pra"ti"e it% 5a minority in - ypt and more in Sudan6.

&. ;emale "ir"um"ision is not an Islami" requirement. -ven the propheti" sayin 5hadith6= M"ir"um"ision is sunnah 5obli atory6 for men and "harity 5 ood deeds6 for +omenM% +as "onsidered non authenti" by various sour"es. In another hadith 5+hi"h is also "onsidered a +ea* one% i.e. not hi hly authenti"6% the !rophet 5!@UH6 instru"ted 3mm Atiya% a +oman pra"titioner of "ir"um"ision% M:a*e the minimum% 3mm Atiya% and donCt ex"eed it% for this +ould be more pleasurable for the husband and prote"tive of "hastity by satisfyin the +ifeCs desireM 5narrated by Ibn Ma<<ah6. :his is ta*en to refer ex"lusively to the tribes of that time +ho +ould insist on the pro"edure. Hereby% I have a personal point of vie+/ this is that this event if it has really happened, ives a spa"e for the medi"ally,indi"ated ex"ision of a part of the "litoris in "ase the irl is havin a bi er "litoris than it has to be% +hi"h ma*es her vulnerable to "litoral inflammations and ul"erations% the "litoris bein thin s*inned and not "overed by the *eratin of +hi"h is "onstituted the outer layer of the re ular s*in% but if he had prohibited it absolutely% people havin medi"al indi"ation "ould have re retted see*in sur i"al "orre"tion% for the prophet had prohibited it fran*ly by name. Hen"e% Islam did not re"ommend or forbid female "ir"um"ision 5same stand in )hristianity and Eudaism= both *ne+ it6. ?. ;emale "ir"um"ision is not pra"ti"ed in Islami" "ountries other than - ypt and Sudan and possibly exists in fe+ others. #omen of Me""a% Medina 5+hose people are the mostly follo+in ones to propheti" sunnah6% 9a<d% the !ersion Gulf% Iran% 9orth Afri"a% :ur*ey% Iran% !a*istan% Syria% 7ebanon% !alestine% et" are not "ir"um"ised. :his is an established fa"t. (. ;emale "ir"um"ision does not diminish sexual desire% for this depends mainly on psy"ho,hormonal fa"tors. All "ir"um"ision does it to ma*e the +oman less able to et satisfa"tion by the re ular +ays of foreplay% and this is "ertainly a frequent "ause of marital disharmony and problems% despite the fa"t that "ir"um"ised +omen "ould et aroused very naturally on simple informin the husband of the spe"ial +ay he has to follo+ in order to turn his +ife on. :he ma<or fa"tor of "hastity before marria e and fidelity +ithin it remains to be the "ons"ien"e and proper Islami" upbrin in . :here is no eviden"e +hatsoever that the moral standards in Islami" "ountries +hi"h do not have "ir"um"ision are lo+er than in Islami" "ountries that have it. H. In vie+ of this% it seems that there is no Islami" basis of ma*in "ir"um"ision a requirement for +omenBMuslim "onverts or% for that matter% non,"onverts. Male "ir"um"ision is a different story. It is definitely a sunnah 5althou h not "ompulsory% fardh6 and it ta*es after the "ovenants of !rophet Ibrahim 5!rophet Abraham6. It is "learly meant for males only and s"riptural referan"e to it is the :orah% none in the 8uran% but of "ourse in the tea"hin of !rophet Muhammad 5!@UH6. :he :orah says% MAnd Abraham too* Ishmael% his son% and all that +ere born at his house% and all that +ere bou ht +ith his money% every male amon the men of AbrahamCs house and "ir"um"ised the flesh of their fores*in in the self,same day as God had said unto himM Genesis >G=&&% see also Genesis >G=>&. :he fa"t that )hristians 5unli*e Ee+s and Muslims6 "eased to "ir"um"ise their boys% +as not a de"ree of )hristianity pro"laimed by Eesus 5!UH6. It +as !aul +ho later exempted )hristians from "ir"um"ision and permitted them to eat pi Cs meat. :here +as no proof that Eesus +as not "ir"um"ised nor that he did eat pi Cs meat. )on"lusion= ;emale "ir"um"ision is not required by Islam. About the details of the issue of the advanta es of male "ir"um"ision% revise "hapter .. 2.I. )39)7UDI9G 0-MA0KS Sometimes% it is "laimed that reli ion is loveCs enemy. :he usual reasonin behind the "laim is based on a situation% +here a reli ion fails to distin uish

