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ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL

Title no. 84-S21

TECHNICAL PAPER

Channel-Shaped Reinforced Concrete Compression Members under Biaxial Bending

by Cheng-Tzu Thomas Hsu


AfrsM//i ot un r\{vrtfHt'nltl and atialviii'al irnf\ttt;iiit>n i>" I he M renal h and delvrrtttjlion o! tia\mll\' Inaded 'hur mui iied tn/im/m ail .rifarla/I1- M / / / I 'hnnfl-\litJfH'<i I / V M \- mu-, un- <rf<-f"li-<i ['he ".lud ri{>(trt"i the hehaior n! !i\e oiumn\ m \hear\tall\ o I the/n inade o htxh-Mrenah enneretet under huid1* trn>mHi>nua/lv Uf> la luiluft' /'/If \lrt'ri;tfl intrrui'tttw curn-v and load tinitnir-. u! L'hunnel-\fia/W(i i'u/H/wvwon nit'niher\ pre^enli'd lo 'nnalc tid liiv lar de\in reciunmendanon-. and i df\i;rt cum/'/i' l^ ant'ti lo pru\ ftt>\<.h/f dt".i'n j>rtn't'durf\.

i-.uppiirlt

Irrcgular-shapcd s l r u c t u r a l concrete memhers suhjected lo combincd biaxial bendinjz and axial loads are sometimes encouniered in dcsien praciice; in ihe case ot reinforeed concrete colunins and shear\\alK, channelshaped mcmbcr*. are usually used as colunins or enclosures of he elevator shalts (I iy. 1). Ho\\e\er. current buildin^-code provisions do not prmide guidelines Cor designing such a nicrnbcr. The reason i\t the nt'ormaiion on he behavior o irregular-shaped reinlorced concrete members under combined biaxial bending and axial load is not \\ell kno\\n. They are usually o\erdesigned, which may cause the s t r u c t u r e to be s t i f t e r , and may result in loss of ductiliiy \\hen applied to seisniic rcgions. The primary objective o" this paper is to address the sirength and del'orniational behavior ot channcl-shaped reinforeed concrete members u n d e r ihe abovc combined loadings. A total of five columns and six shearwall specimens \vcrc Cabricaed and testcd. Of the total ele\en specimens, nine werc made wiih normal concrete uhile t w o wcre fabricatcd from high-sirengih concrete. The tests imcstigatcd the axial load, monient, detlection, cur\ature, and sircnglh oC (hese sections, and he results were compared w i t h analytical predictions of the writer's computer program.' ; Based on the Cindings of both experimental and analytical results, a method is reconimended for possible design practice. ACI Structural Journal / May-June 1987

COMNEN COLUHN

E L E V A T O H MAT

/>. l~Simplified sketches of sowc principal applicaiions of irregular shaped reinforeed concrete columns and shearwalis in huildings

RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE This s t u d y of load and d e l o r m a t i o n b e h a v i o r o" channel-shaped columns and shearwalls \\as aimed at providing guidclincs Cor designing such a member undcr combined biaxial bending and axial comprcssion. Both normal-strength and high-strength concretes uere used
Retened A p i 16. lYN*. ,md reiieeil unde? I n - i n i i i c p u M k . i t u > n pohiies < iip%ri(zhi I'H", -VrjientJti < i v u i e i e I n s i i i u i c MI njilm r e ^ e r i e d . i n t h i i l i n f ilic makin>! iit inpies n t i l r x s pcrrni-iSion 1-1 nhi.Lirii-J l t c > n i to v i i p v n t h i propn c l t i r > . l'eiiincii: J U I I I N M O I I i l l t'c p u b l i v l i e d ni t h e M.itili \ p t i l i l *>^ 1< / N/'I. urul Journal 11 re. en eil hv \in 1 , \W

