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GROUNDING SYSTEMS GROUNDING SYSTEMS
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy
Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering
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What is Grounding?
Definition: (IEEE Standard 100) IEEE
Dictionary
A conducting connection, whether
intentional or accidental, by which an
electric circuit or equipment is connected to
the Earth, or to some conducting body of
relatively large extent that serves in place of
the Earth.
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The objective of a grounding system are:
1. To provide safety to personnel during normal
and fault conditions by limiting step and touch
potential.
2. To assure correct operation of electrical/
electronic devices.
3. To prevent damage to electrical/ electronic
apparatus.
4. To dissipate lightning strokes.
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5. To stabilize voltage during transient
conditions and to minimize the probability
of flashover during transients.
6. To divert stray RF energy from sensitive
audio, video, control, and computer
equipment.
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A safe grounding design has two objectives:
1. To provide means to carry electric currents
into the earth under normal and fault
conditions without exceeding any
operating and equipment limits.
2. To assure that a person in the vicinity of
grounded facilities is not exposed to the
danger of critical electric shock.
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They are:
equipment equipment grounds grounds (Safety) (Safety)
systems systems grounds grounds
lightning lightning grounds grounds
maintenance maintenance grounds grounds
static static grounds grounds
electronic electronic grounds grounds
There are basically six grounding There are basically six grounding
systems in use systems in use
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Equipment Grounding
Provide Personnel Safety
Interconnecting all non-current carrying
metal components to eliminate potential
differences between them.
Connecting the equipment grounding
conductor to Earth will eliminate potential
differences between metal components and
Earth.
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Equipment Grounding
(Personnel Safety)
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System Grounding System Grounding
System System grounding grounding means means the the connection connection
of of ground ground to to the the neutral neutral points points of of
current current carrying carrying conductors conductors such such as as
the the neutral neutral point point of of a a circuit, circuit, a a
transformer, transformer, rotating rotating machinery, machinery, or or a a
system, system, either either solidly solidly or or with with a a current current
limiting limiting device device. .
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System Grounding
Provide equipment protection by operating
over-current devices to clear fault current
and providing a potential reference.
An intentional connection to equipment
ground from one of the current carrying
conductors of an electrical distribution
system.
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System Grounding
(Equipment Protection)
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Lightning Protection System
Multiple rooftop air (lightning) terminals
Down conductors
Equalizing conductors
Air terminals that surround a building
for the exclusive purpose of intercepting,
diverting, and dissipating direct
lightning strikes
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Lightning!
Factoids:
~ 200 M volts V
~ 40, 000 amp I
~ 30ms t
12
~10 W P
_ __ _
+ ++ +
_ __ _
_ __ _
+ ++ +
+ ++ +
Collisions produce
charged particles.
The heavier
particles (-) sit
near the bottom of
the cloud; the
lighter particles (+)
near the top.
Stepped
Leader
Negatively
charged
electrons
begin
zigzagging
downward.
Attraction
As the stepped
leader nears the
ground, it draws
a streamer of
positive charge
upward.
Flowing
Charge
As the leader
and the
streamer come
together,
powerful
electric current
begins flowing
Contact!
Intense
wave of
positive
charge, a
return
stroke,
travels
upward at
10
8
m/s
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Stepped Leader Stepped Leader
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Streamers Streamers
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A Tree
EXPLODING !!
Farm House
Lightning Power
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Lightning killed 504 sheep when a stroke hit the ground in this rocky
Pasture in Utah. A stroke to high-resistance soil can produce exceptionally
high voltage in the ground and spread over an unusually large area.
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Ground Electrode System
Soil
Ground Electrode Conductors
Connectors
Electrodes
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Soil Characteristics Soil Characteristics
The The soil soil resistivity resistivity is is the the single single most most important important
factor factor affecting affecting the the resistance resistance of of the the ground ground
system system. .
Soil Soil type type. . Soil Soil resistivity resistivity varies varies widely widely
depending depending on on soil soil type, type, from from as as low low as as 11 .m
for for moist moist loamy loamy topsoil topsoil to to almost almost 10 10, ,000 000 .m
for for surface surface limestone limestone. .
Moisture Moisture content content is is one one of of the the controlling controlling
factors factors in in earth earth resistance resistance because because electrical electrical
conduction conduction in in soil soil is is essentially essentially electrolytic electrolytic. .
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Resistivities of Different Soils
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Typical variation in soil resistivity as a function of
moisture, temperature and salt content
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The The temperature temperature effect effect on on soil soil resistivity resistivity is is
almost almost negligible negligible for for temperatures temperatures above above the the
freezing freezing points points. .
When When temperature temperature drops drops below below water water
freezing freezing point, point, the the resistivity resistivity increases increases
rapidly rapidly. .
Compactness Compactness and and granularity granularity affects affects soil soil
resistivity resistivity in in that that denser denser soils soils generally generally have have
lower lower resistivity resistivity. .
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The The two two factors factors - - moisture moisture and and salt salt content content - -
are are the the most most influential influential ones ones on on soil soil
resistivity resistivity for for a a given given type type of of soil soil. .
Therefore Therefore the the chemical chemical treatment treatment of of soil soil
surrounding surrounding ground ground rods rods is is preferable preferable and and
in in some some cases cases the the only only economically economically sound sound
solution solution in in obtaining obtaining low low impedance impedance of of the the
ground ground system system. .
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TYPES OF GROUND ELECTRODES TYPES OF GROUND ELECTRODES
Ground Ground electrodes electrodes must must penetrate penetrate into into the the
moisture moisture level level below below the the ground ground level level. .
They They consist consist of of a a metal metal which which do do not not corrode corrode. .
Because Because of of its its high high conductivity conductivity and and resistance resistance
to to corrosion corrosion, , copper copper is is the the most most commonly commonly
used used material material for for ground ground electrodes electrodes. .
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Other Other popular popular materials materials are are hot hot- -galvanized galvanized
steel, steel, stainless stainless steel steel and and lead lead. .
Ground Ground electrodes electrodes may may be be rods, rods, plates, plates, strips, strips,
solid solid section section wire wire or or mats mats. .
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Grounding Electrode
System
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Ufer Grounds-Concrete encased electrode.
Ufer grounds should never be used as the
sole ground electrode.
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Copper Ground Mesh-Used to augment the
grounding system.
The mesh can be strategically placed to protect
personnel against step and touch potentials.
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Connecting several electrodes improves the reliability of your
grounding electrode system.
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A) Single earth rod
B) Multiple rods
C) Radial tapes
D) Crows foot earth
E) Earth enhancing compounds placed
around the earth rod
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Ground Conductor Considerations
Sizing-withstand maximum fault current for
the maximum clearing time.
Inductance -Flat strap conductors have less
inductance than their similarly sized round
conductor counterparts.
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Strength/Durability-Round conductors are
much stronger than thin flat strap
conductor.
This should be a consideration when
backfilling trenches.
Exothermic Connections-Preferred type of
connection.
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The three components affecting grounding The three components affecting grounding
electrode resistance: electrode resistance:
( (11) ) The The resistance resistance of of the the electrode electrode which which is is
negligible negligible. .
( (22) ) The The resistance resistance of of the the electrode electrode- -to to- -soil soil
interface interface area area which which is is negligible negligible
( (33) ) The The resistance resistance of of the the body body of of earth earth
immediately immediately surrounding surrounding the the electrode electrode. .
The The main main part part of of any any electrode electrode resistance resistance is is that that
of of the the body body of of earth earth surrounding surrounding the the electrode electrode. .
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GROUND RESISTANCE OF GROUND RESISTANCE OF
AN ELECTRODE AN ELECTRODE
Grounding point electrode Grounding point electrode
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When When a a current current II enters enters the the ground ground through through such such
an an electrode, electrode, due due to to its its hemispherical hemispherical base, base, the the
current current flows flows radial radial outward outward as as shown shown in in the the
sketch sketch below below. .
A Hemispherical
electrode
2
2 x
dx
dR