bet+een love and lust. :hus% the +i"*edness of lust is as"ribed to love% as +ell. :he alle ation is not true in the "ase of Islam. 1et% it "an be relevant to )hristianity. Islam does not treat sexual passion as +i"*ed in itself% not to spea* of "onsiderin its dire"t or indire"t asso"iation +ith love as somethin bad or undesirable. Deeply sin"ere and mutual love bet+een spouses is hi hly respe"ted in Islam% over and above/ it is a"tually hi hly requested% bein a stron reason of avoidan"e of sexually related sins su"h as forni"ation. Islami" tea"hin s "ommend reali$ation of love on a sound and lastin basis% these pre"onditions% +hi"h are automati"ally uaranteed on"e bein havin a reli ious "ons"ious. In the eneral "ontext of reli ion versus love% there is one point that is often overloo*ed. :his "on"erns the tenden"y for mutual opposition bet+een human intelle"t and love. Some moralists have +ron ly overloo*ed this in indis"riminately ex"ludin love from morality. :hey only re arded love as blind and "apable of overrulin the intelle"t. :hey believed that love is not amenable to reason% inferrin +ron ly that it is also least sus"eptible to "onventional and le al% or moral% dis"iplinin . In other +ords% they sa+ nothin but anar"hi" extremism love. A""ordin ly% reli ions or so"ial systems% +hi"h based their morality on intelle"tual "onsiderations alone% +ere not "ondu"ive to any salutary treatment of love. :hey treated love as somethin beyond the s"ope of any re"ommendation or advi"e. :his is not+ithstandin the fa"t that +hat is deservin of advi"e in matters of love "an +ell "on"ern oneCs modality of response to any "asual manifestation of love in extenuatin "ir"umstan"es over +hi"h% one is supposed to have no "ontrol. :his is in order to maximi$e the sublime and benefi"ial effe"ts of love% +hile remainin immune to its harmful "onsequen"es% if any. :hus% in short% it is a question of the relationship bet+een love and "hastity. 3ne may as* +hether or not love "an% in its most positive sense% flourish in any permissive so"ial environments. 3r% is it simply a question of +hether or not loveCs meanin fulness is invariably lin*ed +ith any so"ial preferen"e for "hastity% se"retin an underestimated status of +omen% +hi"h is built on a faulty ima inary ba"* round. #hat "on"erns us about love hereby is that it is eventually the spar*le of sex feelin % sex desire% sex pleasure% and sex a"tin % I dont mean here the enuine feelin s of love or the real love emotions% but love per,se% in the "ase of sexual leanin it is the mere love of feelin sexually aroused/ this ma i" snea*er +hi"h "reeps in the nerves rea"hin the brain% bein the main sex or an% the latter ivin the si nal of the startin over of the +hole thin to happen% every sin le step of +hi"h is full of <oy% rea"hin the so,"alled the pleasure of the pleasures +hi"h is the or asm. In his boo*= :he !leasures of !hilosophy% #ill Durant a"*no+led ed that love +as enerally a reed to be the most fas"inatin thin in the "ourse of human life. At the same time% he noted +ith surprise that very rarely attention +as fo"used on the ori in and ro+th of love% in the relevant multilin ual% poeti" and philosophi"al +or*s of most sensational poets and +riters on the sub<e"t of love. :hree distin"t s"hools of an"ient arid "ould be identified. Modern thou ht "on"ernin the ori in and purpose of love% so as to dedu"e its unique or t+o, sided intera"tion +ith the sexual instin"t. #e have noted that love% as "on"eived in the #est and the -ast both% is distin"t from lust. Also% it is universally re"o ni$ed as praise+orthy and respe"table% althou h the relevant "on"eptuali$ations differ% as already explained. #hat remains to be examined no+ is mainly the question of love in relation to "hastity% espe"ially in order to spe"ify the areas and "onditions in +hi"h they "an flourish. #ith re ard to love and "hastity% the relevant so"ial re ulations "an be either expli"it or impli"it in moral terms. #here these are expli"itly re ulated% +omen may be assi ned an elevated position in so"iety% so that they are ordinarily not approa"hable by men. In the other situation% +here love and "hastity are