201

,-lf / memtv r ( Hrng-fiu boma* Htu n f ' r !i-\\u' ul l ' i n f mi 1 n iiriinmcntal ll lh,- \tr* J?r\,-\ " trtt'mtifr < > ' U / 1M / ( >inniilt,-t' 441. K,'i l'irt ri ( ("ii 'i''"' ( tn'unjn<,, un<l ir! .1(7 ( omrn /feo 4.'?. l> f l f l i t i n o! < <IL i<- Huiltti'iv S ; r u t f u f o . un/ JJJ. { m\fr\il i . Itl/i' ( m i t - r v / i . ijflti \ltdil! f i'rti;irn't'rini> rm-, in ( jnjiiu in

for this siudy. The research presenied also provides experimental \ e r i f i c a i i o n o a compuier analysis model developed duriny the course o" this research. COMPUTER ANALYSIS Hsu has proposed a computer analysis p r o g r a m 1 : using the rectangular discrete elernents and the extended Ncwton-Raphson numerical method. l-'or the purpose ot' analysis, the cross section of the reinl'orced concrete member is divided into several small elemental reas (Fig. 2). A modified form ot' the C'ranston-Chatterji s t r e s s - s t r a i n c u r \ e s for concrete i n t e n s i n a n d in compression was used. These c u r v e s can account l'or the strain-softening of concrete as well as the ultmate comprcssive strain in confined or unconfined concrete elements. The stress-strain c u r v e for steel reinforcement has been ideali/ed using piecewise linear approximation to the curve in the strain hardening regin. The

computer analysis program also invokcs the t'ollowing assumptions: 1) The bending moments are applied about the principal axes of the cross section; 2) plae sections remain plae bclbre and afier bending; 3) the longitudinal stress at an element is dependen! only on the longitudinal strain at that point so that the elfects of creep and shrinkage are neglected; 4) strain reversal does not occur; and M buckling does not occur before the ultmate load is attained. This analytical model can accoum for any section geometry and material propcrties and also simlale the load-detormation and mom e n i - c u r v a t u r e behavior ot s t r u c t u r a l members under biaxial bending and axial load. Kmher details of numerical analysis, the computing algorithm, and its convergence can be found in Reterences 1 and 2. For the determination o the deflections in the x- and y-directions, Hsu' proposed an appro\irnate method by using a modification of the moment-area theorems. The following equations vvere derived to e v a l a t e the cent r a l deflection componems 0, and o ihe biaxially loaded pin-ended short column ;

- o.t'-'/S

(2)

O 662 ' TYP

n.

O 376"

TYP

The f l e x u r a l b e h a v i o r of the loading b r a c k e t s is assumed lo be the same as the rest of the column, and (he deformation resuliing in (he brackets has been included in the analysis. The c u r v a t u r e s o and o are calculated using the theoretical analvsis ouilined in the previous section. f>, and f>, are the column midhcight deflection components in the x- and the \-directions, respeclively. The moment-axial l o a d - c u r v a t u r e relatioriships uere used lo calclate the axial load v a l u /* ( v v i t h o u t accounting for column defleciion. The axial load v a l u P, (which accouiHs for columns deflections f>, and .) wcrc derived in the following equations
P (c

\(c.
,16"

whcrc e, and 1, are the eccentricities along x- and yaxcs, respectivcly. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM A t o l a l ot" I I specimens vsere tested in the present study. Hve specimens vvere designed as short, tied columns (I'ig. ?), and the other six specimens vvere conslruclcd as shorl shearvvalls ( I ' i g - 4). Physical characleristics of the t'ive columns and six shearvvalls tested are shovvn in Table I and Fig. 3 and 4. I he t e s t i n g f r a m e c o n s t r u c t e d for t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l program is shown in Fig. 5, and the actual experimental setup for the tcstings is shown in Fig. 6 and 7. All specimens vvcrc lested and studied for their complete bchavior under combined biaxial bending and axial compression, and wcrc used to examine somc of the variables involvcd, such as steel yield strength, normaland h i g h - s t r c n g t h concrete, and eccentricities. The ACI StructuralJournal / May-June 1987

1 6"