=
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If If is is the the resistivity resistivity of of the the soil, soil, the the
resistance resistance offered offered by by a a hemispherical hemispherical shell shell of of
thickness thickness dx dx at at a a radial radial distance distance xx from from the the
electrode electrode is is given given by by
Hence, Hence, the the resistance resistance encountered encountered by by the the
ground ground electrode electrode up up to to the the depth depth of of rr11 is is
2
2
1
x
dx
R
r
a

=
|
|

\
|
=
1
1 1
2 r a
R

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If If rr
11
is is made made , , the the total total resistance resistance of of the the
ground ground electrode electrode will will be be
This This is is the the maximum maximum resistance resistance of of the the ground ground
electrode electrode. .
If If a a current current II enters enters the the ground ground electrode, electrode, the the
potential potential drop drop up up to to the the shell shell radius radius of of rr
11
will will
be be given given by by

1
r
a
R

2
=

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At At very very high high values values of of rr
11
, , the the resistance resistance
value value will will approach approach the the value value RR

, , beyond beyond
which which true true ground ground can can be be assumed assumed to to be be
present present. .
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Step and Touch voltages near a grounded Step and Touch voltages near a grounded
structure: structure:
E electrostatic stress (voltage gradient) E electrostatic stress (voltage gradient)
2
2

x
I
i E
x

= =
|
|

\
|
= =

1
2
1 1
2 2
1
1
r a
I
dx
x
I
V
r
a
r

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Step potential Step potential
Step Step potential potential is is the the voltage voltage
between between the the feet feet of of a a person person standing standing near near
an an energized energized grounded grounded object object. .
Touch Touch potential potential
Touch Touch potential potential is is the the voltage voltage between between
the the energized energized object object and and the the feet feet of of a a person person
in in contact contact with with the the object object. .
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Step and touch voltages
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Step and touch voltages Step and touch voltages
Lightning Step Voltage Lightning Step Voltage
200,000 Volts
0 Volts far away
Current
flow
thru earth
generates
voltage
8,000 volts
across feet
(Typical)
Step Voltage
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DISTANCE
V
O
L
T
S
500 kV
250
125
375
Electrocuted
animal
Lightning Step Voltage Lightning Step Voltage
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Driven rods Driven rods
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Resistance of driven rods: Resistance of driven rods:
The The Ground Ground Resistance Resistance (R) (R) of of a a single single rod, rod, of of
diameter diameter (d) (d) and and driven driven length length ( (i i) ) driven driven vertically vertically into into
the the soil soil of of resistivity resistivity (), (), can can be be calculated calculated as as follows follows::
where: where: Soil Resistivity in m Soil Resistivity in m
l l Buried Length of the electrode in m Buried Length of the electrode in m
d d Diameter of the electrode in m Diameter of the electrode in m
The The rod rod is is assumed assumed as as carrying carrying current current uniformly uniformly along along
its its rod rod. .
(

\
|
= 1
8
ln
2 d
l
l
R

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Examples Examples
(a) 20mm rod of 3m length and Soil resistivity (a) 20mm rod of 3m length and Soil resistivity
50 50 - -m ....R=16.1 m ....R=16.1
(b) 25mm rod of 2m length and Soil resistivity (b) 25mm rod of 2m length and Soil resistivity
30 30 - -m ....R=13.0 m ....R=13.0
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The The resistance resistance of of a a single single rod rod is is not not
sufficiently sufficiently low low. .
A A number number of of rods rods are are connected connected in in parallel parallel. .
They They should should be be driven driven far far apart apart as as possible possible to to
minimize minimize the the overlap overlap among among their their areas areas of of
influence influence. .
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It It is is necessary necessary to to determine determine the the net net
reduction reduction in in the the total total resistance resistance by by
connecting connecting rods rods in in parallel parallel. .
The The rod rod is is replaced replaced by by a a hemispherical hemispherical
electrode electrode having having the the same same resistance resistance. .
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The interfacing hemisphere
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Ground Rod Diameter
Doubling diameter reduces resistance only
10%.
Ground Rod Length
Doubling length reduces resistance 40%,
actual reduction depends on soil resistivities
encountered in multi-layered soils.
Ground Rod Spacing
Approximately twice the length. (in good
soil).
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Equivalent hemisphere Equivalent hemisphere
R for large power station = 0.5 ohm R for large power station = 0.5 ohm
R for small power station = 5 ohm R for small power station = 5 ohm
R for towers = 10 R for towers = 10- -30 ohm 30 ohm
R for labs = 2 ohm R for labs = 2 ohm
(

= 1
8
ln
2 2 d
l
l r
eq


=
1
8
ln
d
l
l
r
eq
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Rods too close
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Two ground Two ground electrodes electrodes
Equivalent Equivalent
hemisphere hemisphere
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Two driven rods: Two driven rods:
Actual value Actual value
Ideal value Ideal value
Overlapping Overlapping
coefficient (screening) coefficient (screening)
(