impli"itly promoted/ but not re ulated% +omenCs position is sub<e"t to the utter tedium of pla"in themselves at the disposal and prote"tion of their men 5+hi"h is the situation in most of pla"es on earth no+adays6. 3ne may +onder as to +hi"h one of these t+o sets of "onditions are apt to enhan"e love and "hastity. ;urthermore% modesty in +omen mi ht be "apable of endearin them to men and a+a*enin mutual love% in anti"ipation of any subsequent "onsummation. :hus% men "ould be prompted to enhan"e their "apabilities and resolution to+ards si nifi"ant a"hievements% by dra+in on their other+ise dormant life, oriented ener ies. At the same time% #ill Durant mentioned the fa"t that modern youn +omen +ould seem to be only too +illin to dis"ard "onventional morality% as if it +ere some old "lothes that +ent out of fashion. He observed that these +omen "ould be auda"ious not only in displayin themselves% but in their sartorial tastes. )onsequently% diminished mas"uline ima inability "on"ernin female appeal +as spe"ified by him to be the only adverse effe"t of the radi"al "han e in the +omenCs outloo* and behavior. He opined that% had it not been for menCs residual ima inability% perhaps there +ould have remained no visuali$ation of female beauty. As for @ertrand 0ussellCs romanti" love% +e may quote his o+n +ords as follo+s= M:he essential of romanti" love is that it re ards the beloved ob<e"t as very diffi"ult to possess and as very pre"ious. ... :he belief in the immense value of the lady is a psy"holo i"al effe"t of the diffi"ulty of obtainin her% and I thin* it may be laid do+n that +hen a man has no diffi"ulty in obtainin a +oman% his feelin to+ards her does not ta*e the form of romanti" love.M :hen% @ertrand 0ussell says= M;rom the point of vie+ of the arts% it is "ertainly re rettable +hen +omen are too a""essible/ +hat is most to be desired is that they should be diffi"ult but not impossible of a""ess. ... In a state of "omplete freedom% on the other hand% a man "apable of reat love poetry is li*ely to have so mu"h su""ess throu h his "harm that he +ill seldom have need of his best ima inative efforts in order to a"hieve a "onquest.M ;urthermore% he mentions in another "ontext as follo+s= MAmon modern eman"ipated people% love in the serious sense +ith +hi"h +e are "on"erned is sufferin a ne+ dan er. #hen people no lon er feel any moral barrier a ainst sexual inter"ourse on every o""asion +hen even a trivial impulse in"lines to it% they et into the habit of disso"iatin sex from serious emotion and from feelin s of affe"tion/ they may even "ome to asso"iate it +ith feelin s of hatred.M So +e "an see the reat mat"hin bet+een literal% philosophi"al and artisti" vie+in s of the matter of male,female relationship on one side% and the Islami" reli ious vie+in on the other side% espe"ially the theory of bein diffi"ult but possibly available +hi"h translates exa"tly the forbiddin of sex but inside the marital relationship. Islam treats questions "on"ernin sexual behavior on the same ethi"al basis as is "ommonly re"o ni$ed today in the re ulation of politi"al and e"onomi" a"tivities. ;or% individuals are prone to ma*in enuine and +illful mista*es in orderin their sexual lives on the basis of their o+n moral <ud ment. :hey may% throu h mis"on"eption% or +antonly% i nore the need for maintainin a demo"rati" "on"ern for morality% in "opin +ith their individual problems% arisin in "ir"umstan"es eviden"in la"* of any personal restraint and overall "haos. In prin"iple% any so"ietal re ulation of politi"al and e"onomi" a"tivities ou ht to re"o ni$e the relevant human instin"ts and tenden"ies. ;or% the a ression instin"t and tenden"y to dominate others "an be instrumental in politi"s. -"onomi" a"tivities may be prompted by a desire to a""umulate +ealth. 7i*e+ise% sexual aptitude "an lead to indul en"e in lustful a"tivities. Ho+ever% it is not *no+n +hy the supporters of the proposed ne+ sexual freedom deem a laisse$ faire poli"yfit for sexual affairs only% +hile they seemin ly a""ept the "ontrollability of politi"al and e"onomi" a"tivities. 3ne of the important aspe"ts of sexual ethi"s "on"erns the emotion of love.

Sin"e the an"ient times% the essen"e of love has been iven spe"ial attention in philosophy. Ibn Sina 5in the Islami" millenium6 brou ht out a treatise on love. Human love has been "ommonly a"*no+led ed as a +holesome reality% in terms of its all embra"in and sublime nature. In literature% spe"ially the poeti"% love has not only been eulo i$ed% +ith a sense of pride 5to the extent of pro"laimin the superiority of the heart over the mind6% but "ontrasted +ith lustCs debasin ly animal,li*e nature. Mostly in our literature +e find that love has been extolled not only in terms of its Divine "onnotation% but also in its do+n,to,earth human emotional "ontext. In either "ase% there has been no "onfusion of love +ith any *ind of lust. In "ontrast% there have been others% +ho "hose to equate love +ith a sort of libido% or any persistent metaboli" intensity of the sexual instin"t. -vidently% they tended to assume that love is rather in"apable of sublimation even in Divine terms. :hey treat love as if it has neither any spiritual ori in% nor it is 5or ou ht to be6 humane in quality% nor it "an be humanitarian in purpose. :hose +ho treat love as both Divine and human differentiate bet+een the animal,li*e manifestation and the humane a""omplishment of love. :he others ma*e no su"h distin"tion% so that love and lust be"ome synonymous. A very evident example of this situation is the "ase of one of my patients% +ho +as in reat love +ith his fian"e% despite her bein extremely rude to him and to his parents and family% so he used to ta*e her side in +hatever "ondition requirin a <ud ment% +hile he +as seein very "learly her bein +ron % moreover% he used to be insulted and humiliated repeatedly from the part of her and her family% but% and be"ause at that time he had not yet otten her sexually% he used to approve everythin re ardin her adopted 5and her familys6 point of vie+% irrespe"tive +hether or not this +ould mat"h the ri hteousness. After+ards% after marria e% in other +ords after havin had her sexually% thin s "han ed mar*edly% as if the +hole pi"ture +as mas*ed before% and it be"ame dis"losed% even his per"eption for the ri ht and the +ron be"ame differentJJ :oday% a third "ate ory of thin*ers has be"ome evident. :hey believe that all *inds of love are sexually prompted% but radually the "arnal motivation assumes a spiritual or "ontemplative aspe"t under spe"ifi" "onditions. :o them% love is primarily sexual% +ith only o""asional platoni" manifestations. Ho+ever% this dual or t+o,fold quality of love is affirmed by them only in terms of its expression% ob<e"tive and effe"ts. :here is no duality in so far as the ori in and "ausation of love are "on"erned. #ith re ard to the last "ate ory of thin*ers mentioned above% it is not a matter of surprise that they believe in a material basis of human spirituality :hey see no extreme diffi"ulty in the mutual transformation of the material and spiritual aspe"ts of human behavior. In fa"t% one of them "laims that every spiritual affair has a natural basis and every natural thin has a spiritual extension. @e that as it may% +e need not dis"uss the above in any reat psy"holo i"al and philosophi"al depth. #e "an thus avoid oin into the pros and "ons of the many an"ient and "urrent interpretations of any basis of love. ;or the time bein % it should be enou h to su est that love% in effe"t% "an brin about "reativity of the human intelle"t and spirit% as +ell as indu"e artisti" and "ultural refinements of so"iolo i"al importan"e. :he above su estion is valid% irrespe"tive of +hether or not love ori inates in the sexual instin"t% and then be"omes "apable of expressin itself in physi"al and also spiritual terms% in an inter"han eable manner. Any sublime effe"t of love is far different from its alle ed instin"tiveness% or simple animal,li*e "on"upis"en"e% +hi"h see*s no more than its physiolo i"al ratifi"ation. In short% in love% as in several other matters% #esterners and -asterners differ in their intelle"tual approa"hes. A typi"al #esterner is often unable to nurture love +ithin any abstra"t frame+or* that oes beyond any me"hani"al pro"ess of "opin +ith problems of routine livin . -ventually% he "omes round to distin uishin love from lust% and also to believin in empathy and spiritual