Fig. 2Channel cross section Type B, wiih 162 ele tnents for compuier analysis
202

specimens were pin-ended. The brackels in boih ends of the specimens were designed and heavily reinforced to prevent local failures (Fig. 4 and 6). For column specimens (Channel Section A), ihe brackets were confined with a foot-long steel tube on each end, and the gap between the steel tubes and the original brackets was grouted with 5000 psi concrete, as shown in Fig. 6. A1I five columns were reinforced longitudinally by 22 No. 3 bars with steel yield strength/ = 51.8 ksi. Of the total six shearwall specimens (Channel Section B), four specimens were fabricated with normal concrete and two with highstrength concrete. All shearwall specimens were reinforced longitudinally by 18 No. 3 bars w i t h two different steel yield strengths, as seen in Table 1. These longitudinal bars were held together by 'vin. lies at spacings 2.5 to 4 in. center-to cerner. The lies and longitudinal bars were lied together using No. 16 gage binding

wire. The reinforcemenl was assembled into a unit before it was placed in the mold. The concrete used for casting the specimens were prepared from a graded mixture of crushed quartz and sand, portland cement Type I I I , and water. For normal-concrete columns and shearwalls, the water-cement ratio was 0.7-0.8, and the aggregate-cement ratio was 3.2. For two shearwall specimens of high-strength

6'-

2 596"

H 1
22 - 5
STEEL BARS

M
* ISTEEi BARS

Table 1 Specimen details


Spetimcn I>pco Mam numbcr I.TOSS vcciion' bar%
' . LM / . i. pM in
<..

f .. U. f . in ' li n

u.K
4c

: : No 1 5 1 N 3664

1 S
IX

1 (>

i h 4

4 V 4 4 V 4 V 4 V 4 V 65 f. 14 O" 14 I I 14 U 14 14

A A A
- . A
B B B fB B
B -

:: NO i 51

8 3W.14

'

2 "5 ' 6 4

:: NO i 51 8 '662,4 1 (i - ... -----51 8 j:r;4 i K :: NO 3


: : NO i 51 8 3MW4
18 No 3 65 . 1 8 No 3 6<

10 *

f> 4 i .

i
: <

64
;6 4

0.73: TYP

5, *>> %

15

"6j:ii i*:*:*: * 1 5

'(sj:.u 4 u : HM! ft i 4 *9
4 '54 > 08^' t. ' 5 4 4 4 %9 1 1"(> f> 1 < . . . .

8>.

1 8 No 1 6 ( ~6.:Wi4' 1 8 No 1 6* "62'vtl . . 18 No 3
18 No l 58

*>

49
4 SI

IQh
llh

14 ir

o ~:M*: 5 4.<u i (85 6 i 5 J 9

Fig. 3Channel Section A deails

O M!

CONCRETE COVER
TYP 1 S'

TYP

CNCHETE BNACKCT

L.\
SECTION A-A

'

|
t

F/g. 4Channel Secion B deails ACI Structural Journal / May-June 1987


203

Fig. 5Teslingframe capacity hydraulic cylinder (effective arca - 20.63 in. : ). A manual pump wiih a mximum pressure of 10 ksi was used to drive the ram. The loads were applied monotonically from zero load until failure of the specimen. The experimental curvature near the critica! seclion was calculated from the measured strains in concrete surfaces using mechanical Demec gages. The central deflections of the specimens were measured w i t h dial gages. More details of ihe experimental setup, instrumentation, materials, and test results can be found in References 4 through 6. Fig. 9 and 10 show pan of the test specimens loaded 10 failure.

Fig. 6Actual sel u p for Channel Seclion A concrete, the \vatcr-cement ratio of 0.43 and ihc aggrcgate-cement ratio of 3.2 were used togclhcr wiih ihe supcrplaslicizer. The concrete propcrties were deiermined using 3 x 6-in. cylinders. The main reinforcement for the test specimens consisted of intermediatc grade No. 3 bars; their stress-strain curves are shown in Fig. 8. Several types of i n s t r u m c n t a t i o n werc used in the present experimental program. Thcse included bondcd strain gages on the outer and i n n c r surfaces of t h e model, Demec gages in the concrete for strain and curva tu re measurements, and Ames dial gages for deflection measurements. A detailed instrumcntation layoul was worked out for each model to compare experimental data w i t h the computed r c s u l t s at homologous points. The specimens were tcsicd in the hori/ontal position and the specimens were loadcd using a 100 ton
204