+ = + =
d r
I
d
I
r
I
V
1 1
4 2
) 2 / (
2
) 2 / (
1

+ = =
d r I
V
qactual
1 1
4
Re

r
qideal

4
Re =
1
Re
Re
= =
qactual
qideal
actual
ideal

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Ground Rod Spacing
Rod: 3/4inch x 10feet
= 100 .m
One Ground Rod Two Ground Rods
R = 32 Spacing 20 feet: R = 17.4
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Ground Ground- -grid Mesh Electrodes grid Mesh Electrodes
A A common common method method for for obtaining obtaining a a low low
ground ground resistance resistance at at high high voltage voltage
substations substations is is to to use use interconnected interconnected ground ground
grids grids. .
A A typical typical grid grid system system for for a a substation substation
would would comprise comprise 44/ /00 bare bare solid solid copper copper
conductors conductors buried buried at at a a depth depth of of 30 30- -60 60 cm, cm,
spaced spaced in in a a grid grid pattern pattern of of about about 33- -10 10 mm. .
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At At each each junction, junction, the the conductors conductors are are securely securely
bonded bonded together together. .
Grid Grid meshes meshes are are used used to to complement complement rods rods or or can can
be be used used separately separately when when deep deep driven driven rods rods are are
impractical impractical due due to to soil soil considerations considerations. .
Grid Grid meshes meshes are are used used for for the the grounding grounding in in
substations substations to to create create an an equipotential equipotential platform platform and and
to to handle handle the the high high fault fault currents currents returning returning to to the the
transformer transformer neutrals neutrals. .
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Perimeter Electrode Grounding Grid
Vertical Electrode
Lateral Electrode Lateral Electrode
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They They are are particularly particularly useful useful when when multiple multiple
injection injection points points are are required, required, at at a a substation substation. .
Grounding Grounding resistance resistance of of buried buried grid grid meshes meshes
can can be be considerably considerably lower lower than than those those
implemented implemented using using vertical vertical ground ground rods rods. .
Increasing Increasing the the area area of of the the grid grid coverage coverage can can
also also significantly significantly reduce reduce the the ground ground
resistance resistance. .
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The The side side of of grid grid conductors conductors required required to to
avoid avoid fusing fusing under under the the fault fault current current II is is
estimated estimated as as