harmony% +hi"h it is "apable of breedin . 3ther+ise% love "omes to him as a handy natural talent% leadin to marria e or "ohabitation% a""ordin to the so"ial requirements of livin . 3n the other hand% a typi"al -asterner see*s to "herish love beyond the requirements of routine livin . Had love been sexual in ori in% quality and effe"t% probably it +ould not have ne"essitated separate treatment in sexual ethi"s. #hatever +as dis"ussed earlier "on"ernin the pros and "ons of sexual ethi"s +ould have been rather suffi"ient. Ho+ever% loveCs ori in or% at any rate% its psy"holo i"al quality and so"ial effe"ts "an be quite safely "onstrued as independent of the sexual instin"t. A""ordin ly% morals "on"ernin nurturin of human in"lination to love "an be treated in a manner distin uishable from that of the sexual instin"t. Gratifyin the sexual instin"t is not the only "on"omitant of love. ;or% sexual ratifi"ation is not enou h to sustain love% +hi"h needs also psy"holo i"al "ontentment. Moreover% any denial of love "an possibly lead to affli"tions% +hi"h "annot be remedied by any animal, li*e ratifi"ation of the sexual instin"t% assumin that the former is derived from the latter. @ertrand 0ussell endorses the need for profound love as follo+s= :hose +ho have never *no+n the deep intima"y and the intense "ompanionship of happy mutual love have missed the best thin that life has to ive/ un"ons"iously% if not "ons"iously% they feel this and the resultin disappointment in"lines them to+ards envy% oppression and "ruelty. :o end over% here are some points to be +ell a"*no+led ed% +ell referred to% in order to re"o ni$e very "learly the stan"e of Islam to+ards sex= It a"*no+led es mans innate ur es and natural instin"ts. It has also laid do+n so"ial% psy"holo i"al and le al rules to "ontrol the sexual instin"ts. It emphasi$ed on adherin to "hastity and sublimation. It has laid do+n pra"ti"al rules before the t+o enders 5male,female6 to prote"t "ommunity from the "la+s of moral dissolution. It "alls to Muslims to be "autious% a+are and alert to the plans and "onspira"ies of enemies a ainst Islam. It silen"es the ton ue of those +ho a""use it of sexual suppression +ith persuasive proofs. 3ne should re"o ni$e these immutable fa"ts in order to de"lare that Islam is the reli ion of realism in balan"e +ith human nature. :here is neither honor for Muslims nor stability for human *ind save by follo+in the tea"hin s and prin"iples of Islam% sin"e it li htens life for the +orld. Almi hty de"lares= there has "ome to you from Allah a 5ne+6 li ht and a perspi"uous @oo*. #here +ith Allah uides all +ho see* his ood pleasure to +ays of pie"e and safety% and leads them out of dar*ness% by His #ill% unto the li ht% uides them to a path that is strai ht 5H=>H%>L6 #e "on"lude +ith/ All praises be to Allah the 7ord of the Universe.

0-;-0-9)-S Holy 8uran.