COMPARISONS BETWEEN TEST RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Ultmate load capacity Table 2 shows the present computer analysis and experimental test results for all specimens. The experimental vales of the axial load capacity were obtained directly from the tests, whilc thc thcorctical vales werc obtained from the computer analysis. The axial load P, was obtained directly from ihe iheoretical axial loadm o m e n t - c u r v a t u r e analysis w i l h o u t a c c o u n l i n g for specimen dcflection in thc midspan. Thc axial load valu P, was calculated based on Eq. (3) w h i c h accounts for thc effcct of specimen deflection on ihc axial load capacity of the specimen. As shown in Table 2, the vales of P, are only slightly highcr than thosc of P, bccausc the test specimens are of short columns and shcar walls. Also, as shown in Table 2, the specimens w i t h normal concrete exhibit slightly more undercstimated vales than those w i t h high-strength concrete (Specimens lOh and 1 Ih), as comparcd w i t h the present experimental vales. The averagc ratios for all speciACI Structural Journal / May-June 1987

CIRCULAR ITEEL >LATE FFECTIVE ARA . hl* LOAD (P)

RECTANGULAR STEEL PLATE

LOAD f OIF-ION IOARD

Fig. 7 Actual setup for Channel Section B no


100

150

300

430

600

730

900

IOSO

IVA

STRAINtln/iO ( IO'4)

/g. 8~Siress-strain curve for No. 3 reinforcing bar mens were 1.033 and 1.082, respectively, for experimental axial load capacity as compared with the vales of P, and P,. An examination of Table 2 shows than an excellent agreement was achieved between the experimental ultmate load capacity and the computed vales with various vales of/',/,, e,, e,, and cross sections.
Moment-curvature curves (e, + 6,) and
= Pn (e, + 6.)

(4a)

<4b)

The moments and curvature about the x- and y-axes were obtained from both analysis and experimental results. The experimental vales of moments were calculated based on the following equations ACI Structural Journal / May-June 1987

where 6r, 6, = the deflections in x- and y-directions, respeciively, at midheight of the column and shearwall. A typical load-central deflection curve for Specimen 8y is shown in Fig. I I . To obtain the experimental curvature vales about the x- and y-axes, a Demec gage method was used to
205

obtain the strain distributions about the x- and y-axes, respectively. This method was successfully used in References 2 and 3. A typical arrangemem of Demec points on the concrete surface can be found in Fig. 7. Once the strain distributions across the section were established, the following equation was used to calclate the curvature
or

e, kd

(5)

where kd is the distance between the locations with the extreme concrete strain (, and the point of zero strain along the x- or y-axis, respectively. Eq. (5) was used previously by many investigations in References 2, 3, 7, and 8. Typical theoretical and experimental moment-curvature curves are shown in Fig. 12 and 13, respectively, for Channel Sections A and B. A satisfactory agreement can be seen from zero up to the mximum moment capacity of the specimens.
Strength-interaction diagrams

Strength-interaction diagrams are the strength combinations at which P_ and A/,, or A/a. act together. Table 3 shows the comparative study of the analytical and experimental results for moment capacity of the columns and shearwas. For experimental momcnts, Eq.

Table 2 Ultmate load capacity


Typc of i Spccimen ' LTOS\ numbcr seaion ;
le A A t
f

Analvsi* repuls, kips


P 102.4 103.1 102.4 103.6 120.0 100.2
91.0 70.5 63.1
1

'

P 93."

/', * , TC-.I rebull. kips /*-, / /*_.


108.31 119.65 103.15 107.28

' ' i i T

1.058 1.161
1.007 1.016 1.014 1.07 I

Fig. 9Specimens of Channel Section A after failitre

2c 3c 4c 5c

A A A

1 2 1 72
UP.28

6y
7y
8\
*> lOh llh

B
B

! I T
I i 1
;

1.145
1.1.15

86.3 67.5 60.0

9".99

1.07"1 1.05.1

B
B

1.100 1.100 1.028

66.112

1.046

t
\4

B B

124.0 102.7

ir 59
95.3

. ._

91 61

0.912 1.033

0.982

A\crapc f'rom leM repuls. T'rom P . :l rom /'

1.082

Table 3 Ultmate moment capacity


Spccimen Typc of , numbcr cross scction Anahsis rcsults. kip-in
A/.,

ICM rcsulls, kip-n.