)} 234 /( ) 234 ln{(
76
I
2
1
(

+ +
=
a m
T T
t
a
a a is is the the copper copper cross cross- -section section (circular (circular mils), mils), tt
is is the the fault fault duration duration s, s, Tm Tm is is the the
maximum maximum allowable allowable temperature, temperature, and and Ta Ta is is
the the ambient ambient temperature temperature. .
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A A grid grid effectively effectively grounds grounds the the equipment equipment
and and controls controls the the voltage voltage gradients gradients at at the the
surface surface of of the the ground ground to to values values safe safe for for
human human contact contact. .
Ground Ground rods rods may may be be connected connected to to the the grid grid
for for further further reduction reduction in in the the ground ground
resistance resistance. .
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METHODS OF DECREASING GROUND METHODS OF DECREASING GROUND
RESISTANCE RESISTANCE
Decreasing Decreasing the the ground ground resistance resistance of of a a
grounding grounding system system in in high high resistivity resistivity soil soil is is
often often a a formidable formidable task task. .
Recently, Recently, some some new new methods methods have have been been
proposed proposed to to decrease decrease ground ground resistance resistance. .
These These methods methods are are listed listed in in the the following following
section section. .
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11- -Chemical Rods Chemical Rods
Chemical Chemical rods rods are are electrodes electrodes with with holes holes
along along their their length, length, filled filled with with mineral mineral salts salts. .
The The rod rod absorbs absorbs moisture moisture from from both both air air and and
soil soil. .
Continuous Continuous conditioning conditioning of of a a large large area area
insures insures an an ultra ultra- -low low- -resistance resistance ground ground
which which is is more more effective effective than than a a conventional conventional
electrode electrode. .
If If the the conductive conductive salts salts are are running running low, low, the the
rod rod can can be be recharged recharged with with a a refill refill kit kit. .
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These These rods rods are are available available in in vertical vertical and and
horizontal horizontal configurations configurations. .
They They may may be be used used in in rocky rocky soils, soils, freezing freezing
climates, climates, dry dry deserts, deserts, or or tropical tropical rain rain forests forests. .
They They provide provide stable stable protection protection for for many many
years years. .
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Chemical rod
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Horizontal and vertical
models in standard 8 and
10 lengths
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Disadvantages are:
Chemicals concentrated around electrodes
will cause corrosion
Chemicals leach through the soil and
dissipate
Scheduled replenishment may be required
May be prohibited because they may
contaminate the water table
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22- - Grounding Augmentation Fill (GAF) Grounding Augmentation Fill (GAF)
About About 95 95% % of of the the grounding grounding resistance resistance of of a a given given
electrode electrode is is determined determined by by the the character character of of the the soil soil
within within a a hemisphere hemisphere whose whose radius radius is is 11. .11 times times the the
length length of of the the rod rod. .
Replacing Replacing all all or or part part of of that that soil soil with with a a highly highly
conductive conductive backfill backfill will will facilitate facilitate the the achievement achievement
of of a a low low- -resistance resistance ground ground connection connection. .
The The greater greater the the percentage percentage of of soil soil replaced, replaced, the the
lower lower the the ultimate ultimate grounding grounding resistance resistance. .
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The critical soil cylinder within an
interfacing hemisphere
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33- - Cracks with Low Resistivity Materials (LRM Cracks with Low Resistivity Materials (LRM) )
This method requires 3 steps: This method requires 3 steps:
Drilling Drilling deep deep holes holes in in the the ground, ground, developing developing cracks cracks
in in the the soil soil by by means means of of explosions explosions in in the the holes, holes,
filling filling the the holes holes with with low low resistivity resistivity materials materials (LRM) (LRM)
under under pressure pressure. .
Most Most of of the the cracks cracks around around the the vertical vertical conductors conductors
will will be be filled filled with with LRM, LRM, and and a a complex complex network network of of
low low resistivity resistivity tree tree like like cracks cracks linked linked to to the the
substation substation grid grid is is formed formed. .
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Field Field tests tests show show that that the the optimum optimum span span
between between vertical vertical conductors conductors is is in in the the range range
of of 11. .55- -22 times times the the length length of of the the vertical vertical
conductor conductor. .
This This method method is is effective effective in in reducing reducing ground ground
resistances resistances in in rocky rocky areas areas. .
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Conductive Cement Conductive Cement
Concrete has a resistivity range of 30 to 90 Concrete has a resistivity range of 30 to 90 .m. .
It It is is hygroscopic hygroscopic by by nature, nature, it it tends tends to to absorb absorb
moisture moisture when when available available and and keep keep it it up up to to 30 30