Holy @ible

Holy :orah

Af$alur 0ahman% 8urani" S"ien"es% 7ondon >KF>% p. &FL Iabidi%

A ar+al SS% Seh al A% Sardana S% Kumar A% 7uthra UK. 0ole of male behaviour in "ervi"al "ar"ino enesis amon +omen +ith one lifetime sexual partner. )an"er >KK?/ G&= >LLL,>LLK Al,Gha$$ali% IhyaC Ulum al,Din% Al Matba al,A$hariyya al,Misriyya 5)airo% >?'& A.H.6 Al,8urCan% -n . :rans. 1usuf Ali% 8atar ed.% &?=>&,>(. Ibn,Abidin% Al,Hadiyyah al,Calaiyyah% ?rd edition 5Damas"us% >KLH6. Ameri"an A"ademy of !ediatri"s. :as* ;or"e on )ir"um"ision. 0eport of the :as* ;or"e on )ir"um"ision. !ediatri"s >KFK/ F(= ?FF,K> Ameri"an A"ademy of !ediatri"s )ommittee on @ioethi"s. Informed "onsent% parental permission% and assent in pediatri" pra"ti"e.!ediatri"s >KKH/ KH 5H pt >6= ?>(,?>G Ameri"an ;amily Asso"iation 3ut0ea"h% >KKG Annual 0eport of )hildrenCs Defense ;und. 9orthside :opi"s. Eanuary% >KFF Anthony ;lint% S*in :rade Spreadin A"ross U.S.% @oston Sunday Globe% De". >% >KKL% et a>. Apt A. )ir"um"ision and prostati" "an"er. A"ta Med S"and >KLH/ >GF= (K?,H'( Australian )olle e of !aediatri"s. !oli"y statement on neonatal male "ir"um"ision . >KKH Aynaud 3% Iones"o M% @arrasso 0. !enile intraepithelial neoplasia , spe"ifi" "lini"al features "orrelate +ith histolo i" and virolo i" findin s. )an"er >KK(/ G(= >GL&,>GLG @ad er E. )ir"um"ision. #hat you thin*. Australian ;orum >KFK/ & 5>>6= >',&K @ad er E. :he reat "ir"um"ision report part &.Australian ;orum >KFK/ & 5>&6= (,>? @arrasso 0% De @rux E% )roissant 3% 3rth G. Hi h prevalen"e of papillomavirus asso"iated penile intraepithelial neoplasia in sexual partners of +omen +ith "ervi"al intraepithelial neoplasia.9 -n l E Med >KFG/ ?>G= K>L,K&? @on aarts E% !einin !% #ay !% )onont ;. :he relationship bet+een male "ir"um"ision and HI. infe"tion in Afri"an populations.AIDS >KFK/ ?= ?G?,?GG @rinton 7A% 7i E1% 0un SD% Huan S% 2iao @S% Shi @G% Ihu IE% S"hiffman MH% Da+say S. 0is* fa"tors for penile "an"er= results from a "ase,"ontrol study in )hina. Int E )an"er >KK>/ (G= H'(,H'K )ald+ell E)% )ald+ell !. :he Afri"an AIDS epidemi".S"i Am >KKL/ &G(= (',(L )ameron @-% Simonsen E9% DC)osta 7E% 0onald A0% Maitha GM% Ga*inya M9% )hean M% 9dinya,A"hola E3% !iot !% @runham 0)% !lummer ;A. ;emale to male transmission of human immunodefi"ien"y virus type >= ris* fa"tors for sero"onversion in men. 7an"et >KFK/ ii= ('?,('G

M)hildren Havin

)hildren.M :ime Ma a$ine.

De"ember K% >KFH

)uffan% E. 0eport of )enter for Disease )ontrol. Indianapolis Star/ Eune >(% >KFF. )oo* 7S% Kovts*y 7A% Holmes KK.)ir"um"ision and sexually transmitted diseases. Am E !ubl Health >KK(/ F(= >KG,&'> )ox G. De vir inibus !uerisque = :he fun"tion of the human fores*in "onsidered from an evolutionary perspe"tive.Med Hypoth >KKH/ (H= L>G,L&> )rai E)% Kni ht E;% Suresh*umar !% Mant$ -% 0oy 7! . -ffe"t of "ir"um"ision on in"iden"e of urinary tra"t infe"tion in pres"hool boys. E !ediatr >KKL/ >&F= &?,&G Da her 0% Sel$er M7% 7apides E. )ar"inoma of the penis and the anti,"ir"um"ision "rusade. E Urol >KG?/ >>'= GK,F' Dahr GM% Sah G9% 9ahees @% Hafi$a. -pidemiolo i"al trend in the distribution of "an"er in Kashmir .alley. E -pidemiol )omm Hlth >KK?/ (G= &K',&K& De .in"en$i I% Mertens :. Male "ir"um"ision a role in HI. prevention4 5editorial6 AIDS >KK(/ F= >H?,>L' Diallo M3% A"*ah A9% 7afontaine M;% Doorly 0% 0oux 0% Kan a EM% Heroin !% De )o"* KM. HI.,> and HI.,& infe"tions in men attendin sexually transmitted disease "lini"s in Abid<an% )ote dCIvoire . AIDS >KK&/ L= HF>,HFH Dod e 3G% 7insell )A. )ar"inoma of the penis in U anda and Kenya Afri"ans. )an"er >KL?/ >F= >&HH,>&L? Donovan @% @asset I% @ods+orth 9E. Male "ir"um"ision and "ommon sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation settin .Genitourin Med >KK(/ G'= ?>G,?&' Dra"ula of Hormones. -lam% A. and .. G. 0ay. MSexually 0elated :rauma= A 0evie+.M Annals of -mer en"y Medi"ine% May% >KFL% vol. >H=H% pp. HGL,HF(. -n"y"lopedia family health= development% female reprodu"tive or ans% male reprodu"tive or ans. -t"hells -% Sharpe G% #alsh !. )onsent for "ir"um"ision.)an Med Asso" E >KKG/ >HL= >HF ;a*<ian 9% Hunter S% )ole G#% et al . An ar ument for "ir"um"ision. !revention of balanitis in the adult. Ar"h Dermatol >KK'/ >&L= >'(L,>'(G ;etus and 9e+born )ommittee% )anadian !aediatri" So"iety. 9eonatal "ir"um"ision revisited. )an Med Ass E >KKL/ >H(= GLK,GF' ;in* AE. 9e+born "ir"um"ision= a lon ,term strate y for AIDS prevention . E 0oy So" Med >KK'/ F?= LG? ;rom= an Affair of the Mind by 7aurie Hall. ;ussell -9% Kaa* @M% )herry 0% et al . Adheren"e of ba"teria to human fores*in. E Urol >KFF/ >('= KKG,>''> Galala*shmi )K% Shanta .. Asso"iation bet+een "ervi"al and penile "an"ers in Madras% India. A"ta 3n"ol >KK?/ ?&= L>G,L&' Gee #;% Ansell ES. 9eonatal "ir"um"ision= A ten,year overvie+% 9e+s+ee* Ma a$ine. 9ovember &H% >KFH.