A / . ' ' A/. " A / . ' M. 1 231 1 215.4 258

Ai. 184.3

le 2c 3c
4c 5c

A A A

307.1

124.9156
.129

195

28.1.4
307.1

185.5 184 3 186.1 180.2

145

.109.5 .118.4 185." 219 .175.5 195.2 193.1 225 9 i J 304.3 .126.2 182.6236.8 270,3 306.2 : 399.7|455.9 t ^ 274.8 304.2'405.7 415.9
229,1 248.1 118.2 144.2
*

A
A

361.8

300.2
252 3

6y

B
B

373.0
3^6 7 321.1

255.2
' '

Ry
9>
i

B B B B

217.5 212.4
t

313.1

222.5 233.7 .128.1 330.9


t i

I0h llh

312.5 '

.116.8

i * !

462.0 467.7

2%. 1 352.8,438.1 458.1 288.8 331.9426.4445.1

Fig. I0Specimens of Channel Section B after failure

'LxpcrimcnUl .W.. /'. e., M., /'. f '-xpcumcnial Af.. P. (f. * A , ) ; Af.. from ihc load-ilcflctiiiin tu

P. (e. fi.t hcrc A, A, iihiameil

206

ACI Structural Journal / May-June 1987

(4) and (6) were used for comparative study in the following equations

(6a) and
<6b)

Fig. 14 and 15 show sets of theoretical interaction diagrams for Channel Sections A and B, respectively. The theoretical interaction curves were obtained directly from the analysis, and the mximum compression capacity P0 of the specimens was calculated by o = 0.85/' (A, - A,,) + / / !
(7)

As expected, the moments based on Eq. (4) are slighlly greater than those obtained from Eq. (6). A!I the experimental moments were noted to be in excellent agreement with the analytical vales.
izo

Compared with the experimental vales based on Eq. (4) and (6), the theoretical strength interaction diagrams are on the conservative side.
\ E X P MI - 3 W Wp*.-Nl

SPECaCN le SPCCJMEN 8

590 300
~ 250

100

":*-" = *^\
40
X '3-.

200 150 100 50


A EXPERIMENTAL O THEORETICAL MOTt EXP. M, ( y . fr,

EXPERIMENTAL THEORETICAL

20

10

20

30

40

50

60

i 70

K>
SPECIMEN le EXP M 231 kip - in

(a)

DEFUECnOH th) ( K)"2)

200

00

100
EXPR1MNTAL O THEORETICAL

NOTE: EXP.
A EXPERIMENTAL O THEORETtCAL

4
20
6, DEFLECTION I O U I0"2 )

40
t

eo

ao

100

izo

(b)

(l/n.) x I O ' 5 )

Fig. l(a) and (b)~Load-def?ection curves ACI StructuralJournal / May-June 1987

Fig. J2(a) and (b)-Momenf-curvature curves


207

Load contour and design formulas for channel sections The load contours and three-dimensional failure surfaces nave formed the basis of curren! design procedures for reinforced concrete columns subject to biaxial bending and axial compression in the various na-

tional codes. The load-comour melhod involves cutting the failure surface at a constam valu of P. to give a load contour interaction relating A/n, and Mn. Fig. 16 and 17 show sets of load contours at various vales of Pn. To develop a design equalion, the dimensionless load contours are needed. The general nondimensional

300

3ZO

T I CHANNEL aECTKW A

EXP. M,>246.IUpt,-lfi.
250

fi, O THEOKTCAL
Z0

f' e -

9*

'j
Z40

A , * EXPCRNCNTAL ! ! , P B ,, EXPCHIMCHTAL M*,' P fl l

200
ZOO

SPCCMENS lc.2c.Ac.4e AMO 5e f'c.t, ANO i- ARE SHOWM H TABLE I

150
160

100
EXPERIMENTAL O THCORET1CAL

IZO

o
NOTE: EXP. N V P U + t

40

(I/4U I 0 ' )

(a)