days, days, thus thus maintaining maintaining a a resistivity resistivity lower lower than than
the the surrounding surrounding soil soil. .
During During a a long long dry dry season season concrete concrete will will dry dry out out
with with a a subsequent subsequent rise rise in in resistivity resistivity. .
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Installing Installing an an EARTHLINK EARTHLINK 101 101 earthling earthling strip strip is is
simple simple: :
Dig a trench and lay in the wire.
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Pour EARTHLINK 101 conductive cement, using the handy
applicator bag, and shovel in a thin protective layer of soil.
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Backfill the remaining soil using a front-end
loader and restore the surface to grade.
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10 years in ground
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10 years in ground
90
10 years in ground
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NEUTRAL GROUNDING NEUTRAL GROUNDING
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Power System Grounding Power System Grounding
System System grounding grounding means means the the connection connection
of of ground ground to to the the neutral neutral points points of of
current current carrying carrying conductors conductors such such as as
the the neutral neutral point point of of a a circuit, circuit, a a
transformer, transformer, rotating rotating machinery, machinery, or or a a
system, system, either either solidly solidly or or with with a a current current
limiting limiting device device. .
Ungrounded Ungrounded system system. .
Solid Solid grounding grounding
Impedance Impedance grounding grounding (R (R and and X) X)
Resonant Resonant grounding grounding
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95
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Ungrounded Systems Ungrounded Systems
The The ungrounded ungrounded system system is is one one that that has has no no
intentional intentional connection connection between between the the neutral neutral
or or any any phase phase and and ground ground. .
An An ungrounded ungrounded system system is is grounded grounded through through
the the concept concept of of capacitive capacitive coupling coupling. .
The The neutral neutral potential potential of of an an ungrounded ungrounded
system, system, with with balanced balanced loading loading will will be be close close
to to ground ground potential potential due due to to the the capacitance capacitance
between between each each phase phase conductor conductor and and ground ground. .
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Low Low ground ground fault fault current current. .
Very Very high high voltages voltages to to ground ground potential potential on on
unfaulted unfaulted phases phases. .
Sustained Sustained faults faults lead lead to to system system line line- -to to- -line line
voltages voltages on on unfaulted unfaulted line line. .
Insulation Insulation failure failure. .
Arcing Arcing Ground Ground Faults Faults. .
Failure Failure due due to to restrike restrike ground ground faults faults. .
Continued Continued operation operation of of facility facility. .
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Isolated Neutral System
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99
100
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101
Grounded System Grounded System
The The intentional intentional connection connection of of the the neutral neutral
points points of of transformers, transformers, generators generators and and
rotating rotating machinery machinery to to the the earth earth ground ground
network network provides provides a a reference reference point point of of zero zero
volts volts. .
All All power power systems systems of of today today operate operate with with
grounded grounded neutrals neutrals..
102
This This protective protective measure measure offers offers many many
advantages advantages over over an an ungrounded ungrounded system, system,
including including: :
Reduced Reduced magnitude magnitude of of transient transient overvoltages overvoltages
Simplified Simplified ground ground fault fault location location
Improved Improved system system and and equipment equipment fault fault
protection protection
Reduced Reduced maintenance maintenance time time and and expense expense
Greater Greater safety safety for for personnel personnel
Improved Improved lightning lightning protection protection
Reduction Reduction in in frequency frequency of of faults faults. .
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103
Solidly Grounded System Solidly Grounded System
The solidly grounded system is one that has The solidly grounded system is one that has
the neutral connected to ground without an the neutral connected to ground without an
intentional impedance. intentional impedance.
In In contrast contrast to to the the ungrounded ungrounded system system the the
solidly solidly grounded grounded system system will will result result in in a a large large
magnitude magnitude of of current current to to flow flow (Aids (Aids in in
coordination), coordination), but but has has no no increase increase in in voltage voltage
on on unfaulted unfaulted phases phases. .
104
Low Low initial initial cost cost to to install install and and implement, implement, but but
stray stray currents currents then then become become a a possible possible
consequence consequence. .
Common Common in in low low- -voltage voltage distribution distribution systems, systems,
such such as as overhead overhead lines lines. .
Typically Typically feeds feeds to to transformer transformer primary primary with with high high
side side fuse fuse protection protection. .
Not Not the the preferred preferred grounding grounding scheme scheme for for
