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Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal-Arroyo

14th President of the Philippines, 4th President of the 5th Republic In office: January 20, 2001 - June 30, 2010 PERSONAL PROFILE: Date of Birth: April 5, 1947; San Juan Parents: Father: Diosdado Pangan Macapagal Mother: Dr. Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal Husband: Atty. Jose Miguel Tuason Arroyo Married on August 2, 1968 Children: Juan Miguel , Evangelina Lourdes, Diosdado Ignacio Jose Maria

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: Primary Assumption Convent High School; 1954-1960 Secondary Assumption Convent HS; 1960-1964; Valedictorian Tertiary Georgetown University, 1964-66, AB Economics; Deans Lister Assumption College, 1968, AB Economics Magna cum Laude Post Graduate Ateneo de Manila University, 1978, MA Economics UP School of Economics, 1985, Ph.D. in Economics POLITICAL LIFE: Assistant Professor, Ateneo de Manila University; 1977-87 Chair, Economics Dept, Assumption College; 1984-87 Professor, UP School of Economics; 1977-87 Professor, Mary Knoll College Professor, St. Scholasticas College Assistant Secretary, Department of Trade and Industry; 1987-89 Executive Director, Garments and Textile Export Board; 1988-90 Undersecretary, Department of Trade and Industry; 1989-92 Senator, 1992-1998 Secretary, Department of Social Welfare and Development, July 1998-October 2000 Vice President, July 1998-January 20, 2001 President, January 20, 2001-2010

CONTRIBUTIONS: Arroyo encouraged the tourism sector to boost the national economy. Under her first term, the Department of Tourism launched a program called Wow Philippines in 2002, offers tourist visits in the country to show their natural wonders, to protect their indigenous peoples, to preserve heritage sites and to contribute historical importance. Economy An economist by training, Arroyo has made the economy of the Philippines the focus of her presidency. From 2001 to 2005, the country's gross domestic product (GDP) has averaged 4.6%. Inflation during her presidency has been the lowest since 1986, averaging 5.3%. Critics of the Arroyo administration, however, reiterated that the modest gains of the economy could also be attributed to the remittances of overseas Filipino workers (OFW). Foreign policy Since 2001, the foreign policy of Arroyo have been closely related to efforts against terrorism, strengthening ties with allied countries, and pushing for a stronger trade relations with trading partners through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and other similar international groups. Arroyo's stance against terrorism was magnified after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States (US) and the subsequent war on terror launched by US Pres. George W. Bush. In 2003, Arroyo sent a small military contingent to Iraq to perform humanitarian work in the country. However, the contingent was pulled out in 2004 when Angelo de la Cruz, an OFW in Iraq, was abducted by the group of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. The group threatened to kill de la Cruz if the Philippines will not pull out from Iraq. Arroyo gave in to the demand; a decision hailed by Filipinos but critcized by the US, Australia, and other allied countries against terrorism. Charter Change In her 2005 State of the Nation Address (SONA), Arroyo mentioned the need "to start the great debate on charter change" and implement changes in the system of government. She reiterated that there was a need to shift from a presidential-unitary form of government to a parliamentaryfederal form of government. Although the initiative of Arroyo was widely supported by the House of Representatives and its members agreed to implement it through a constituent assembly. However, the call for charter change was largely ignored by the Senate. Members of civil society and the Church also reiterated their stance against any move that would amend or change the 1987 Constitution. EO 464 and CPR Criticisms against Arroyo escalated following the Hello Garci controversy. To address the violence that resulted in protest rallies against the government, members of the PNP were given orders to implement the calibrated preemptive response (CPR). This directive emphasized that rallies without permits would be forcibly dispersed.

Arroyo also issued Executive Order No. 464 (EO 464) preventing executive department officials from appearing in congressional inquiries without her prior consent. EO 464 and the CPR were challenged before the Supreme Court. The high court ruled that some sections of EO 464 were unconstitutional but the executive order as a whole was not. State of Emergency On February 24, 2006, a plot to take over the government was uncovered by authorities, allegedly headed by Gen. Danny Lim and other rightist military adventurists. General Lim and some of his men were arrested. To face the threat posed by enemies of the state, Arroyo issued Presidential Proclamation 1017 (PP 1017) and used it as basis in declaring a state of emergency throughout the Philippines. According to Arroyo, this declaration was done to quell the military rebellion, stop lawless violence, and promote peace and stability. PP 1017 also empowered the government to enforce warrantless arrests and take over strategic private utilities companies. On February 25, 2006, the police raided the office of the Daily Tribune, a newspaper known as a critic of the Arroyo administration. The government then issued journalism guidelines to address the threat posed by critics in the media. Presidential Management Staff chief Michael Defensor said that the guidelines were necessary in order to cope with the emergency situation. The state of emergency existed for about one week with the purpose of curbing further violence, illegal rallies, and public disturbance throughout the Philippines. The police and the military dispersed demonstrators and protesters, especially those along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). Aside from General Lim, prominent personalities were also arrested in connection with their alleged participation in the attempt to overthrow the government. Among those arrested were: Col. Ariel Querubin - leader of a group of Philippine Marines who engaged the government in a political stand-off at Fort Bonifacio on February 25, 2005 Randy David - led a protest rally without securing the necessary permit Crispin Beltran - party-list representative of Anakpawis charged with inciting to sedition and rebellion Batasan Five - party-list representatives charged with rebellion and were placed under the custody of the House of Representatives; Bayan Muna's Teodoro Casio, Satur Ocampo, and Joel Virador; Gabriela's Liza Maza, and Anakpawis' Rafael Mariano

PP 1017 was lifted on March 3, 2006 but members of the opposition, private lawyers, and concerned citizens challenged its constitutionality before the Supreme Court. On May 4, the high court declared the proclamation constitutional. However, it also said that it was illegal for the government to implement warrantless arrests and seize private institutions and companies.