100

ZOO

900

400

500

00

BCNOINO UOHCNT9 Ulp.-k<] SPECIMEN y EXP. U, 344.2 UH -1*

350

Fig. 14lnteraction curves for Channel Seclion A

300
fi,0

CMAMML

MCTIQN B lf Z.*4pl. f, 6S.Tliti, M 11* !* .?* ,.?. , ' %<T-r>. "*, "*.*> SnCMCNS 6f ANO y : ^. IT AND AK HOWN M TAILE I

THCOAETTCAL EXPMICKTAL EXPCNHCIfTAL

A.* tftO
140

(,)

zzo
20O

zoo no

. I5O

wo
140

100

EXPERIMENTAL

itO 100

O THEOHCT1CAL NOTE EXP M. -P(*.+6

o
60 40 ZO

50

0 (b)

10
O 100 ZOO 9OO 400 8OO 600

4, < l / n ) U l O ' 9 )

KNOIN4 HOHCNT (klpk-tiO

Fig. 13(a) and (b)-Moment curvature curves

Fig. 15Interaction curves for CHannel Section B AC1 Structural Journal / May-June 1987

208

equation for the load contour at constan! P, may be expressed in the following form" (or another similar
A/,
Af, A/,,

and 8 percent of gross rea as permitted by the ACI Building Code." Practically, vales of 3 - 6 percent are commonly used. Step 3 Use o = 0.7 for tied column. Then P, - P/o - 46.6 kips .V/,, - A/ a l /o = U3.7 kip-in. A/,. = A/ B ./o = 212.2 kip-in.

1.0

(8)

where a, and a: are exponenls that depend on the dimensions of the cross section, the r e i n f o r c e m e n t amount and location, concrete s t r e n g t h , steel yield stress, and amount of concrete cover. Fig. 18 and 19 show some of the dimensionless load contours at presen! study. The variables involved in Fig. 18 and 19 are the mximum concrete compressive strength/', the steel yield stress/, and types of channel sections. As shown in these figures, a, and n: increase for larger vales of P,. The calculated vales of a, and a: vary from 1.5 to more than 2.0. For practica! design purposes, it seems satisfactory to take u, = u : as 1.5 for any channel-shaped sections, which is (he same as for a rectangular section. From the present study, it seems that the higher valu of a, and . may be used {see the following design examples) for practical design.
DESIGN EXAMPLE

Select a compression member w i t h thin-walled channel shaped cross section to take the following ultmate loads: Pu = 32.6 kips, Mu = 100.6 kip-in.. and .V/_. = 148.5 kip-in. Use/' = 2964 psi, and/ = 65.76 ksi.

Solution
Step ! Try a channel-shaped cross section as shown in Fig. 2. Step 2 Try 18 No. 3 bars as illustrated in Fig. 2. Thus, pt = 0.049, say 4.9 percent, which is betwecn 1
tOO tOO XX 4OO 900 OO

oo

100

XOO

3OO

400

900

OO

CXJ

WO

4OO

500

600

Hm(k.pt - m )

Fig, 16Load conours for Channel Section A ACI Structural Journal / May-June 1987

Fig. I7(a) and (b)-Load contours for Channel Seclion


B

209

Slep 4 Find MUI and A/((. from slrength interaction diagrams for Pn - 46.6 kips
e

Q = tan

(e. / e , ) = 34.11 deg

= MJP, = 4.554 in.

Based on the interaction diagrarm shown in Fig. 15, one obtains Ml<t = 222 kip-in., and A/,. = 333 kip-in. Slep 5 Check wiih load-contour method

e, = MjPr = 3.084 in.

1.0
143.7

and

222
CHANNEL SECTION *

212.2 333

- 1.004 O.K.

g 9.900p.f y -91.Bkai

io

.2-2.0

08

06

0.4

Sep 6 Design the ties or stirrups as required by the AC1 Building Code." Retnark The theoretical and experimental u l t i maie load capacities of this section (see Specimen 8y in Tablcs 1 and 2) are P, = 70.5 kips, P, - 67.5 kips and 74.27 kips, respectively. The design valu of P, is 46.6 kips. Thus, thc load contour equaiion with u, = : = 1.5 is a conservativo method. If the load contour equation with a, = a.. = 2.0 (see Ret'erence I I ) is used, a design valu of Pn = 51 kips can be obtained, which is slill a conservative design valu. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A total of 11 channel-shaped reinforced concrete colu m n s and shearwalls were tested to s t u d y u l t m a t e strength capacity and deformational behavior. Results of experiments and computer analysis show thai an excellent agreement was achieved between the experimental ultmate strengths and the analytical results calculated using the previously dcvclopcd computer program. This computer analysis was also uscd to examine the experimental results of two shearwalls w i t h highstrength concrete (/' = 7500 psi); thc results of a comparative study show that the theorctical ultimate loads