industrial industrial or or commercial commercial facilities facilities due due to to high high
magnitude magnitude fault fault currents currents
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105
Solidly Grounded Systems
(a) Three-wire grounded system
(b) Four-wire grounded system
106
Solidly Grounded Systems Solidly Grounded Systems Solidly Grounded Systems Solidly Grounded Systems
(c) Three (c) Three (c) Three (c) Three- -- -wire multigrounded system wire multigrounded system wire multigrounded system wire multigrounded system
(d) Phasor diagram for normal operation (d) Phasor diagram for normal operation (d) Phasor diagram for normal operation (d) Phasor diagram for normal operation
(e) Phasor diagram for a ground fault (e) Phasor diagram for a ground fault (e) Phasor diagram for a ground fault (e) Phasor diagram for a ground fault
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Advantages Advantages
Neutral Neutral held held effectively effectively at at ground ground potential potential
Phase Phase--to to--ground ground faults faults of of same same magnitude magnitude as as
phase phase--to to--phase phase faults faults so so no no need need for for special special
sensitive sensitive relays relays
Cost Cost of of current current--limiting limiting device device is is eliminated eliminated
Size Size and and cost cost of of transformers transformers are are reduced reduced by by
grading grading insulation insulation toward toward neutral neutral point point NN..
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Disadvantages Disadvantages
As As most most system system faults faults are are phase phase--to to--ground, ground,
severe severe shocks shocks are are more more considerable considerable than than with with
resistance resistance grounding grounding
Third Third harmonics harmonics tend tend to to circulate circulate between between
neutrals neutrals..
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Resistive Grounded Systems Resistive Grounded Systems
Resistance Resistance grounding grounding is is the the most most
effective effective and and preferred preferred method method. .
It It solves solves the the problem problem of of transient transient
overvoltages, overvoltages, thereby thereby reducing reducing
equipment equipment damage damage. .
It It allows allows the the magnitude magnitude of of the the fault fault
current current to to be be predetermined predetermined by by a a
simple simple ohms ohms law law calculation calculation. .
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I=V/R I=V/R
Where Where: : II == Limit Limit of of Fault Fault Current Current. .
VV == Line Line- -to to- -neutral neutral Voltage Voltage of of System System
RR == Ohmic Ohmic Value Value of of Neutral Neutral grounding grounding
Resistor Resistor
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Limiting Limiting fault fault currents currents to to predetermined predetermined
maximum maximum values values permits permits the the designer designer to to
selectively selectively co co- -ordinate ordinate the the operation operation of of protective protective
devices devices. .
There There are are two two broad broad categories categories of of resistance resistance
grounding grounding: :
low low resistance resistance and and high high resistance resistance. .
In In both both types types of of grounding, grounding, the the resistor resistor is is
connected connected between between the the neutral neutral of of the the transformer transformer
secondary secondary and and the the earth earth ground ground. .
Resistance grounding Resistance grounding
A A resistor resistor is is connected connected between between the the transformer transformer
neutral neutral and and earth earth..
Mainly Mainly used used from from 66..66 to to 33 33 kV kV
Value Value is is such such as as to to limit limit an an earth earth fault fault current current to to
between between 11 and and 22 times times full full load load rating rating of of the the
transformer, transformer, typically typically 400 400 A A..
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Advantages Advantages
Limits Limits electrical electrical and and mechanical mechanical stresses stresses on on
system system when when an an earth earth fault fault occurs, occurs, but but at at the the
same same time time current current is is sufficient sufficient to to operate operate normal normal
protection protection equipment equipment..
Disadvantages Disadvantages
Full Full line line--to to--line line insulation insulation required required between between
phase phase and and earth earth..
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Low Resistance Grounded System Low Resistance Grounded System
The The low low resistance resistance grounded grounded system system is is one one
that that has has the the neutral neutral connected connected to to ground ground
through through a a small small resistance resistance that that limits limits the the
fault fault current current. .
The The size size of of the the grounding grounding resistor resistor is is selected selected
to to detect detect and and clear clear the the faulted faulted circuit circuit. .
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The The resistor resistor can can limit limit ground ground currents currents to to a a
desired desired level level based based on on coordination coordination requirement requirement
or or relay relay limitations limitations. .
Limits Limits transient transient overvoltages overvoltages during during ground ground
faults faults. .
Low Low resistance resistance grounding grounding is is not not recommended recommended
for for low low voltage voltage systems systems due due to to the the limited limited
ground ground fault fault current current. . This This reduced reduced fault fault current current
can can be be insufficient insufficient to to positively positively operate operate fuses fuses
