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PSIG 06A3 Turbine and Compressor Performance Analysis Through Simulation

Alexsander Valeriano, TBG Tranportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S/A,

Raymundo Csar m. Castro, TBG Tranportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S/A,

Copyright 2006, Pipeline Simulation Interest Group This paper was prepared for presentation at the PSIG Annual Meeting held in Williamsburg, Virginia, 11 October 13 October 2006. This paper was selected for presentation by the PSIG Board of Directors following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Pipeline Simulation Interest Group, its officers, or members. Papers presented at PSIG meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Pipeline Simulation Interest Group. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of PSIG is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, Pipeline Simulation Interest Group, P.O. Box 22625, Houston, TX 77227, U.S.A., fax 01-713-586-5955.

PAPER 1. Performance Analysis

In pipeline operation one of the most important issues to control is the performance of the turbine and compressors, because this equipment is responsible for the gas transportation and pipeline availability. In order to have an appropriate control of this performance and have information to fundament all maintenance decisions TBG has a group dedicated to make this analysis.

This paper describes the work developed by TBG to ensure the performance of turbines and compressors in the Bolivia Brasil gas pipeline. The analysis includes the use of online and offline simulators, including software developed specially to TBG and it's turbines and compressors. The paper describes all phases of analysis since field operational tests; vibration analysis, fuel gas consumption and operating points, as well as surge control and start number control. This work has increased the reliability of TBG' machines in more than 10% in a few months and allows TBG to plan overhauls and maintenance stops in an optimized way.

2. The Software Development

In order to accomplish the need of having an accurate performance analysis it was developed software to meet this need. This tool can reproduce, in details, all turbine and compressor operational conditions, as well as estimate fuel usage consumption and surge control. An online simulator is also used to compare and validate the analyses results.

This paper has the objective of describe the experience of TBG in the analysis of compressor and turbine performance with the utilization of a set of tools, developed specifically for TBG, in Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline, to give TBG the necessary information for planning all maintenance and specially the overhauls.

2.1 Development Stages: To develop this tool was necessary to study all machine characteristics and to create a data bank with the maximum number of operational data. These data were obtained through SCADA data bank and through visits to the field. TBG has two kinds of turbo compressor station so there were developed two different sets of tools to accomplish that.

NOMENCLATURE TC- turbine and compressor set NGP - Gas turbine speed NPT Power turbine speed



2.2 Compressor Performance Tool: This tool is responsible for simulating the compressor performance and gives the specialists all the data used in the analysis.

The specialist also receive information about the surge control, fig. 03 shows the screen that gives all surge information.

Fig. 03 Surge Control Simulator Based on these information the specialist can determine if the compressor is operating in a safe condition and if the SCAD system is giving the right feedback for the gas controllers, since TBG operates all its compressor station remotely, via satellite system. Fig. 01 Centrifugal Compressor Performance Simulator This tool has a copy of the SCADA screen and informs the operational point. The X in yellow shows the real point and the red point shows the nominal point. The simulator also calculates the real and the nominal efficiency that gives the specialists the exact condition of the compressor. 2.3 Turbine Performance Tool: This tool is responsible for simulating the turbine performance and gives the specialists all the data used in the analysis.

Fig. 02 Simulator Data Entrance Fig. 02 shows the sheet where the specialist writes all the operational data, which includes suction temperature and pressure, discharge pressure and temperature, and the molecular weight, which is obtained through another sheet where the specialist inputs the gas composition. This composition will be used again later to calculate the fuel gas usage. Fig. 04 Turbine Performance Simulator


Turbine and Compressor Performance Analysis Through Simulation

The turbine simulator also calculates the necessary NGP to give the necessary NPT. The driver doesnt have a mechanical connection as shown in fig. 06. This relation was developed through visits to the field and rising of real relation between NGP and NPT. After that the point acquired were plotted and a function was defined to give a very good approximation of the real numbers.

Fig. 07 Online Compressor Simulator Operation Point This tool also calculates HEAD, discharge temperature, and other important operational parameters for the specialists that can cross these results with the offline simulator.

Fig. 05 Turbine Performance Simulator NGP x NPT

Fig. 08 Online Centrifugal Parameters and Details

Fig. 06 Turbine Combustion System

3. Performance Analysis
In order to have the analysis done the specialists go to the compressor stations and submit the turbines and compressors to a detailed analysis of all operational points. The main points considered in the analysis are: mechanical and adiabatic efficiency, discharge temperature, head, surge control, power required, fuel gas usage, NPT, NGP and vibration information. This analysis could be done at TBG main headquarters IN Rio de Janeiro, but to keep deadbands out of the process all the analyses are done in site.

