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Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants

Articulatory Phonetics
Linguistics 201

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Phonetics

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy

Phonetics is the study of speech. Articulatory phonetics studies the ways in which speech sounds are produced: it is a branch of physiology. Acoustic phonetics studies the physical characteristics of the sound produced, and its perceptual correlates. We start with articulatory phonetics.

The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants


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Larynx

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Vocal Folds and Glottis

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Vocal Tract

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants
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The IPA
The International Phonetic Association, founded in Paris in 1886 by a group of language teachers led by Paul Passy, developed an alphabet to be used in faithfully recording speech sounds. Many of the symbols used in the alphabet came from an English-specic phonetic alphabet that Henry Sweet (pictured) had devised to represent English speech.

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants
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Guiding Principles

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants
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1. Each sign should have its own distinctive sound 2. The same sign should be used for the same sound across all languages 3. As many ordinary roman letters should be used as possible, and the usage of new letters should be minimal

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Transcription

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy

Many symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are the same symbols used in our orthography. These arent the same thing! When a symbol is from the IPA, it is enclosed in square brackets: [ ] Each IPA symbol corresponds to a phone: a single speech sound. When speech is represented in the IPA, we say that we are forming a phonetic transcription.

The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants


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Parameters for describing consonants

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy

Manner of articulation: how the gesture in the oral tract occurs Place of articulation: where in the oral tract the gesture takes place Nasality: whether or not the velum is lowered allowing vibrating air into the nasal cavity Voicing: whether or not the vocal folds are vibrating

The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants


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Stops

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

The manner of articulation stop refers to phones made by creating a complete blockage of the oral tract.

Consonants
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Bilabial Stops

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[p] [b] [m]

bilabial, voiceless, non-nasal: bilabial, voiced, non-nasal: bilabial, voiced, nasal:

spam ban man

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Alveolar Stops

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[t] [d] [n]

alveolar, voiceless, non-nasal: alveolar, voiced, non-nasal: alveolar, voiced, nasal:

stand Dan tan

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Velar Stops

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants
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[k] [g] [N]

velar, voiceless, non-nasal: velar, voiced, non-nasal: velar, voiced, nasal:

scan get sing

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Glottal Stop

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[P]

glottal, voiceless, non-nasal:

uh- oh

Consonants
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Fricatives

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The manner of articulation fricative refers to phones made by creating a radical narrowing in the oral tract. Through that radical narrow, a turbulence in the air-ow is created that makes a characteristic hissing sound.

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Bilabial Fricatives

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[F] [B]

bilabial, voiceless, non-nasal: bilabial, voiced, non-nasal:

Fuji (in Japanese) deber (in Spanish)

Consonants
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Labio-dental Fricatives

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[f] [v]

labiodental, voiceless, non-nasal: labiodental, voiced, non-nasal:

fix vex

Consonants
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Dental Fricatives

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[T] [D]

dental, voiceless, non-nasal: dental, voiced, non-nasal:

thigh the

Consonants
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Alveolar Fricatives

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[s] [z]

alveolar, voiceless, non-nasal: alveolar, voiced, non-nasal:

sit zit

Consonants
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Alveo-palatal Fricatives

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[S] [Z]

postalveolar, voiceless, non-nasal: postalveolar, voiced, non-nasal:

mission vision

Consonants
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Velar Fricatives

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[x] [G]

velar, voiceless, non-nasal: velar, voiced, non-nasal:

Bach (in German) gaan (in Dutch)

Consonants
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Glottal Fricative

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[h]

glottal, voiceless, non-nasal, fricative:

heap

Consonants
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Aricates

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

The manner of articulation aricate arises in phones that combine a stop gesture followed by a fricative.

Consonants
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Alveo-Palatal Aricates

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[] []

alveo-palatal, voiceless, non-nasal: alveo-palatal, voiced, non-nasal:

chime jive

Consonants
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Approximants

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

The manner of articulation Approximant refers to speech sounds that involve a less radical narrowing in the oral tract than is found with fricatives, but greater than is found with vowels.

Consonants
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Palatal Approximant

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[j]

palatal, voiced, non-nasal:

yes

Consonants
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Labial Approximants

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[w] labio-velar, voiced, non-nasal: [] labio-velar, voiceless, non-nasal:

wad when

Consonants
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Lateral Approximant

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[l]

alveolar, voiced, lateral, non-nasal

lad

Consonants
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Retroex Approximant

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[]

alveolar, voiced, retroex, non-nasal

rad

Consonants
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Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

material/xraypage.webarchive

Consonants
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Articulation of Vowels

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

Tongue position: hi, mid, low, back, center, front Tense versus Lax Rounding of lips

Consonants
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Front Lax

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants
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[I] [E] []

high, front, unrounded: mid, front, unrounded: low, front, unrounded:

rid red rad

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Central Lax

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants
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[1] [@] [2]

high, central, unrounded: mid, central, unrounded: low, central, unrounded:

roses Rosas cut

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Back Lax

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants
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[U] [O]

high, back, rounded: mid, back, rounded:

put caught, if dierent from cot

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Front Tense

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy

[i] [y] [e] []

high, front, unrounded: beet (in European English) high, front, rounded: B ucher (in German)

The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants


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mid, front, unrounded: bait (in European English) mid, front, rounded: sch on (in German)

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Central Tense

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants

[a]

low, central, unrounded: car (in Bostonian)

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Back Tense

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants
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[u] [o] [A]

high, back, rounded: mid, back, rounded: low, back, unrounded:

food (in European English) boat (in European English) cot

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Front Tense Diphthongs

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[ij] [eI]

high, front, unrounded: beet (in American English) mid, front, unrounded: bait (in American English)

Consonants
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Central Tense Diphthongs

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[aI] [aU]

low, central, unrounded: ice low, central, rounded: blouse

Consonants
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Back Tense Diphthongs

Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[uw] [ow] [OI]

high, back, rounded: mid, back, rounded: mid, back, rounded:

food (in American English) boat (in American English) boy

Consonants
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Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[ f2nAl@Ists m2st kijp DeI Pijz spEktkjuwl1lij klijn ] Phonologists must keep their ears spectacularly clean.

Consonants
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Articulatory Phonetics Linguistics 201 Phonetics Anatomy The International Phonetic Alphabet

[ juw maIt faInd D@ PAn laIn tuwtowij2lz An D@ kls wEbsaIt hElpf2l. ] You might nd the on-line tutorials on the class website helpful.

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