and/or and/or series series trip trip units units. .
Ground Ground fault fault current current typically typically in in the the 100 100 600 600
Amp Amp range range. .
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High Resistance Grounded System High Resistance Grounded System
The The high high resistance resistance grounded grounded system system is is one one
that that has has the the neutral neutral connected connected to to ground ground
through through a a resistive resistive impedance impedance whose whose
resistance resistance is is selected selected to to allow allow a a ground ground fault fault
current current through through the the resistor resistor equal equal to to or or
slightly slightly more more that that the the capacitive capacitive charging charging
current current of of the the system system. .
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The The resistor resistor can can limit limit ground ground currents currents to to a a
desired desired level level based based on on coordination coordination requirement requirement
or or relay relay limitations limitations. .
Limits Limits transient transient overvoltages overvoltages during during ground ground
faults faults. .
Physically Physically large large resistor resistor banks banks. .
Very Very low low ground ground fault fault current, current, typically typically under under 10 10
Amps Amps. .
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Special Special relaying relaying methods methods utilized utilized to to detect detect and and
remove remove ground ground faults faults. .
High High resistance resistance grounding grounding is is typically typically applied applied
to to situations situations where where it it is is essential essential to to prevent prevent
unplanned unplanned outages outages. .
Recent Recent trend trend has has been been to to utilize utilize high high resistance resistance
grounding grounding methods methods on on 600 600 volt volt systems systems and and
lower lower. .
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The The reasons reasons for for limiting limiting the the current current by by
resistance resistance grounding grounding
11) ) to to reduce reduce burning burning and and melting melting effects effects in in
faulted faulted electric electric equipment, equipment, such such as as switchgear, switchgear,
transformers, transformers, cables cables and and rotating rotating machines machines. .
22) ) to to reduce reduce mechanical mechanical stresses stresses in in circuits circuits and and
apparatus apparatus carrying carrying fault fault currents currents
33) ) to to reduce reduce electric electric- -shock shock hazards hazards to to personnel personnel
caused caused by by stray stray ground ground fault fault currents currents in in the the
ground ground return return path path
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44) ) to to reduce reduce arc arc blast blast or or flash flash hazard hazard to to personnel personnel
who who may may have have accidentally accidentally caused caused or or who who
happen happen to to be be in in close close proximity proximity to to the the fault fault
current current
55) ) to to reduce reduce the the momentary momentary line line- -voltage voltage dip dip
occasioned occasioned by by the the occurrence occurrence and and clearing clearing of of a a
ground ground fault fault
66) ) to to secure secure control control of of transient transient overvoltages overvoltages while while
at at the the same same time time avoiding avoiding the the shutdown shutdown of of a a
faulty faulty circuit circuit on on the the occurrence occurrence of of the the first first
ground ground fault fault
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Strategy Strategy
Ungrounded
System
Solidly
Grounded
System
Low Resistance
Grounded
System
High
Resistance
Grounded
System
Overvoltages Severe None Limited Limited
Overcurrent - Damage
at point of fault Unknown Severe Minimal None
Maintenance Costs High Reasonable Reasonable Low
Continuous Operation
with Ground Fault
Possible but not
recommended Not possible Not possible Ideal
Relay Co-ordination
(Appropriate Equipment
Tripped, Ease of fault
location) Difficult Difficult Good Excellent
Personnel Safety to Personnel Poor Good Reasonable Excellent
Equipment
Damage
Downtime
Productivity Impact
System Type
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Reactance grounding system Reactance grounding system
Elimination Elimination of of the the fault fault current current that that could could cause cause
the the arcing arcing ground ground condition condition. .
Normally Normally it it does does not not carry carry current current
During During fault fault: : reactive reactive component component of of current current II ==
capacitive capacitive component component of of current current II
No No current current at at the the fault, fault, preventing preventing restrikes restrikes and and
eliminates eliminates the the cause cause of of voltage voltage buildup buildup
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Compensated System
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Resonant grounding Resonant grounding
Using Using Peterson Peterson coil coil which which is is a a tunable tunable iron iron cored cored
reactor reactor connected connected between between the the neutral neutral and and ground ground. .
The The ground ground fault fault neutralizer neutralizer is is said said to to be be effective effective in in
70 70 to to 80 80 % % of of the the faults faults. .
c
V
X
V
I
ph
c
ph
/ 1
= =
In an ungrounded system arcing grounds takes In an ungrounded system arcing grounds takes
place (fault on phase C): place (fault on phase C):
c V I I ph
C
3 3 = =
c
V
X
V
I
ph
c
ph
/ 1
= =
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125
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If grounding through
L f XL 2 =
(to cancel arcing grounds)
L
V
X
V
I
ph
L
ph
L