0.2

02

04

06

0.8

10

F/. /S Dirnensionless load conours for Channel Section A

08

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.6

1.0

Fig. 9(a) and (b)-Dimensionless toad contours for Channel Section B


210

ACI Structural Journal / May-June 1987

slightly overestimate those of experimental tesis. ever, a satisfactory agreement was still achieved. The experimental load-deflection and moment-curvature curves obtained ("rom the present tests were also noted to be in good agreement with analytical results from zero up to the mximum moment capacity of the section. The design procedures in ihis paper require detcrmining the strength interaction diagrams and ihe load contour equations; the load contour method wiih a a. = 1.5 for rectangular section was used in the design example, and has been found to be on the conservativo side as compared with the present analylical and experimental results. Even with , = t*. = 2.0, the load contour equation still achieves a consrvame solution. Recent studies by Poston et al. 14 showed that the plane-section assumption in their axial load-momentcurvature computer analysis program for the design of slender, nonprismatic, and hollow bridge piers is valid only if the unsupported wall length-to-thickness ratio does not exceed six. As mentioned earlier, a similar assumption was made in developing ihe present axial load-moment-curvature computer program for the analysis of irregular shaped, short, and tied columns and shearwalls. Examination of data from this test as shown in Tables 2 and 3 reveis that no strength reduction of any kind is indicated for any spccimens except Specimens lOh and llh, which wcrc fabricaied w i t h high-strength concrete. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The financia! Mjpporl o ihc New Jersey Institulc o tcchno!o\d York is graicfully acknowlcdgcd. Ihc experimental w o r k and pan o thc compuiations o ihc prcscm siudy w c r c conducted h> ihc au thor's gradate studcnls hclwccn 19KO and I9S5: D Chidamharrao, S. Yalamarthy. ti. Hannoush. H. tihadum. N Paicl, \ H. \Vang, and J. H. Ych Ihcit cflom are also greatK apprcciaicd.

P, P. s u it. n , . i , p, O O. C.

= nominal axial load

<*P. spacing of lateral reinforcement tan (e. e } exponents in load contour equation dcfleclion in x-direction defleciion in \-direction - mximum compressixc strain m concrete Mram at ultmale steel pcrcenlage in gross cross-sectiona! arcas A ; sirength reduction factor - cur\ature produccd due lo bending momenl Af - curvaiure produced due lo bending momenl Af

= --

.-1,

SI EQUIVALENTS
m. Iblmass) Ib (torce) psi
kip

25.4 mm 0.4536 kg 4.44X2 N 6.895 kPa


444K.2 N

ksi kip-tn.