+ith "omparison of the Gom"o "lamp and the !lastibell devi"e.!ediatri"s >KGL/ HF= F&(,F&G Ginsbur )M% M")ra"*en GH. Urinary tra"t infe"tions in youn "hildren. !ediatri"s >KF&/ LK= ('K,(>& Glennon E% 0yan !I% Keane ):% 0ees E!0. )ir"um"ision and periurethral "arria e of !roteus mirabilis in boys. Ar"h Dis )hild >KFF/ L?= HHL,HHG Gordon% S. and >. 0. Di"*man. MSex -du"ation,My !arentCs 0ole !ubli" Affairs !amphlet 9o. H(K. !ublished by !ubli" Affairs )ommittee% ? F> !ar* Ave. South% 9e+ 1or*% 91 >''=>,L. Gupte% !.% :he )ro+ded -arth% !eople and !oliti"s of !opulation 59e+ 1or*= #.#. 9orton and )o.% >KF(6% p. ?(K. Haq% A.E.% CAn Intervie+ +ith Grand Mufti of - ypt%C !opuli II=&% >KF(. Harturian 9S% Smart )9% :hompson MS. :he in"iden"e and e"onomi" "osts of "an"er% motor vehi"le in<uries% "oronary heart disease and stro*e= a "omparative analysis. Am E !ubli" Health >KF'/ G'= >&(K,>&L' Hassan% I.% M!opulation !lannin %M :he 9e+s% 9ov. >H% >KK&. Hat"her% Adams E. MSolvin :eena e !re nan"y.M Medi"al Aspe"ts of Human Sexuality. Mar"h% >KF'% pp. >',&?. Her$o 7#. Urinary tra"t infe"tions and "ir"um"ision= a "ase,"ontrol study. Am E Dis )hild >KFK/ >(?= ?(F,?H' Her$o 7#% Alvare$ S0. :he frequen"y of fores*in problems in un"ir"um"ised "hildren. Am E Dis )hild >KFL/ >('= &H(,&HL Hunter DE. AIDS in sub,Saharan Af ri"a= the epidemiolo y of heterosexual transmission and the prospe"ts of prevention 50evie+6. -pidemiolo y >KK?/ (= L?,G& Ibn Eu$ayyah% Kitab al,qa+anin al,;iqhiyyah% 5;e$= Mataba al 9ahda% >KH?6. Ibn al,8uyem al,Ea+$iyah% al,:ibb al,9aba+i Ibn Ha$m% Al,Muhalla%% >> vols. in F% )airo% >?H& A.H. Ibn 8ayyim% @adaCi al,;a+aCid% ( vols.% @eirut= Dar,Al,Kitab al Arabi. Ibn :aymiyah% Al,;ata+a al,Kubra% H vols. 5)airo= Dar al,Kutb al,Haditha% >KLL6. InterG3. International% the United 9ations of the Internet% founded by !eter Hampton. Isa"sohn M% Dolber 7% Saba S7% Mitrani,0osenbaum S% 9ubani 9% Diamant 1I% Goldsmidt 0. :he inter,relationship of herpes virus% papilloma >LB>F virus infe"tion and !ap smear patholo y in Israeli +omen. Israel E Med S"i >KK(/ ?'= ?F?,?FG Ithaf al,Sada al Muttaqin% . ?G& !salm li.H. al,@i<a=-n"y"lopedia @ritanni"a% vol &L% Ma"ropaedia G'>,G'? Eessamine !G% !lummer ;A% 9dinya A"hola E3% #ainber MA% #amolo I% DC)osta E7% )ameron D#% Simonsen E9% !louroe !% 0onald A0. Human immunodefi"ien"y virus% enital ul"ers and the male fors*in= syner ism in HI.,> transmission. S"and E Infe"t Dis >KK' 5suppl LK6= >F>,>FL Kallenius G% Moillby 0% Svenson S@% Helin I% Hultber H% )eder ren @% #inber E. 3""urren"e of !,fimbriated -s"heri"hia "oli in urinary