= =
C L
I I =
c
L
2
3
1

=
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Arc suppression coil (Petersen coil) Arc suppression coil (Petersen coil)
A A tuneable tuneable reactor reactor is is connected connected in in the the
transformer transformer neutral neutral to to earth earth..
Value Value of of reactance reactance is is chosen chosen such such that that reactance reactance
current current neutralizes neutralizes capacitance capacitance current current..
The The current current at at the the fault fault point point is is therefore therefore
theoretically theoretically nil nil and and unable unable to to maintain maintain the the arc, arc,
hence hence its its name name..
Virtually Virtually fully fully insulated insulated system, system, so so current current
available available to to operate operate protective protective equipment equipment is is so so
small small as as to to be be negligible negligible..
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To To offset offset this, this, the the faulty faulty section section can can be be left left in in
service service indefinitely indefinitely without without damage damage to to the the
system system as as most most faults faults are are earth earth faults faults of of a a
transient transient nature, nature, the the initial initial arc arc at at the the fault fault point point
is is extinguished extinguished and and does does not not restrike restrike..
Sensitive Sensitive watt watt metrical metrical relays relays are are used used to to detect detect
permanent permanent earth earth faults faults..
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Arc suppression coil (Petersen coil)
Earthing Earthing via neutral electromagnetic via neutral electromagnetic
coupler with resistor coupler with resistor
This This type type of of earthing earthing provides provides an an earth earth point point for for
a a delta delta system system and and combines combines the the virtues virtues of of
resistance resistance and and reactance reactance grounding grounding in in limiting limiting
earth earth fault fault current current to to safe safe relayable relayable values values..
The The current current should should be be resistive resistive in in nature nature to to
comply comply with with IEEE IEEE standard standard 142 142 and and SABS SABS
0200 0200..
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Earthing Earthing via neutral via neutral earthing earthing compensator compensator
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Advantages of Neutral Grounding Advantages of Neutral Grounding
Arcing Arcing grounds grounds are are reduced reduced or or eliminated eliminated. .
The The system system is is not not subjected subjected to to overvoltage overvoltage surges surges
due due to to arcing arcing grounds grounds. .
The The voltages voltages of of healthy healthy lines lines with with respect respect to to earth earth
remain remain at at harmless harmless value value. . They They do do not not increase increase to to
33 time time normal normal value value. .
The The life life of of insulation insulation is is long long. . Thereby Thereby reduced reduced
maintenance, maintenance, repairs, repairs, breakdowns breakdowns and and improved improved
continuity continuity. .
The The earth earth fault fault relaying relaying is is relatively relatively simple simple. .
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The The overvoltages overvoltages due due to to lightning lightning are are discharged discharged
to to earth earth. .
The The earth earth fault fault current current can can be be controlled controlled. .
Improved Improved service service reliability reliability. .
Greater Greater safety safety for for personnel personnel or or equipment equipment due due to to
operation operation of of fuses fuses or or relays relays on on earth earth fault fault and and
limitation limitation of of voltages voltages. .
Life Life of of equipment, equipment, machines machines and and insulation insulation is is
improved improved due due to to limitation limitation of of voltages voltages. .
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Thank Thank--You You
I Appreciate Your Time and I Appreciate Your Time and
Attendance Attendance