6.W5 MPa

0.113 kN-m

REFERENCES
1. Hsu. Chcng-T/u, and \1ir/a, M. Saecd, "Siruciural t oncrele Biaxial Bcndmg and C'ompresMon," Prtn'ef(mns. ASC'L. V. W, SI2. Icb- 197. pp. 2S5-290 2. Hsu, C'heng-r/u Ihomas, "HiaxialK I oaded I-Shaped Remforced Concrete C olumns," Journal of Strm'turat t ngineennit, ASCI-:. V. 111. No. 12. I)cx-. I9H5. pp. 25"6-2545 .V Hsu, C. I I . . and Mirva. M. S., "Non-I mear Heha\ior and AnaKses o Rcinforced Concrete Columns L ndcr C'ombincd I oadmgs." \itnttnear /Vi^i oj (.'oncrete Struftum. S\ Siud> No. M. l'nncrsii> ot Uatcrloo Press, 1980. pp. HN-H5. 4. Chidambatrao, I).. "lichaMor o (.'hjmiel-Shaped Ktmlorccd C'oncrcle Columns undcr Combined Biaxial Bcndmg and Compresse^cral sion," consullmg MSc tlicsis. cnginccrmg Nc\ Jerse> compamcs Instnuic in o" Nc I echtiolog\ Jersey andNcwark. Ncw -\ug 1983, IOS pp. 5. Yalamarth>. S., "UchaMor o I hm-\d Channcl Shaped Rcinlorccd C'oncrcle C'olunuis undcr C ornbmcd Biaxial Bonding and Comprcssion," \1Sc ihcsi\ N'c Jersey Insinulc o Icchnoloi\ NcwarV. \1a> 1984. H pp. 6 Hannoush. d . "UchaMor of High Strcngih Irregular Shaped Rcinforced Concrete Columns undcr t ombincd Biaxial Bcndmg and Comprcssion." MSc Ilicsis. New 1etsc> Insiiiutc o Iechnolog>, Ncwark, Ma> 1985, % pp. ". Matlivk. Alan H.. "Roiational C apaci(> o Hmgmg Regions m Rcinforced Concrete Bcams." f-U'\ura \ttvtianu~1- _f Rrintoru-d Concrelf, SP-12, American Concrete Insinuic American Socicl\ Cnil I:ngmccrs. Detroit. 1965. pp 143-181. H. Corley, \V, (icnc. "Rotaiional Capacil> of Rcinforced Concrete Bcams." Pmit'cdin^. ASCI , V. 92, SI4, Ocl. 1966. pp 121 1-W> 9. Brcslcr. Bon-.. "Design Critcna fot Rcinforced Column'. undcr Axial I oad and Biaxial Bcndmg." A( I J<M K--M . Pre>cef<iing\1, No. 5. No\ 1960, pp. 481-490. 10. I'armc. Alfrcd I .; Nieges. Jos M.; and Cioiiwens, Alhcn, "Capacity of Rcinlorccd Rectangular Columns Suhjcci 10 Biaxial Bending," AC I Joi H S X I . Pnnct'tlirj;<. V. 63. No. 9. Scpl 1966. pp. 911-923. 1 1 . I-urlong. Richard W.. "Concrete Coliinins L ndcr Biaxial f-cccntric I'hrusl." AC I J D I R N M . /Voccf/i/i.^ V. "6. No. 10, Oct. 1979. pp. KW-IMS. 12. Pannell. I . N.. "I ailurc Surfaces lor \lcmbcrs in Compresin and Biaxial Bcndmg." ACI J C H R N M . Pringedme* V. W, No. 1. Jan. 1963. pp 129-140 13. AC'I Commiltcc 3 1 8 . "Building C'odc Requircmciils or Rcinforccd C'oncrcle lAC'l 31X-S3)." American C'oncrcle Insiiiute, Detroit. 1983. 111 pp. 14. Poslon, R. \V.; Ciilliam. T. I-.. Yamamoto, Y.; and Breen. J. t.. "Holl Concrete Bridgc Picr Bcha\ior." AC'I Jui H S X I . Procetdinnx V 82, No. 6. No\ Dcc. 1985. pp. "9-7S^.

NOTATION
A, .-1 e, e. /' /. /. kd ( (" Af., Af.. Af, A, A/.. A/.. A, A/. P /* P, P, gross cross-scctional arca lolal arca of mam rcmforccmcnt ccccntricity along x - a x i s ccccntncity along y - a x i s ultmate Mrcnglh of concrete stccl yicld stress Mec sircss a! ullimalc dislancc from mximum comprcsMve .oiicrete s t r a m to neutral axis (otal length of cohimn cffccmc length o column nominal bcnding moment ahoui x - a x i s nominal bendmg moment about \ - a x i s Af_, capacil) al axial load I', whcn Af. is /ero A,. capacil> al axia! load /'_ whcn A/, is /ero o A/.. o A/.. bcndmg momciu .iboui \ - a \ i s hcndmg momenl ahoul y - a x i s axial load \aluc mximum i.'ompre'.Mon capacilv of ihc cohimii1 or shcarwall axial load \aluc (wuhoul accnunling for column or shcarwall dcflccuon) axial load \aluc (accounimg for column or shcarwall defleclion)

--

~ =-

ACI Structural Journal / May-June 1987

211