tra"t infe"tions. 7an"et >KF>/ ii= >?LK,>?G& Kallenius G% Svenson S% Mollby 0% et al . Stru"ture of "arbohydrate part of re"eptor on human uroepithelial "ells for pyelonephrito eni" -s"heri"hia "oli. 7an"et >KF>/ ii= L'(,L'L Katelaris !M% )ossart 1-% 0ose @0% :hompson )H% Sori"h -% 9i htin ale @% Dallas !@% Morris @E. Human papillomavirus= the untreated male reservoir. E Urol >KFF/ >('= ?'',?'H Kirby !K% Munyao :% Kreiss E% Holmes KK. :he "hallen e of limitin the spread of human immunodefi"ien"y virus by "ontrollin other S:Ds. Ar"h Dermatol >KK>/ >&G= &?G,&(& Ko"hen M% M")urdy S. )ir"um"ision and ris* of "an"er of the penis. A life,table analysis. Am E Dis )hild >KF'/ >?(= (F(,(FL Kreiss EK% Hop*ins SG. :he asso"iation bet+een "ir"um"ision status and human immunodefi"ien"y virus infe"tion amon homosexual men. E Infe"t Dis >KK?/ >LF= >('(,>('F Kunanusont )% ;oy HM% Kreiss EK% 0er*y,9 aram S% !hanupha* !% 0a*tham S% !au )!% 1oun 97. HI.,> subtypes and male,to,female transmission in :hailand. 7an"et >KKH/ ?( H= >'GF,>'F? 7afferty !M% Ma"Gre or ;@% S"obie #G. Mana ement of fores*in problems. Ar"h Dis )hildhood >KK>/ LL= LKL,LKG 7aumann -3% Maal )M% Iu"*erman -#. )ir"um"ision in the United States. !revalen"e% prophya"ti" effe"ts% and sexual pra"ti"e.E Am Med Asso" >KKG/ &GG= >'H&,>'HG 7a+ler ;H% @isonni 0S% Holt rave D0. )ir"um"ision= a "ost de"ision analysis of its medi"al value. ;am Med >KK>/ &?= HFG,HK? 7ohr EA. :he fores*in and urinary tra"t infe"tions.E !ediatr >KFK/ >>(= H'&,H'( Maden )% Sherman KE% @e"*mann AM% Huslop :K% Heh 3I% Ashley 07% Dalin E0. History of "ir"um"ision% medi"al "onditions% and sexual a"tivity and ris* of penile "an"er. E 9at )an" Inst >KK?/ FH= >K,&( Marvin% S. MHo+ Adults )ould Have Helped Me.M !arade Ma a$ine% 5Supplement to Indianapolis Star6 Au ust &>% >KFF% pp. (,G. Marx E7. )ir"um"ision may prote"t a ainst the AIDS virus. S"ien"e >KFK/ &(H= (G',(G> Mast% ). K. Sex 0espe"t= :he 3ption of :rue Sexual ;reedom. @radley% >>= 0espe"t In".% >KFL% p. (>. Mast% ). K. MHo+ to Say 9o to Sex.M Medi"al Aspe"ts of Human Sexuality. September% >KFF% pp. &L,?&. M")an"e DE% Kala"he A% Ashdo+n K% et al. Human papillomavirus types >L and >F in "ar"inoma of the penis from @ra$il.E )an"er >KFL/ ?G= HH,HK M"Intosh 9. !ain in the ne+born% a possible ne+ startin point. -ur E !ediatr >KKG/ >HL= >G?,>GG Medi"are -stimates and Statisti"s Se"tion% Australia% ;eb >KK( Melvin An"hell% :he 9e+ Ameri"an% May >>%>KFG Moses S% @radley E-% 9a el*er*e 9E% 0onald A0% 9dinya A"hola E3% !lummer ;A. Geo raphi"al patterns of male "ir"um"ision pra"ti"es in Afri"a= asso"iation +ith HI. seroprevalan"e. Int E -pidemiol >KK'/ >K= LK?,LKG. Moses S% !lummer ;A% @radley E;% 9dinya,A"hola E3% 9a el*er*e 9E% 0onald A0. :he asso"iation bet+een la"* of male "ir"um"ision and ris* for

HI. infe"tion= a revie+ of the epidemiolo i"al data. Sexually :ransm Dis >KK(/ &>= &'>,&'K Musallam% @.;.% Sex and So"iety in Islam 5)ambrid e University !ress% >KF?6 p. >GL. Muslim% @u*hari. )olle"tion of Hadith. 9ational )enter for Health Statisti"s of the Department of Health and Human Servi"es. >KK>,>KK( 9ational )enter for ;atherin 9elson% ). A. A )an"er Eournal ;or )lini"ians. Ameri"an )an"er So"iety. 9ovember,De"ember% >KF( 9e+ South #ales )an"er )oun"il. )an"er in 9e+ South #ales. In"iden"e and Mortality >KK?. 9i*u SD% sto"* EA% Kaplan G#. 9eonatal "ir"um"ision 5revie+6. Urol )lin 9 Am >KKH/ &&= HG,LH 9otes :aha Ghayyur% >K% +ho is 9ational )oordinator of 1oun Muslims )anada. 3h<imi H% 3 ata K% 3h<imi :. A ne+ method for the relief of adult phimosis. E Urol >KKH/ >H?= >L'G,>L'K 3sborne E-= HI.= :he more thin s "han e% the more they stay the same. 9ature Med >KKH/ >= KK>,KK? 3ster E. ;urther fate of the fores*in= in"iden"e of preputial adhesions% phimosis and sme ma amon Danish s"hoolboys.Ar"h Dis )hild >KLF/ (?= &'',&'? !ar*er S#% Ste+art AE% #ren M9% et al . )ir"um"ision and sexually transmissible diseases. Med E Aust >KF?/ &= &FF,&K' !epin E% 8ui by M% :odd E% Ga e I% Eenneh M% .an Dy"* -% 0ot !% #hittle H. Asso"iation bet+een HI.,& infe"tion and enital ul"er disease amon male sexually transmitted disease patients in :he Gambia.AIDS >KK&/ L= (FK,(K? !eters KM% Kass -E. -le"trosur ery for routine pediatri" penile pro"edures. E Urol >KKG/ >HG= >(H?,>(HH. !laut A% Kohn,Speyer A). :he "ar"ino eni" a"tion of sme ma. S"ien"e >K(G/ >'H= ?K>,?K&. !3093G0A!H1= resear"h%advan"es% and poli"y !orno raphy .i"tims )ompensation A"t of >KK&% U.S. Senate )omm. on the Eudi"iary. !romise Keepers +ebsite,USA :oday% K,H,KG D U!I 9e+s% 9ovember >K% >KKG !rual A% )ha"*o S% Ko"h,#eser D. Sexual behaviour% AIDS and poverty in Sub,Saharan Afri"a. Int E S:D AIDS >KK>/ &= >,K 8utb% Muhammad. Islam% the Misunderstood 0eli ion 0amet E% @enatar A% Diltoer M% Spapen H% Huy hens 7. 9eonatal "ir"um"ision. 7an"et >KKG/ ?(K= >&HG 0eddy DG% @aruah IK. )ar"ino eni" a"tion of human sme ma. Ar"h !athol >KL?/ GH= (>( 0eport 3n Sex -du"ation. :ime Ma a$ine. 9ovember. &(% >KFL.