2.4 Online Compressor Performance Tool: In order to assure all the analysis and results given by the performance simulator TBG also has an online system that reproduces all compressors performance. This tool receives live data from SCADA and processes them and gives the operational point, as well as discharge temperature, Head, adiabatic efficiency, fuel flow and surge flow.



3.1 Efficiency The efficiency of the compressors is calculated by both systems, online and offline and then compared to the SCADA online data. Its allowed a difference until 10%. But if the difference goes over 7% a closer look is recommended. The performance simulator calculates both (design and actual efficiency) and based on this information its possible to detect if the machine is deteriorating its efficiency.

3.6 Vibration This is one of the most important variables analyzed during the test. A special attention is paid to this item because vibration can cause irreversible losses to compressors and turbines. The analysis is done through live SCADA data and through measurements done in the machine, in the discharge and suction pipes and in pipes supports as well. The points that are not monitored by SCADA are measured thrugh the use of a portale vibration analyzer. If vibration is very high its even possible to recommend an early overhaul.

3.2 Discharge Temperature The discharge temperature obtained in both tools is compared to the real temperature and, again the maximum tolerated is 10%. The procedure is the same used in efficiency. Discharge temperature is also used to analyze if there are any internal problems in the compressor, such as internal leaks cause by corrosion for example.

Fig. 09 Vibration Data Collected During Tests

TBG has changed the overhaul priority twice since this analysis started. 3.3 Head The calculated head is compared to project specifications and to real conditions. This analysis can indicate not only decrease in performance but also a difference between design conditions and actual conditions of operation.

3.7 NGP x NPT These variables give a snapshot of the efficiency of the power transmission. They have to be close to design because if not the compressor station wont be able to accomplish its requirements. Again the calculated values in this relation are crossed with the real data. The simulator can recreate the power transmission through historical data stored in the system database.

3.4 Surge Control The analysis of surge control variables show if the surge protection system is operating properly. If there are big differences between the calculated and real data there will be a recommendation to check the surge control system. In this casethe machine will be stopped and will not operate until the problem is solved.

3.8 Required Power The power required by the driver is also analyzed in this process. The contamination factor is used in this analysis to detect if the turbine is responding with the same efficiency showed in the acceptance test.

3.5 Fuel Gas Usage The results of these analyses indicate if the machines are operating on their best conditions and if the load sharing system is controlling the operational points on maximum efficiency. TBG has LOAD SHARE in all compressor stations, and, most of the time, the machines operate under AUTO MODE, wich means that the system is responsible to keep the machines away from surge and operating in maximum efficiency.


Turbine and Compressor Performance Analysis Through Simulation

4. Test Conditions
The test conditions are defined by: Q1 = test flow Q2 = designed flow N1 = test speed N2 = designed speed H1 = test Head H2 = designed Head HP1 = test power HP2 = designed power Where: Fig.10 Calculated Operating Point

5.1 Overhaul Planning The overhaul planning goes through hour meters and performance analysis. The overhauls are scheduled to happen when the machines reach 30000 hours of continuous operation. In Campo Grande compressor station one of the compressor reached 3000 hours in April 2006 and another one in August of the same year. The analyses indicated that the second compressor was presenting excessive vibration and the first one had all the variables in perfect conditions, so the decision was to postpone the first one to 35000 hours and to anticipate the second one. With this decision TBG skipped to remove a machine in perfect conditions and be obliged to wait to remove the other one, because once you change a turbine you decrease your operational availability.

(Q1/ Q2) = (N1/ N2) (H1/ H2) = (N1/ N2) (HP1/ HP2) = (N1/ N2)

5. Test Results
The test results are used in maintenance planning as well as in overhaul planning. Now we are going to exemplify hoe this results are used through the reading of a case.

6. Authors Biography
Alexsander Moreira Alves Valeriano is responsible for the operational planning for TBG. He has 8 years experience in pipeline simulation, operational planning and simulation softwares development. He has 3 years experience in Power plants Projects. He has authored a paper for Rio Pipeline Conference, 2003 titled IMPLANTATION OF GASBOL ADVANCED FUNCTIONS SYSTEM and a paper in PSIG 2004 titled USE OF INTEGRATED SYSTEMS AND DATA ESCHANGE. Fig. 09 Operating Point In SCADA


PSIG 05xx

Raymundo Csar of Mello Arajo Castro, mechanical engineer 1977, Senior Engineer of Mechanical Equipments. Extensive experience in Maintenance of Equipments, Multidiciplinary Projects with emphasis in the Equipments such as: Compressors, Turbines, Bombs, Filters, Agitators, Thermal Changes and Mechanical Equipments in general, for use in oil plants & gas and, plants termeltricas.