CONTROVERSIES Jose Pidal controversy

On August 18, 2003, Senator Panfilo Lacson accused First Gentleman Mike Arroyo of siphoning campaign funds into a bank account under the fictitious name, Jose Pidal. Although the accusation was never legally substantiated, the effects weighed more on Arroyo's presidency as she was accused of tolerating her husband's interference in government. Election rigging allegations: "Hello Garci" controversy, bribery

Allegations of cheating against Arroyo gained momentum one year after the May 2004 elections. In a press conference held on June 10, 2005, Samuel Ong, former deputy director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) claimed to have audio recordings of wiretapped conversations between Arroyo and an official of the Commission on Elections (COMELEC). Virgilio Garcillano, a former COMELEC commissioner, would later be identified as the offical talking to Arroyo. According to Ong, the recordings allegedly proved that Arroyo ordered the rigging of the national elections for her to win by around one million votes against Poe. The recordings of Ong became known as the Hello Garci controversy and triggered massive protests against Arroyo. Key members of her cabinet resigned from their respective posts and urged Arroyo to do the same. On June 27, 2005, Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to a COMELEC official, claiming it was a "lapse in judgment". She, however, denied influencing the outcome of the elections and declared that she won the elections fairly. Arroyo did not resign despite the pressures coming from various sectors of society. The Hello Garci controversy became the basis of the impeachment case filed against Arroyo in 2005. Attempts to impeach Arroyo failed later that year. Another impeachment case was filed against Arroyo in 2006 but was also defeated at the House of Representatives. In October 2007, lawyer Alan Paguia filed an impeachment complaint against Arroyo in connection with the issue of bribery. Paguia's complaint was based on the revelation of Pampanga Gov. Ed Panlilio that various governors received half a million pesos from Malacaang. The impeachment case, as of the middle of October 2007, has already been referred to the House of Representatives Committee on Justice. Fertilizer Fund Scam

In the fertilizer fund scam, it was alleged that funding from the Department of Agriculture (DA) that was allocated for the purchase of fertilizer for farmers, was used to fund President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyos election campaign. On March 6, 2004, as reported by the Philippine Daily Inquirer, Senator Panfilo Lacson accused Arroyo of buying votes with the Php 729 million which she approved for the purchase of fertilizers by local government officials. On August 25, 2005 an episode of The Probe Team featured farmers who claimed that they had not received the fertilizer from the DA. The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) reported on September 28-29 that billions of pesos of farm funds were used by Arroyo to fund her presidential campaign. The Philippine Senate began investigating this matter on October 6. Jocelyn Joc Joc Bolante, who was appointed as Department of Agriculture undersecretary for finance at the beginning of Arroyos term, failed to appe ar at the hearings conducted by the Senate. On December 11, 2005, Bolante fled to the United States instead of going to a Senate hearing, claiming that there had been

attempts on his life by the New Peoples Army, which the NPA later denied. The Senate cit ed him for contempt 2 days later and ordered that he be arrested. Oakwood Mutiny

On July 26, 2003, the Arroyo presidency faced another challenge when a group of junior military officers and their men occupied the Oakwood Premier Ayala Center in Makati City. The group called themselves, Magdalo, and among their leaders were Navy Lt. Antonio Trillanes IV, Capt. Gerardo Gambala, and Capt. Milo Maestrecampo. According to Trillanes, the group's spokesperson, they decided to act since they saw signs that Arroyo was going to declare Martial Law. He reiterated their call for the resignation of high ranking military officials, the secretary of the Department of National Defense, and Arroyo herself. Arroyo addressed the nation on television and warned of hostile action if the Magdalo soldiers will not surrender. Senator Rodolfo Biazon was also requested to talk to the rebel soldiers. They surrendered soon after it became apparent that they would be attacked by government forces. As of 2007, Trillanes who won as senator in the May 2007 elections - and some of the Magdalo soldiers are still on trial for rebellion. The so-called Oakwood Mutiny was rumored to have been connected to Estrada and his supporters. Arroyo formed the Feliciano Commission to investigate the mutiny. The commission later found that the action of the Magdalo soldiers was planned and not spontaneous. It was obviously an attempt to bring down the Arroyo government. However, the connection to Estrada was never proven.

current representative of the second district of Pampanga

Arcaina, Armeliz Keith Galvez, Rowin Emie Olnanigon, Sonia Tolentino, Sabrina Cedie Reoteres, Jia Mizel

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