0eport on :eens= Sex Attitude Survey by -i ht 9ational -van eli"al

)hur"hs. Indianapolis Star. ;ebruary &% >KFF. 0i"hard% D. M:eena e !re nan"y and Sex -du"ation in the S"hools= #hat #or*s And #hat Does 9ot #or*%M San Antonio !re nan"y )enter% >KFL% p. L. 0oberts EA. Does "ir"um"ision prevent urinary tra"t infe"tions4 E Urol >KFL/ >?H= KK>,KK& 0ushton HG% Ma<d M. !yelonephritis in male infants= ho+ important is the fores*in4 E Urol >KK&/ >(F= G??,G?L 0ussell :. :he "ase for "ir"um"ision. Med 3bserver >KK? 5> 3"t issue6 Sahih Muslim. - yptian edition by Dar -l Ketab -l Islami% >KLL. S"hofield% M. !romis"uity. !ublishers .i"tor Gollall"$ 7imited% 7ondon% >KGL. Sandeman :;. )ar"inoma of the penis. Australasian 0adiol >KK'/?(=>&,>L S"hlosber er 9M% :urner 0A% Ir+in )- Er. -arly adoles"ent *no+led e and attitudes about "ir"um"ision= methods and impli"ations for resear"h. E Adoles"ent Hlth >KK&/ >?= &K?,&KG S"hoen -E. :he status of "ir"um"ision of ne+borns.9 -n l E Med >KK'/ ??&= >?'F,>?>&. S"hoen -E. )ir"um"ision updatedimpli"ated4!ediatri"s >KK?/ K&= FL',> S"h+ar$ GS. Infibulation% population "ontrol% and the medi"al profession. @ull 91 A"ad Med >KG'/ (L= KL(,KF'. Simonsen E9M% )ameron D#% Ga*inya M9% 9dinya,A"hola E3% DC)osta 7E% Karasira !. HI. infe"tion amon men +ith S:Ds. 9 -n l E Med >KFF/ ?>K= &G(,&GF. Smith G7% Greenup 0% :a*afu<i -:. )ir"um"ision as a ris* fa"tor for urethritis in ra"ial roups. Am E !ubl Health >KFG/ GG= (H&,(H( Spa"h DH% Stapleton A-% Stamm #-. 7a"* of "ir"um"ision in"reases the ris* of urinary tra"t infe"tions in youn men. E Am Med Asso" >KK&/ &LG=&LK Stroud. MStop !orno raphi" 0o"*.M 9e+s+ee* Ma a$ine. May L. >KFH. :ime Ma a$ine. ;ebruary (% >KFH% p. FH. :abarani% Ha*im. Af$alur 0ahman% 8urani" S"ien"es% 7ondon >KF>% p.&FH .i"tor )line% !h.D.% Department of !sy"holo y% University of Utah >KFF% !orno raphy -ffe"ts= -mpiri"al and )lini"al -viden"e% p . &( #.7. Marshall% !h.D.% !orno raphy and Sexual 3ffenders #ensin"*% A.E.% Hand @oo* of -arly Muhammadan :radition 57eiden= -.E. @rill% >KL'6% p. >>&. #hat Kids 9eed to Kno+%M !sy"holo y :oday% 3"tober >KFL. Dr. Sol Gordon% !rofessor -meritus% Syra"useUniversity% and an expert on sex edu"ation. M#hatCs Gone #ron #ith :een Sex4M !eople Ma a$ine. April >?% >KFG. #illiams% 0. H. M-ffe"ts of Melatonins in Humans.M :extboo* of -ndo"rinolo y% Lth -d.% p. L&F. +++.islami",paths.or . +++.themodernreli ion."om. Iami"ho+% 9. :eena e Sex. 7adies Home Eournal/ 3"tober >KFL% pp. >?F,>(>